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MMA 800 Thermofluids Tutorials 2

8.5) Show that an alternative expression for Reynolds number is:

Re =
where

& 4m D

& m

is the mass flow rate in kg/s and D is the diameter of the pipe.

Carbon dioxide at 20oC and a pressure of 550kPa flows in a pipe at a rate of 4x10-3 kg.s-1. Determine the maximum diameter of the pipe if the flow is to remain turbulent. 8.8) A soft drink with the properties of water at 10oC is sucked through a 4mm diameter, 0.25m long straw at a rate of 4 cm3.s-1. Is the flow at the outlet from the straw laminar? Is it fully developed at the outlet? 8.31) For laminar flow in a round pipe, at what distance from the centreline is the actual velocity equal to the average velocity? 8.36) Carbon dioxide at a temperature of 0oC and a pressure of 600kPa flows through a horizontal 40mm pipe with an average velocity of 2m/s. Use the gas law P=RT to determine the density of the carbon dioxide.(Assume R=189 J/kg K). Determine the friction factor if the pressure drop, (P) is 235 Pa for every ten metres (L) of pipe. 8.37) Water flows in a cast iron pipe of 200mm diameter at a rate of 0.10m3/s. The relative roughness (/D) for such a pipe is 1.3x10-3. Determine the friction factor. 8.46) A 21m long, 13mm diameter hose pipe has a roughness =0.3mm and is connected to a water tap where the pressure is P1 above atmospheric pressure. The outlet discharges into the surroundings at atmospheric pressure. Determine P1 if the average velocity of the pipe is 1.8m/s. The pipe is horizontal and there are no other restrictions to the flow. 8.61) A large artery in a persons body can be approximated by a tube of diameter 9mm and length 0.35m. Assume that blood has a viscosity of 4x10-3 Ns/m2, a specific gravity of 1.0 and that the pressure at the beginning of the artery is 16kPa. If the flow of blood is steady (which it isnt!!) with a velocity of 0.2m.s-1 horizontally, determine the pressure at the end of the artery. Describe (no calculation) how this value would change if the artery were vertical and the blood flows upwards. 8.68) After a number of years use, it is noted that to obtain a given flow rate the pressure difference across an originally smooth pipe has to increased by a factor of 1.6. If the Reynolds number for the flow is 106, determine the relative roughness for the old pipe. 8.87) The exhaust from an engine on a test bed is to be vented to the outside of the laboratory through a 75mm diameter, 12m long very rough hose (f=0.8) attached to the end of the exhaust pipe. If the flow rate is 0.006m3/s and the exhaust temperature is 65oC, determine the backpressure at the end of the cars exhaust pipe. (For density of the exhaust assume it is air at standard atmospheric pressure.)