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The addition of di- or polyfunctional hydroxyl compounds, e.g.

polyols or hydroxy polyesters, to di- or triisocyanates, produces linear or crosslinked polyurethanes, depending on the combination of the starting materials. In view of the high reactivity of the NCO group to the OH group, isocyanate adhesives are processed to two-component adhesives that cure at room temperature. Thermosetting one-component systems can be produced with "blocked" isocyanates, i.e. thermally labile urethanes or urea derivatives that split off at elevated temperatures (ca. 150C) isocyanates, which then react with the polyhydroxy compounds in the adhesive mixture and form heat-resistant polyurethanes Besides the reactive adhesives, polyurethanes are used as physically setting adhesives. These are widemeshed, crosslinked polyurethanes dissolved in organic solvents and are known as polyurethane elastomers. The outstanding strength properties of polyurethane adhesives are based on polar interactions and also on chemical bonds that are formed between the NCO adhesive groups and the reactive surface groups.

Polyurethane Adhesives are known for toughness and flexibility even at low temperatures. They have fairly good shear strength and excellent water and humidity resistance. Polyurethane adhesives form strong bonds to rubber, plastics, metal, wood, paper, ceramic, and fabrics. Most types are limited to service temperatures below 80C. One-component polyurethane adhesives consist of isocyanate-containing prepolymers dissolved in a solvent carrier, and reaction with moisture occurs as the solvent evaporates. In order to achieve high adhesive strength and to avoid the formation of bubbles curing is performed under pressure in suitable pressure devices. The curing time can be reduced by adding heat. One-component polyurethanes are used for the construction of sandwich elements of porous materials (wood, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam and others) and laminated boards (plastics) or metals (aluminum) that are then used in partitioning walls and doors or side walls of caravans and trailers. Some types of water-borne urethanes are also available, but the newest types of moisture cure urethanes are made in the form of hotmelt adhesives. These are called reactive hotmelts, and exhibit a dual property. They are applied like regular hotmelts, but after application begin to crosslink with moisture to form a tough adhesive layer with high resistance to heat, moisture, and impact Two-component polyurethanes consist of a polyol component (resin) and an isocyanate component (hardener) that must be mixed in a defined ratio prior to

application. Important criteria for the users are: the mixing ratio (from 1:1 to 1:10), the pot life (from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the cycle time) and the processing consistency of the adhesive (viscosity from easily pourable to sag resistant). Two-component polyurethanes are used for large-surface adhesive bonds in vehicle superstructures (sandwich construction), facade elements, ship building and container construction. Polyurethane sealants are one-component, solvent-free sealants based on moisture cross-linking polyurethanes. They cure to an elastic sealing compound by absorption of moisture from the air. According to their formulation, these masses are pliable to energy-elastic. The maximum admissible permanent movement is 15 25%. Polyurethane sealants are paint compatible

Advantages
Extremely tough Varying cure time Good flexibility at low temperatures (up to -157C) Good resistance to solvents Good impact and abrasion resistance (Tensile shear: 2200 psi; T-peel: 80piw) Excellent adhesives for a wide range of materials (most smooth, nonferrous) Moderate cost

Limitations
Sensitive to moisture both in cured and uncured state Limited depth of cure for one-part PU Mixing required for two-part PU Primer may be needed for adhesion to somesubstrates Poor elevated temperature resistance (max 79C) May revert with heat and moisture Short pot life

Usual adherents
Plastics, metals, rubber