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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited 4.3.3 EWSD Subsystems....................................................................................................................17 4.4 Message Buffer (MB).......................................................................................................................18 4.

8 Main Distribution Frame (MDF)....................................................................................................25

University College of Engineering & Technology The Islamia University of Bahawalpur

Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

PREFACE
As a Muslim it is obligation on us to seek knowledge and according to Hadith, Knowledge is a lost precious wealth of a Momin. For this purpose PTCL gave me the opportunity to get field experience and see industry practically. Apart from the study knowledge and practical exposure I gain in Engineering, an organization teaches a lot more that an engineer must know. The learning will definitely be more fruitful if organization be one of the largest in Pakistan. I am a student of Computer Systems Engineering at University College of Engineering & Technology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. I have completed the course work of my degree so its time to experience the industry and to exert my skills for the betterment of organization if needed. I have completed eight weeks internship in Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. I worked under S. E. PTCL Bahawalpur, Multan Telecom Region I have been attached with the various departments of the organization. I worked Multimedia & Broadband, Next Generation Networks, MDF, High Capacity Transit Exchange, Alcatel Exchange, EWSD, Power Plant and CCS, CFS, BnCC, OSP, Optical Fiber & Optical Fiber System, Transmission & WLL, SAP, Store Organization where I experienced that how all technology is deployed and working to provide quality services at the customer end. I have been placed at Central Telephone Exchange Bahawalpur although I also visited Satellite Town Exchange for some sections. The sanction letter and approved time table is attached with the report.

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I pay my humble gratitude, submission, to ALLAH, the Almighty, Omnipotent & the Omnipresent, potential to accomplish this task. The mere, the blessing of ALLAH and Holy (PBUH). with humility and the Omniscient, the who bestowed my completion of this is Prophet Muhammad

I am pleased and feel honored to express my gratitude to Mr. Abdul Khaliq Buzdar, Engineer Maintenance PTCL who guided me at every step from the applying procedure to the completion of the internship. I felt a favorable atmosphere in learning all the departments of the PTCL under the cooperation, assistance and guidance of these personalities. Mr. Senior Engineer Mr. Malik Amjad Mr. Shahrukh Abbasi, Manager M&B CTX BWP Mr. Khalid, Assistant Manager M&B CTX BWP Mr. M. Ishfaq, Engineering Supervisor, MDF Operations Their sympathetic behavior has an everlasting impression on my memory. I must mention Principal UCE&T Bahawalpur, Prof. Jan Muhammad Keerio who recommended me for the internship at PTCL hence providing me an opportunity to get practical experience in well-established organization. And Engr. Muhammad Ali Qureshi , Assistant Professor, for being kind enough to extend his baseline guidance in the completion of this internship report. Thanks to my parents for everything as today at this stage is all because of them.

University College of Engineering & Technology The Islamia University of Bahawalpur

Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

1. PTCL ORIGIN

akistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is

the largest telecommunication company in Pakistan. This company provides telephony services to the nation and still holds the status of backbone for country's telecommunication infrastructure despite arrival of a dozen other telcos including telecom giants like Telenor and China Mobile. The company consists of around 2000 telephone exchanges across country providing largest fixed line network. GSM, CDMA and Internet are other resources of PTCL, making it a gigantic organization. The Government of Pakistan sold 26% shares and control of the company to Etisalat in 2006. The Government of Pakistan retained 62% of the shares while the remaining 12% are held by the general public. PTCL is also part of the consortium of three major Submarine communication cable networks: SEA-ME-WE 3, SEA-ME-WE 4 and IME-WE. In addition to wired line operations, PTCL also provides fixed line service through its countrywide CDMA based WLL (Wireless Local Loop) network, under the Vfone brand name. In the cellular segment, the second largest cellular provider in Pakistan, Ufone, is also a wholly owned subsidiary of PTCL.

1.1 Official Details


Organization: Pakistan Telecommunications Company Limited

Logo: Founded: Headquarters: Industry: Net Income: 2010] Website:

1947 Islamabad, Pakistan Telecommunications Rs.9.1 billion PKR [PTCL: Financials Jan 12, www.ptcl.com.pk

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

1.2 History
From the beginnings of Posts & Telegraph Department in 1947 and establishment of Pakistan Telephone & Telegraph Department in 1962, PTCL has been a major player in telecommunication in Pakistan. Despite having established a network of enormous size, PTCL workings and policies have attracted regular criticism from other smaller operators and the civil society of Pakistan. Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTC) took over operations and functions from Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph Department under Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Act 1991. This coincided with the Government's competitive policy, encouraging private sector participation and resulting in award of licenses for cellular, card-operated pay-phones, paging and, lately, data communication services. Pursuing a progressive policy, the Government in 1991, announced its plans to privatize PTCL, and in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would-be PTCL in two separate placements. Each had a par value of Rs. 10 per share. These vouchers were converted into PTCL shares in mid1996. In 1995, Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Ordinance formed the basis for PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country. The provisions of the Ordinance were lent permanence in October 1996 through Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act. The same year, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock exchanges of Pakistan PTCL launched its mobile and data services subsidiaries in 2001 by the name of Ufone and PakNet respectively. None of the brands made it to the top slots in the respective competitions. Lately, however, Ufone had increased its market share in the cellular sector. The PakNet brand has effectively dissolved over the period of time. Recent DSL services launched by PTCL reflect this by the introduction of a new brand name.

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

As telecommunication monopolies head towards an imminent end, services and infrastructure providers are set to face even bigger challenges. The post-monopoly era came with Pakistans Liberalization in Telecommunication in January 2003. On the Government level, a comprehensive liberalization policy for telecom sector is in the offering. In middle of 2005 Government of Pakistan had decided to sell at least 26 percent of this company to some private agency. There were three participants in the bet for privatization of PTCL. Etisalat, a Dubai based company was able to get the shares with a large margin in the bet. In 2008 when Government was going to privatize the company there was country wide protest and strike by PTCL workers. They even disrupted Phone lines of some big Government institutions like Punjab University Lahore and many lines of public sector were also blocked. Military had to take over the management of all the Exchanges in the country. They arrested many workers and put them behind bars. The contention between Government and employees ended with a 30% increase in the salaries of workers. There have been various changes in the company due to privatization. Such examples include the VSS (Voluntary Separation Scheme for its employees), ERP (SAP based), restructuring, B& CC (Billing and Customer Care Software) etc. Another seemingly minor change was change of brand identity (logo) that will present PTCL's new face after privatization, with greater focus on customer satisfaction and bringing about of new advancements in telecom for Pakistani consumers.

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

1.3 Historical Changes


1947: 1961: 1990-91: 1995: NTC. 1996: Pakistan. 1998: 2000: 2003: 2006: Posts & Telegraph Dept established Pakistan Telegraph & Telephone Deptt. Pakistan Telecom Corporation About 5% of PTC assets transferred to PTA, FAB & PTCL Formed listed on all Stock Exchanges of Mobile (Ufone) & Internet (PakNet) subsidiaries established. Telecom Policy Finalized Telecom Deregulation Policy Announced Etisalat Takes Over PTCL's management

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

2. CORPORATE MESSAGE
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is proud to be Pakistans most reliable and largest converged services carrier providing all telecommunications services from basic voice telephony to data, internet, video-conferencing and carrier services to consumers and businesses all over the country. Whether it is an office in the largest city of Pakistan or a home in a small village, we are present in every corner of Pakistan to serve our customers.

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

3. COMPANY PROFILE
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is all set to redefine the established boundaries of the telecommunication market and is shifting the productivity frontier to new heights. Today, for millions of people, we demand instant access to new products and ideas. More importantly we want them for their better living standards with increased values in this ever-shrinking globe of ours. We are setting free the spirit of innovation. PTCL is going to be your first choice in the future as well, just as it has been over the past six decades.

3.1 Business & Corporate Users

For clear communication the first choice of business circles is PTCL telephone for local, nationwide and international calling. Today businesses can have 10-100 lines with modern day services to meet their needs. Now you get options like Caller-ID, call-forwarding, callwaiting, Call Barring, to name a few.

3.2 Specific Services

Some other business includes the specific services like 0800Toll free number, 0900-Preminum rate services, VPN-Virtual Private Network, Audio Conference Service, Digital Cross Connect (DXX), ISDN (Policy), Teleplus(ISDN/BRI), Digital Phone Facilities/ Modification Charges, UAN, UIN.

3.3 Nationwide Infrastructure

We have the largest Copper infrastructure spread over every city, town and village of Pakistan with over million installed lines. The network has over 0.5 million POTS ports with more than 250,000 Broadband ports in 13 major cities.

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Internship Report Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

3.4 National Long-haul Core Network


We have over 10,400 km fully redundant, fiber optics DWDM backbone network. It connects over 840 cities and towns with 270G bandwidth.

3.5 Carriers Services


As carriers-carrier, we provide the core infrastructure services to the cellular, LDIs, Local Loop operators, ISPs, Call Centers and payphone operators. We provide all carrier services, right from inter-connects and telehousing to DPLC and IPLC connectivity. Our interconnect services are provided from our 3200 exchange locations that connect your carriers networks domestically, in addition to providing IPLC bandwidths to connect you internationally through our four international gateways and SEA-ME-WE3 and SEA-ME-WE4 international submarine, also IMWE submarine cable will be added by the end of the year. Furthermore to provide connectivity to operators in the extreme remote areas of the country, PTCL launched its state of the art satellite service (Skylink). PTCL satellite service (Skylink) is provided using the Intelsat Satellite System, an undisputed leader in satellite communications.

3.6 White Label Services


PTCL customers can now provide uninterrupted services to their clients without undertaking large scale investment in infrastructure or developing expertise in their own network. PTCL White Label Services are focused on speed and simplicity at minimal capex. This will enable our customer to offer their own branded WLL, DSL etc to customers nationally, together with an array of key support services.

3.7 Broadband Pakistan


PTCL Broadband is the largest and the fastest growing Broadband service in Pakistan. In less than two years of its launch, PTCL has acquired over 150,000 Broadband customers in over 150 cities and towns across Pakistan, leading the proliferation and

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awareness of Broadband services across Pakistan. With its entry in this market segment, PTCL opened up a broadband culture in Pakistan, where till a couple of years back there was very little awareness in the country about broadband & high speed internet services. PTCL made the broadband technology affordable by lowering the barriers to entry, by geographically bringing the service within the reach of a common user across Pakistan and by continuous improvements in customer care for the service. Unique offers that makes PTCLs Broadband unmatchable are special packages for the student segment, FREE modem and installation, FREE dial up service for its Broadband customers and FREE access to movies, music, classical Pakistani dramas, cricket matches, gaming, educational and religious content on PTCLs entertainment portal BUZZ, (made exclusive only to PTCL Broadband subscribers). PTCL also offers multiple FREE personalized e-mail accounts exclusively to its broadband users. In addition, PTCL recently doubled its broadband speed for all its existing and new customers at the same price, making 1 MB as its minimum offered speed.

3.8 IPTV Service (Smart TV)


Using its state of the art Broadband network, PTCL entered the media sector on 14th August 2008, by launching a digital interactive television service for the first time in Pakistan. Employing the IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) technology, PTCL brought Pakistan in the list of a few countries across the globe that offers this state of the art interactive TV service to its subscribers. Branded under PTCL Smart Line, the service includes Interactive Television, Broadband and voice telephony all at the same time on PTCLs telephone line. Besides offering the highest digital quality TV picture, the most revolutionary section of this offering is the ability to rewind and pause live TV channels, the ability to block / unblock any TV channel for parental lock and the ability to search through video on demand content. Currently PTCL Smart TV offers its viewers over hundred live channels and over 350 local and international Movie titles on Demand. The service for now is available in four major cities however is planned to be expanded to all the major cities and towns across Pakistan during the year 2009.

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3.9 Pak Internet Exchange


It is the only IP enabled network with 40 (number increase) point-of-presences (POP) in 26 cities. The existing 16G active bandwidth is used for internet, data, video and video-conferencing services and for voice of LDI. All PTCL Broadband users, narrow band users, corporate, mobile operators, and ISP are connected to this network.

3.10 V-fone
PTCL also continues to be the largest CDMA operator in the country with approximately 1.25 million V-fone customers. It offers fixed wireless telephone for your homes & business. With CDMA2000 1X technology, ours is the largest WLL network with a capacity of 2.6M, covering over 10,000 urban & rural areas. The network is already enabled for Voice, Dialup-Internet access (153.6kbps) and EVDO Broadband. V-fone can be bought from our franchises or by dialing 1236 and it will be delivered within 48-72 hours.

3.11 International Network


3.11.1 SEAMEWE-3 Submarine Cable System PTCL is a member of SEAMEWE 3 Cable Consortium with its Cable Landing Station at Karachi. SMW-3 cable connects 39 cable landing stations in 33 countries and four continents. SMW-3 is the longest system of the world with a total length of 39,000 Km. 3.11.2 SMW-4 Submarine Cable System SMW-4 is a relatively new submarine cable system (inaugurated in December 2005) and links 14 countries with 16 landing stations across Europe, Middle East and Asia. The system is using Terabit DWDM technology to achieve. The link between any two destinations is STM-1. SMW-4 is designed for relatively higher traffic volumes. 3.11.3 I-ME-WE cable details and Status with Map IMEWE Submarine Cable is a Tera bit capacity submarine cable system connecting India to Western Europe through Middle East. The Cable system is 13,000 km long with 10 landing points in 8 countries.

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3.11.4 Satellite Communication PTCL has Intelsat Standard Earth Stations near Karachi and Islamabad. These installations provide the diversity for International voice connectivity and also work as Hub for domestic satellite users. There are four Intelsat Standard B Earth Stations at Islamabad, Gilgit, Skardu and Gwadar.

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4. OPERATING UNITS
4.1 OPTICAL FIBER
Optical fiber is used for the transmission of data. In optical fiber information is transmitted in the form of light using the phenomenon of total internal reflection. 4.1.1 GEOMETRY OF FIBER The fiber has two materials with a small difference of refractive index. These are core and the cladding; the core is surrounded by the cladding. The core is made of SiO2 doped with Germanium (Ge) to increase the refractive index of the core. Cladding is made of pure SiO2 and has lesser refractive index than the core.

4.1.2 TYPES OF FIBER 4.1.2.1 SINGLE MODE The fiber used to transmit only one mode is called single mode fiber. 4.1.2.2 MULTIMODE The fiber used to transmit generally hundreds of modes is multimode fiber. There are two types of multimode fiber. 4.1.2.2.1 STEP INDEX: The fiber in which core of the fiber has uniform refractive index is called step index fiber. 4.1.2.2.2 GRADED INDEX: The fiber in which the refractive index of the core changes in the diameter is called graded index.

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4.1.3 Advantages of Optical Fiber Fiber-optic transmission distance is significantly greater but still there is very less signal attenuation. It can transmit large amount of data at a time. It is very light in weight as compared to copper wire. Fiber-optic cable can support higher bandwidths than either copper cable or twisted pair cable. As glass is more resistant to corrosion so it is safe from water and heat. 4.1.4 Disadvantages of Optical Fiber Its installation and maintenance need expertise. The cable and interfaces are relatively more expensive than other guided media. 4.1.5 Fiber Sizes Optical fiber cable are defined by the ratio of the diameter of their core to the diameter of their cladding in um.

4.2 OPTICAL FIBER SYSTEM


SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is used in optical fiber system for multiplexing. SDH defines the frame structure, multiplexing method, transmission rate. Low rate SDH signal is made high rate SDH signal by multiplexing through SDH. SDH network can accommodate the signals of other hierarchies such as ATM, FDDI, and Ethernet. In CTX Bahawalpur exchange 40 channels of 10MB arrives while STM4 is used. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technique is used for multiplexing. Dense wavelength division multiplexing multiplexes multiple data streams onto a single fiber optic line. Different wavelength lasers transmit the multiple signals. Each signal carried on the fiber can be transmitted at a different rate from the other signals. Dense wavelength division multiplexing combines many wavelengths on the one fiber.

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4.3 EWSD
EWSD stands for Elektronicsches Wahl System Digital which means Electronic Switching System Digital.

DLU

LTG LTG
Channel

Switchin g
SN

Access
Common Signaling CCN

C
Coordinatio
4.3.1 Exchanges & Applications n CP EWSD system supports a large variety of Exchanges and Switching Applications 4.3.1.1 Local Exchange Analog subscribers with rotary dialing or pushbutton dialing, with private metering (including all these connected via PABX s) and ISDN terminals can be connected directly or via concentrator. The local exchange switches incoming and outgoing subscriber line traffic. The local exchange can serve up to 250,000 subscriber lines. 4.3.1.2 Transit Exchange (Tandem) Transit Exchanges are used at network nodes to connect the trunks to and from other central offices. Digital or analog trunks via SC (signaling converter) / MUX s various signaling protocols cam be connected. Tandem Exchanges can serve up to 60,000 trunks.

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4.3.1.3 International Gateway Exchange The EWSD supports all function of an international gateway. For example International signaling system. Echo compensation for intercontinental connections. Satellite connections. If required, these functions can also be provided by national tandem exchange. 4.3.1.4 Rural Exchange (Container) It is used for remote areas with a low population density. It has the same hardware and software parts as the local office. It can support up to 7,500 subscriber lines. It is a complete system with power supply & air conditioning & can be installed in a container to serve up to a 6,000 subscribers. 4.3.1.5 Mobile Exchange The EWSD system meets the high performance requirement for transmission and signaling in mobile exchange. A mobile subscriber can reach at all time and at different location under the same directory number. 4.3.2 Advantages of EWSD System over Analog System Easy installation Easy maintenance Easy expansion Less staff requirement Extra facilities 4.3.3 EWSD Subsystems 4.3.3.1 DLU The Digital Line Unit (DLU) provides access for analog and digital subscriber lines. The DLU is connected to the Line/Trunk Group (LTG).

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4.3.3.2 LTG The Line / Trunk Group not only terminate Digital Line Units. It is also linked to Other Exchanges & Digital Switch Board. 4.3.3.3 SN The Switching Network provides the inter-connections between two subscriber lines. 4.3.3.4 CCNC The Common Channel-Signaling Network Control provides the Signaling System No.7 (CCS 7) capability for inter-exchange communication. 4.3.3.5 CP The processing workload is distributed over several microprocessors within EWSD. A common processor for coordination tasks is extremely useful. These functions are handled by the Coordination Processor (CP). The CP area consists of the following. Siemens Switching Processor (SSP) Message Buffer (MB) Central Clock Generator (CCG) External Memory (EM) Operation and Maintenance Terminal (OMT)

4.4 Message Buffer (MB)


The message buffer (MB) serves as an interface adapter and transmission adapter for the internal information exchange between: The Coordination Processor (CP) The Switching Network (SN) The Line/Trunk Group (LTG s)

The Message Buffer (MB) is connected to the LTG s via semipermanent paths with SDC lines. The connection to the Coordination Processor (CP) is implemented via bus system. The following types of information are sent through the MB: 4.4.1 Messages Transfer messages are sent from the LTG. The MB stores the messages and transfers them to the CP on request. 4.4.2 Report Reports are sent from one LTG to another LTG. The reports are routed through the CP, but they are not processed in the CP. 4.4.3 Orders Orders are sent from the CCNC to an LTG to the CCNC. Orders are routed through the CP, but they are not processed in the CP. 4.4.4 Commands Commands are sent from the CP to the LTG and to the SN. The transmission channel between the LTGs and the MB is called the
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Message Channel. The switching Network (SN) provides a semipermanent path for this channel.

4.5 ALCATEL
This type of switching was manufactured by France. Early it deals with 8 subscribers. After passing of time it deal with 16 or 32 subscriber. Different type of cards is used in this type of switching. Software is different for different types of cards. In CTX BWP it is most used.

CSN: subscriber digital access unit CSE: electronic satellite concentrator SMT: trunk control station SMA: auxiliary equipment control station LR: matrix link

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SMX: matrix control station STS: synchronization and time base station MAS: main control station access multiplex SMC: main control station MIS: inter station multiplex SMM: maintenance station MAL: alarm multiplex TMN: telecom management network 4.5.1 Main Control Station (SMC) Establishment & breakdown of connections (calls) Data base management & translation (TR). Metering of circuits & call charge registration (TX) Message distribution (MQ) Management of Connections (GX) Signaling network management (PC) SMC Hardware includes A main processor unit (PUP) A common memory (MC) 1 to 4 secondary processor unit (PUS) A main multiplex coupler (CMP) A bus system (BSM) to interconnect all the above boards for intercommunication.

Physical Form of SMC is All the boards use the BSM as a mean of communication. 13 boards (max) can be connected onto the BSM of SMC. ACUTR board is used for main or secondary processor units. ACMCQ (16 Mbytes) or ACMCS (64 Mbytes) board is used for common memory unit. A pair of boards (ACAJA & ACAJB) is used as multiplex coupler. Coupler connected with MIS is main and connected with MAS is secondary that of coupler. ACALA board is for power alarms.

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Cards are

ACUTR 16 Mb memory MIS/MAS coupling module Alarm coupling module

ACMCS ACAJA ACAJB ACALA

4.5.2 Auxiliary Equipment Control Station (SMA) Tone generators Conference circuits Frequency receiver/generators Clock management 4.5.3 Trunk Control Station (SMT) It provides functional interface between PCM & the switching centre. These PCM come from Other switching centers A Remote subscriber Digital Access Unit (CSND) A Remote Electronic Satellite concentrator (CSED)

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4.5.4 Maintenance Control Station (SMM) Supervision & management of system. Defense of stations. Man-Machine communication processing. Overall initialization & re-initialization. Storage of system data, (on hard disk, capacity = 1.2 G.bytes).

4.5.5 Synchronization & Time Base Station (STS) The STS incorporates functions Receives external clock on HIS; HIS role is to o Receive external clock via up to 4 PCM o Manage synchronization links by monitoring alarm signals of the relevant PCM o Maintain maximum quality of frequency precision irrespective of quality of synchronization links Generates & transmits alarms on MAL; controls the o Transmission of alarms generated by HIS to alarm ring.

4.6 HUAWEI UA5000


NGN is an IP based system and is holding with a very large Capacity. It is called new generation network. It can process at least 400 to 500 thousand numbers. CTX Bahawalpur. HUAWEI exchange is control by a central exchange which is installed in Faisalabad. It provides the broad band facilities also. 4.6.1 Control Boards 4.6.1.1 PVMB (Voice Packet Managing Board) It manage the narrow band service boards and process the V5 and H.248 protocols. It supports dual installation for backup and hot swapping. 4.6.1.2 IPMB (IP Service Managing Board) It can aggregate and Process the broad band Service. Transfer the VOIP

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services of the PVMB board and transmit IP services upstream through the FE and GE ports. It is Swappable. 4.6.2 Narrow Band Service Board 4.6.2.1 A32 (32 Ports Analog Service Board) It is the 32 ports analog service board with the BORSCHT function. The subscriber signals are sent to the Narrow band control boards through back plane and the narrow band controls board sends PSTN service upstream. It is hot swappable. 4.6.2.2 EDTB (E1 Digital Trunk Board) It is the 16 port digital trunk Board for upstream services. It is swappable. 4.6.2.3 SDL (4 Port SHDSL 4 Port E1 Service Board) It provides SHDSL access services in TDM mode it is Hot swappable. 4.6.3 Combo Service Board 4.6.3.1 CSRB (32 Port ADSL/ADSL2+ and Pots combo service board) It has a built in splitter. It is hot swappable. 4.6.4 Monitoring Board 4.6.4.1 ESC (Environment and Power Monitoring Board) It communicates with the host the serial port for the environment and power monitoring. 4.6.4.2 PWX (Secondary Power Board) It provides +5V DC, -5V DC and 75V 25Hz supplier. It is hot swappable. 4.6.5 TSSB The TSSB is subscriber test board function. Perform the circuit and loop line test for analog Subscribers. Test analog telephone sets. Test the activation ISDN digital terminals. Provide digital telephone set. Provide a port for manual test (for subscriber cable Test) Support the broad band test.

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4.7 ZTE
In structure, the ZXJ10 (V10.0) digital SPC switching system is centralized management, and fully distributed inter-module control. Based on a general computer platform, supported by the LAN technology and taking the client/server mode as the basic control structure, the system has flexible networking and powerful call processing capacities, high reliability, excellent compatibility and good extendibility. 4.7.1 Capacity The ZXJ 10 (V10.0) switching system has a modularized structure and works in the fully distributed control mode, thus linearly expandable. The whole system can consist of one peripheral switching module (i.e., single module), or of multi-module systems. The quantity of its connected peripheral switching modules can reach 62 in maximum. With a single module exchange, the maximum system capacity can reach 12480 subscriber lines and 2880 trunk ports. In case of multi-module systems, the final capacity is 500 thousand subscriber lines and 64 thousand trunk ports. 4.7.2 System Structure ZXJ10 (V10.0) adopts the fully distributed control structure. It can be made up of one to dozens of modules according to the specific exchange capacity. Besides, according to different service demands and different geographic locations, it can be extended with different modules. 4.7.3 Boards and Their Functions 4.7.3.1 Main Processor (MP) MP is the central control part of ZXJ10 exchange that is located at the control layer. It mainly performs call handling and system management, provides an operation platform for ZXJ(V10.X) foreground program and executes the system software of the switching system, provides such peripheral interfaces as IDE, KEYBOARD, VGA, RTC, FDC and FLASH DISK, etc and two 10M Ethernet interfaces, and provides standard PCI bus interface. 4.7.3.2 Shared Memory Board (SMEM) SMEM board is used for change over active/standby MP. SMEM board consists of two cards. DRAM (8K) SMEM (2M)

4.7.3.3 Communication Board (COMM) Communication board is the auxiliary processor of MP communication. It completes functions of link layers of MP-MP communication, MP-SP communication, No.7 signaling, V5, etc. It
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can process 32 HDLC channels simultaneously in maximum. Physical layer is 2MHW line. Every logical link (channel) can optionally select 1~32 TS in 4 HWs, but the total number does not exceed 32. 4.7.3.4 Digital Trunk Interface Board (DTI) Digital trunk unit is the interface unit between digital switching system and digital switching system (inter-office) or digital switching system and digital transmission system. The function of the unit is to multiplex the 64kbs traffic signal and signaling on 32 paths into 2048kb/s signal according to PCM time division multiplexing principle and make switched connection processing in this system. 4.7.3.5 Subscriber Processor Board (SP) The basic configuration of ZXJ10 (V10.X) subscriber unit is a pair of SPs (active/standby) with two layers of subscriber boards. They perform the function signaling concentration 8MHz, 2MHz driving for subscriber board. They supply of two bidirectional 8MHz line for voice channel and 2 MHW line for MTT high resistance multiplexers. It also provides the function of test board.

4.8 Main Distribution Frame (MDF)


A Main Distribution Frame (MDF or Main Frame) is a signal distribution frame for connecting equipment (inside plant) to cables and subscriber carrier equipment (outside plant). The MDF is a termination point within the local Telephone exchange where exchange equipment and terminations of local loops are connected by jumper wires at the MDF. All cable copper pairs supplying services through user telephone lines are terminated at the MDF and distributed through the MDF to equipment within the local Exchange. Frame in the exchange used for making cross connections between the incoming cables and exchange equipment. 4.8.1 MDF Construction MDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. On one side, the switch wires terminate at NE (Number Equipment) that is arranged horizontally at the front of rack shelves. Jumpers lie on the shelves and go through a steel hoop to run vertically to other termination blocks that are arranged vertical and called OSP of the cabinet. The NE of switch is connected to OSP of cabinet with the help of jumper wire.
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4.8.2 Telephony Scenarios Normal Line Sub Office Sub Office Distributive Point Cabinet MDF Switching

Digital Subscriber Line Distributive Point Cabinet MDF DSLAM Switching

4.8.3 Fuse Device Fuse device connect the primary cable which come from cabinet to the cable of switch at MDF. When large current come then fuse device become damage and it prevent the entire circuit.

4.9 Out Side Plant (OSP)


The installation or media used to connect Exchange from MDF to subs office / station is called OSP or local line Network. The main parts of O.S.P are: 1. Under ground cable network (MDF to cabinets, DP /MDF to DP). 2. Over head Installation (Line & Wire or Subs Service line). 4.9.1 Underground Cable Underground cable is of copper and it is of 100 to 2400 pairs. There are two type of under ground cable. Primary cable Secondary cable 4.9.1.1 Primary Cable The cable from MDF to cabinet is called primary cable. 4.9.1.2 Secondary Cable The cable from cabinet to DP is called secondary cable. 4.9.2 Line & Wire The media used to connect DP with the Subs office at window point or wall carrying conductors on the post is called Line & Wire / Over head installation. 4.9.3 Conductors Conductors are Metal Wire /Insulated wire drop wire, copper Cable. 4.9.4 Post The Post is a support used to carrying over the conduction on it at a standard height. 4.9.4.1 Rail Post
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They are used along railway tracks because of its easy availability. 4.9.4.2 Wooden Post They are generally used in high hilly and forest areas where the wooden galleys can easily be available. 4.9.4.3 Concrete Post Reinforced cement concretes post are used in coast and dumpy areas.

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4.9.5 Drop Wire The wire from customer to DP is called Drop wire. The Drop Wire is a self-sporting aerial (Over/Head) Signal pair installation of two conductors. The conductors are of copper welled wire running parallel in a black polyethylene sheath, bearing the wind pressure/span load and other environmental condition. 4.9.6 Make up Two conductors forming a pair running in parallel separately covered with weather resistance, black, and high density solid polyethylene. 4.9.7 Cabinet It is a small testing point where primary and secondary pairs are terminated. 4.9.7.1 Cabinet Capacity Total number of primary and secondary terminated in a cabinet is called capacity of cabinet. pairs those

4.9.7.2 Construction of Cabinet It is a frame made of iron and fiber. It is fixed on the stand made of bricks and cement. 4.9.7.3 Types of Cabinet 1. Counting of DPS is started from up to down. 2. Counting of pairs is started from left to right. 3. The color of primary terminating strip is White. 4. The color of secondary terminating strip is Gray. 5. Primary and Secondary pairs are connected with the help of insertion tool. 4.9.8 Advantages of Cabinet 1. It is a testing point where primary and secondary pairs are terminated. 2. 50 and 100 pairs C.T. Boxes are terminated.

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3. Primary and secondary pairs are connected with the jumper wire on the front side of the CT box. 4. The counting of pairs is started from up to down and left to right. 5. Faulty cable pair can be changed easily. 6. A chart is placed in the cabinet to note the primary cable and DP numbers and their location. 7. There are holes in the lower sides of the cabinet to enter the cable. 8. The counting of DPS is started from left to right. 9. The counting of CT boxes is started from up to down. 10. The formation of CT boxes in the cabinet is first secondary, second primary then secondary and again primary and so on. 4.9.9 Distribution Point (DP) One DP is of 10 pairs. It means 10 subscribers can be facilitated with a single DP.

4.10 Power
Telecommunication power plant can be defined as plants which supply telecommunication equipment with electric power. All telecommunication equipments are dependent for its operation on an electric power supply because of the wide-range of telecom equipments are used and produced by several manufacturers, a number of different basic types of power plants are existing. The type of power plant used for a particular type of telecom equipment depends mainly on the design of the telecom equipment that is the components used to make up the circuit. The main target of telecom power plants is to generate an electric power or in case of a commercial electric mains connection to convert the mains power to the characteristics required by the telecom equipment, to keep the output voltage in close limits and to provide a standby supply in case the primary source of power fails.

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4.10.1 Requirements of a Telecom Power Plant The most important requirements which apply to all power supplies are as follows: 1. It must be reliable. A break in the power supply interrupts the communication network. 2. It must be capable of meeting the normal current requirements of the connected telecom equipment. 3. Its output voltage must be maintained within the limits specified for the telecom equipment. 4. It must be self protecting under overload and fault conditions. 5. Electrical noise must be below the specified maximum. 6. Capital costs, maintenance costs and running costs must be kept to a minimum, in accordance with the above conditions. 4.10.2 Voltage Limits Telecom equipment manufacturers specify the voltage limits, within which their equipment will perform its functions satisfactorily. These limits are taken into account when designing power supplies to ensure satisfactory operation on the equipment, and to prevent damage to components caused by excess voltage. 4.10.3 Self Protection Power equipment must be capable of limiting its output current to a safe level in order to prevent damage due to factors such as excess heat and mechanical stress. In some power supplies this is achieved by means of fuses and or circuit breakers which must be replaced or reset after an operation. 4.10.4 Electrical Noise Electrical noise from power supplies lowers the quality of communication channels by distorting speech and data signals. For this reason it is necessary to ensure that noise levels are kept below the maximum allowed for the connected telecom equipment. Special noise filters are provided on power supplies which tend to produce excessive noise. 4.10.5 Main Supply The main primary source of power for the majority of telecom equipment is an ac generator at the local power authoritys generating plant.

4.11 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)


It is developed to provide Broadband Access of internet. It is technology is one of the most promising for supporting high speed digital communication. It is very reliable for the student. 4.11.1 Types of DSL 4.11.1.1 ADSL
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It is stand for asymmetric DSL. It is an asymmetric communication technology. It is designed for residential users; it is not suitable for business; its bandwidth unto 1.1MHz. ADSL is adaptive technology; the system uses the data rate based on the condition of local loop line. 4.11.1.2 VDSL It stands for very high bit rate of digital subscriber line, an alternative approach that is similar to ADSL use fiber optical or twisted pair cable for short distance, the downstream rate is normally 3.2 MB/sec 4.11.1.3 HDSL It stands for high bit rate of DSL, was designing as an alternative to the T-1 line (1.544Mbps).For longer distance a repeater is used. The length of T-1 line is 1Km. 4.11.1.4 SDSL It stands for symmetric DSL; it is used one twisted pair cable for communication. It provides full duplex communication supporting unto 768Kbps.

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4.11.2 DSLAM Instead of ADSL modem, a device called digital subscriber line access multiplier is installed that function similarity pocketsize the data to be sent to the internet service provider (ISP). 4.11.3 Block Diagram

Splitter Voic Telephone Network e Low Pass Filter High Internet DSLAM Packet Data Pass Filter Local Loop

4.11.4 Modems Brands Shiro DSL805EU HUAWEI EchoLife HG-510 ZTE 831 Series ZTE - ZXDSL-831D Zyxel

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5. INTERACTIVE TALKS
5.1 Department of Multimedia & Broadband
Shared by Mr. Shahrukh Abbasi Manager M&B, CTX Bahawalpur 30 June 2009

Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) is the regulating authority of Telecom in Pakistan. PTA has divided the whole Pakistan in 14 Telecom Regions. Every operating telecom company is bounded to operate in the same divided regions. Bahwalpur lies in Multan Telecom Region (MTR) that is further divided into 3 zones. The network that provides service from exchange to customers is called Access Network. Medium can be both wired or wireless. PTCL currently have copper wires so it is called Copper Access Network. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) of PTCL is providing the uplink downlink with the ratio 1:14. One of the factors of reduced broadband speed is that there are different Trojans on PC that secretly keep on sending their own traffic on broadband and keep the efficiency low. DSLAM works as a multiplexer for all the DSL customers data at exchange. The modem provided for DSL is an adaptive modem which changes itself until it finds the standard connection settings. Currently, we have 900 customers of DSL at CTX Bahawalpur. Engineering designations are now Assistant Engineer (AE), Assistant Divisional Engineer (ADE), and Engineer (E). Department of Operations deals with the out of exchange matters pf PSTN.

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5.2 Department of Operations (MDF Section)


Shared by Mr. Muhammad Ishfaq Engineering Supervisor, MDF Operations, CTX Bahawalpur 01 July 2009

Next Generation Network (NGN) is all about replacing the old


NEC Japan Exchange (installed in 1993) with the latest HUAWEI China Exchange. The first rack of Huawei has the capacity of 13000 connections. In the near future we will replace the Alcatel France too. Currently we have 16500 active connections at MDF of which 12300 are at NEC and 4200 at Alcatel. In newly installed Huawei system we have FUSE and Jumpers for protection and PG for Permanent Ground. Apart from the technicalities, PTCL is lacking in interdepartment cooperation and following the Standard Operating Procedure. SIP stands for Session Initialization Protocol.

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6. SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. In this analysis the whole organization is being squeezed in to few words which can help it to survive in this competent world. SWOT analysis can be very useful of summarizing many of the analysis combining them with key issues from environmental analysis to strategic analysis. The aim is to identify the extent to which the current strategy of an organization and its more specific strengths and weakness are relevant to and capable of dealing with the changes taking place in the business environment.

6.1 Strengths

PTCLs strengths are Been a national company. The old age name of the company. Most trustworthy and reliable. Nationwide infrastructure that is the largest of any other company in Pakistan. Millions of customers. Only land line operator in Pakistan. Increasing number of products. Nationwide own property land.

6.2 Weaknesses

PTCLs weaknesses are Corruption. Violation of Standard Operating Procedure. Lack of inter-department cooperation. Traditional way of working, results in loosing the corporate customers. No customer care, results in loosing customers. And the numbers are increasing day by day. Government influence in operating the company, gives edge to competitive companies. Unnecessary deployment of technology, results wastage of the costly resources.

6.3 Opportunities

PTCL has opportunities To compete with both wired and wireless operated company. To launch more products covering the every aspect of Telecommunications and Broadband.
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To enhance the customer care by utilizing the skilled men power. To secure its already customers by providing them multiple services through one connection. To advertise with improved marketing strategies.

6.4 Threats
PTCL may have threats of Loosing a large number of customers. Low performance of cheaper deployed technology. The main purpose is that the company should capitalize the strengths by availing the opportunities and avoiding the threats by overcoming the weaknesses.

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7. SUGGESTIONS
Following are suggestion for the betterment of PTCL, do read once.

A proper training should be given to the employees and the

workers equally to enhance their skills to increase their productivity and ultimately of the company. The top management should give the autonomy and the flexibility to every manager to make decisions according to the situation at any time and in the absence of the top managers. All the duties and responsibilities of the employees and the workers should be clearly defined. The technology selection must be done by keeping in view the market trends. The company should adopt an efficient appraisal system and give rewards to the employees who have done well. The management should recruit right persons for the right job. An effective relationship and coordination between the departments must be there. Increase the number of professionals within the organization and utilize their skills properly. Encourage the professionals. Employees should not be transferred to irrelevant places within the organization. There should be a proper meeting room. If a meeting is to be held than it is a problem to specify the room for it. Human Resources Department should be at main branches in order to motivate and trained the employees. I have noted some dissatisfaction among the employees, due to in-efficient promoting system. So PTCL should provide clean and on the merit basis promotion system.

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