Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 204

AMHARA AMHARA AMHARA AMHARA NA NA NA NATONAL REGONAL 8TATE TONAL REGONAL 8TATE TONAL REGONAL 8TATE TONAL REGONAL

8TATE
BUREAU OF LABOUR & 8OCAL AFFAR8 BUREAU OF LABOUR & 8OCAL AFFAR8 BUREAU OF LABOUR & 8OCAL AFFAR8 BUREAU OF LABOUR & 8OCAL AFFAR8

8ituation Analysis on Orphan and 8ituation Analysis on Orphan and 8ituation Analysis on Orphan and 8ituation Analysis on Orphan and
Vulnerable Children in Amhara Region: Vulnerable Children in Amhara Region: Vulnerable Children in Amhara Region: Vulnerable Children in Amhara Region:
with 8pecial Reference to Urban with 8pecial Reference to Urban with 8pecial Reference to Urban with 8pecial Reference to Urban
Towns in Amhara Region Towns in Amhara Region Towns in Amhara Region Towns in Amhara Region

A 8tudy 0olssloaed by
Ahk8 80l8A aad 8ave the 0hlldrea horway



0oaducted by.
Multlsectoral 0oasultaats lrlvate lllted 0opaay

Mnv 2008 Mnv 2008 Mnv 2008 Mnv 2008


InhIr nr InhIr nr InhIr nr InhIr nr



ii

.~., .~., .~., .~., ~., ~.~ .., ..~ .,., .~. . ~., ~.~ .., ..~ .,., .~. . ~., ~.~ .., ..~ .,., .~. . ~., ~.~ .., ..~ .,., .~. .
.~, .~, .~, .~, .~ .~ .~ .~ .~ ...., .~ ...., .~ ...., .~ ...., ~~ .. ~~ .. ~~ .. ~~ .. ~.~ ~.~ ~.~ ~.~
.. .. .. .... .~., ~, ~.. . ~..~ /. ~.~ .. .~., ~, ~.. . ~..~ /. ~.~ .. .~., ~, ~.. . ~..~ /. ~.~ .. .~., ~, ~.. . ~..~ /. ~.~
.~ .~ .~ .~ ~.. .~.. ~ ./ ~.. .~.. ~ ./ ~.. .~.. ~ ./ ~.. .~.. ~ ./
A Focus Group Participant at Bahir Dar












iii

Acknowledgment
The study on the situation of children at risk, which is carried out under the auspicious of the
Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs of the Amhara Regional State (BoLSA) with the financial
support of Save the Children Norway, HAPCO and BoLSA, would have not been successful
without the cooperation of duty bearers.
Therefore, Multi-sectoral Consultants Private Limited Company (MSC) would like to express its
sincere appreciation to all of these parties for their technical contribution through members of the
taskforce drawn from them in commenting on the data collection instruments and suggestions on
the research report. The collaboration of Zonal Labor and Social Affairs Offices in the process of
data collection was crucial which deserves great appreciation.
MSC also extends its appreciation to all individuals: experts, coordinators, supervisors and data
collectors and encoders for their active involvement in the data collection process. Moreover,
MSC thanks children, caregivers, key informants, participants of focus group discussions,
Woreda and kebele administration, and child-focused organizations for their immense
contribution in providing data/information for the study.
Multi-sectoral Consultants Private Limited Company (MSC)

Table of Contents
Title Page
Acronyms ........................................................................................................................................x
Executive Summary......................................................................................................................xi
Operational Definition...............................................................................................................xxiii
Introduction................................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter One................................................................................................................................. 2
Methodology................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 Objective of the Study........................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 .Targets of the Survey, Methods of Data Collection & Analysis................................................................... 2
1.3. Time Reference ............................................................................................................................................ 5
1.4. Limitations of the Study ............................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter Two.................................................................................................................................. 7
Literature Review & Legal Frameworks...................................................................................... 7
2.1. Overview on OVC.............................................................................................................. 7
2.2. Legal & Right Frameworks............................................................................................................................... 12
Chapter Three............................................................................................................................. 18
Situational Study on OVC in Amhara Region ..................................................................... 18
3.1. Demographic Characteristics........................................................................................................................ 18
3. 2. Situation of OVC in View of children and Duty Bearers............................................................................ 30
3.3. Situation of OVC in View of Caregivers........................................................................................................ 46
3.4. Street Children .................................................................................................................................................. 65
3.5. Child Commercail Sex Workers (CCSW)..................................................................................................... 94
3.6. Situation of OVC in Rural Kebeles................................................................................................................ 101
Chapter FOUR........................................................................................................................... 111
Response to Promote the Well-being of OVC................................................................ 111
4.1. Care and Support Programs......................................................................................................................... 111
4.2 Alternatives of Care and Support to OVC................................................................................................. 116
ii

4.3. Stakeholders Analysis.................................................................................................................................... 117
Chapter Five.............................................................................................................................. 128
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 128
5.1. Magnitude of OVC......................................................................................................................................... 128
5.2 Situation of OVC under Family Environment............................................................................................... 128
5.3. Situation of Street Children............................................................................................................................ 133
5.4. Situation of Child Commercial Sex Workers............................................................................................. 138
5.5. Situation of OVC in Rural Kebeles................................................................................................................ 139
5.6. Cause and effect relationships of Child Vulnerability ............................................................................ 141
5.7. Major Categories of OVC in Amhara Region............................................................................................ 142
5.8. Responses to promote the Rights of OVC.................................................................................................. 146
Chapter Six ................................................................................................................................ 148
Recommendations ............................................................................................................... 148
6.1. Developing Regional Operational OVC Policy and Action Plan .................................................... 148
6.2. Establishing Comprehensive Social Welfare Fund............................................................................. 150
6.3. Reinforcing Operational Structure ...................................................................................................... 152
6.4. Conducting Situational Analysis, Prioritizing & Defining the Neediest Children........................... 153
6.5. Establishing Documentation and Memory Book................................................................................ 154
6.6. Policy Advocacy and awareness Raising........................................................................................... 157
6.7. Strengthening the Capacity of Duty Bearers ...................................................................................... 157
6.8. Strengthening Networking and Partnership on OVC...................................................................... 158
6.9. Reinforcing Family Planning.................................................................................................................. 159
6.10. Reinforcing Malaria , TB and HIV/AID Prevention............................................................................. 160
6.11. Strengthening Family, Kinship & Social Tie-based Care & Support System................................... 160
6.12. Reinforcing Community mobilization and Responses...................................................................... 161
6.13. Reinforcing the Capacity of Children and Promoting their Life Skills ............................................. 162
6.14. OVC focus within Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies............................................. 163
6.15. Intervention at School Level................................................................................................................... 164
6.16. Monitoring & Evaluating of OVC Interventions & Policy Implementation...................................... 164
Reference.................................................................................................................................. 166
iii

Annexes...................................................................................................................................... 169
Annex 1: OVC Receiving Care and Support from Different Organizations ................................................. 169
Annex 2: Magnitude of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Rural Kebeles.............................................. 176


























iv


List of Tables
Table 1: Major Legal Frameworks on the Care and Support for OVC.................................................. 15
Table 2: Household Size by Sex of HH Head..................................................................................... 18
Table 3: Age of HH Head by Sex of Head ......................................................................................... 19
Table 4: OVC Population by Age and Sex......................................................................................... 20
Table 5 : Religion of OVC by Sex..................................................................................................... 20
Table 6: Ethnic Background of OVC by Sex.................................................................................... 21
Table 7: Number Counted OVC by Study Town and Major Categories............................................... 22
Table 8: Surviving Status of Parents of OVC..................................................................................... 23
Table 9: Relationship of OVC with their Caregiver by Sex of OVC .................................................... 24
Table 10: Birth Place of OVC by Sex................................................................................................ 25
Table 11: Birth Place of OVC by Age ............................................................................................... 26
Table 12: Educational Level of OVC by Sex and level of education.................................................... 27
Table 13: Educational Level of OVC by Age..................................................................................... 28
Table 14: Status of School Attendance of OVC by Sex in 2007........................................................... 28
Table 15 : Status of School Attendance of OVC by Level of Education in 2007 .................................. 29
Table 16: Percentage of Children with Disability & Sex..................................................................... 29
Table 17 : School Attendance by Children with Disability.................................................................. 30
Table 18 : Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Towns ............................................................ 31
Table 19: Survival and Health Status of OVC's Parents ...................................................................... 32
Table 20: Marital status of Surviving Parents of OVC....................................................................... 33
Table 21: Marital Status of Parents of OVC...................................................................................... 33
Table 22: Means of Livelihood of Household Heads .......................................................................... 34
Table 23: Types of Food Most Frequently Available for OVC............................................................ 35
Table 24: Children's Means of Fulfilling Food Requirement Gaps....................................................... 36
Table 25: Availability of Household Facilities ................................................................................. 37
v

Table 26: Source of Water................................................................................................................ 38
Table 27: Toilet Condition................................................................................................................ 38
Table 28: Access of Vulnerable Children to Mass Media ..................................................... 39
Table 29: Educational Level of Sampled OVC by Age ...................................................................... 39
Table 30: Reason of School Dropouts by Sex .................................................................................... 40
Table 31: Parents & Caregivers Methods of Child Discipline.............................................................. 40
Table 32: Exposure to Harmful Traditional Practices by Sex............................................................... 41
Table 33 : Problems of Children of Bedridden Parents....................................................................... 42
Table 34: Problems of Faced by Orphans after the Death of their Parents ............................................ 42
Table 35 : Housing Related Problem Following Death of Parents........................................................ 43
Table 36: Psychological Problems of Orphans ................................................................................... 44
Table 37: Attitude of Social Groups towards Orphans ........................................................................ 45
Table 38 : Caregivers (Heads of the Households) by Sex and Age...................................................... 47
Table 39 : Sample Caregivers by Religion and Ethnic Composition ................................................... 47
Table 40: Response of Caregivers on the Prevalence of OVC in the Family Community..................... 48
Table 41: Causes of Death of OVCs Parents..................................................................................... 49
Table 42: Causes to Become Street Children..................................................................................... 50
Table 43 : Types of Disability by Cause ............................................................................................ 51
Table 44 : Causes for Child Displacement ......................................................................................... 52
Table 45 : Causes to Become Child Commercial Sex Work................................................................ 53
Table 46 : Reason to Abandon Infants by Type of Committer ............................................................. 54
Table 47 : Types of Suspected Crimes Committed by Children.......................................................... 55
Table 48 : Pushing Factors to Commit Crime..................................................................................... 55
Table 49 : Causes for Being Bedridden ............................................................................................. 56
Table 50 : Child Disciplining Methods of Caregivers ......................................................................... 57
Table 51: Psychological Problems of OVC........................................................................................ 58
Table 52 : Attitude of Social Institutions towards Orphans.................................................................. 58
vi

Table 53 : Educational Level of Caregivers by Sex ........................................................................... 59
Table 54 : Employment Status of Heads of Households...................................................................... 60
Table 55: Reasons for not Feeding Children Well ................................................................. 61
Table 56 : Health Status of OVC....................................................................................................... 61
Table 57 : Availability of Household Facilities .................................................................................. 63
Table 58 : Water Sources of Respondents......................................................................................... 63
Table 59 : Causes for School Dropout ............................................................................................... 64
Table 60: Children on the Streets and Children of the Streets by Age and Sex..................................... 65
Table 61: Distribution of Children on the Street by Age & Sex ........................................................... 66
Table 62: Distribution of Children on the Street by Religion and Ethnicity .......................................... 67
Table 63: Distribution of Children on the Street by Place of Birth &d Sex .......................................... 67
Table 64: Distribution of Migrant Children on the Street by Age......................................................... 68
Table 65: Reasons for Migration of Children on the Street.................................................................. 68
Table 66: Causes for Being Street Children ....................................................................................... 69
Table 67: Family Size of Caregivers................................................................................................. 70
Table 68: Orphanhood of Children on the Street ................................................................................ 70
Table 69: Marital status of parents ................................................................................................... 70
Table 70: Economic Activities of Children on the Street..................................................................... 71
Table 71: Durations of working on the street in Years ........................................................................ 72
Table 72: Most Frequently Eaten Meals by OVC............................................................................... 73
Table 73: Means of Getting Food..................................................................................................... 73
Table 74: Daily Working Hours of Children on the Street.................................................................. 74
Table 75: Residential House of Children on the Street ........................................................................ 74
Table 76: Kinship and Social Attachment of Children on the Street.................................................... 75
Table 77: Health Status of Children on the Street .............................................................................. 75
Table 78 : Treatment Status of Children on the Street......................................................................... 76
Table 79: Distribution of Children on the Street by Educational Level and Sex.................................... 76
vii

Table 80: Reasons for not Attending School ..................................................................................... 77
Table 81: Health Condition of Caregivers.......................................................................................... 77
Table 82: Types of Disease for Illness of Caregivers .......................................................................... 78
Table 83: Child Disciplining Methods of Caregivers .......................................................................... 78
Table 84: Harmful Traditional Practices by Sex................................................................................. 79
Table 85: Types of Child Abuses ...................................................................................................... 80
Table 86: substance Abuse ............................................................................................................. 81
Table 87: Reasons to Use Substance ................................................................................................. 81
Table 88: Psychological Problems Faced Due to Death of Parent(s) .................................................... 82
Table 89: Attitude of the Community towards Children on the Street .................................................. 83
Table 90: Suspected Delinquents by Type of Crimes.......................................................................... 84
Table 91: Distribution of Children of the Street by Age and Sex ........................................................ 84
Table 92: Distribution of Children of Street by Place of Birth ............................................................. 85
Table 93: Distribution of Migrant Children of the Street by Age ......................................................... 85
Table 94: Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Town........................................................................... 86
Table 95: Factors for Joining Street Life............................................................................................ 87
Table 96: Distribution Children of Street by Educational Level & Sex ................................................ 88
Table 97: Economic Activities of Children of the Street ........................................................ 88
Table 98: Means of Fulfilling Food Gap........................................................................................... 89
Table 99: Payment Condition for Treatment of Sick Children of the Street .......................................... 90
Table 100: Types of Abuses Faced Children of Street......................................................................... 92
Table 101: Types of Crimes.............................................................................................................. 92
Table 102: Attitude of the Community towards Children of the Street ................................................. 93
Table 103: Distribution of CCSW by Level of Education .................................................................. 95
Table 104: Distribution of CCSW by Place of Birth ........................................................................... 95
Table 105: Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Town......................................................................... 96
Table 106: Reasons for Engaging in Prostitution................................................................................ 97
viii

Table 107: Previous Employment Status ........................................................................................... 98
Table 108: Residential House of Commercial Sex Workers ................................................................ 98
Table 109: Abuses Faced by Child Commercial Sex Workers............................................................. 99
Table 110: Involvement CCSW in Substance Abuse ....................................................................... 101
Table 111: Distribution of Rural OVC by Age and Sex .................................................................. 102
Table112: Relationship of OVC with the Family........................................................................... 102
Table 113: Surviving Status of Parents of OVC in Rural Kebeles...................................................... 103
Table 114: Reasons for not Attending School in Rural Kebeles......................................................... 103
Table 115: Problems of Rural OVC ................................................................................................ 104
Table 116: Source of Fund to Support OVC in Rural Kebeles........................................................... 105
Table 117: Types of Support to OVC in Rural Kebeles.................................................................... 105
Table 118: Source Fund of CBOs and FBOs................................................................................. 106
Table 119: Copping Mechanisms of OVC in Rural Kebeles.............................................................. 106
Table 120: Problems of Children in Bedridden Parents..................................................................... 107
Table 121: Orphans Problems to Transfer of Land.......................................................................... 108
Table 122: Rural Parents Child Discipline Methods ......................................................................... 109
Table 123: Prevalence of Major HTP in Rural Kebeles..................................................................... 110
Table 124: Causes for Food Insecurity of Rural Households ............................................................. 110
Table 125 : Types of Children Getting Support ............................................................................... 114
Table 126: Types of Support and Number of Children under Support ................................................ 115
Table 127: Options to Care OVC................................................................................................... 117
Table 128: SWOT Analysis on Duty Bearers .................................................................................. 118





ix


List of Figures
Figure 1: Relationship of OVC with caregivers ....................................................................... 25
Figure 2: Sufficiency and frequency of Daily Meal ............................................................................ 35
Figure 3: Daily Meal of OVC by % of Respondents .......................................................................... 61
Figure 4 : Percentage of respondents by types of health Institution used............................................. 62
Figure 5 : Means of Excretion........................................................................................................... 64
Figure 6: Frequency of Daily Meal of Children on the Street .............................................................. 72
Figure 7: Attitude of Children on Street towards the Community ........................................................ 83
Figure 8: Attachment to Parents and Relatives .................................................................................. 86
Figure 9: Proportion of Children of Street Involved in Substance Abuse and Social Evil Acts............... 91
Figure 10: Attitude of Children of the Street towards the Community.................................................. 93
Figure 11: Percentage of Respondent by Ethnic Background ............................................................. 94
Figure 12: Causes of Child Vulnerability ....................................................................................... 104
Figure 13: OVC Problem Three Analysis....................................................................................... 142









x

Acronyms

AIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency syndrome
ANRS Amhara National Regional State
ART Anti- Retroviral Treatment
BoFED Bureau of Finance and Economic Development
BoLSA Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs
BoWA Bureau of Women's Affair
CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention
CBOs Community-based Organizations
CCSW: Child Commercial Sex Workers
UFE Under Family Environment
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
FBOs Faith-Based Organizations
FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
FGD Focus Group Discussions
GOs Government organizations
HAPCO HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Secretariat Office
HH Head(s) of household
HIV Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
HTP Harmful Traditional Practices
MoLSA Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
NGOs Non-government Organizations
OVC Orphan and Vulnerable Children
PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS
STD Sexually Transmitted Disease
TB Tuberculosis
VCT Voluntary Counseling and Testing
xi

Executive Summary
Children are central to any society because they are builders of future generation. In developing
courtiers like Ethiopia children constitute more than 50% of the population. Amhara region in
Ethiopia is characterized by fast population growth rate (2.7%) and child population, in which
children below 18 years constitute about 53 % of the total population. The socio- economic
situation of the region reflects the living standard of the population and children in general.
Though 89% of the population of Amhara Region depends on agriculture, about 42% of the
people live under the poverty line and are chronically food insecure in which more than two-
fifth of children in the region are stunted and under weight.
Malaria, respiratory disease, TB, and HIV/AIDS prevail widely in the region. Due to the fact
that greater than 80 % of the area of the region is prone to malaria that makes about 75% of the
population at risk. As a result, malaria is the leading cause of outpatient morbidity, hospital
admissions and hospital deaths. Because of high prevalence rate, HIV/AIDS also contributes for
the illness and mortality of significant size of people in the region.
Understanding the scanty of data that show the magnitude, severity, causes and characteristics of
OVC in the region, the Amhara Region BoLSA took the initiative to carry out the study. The
situational study on OVC in Amhara Region aims at assessing the allover socio-economic
conditions, magnitude and severity, causes of child rights violation, the attitude, practice and
social framework towards OVC.
The study covered 40 zonal and wereda capitals and 60 rural kebeles of Amhara Region. Various
data collecting instruments were employed to generate both quantitative and qualitative data in
2007. Structured and unstructured questionnaires, case studies, focus group and key informants
discussion and observation checklists and guidelines were employed. OVC were counted in their
households, on the streets and establishments where girls involve in commercial sex work.
Alongside counting, different groups of respondents were interviewed which include OVC under
family environment, caregivers (household heads), street children, girls involved in commercial
sex work according to the designed sampling method. Thus, primary data was collected from 834
OVC under family environment, 783 caregivers, 446 children on the street, 484 children of the
street and 291 sexually abused girls (CCSW). Data regarding children under care and support
xii

program was gathered from child focused organizations. Data was also collected from 60 rural
kebele administrations.
Quantitative data collected from the study areas were entered into statistical Census and Survey
Processing System (CSPro) and the overall statistical data was analyzed using SPSS software.
Qualitative data were synchronized and organized in relation to quantitative data and purpose of
the situational study.
In Amhara region, the number of orphan and vulnerable children is not only alarmingly
increasing but thousands of children live in severe of socio-economic situation. Visible
indicators for the violation of the rights of children are prevalence of a number of orphan, street
children, child commercial sex workers, out of school children and children beggars in major
urban areas of the region. The counting conducted in 40 study towns of the region identified
62,820 OVC who constituted more than 11% of the total children of the study towns. The total
number of OVC that exist in each study town is affected by variation in the size of population
and socio-economic dynamism of towns. Because of large population and high socio-economic
interactions, major towns not only have large size of children at risk but also the size of some
categories such as street children and female children commercial sex workers is high as
compared to medium and small towns in the region. About 80% of counted OVC were at risk
children under family environment. The rest 15% and 5% were street and sexually abused
children respectively. In 60 rural kebele administrations, 4, 741 children were reported. On
average, 79 highly vulnerable children were registered in each rural kebele.
Among counted OVC under family environment, female children were slightly higher than
males. Nearly 92% and 76% of these children were Orthodox Christians and Amhara
respectively. The proportion of Muslims was close to 23%. Most of OVC under family
environment were residing with households that had large family size (more than four members
of household), poor households (about 69%), female headed households (68%) and households
headed by children (3%) and aged persons (14%).
Furthermore, OVC under family environment were residing in households that had 4 household
members on the average which is almost the same with the regional average household size
(4.4). About two- fifth OVC population was dependent on households who had large family size
and 10% of OVC were living with households within the families who had more than six
xiii

members. More than 82% and 50% of sample OVC children were members of low income and
illiterate heads of the households respectively.
Large majority of OVC under family environment (more than 69% of counted and more 79% of
the sampled OVC) were either double or single orphans. In both the counting and sample study,
death of fathers was high compared to mothers. Concerning orphanhood categories, about 66%,
23% and 8% of the counted total OVC were paternal, double and maternal orphans,
correspondingly. Moreover, in respective order about 40%, 39 % and 8% of sampled OVC were
double, paternal and maternal orphans. Though mothers are fundamental for survival and
development, in a society where males are the main breadwinners, death of fathers has high
socio-consequences for the family members as a whole and children in particular.
The study result indicates that nearly 1% of both parents of OVC under family environment
were bedridden. Bedridden mothers are slightly higher than fathers which reflect the likelihood
of death of male spouses due to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, nearly 4% of the sampled OVC were
residing with both of their parents. However, more than half of surviving parents of OVC were
not living together which negatively affects the normal development of children.
Concerning relationship of OVC population under family environment with the caregivers, large
majority of them (97%) were residing with their parents (64 %), relatives (30%) and social ties
(3%). About 3% were employed as housemaid.
Regarding migration, 18% counted OVC population and about 30% of the sampled OVC under
family environment were migrants in which majority of them came from other rural and urban
areas of Amhara region. The major pushing socio-economic factors for the migration of these
children are death of parents, needs to attend education, family displacement, seeking
employment, health problem, urban lure , shortage of land, poverty, quarrel with parents and to
visit relatives in urban areas.
Significant portion of children under family environment were abused by their care providers.
Therefore, they were victims of insult (73%), physical punishment (48%), scolding (27.5%),
ignoring (16.8%) and withholding food (9.6%). Moreover, they encountered female genitale
mutilation (42%), uvulectomy (more than 33%), removal of milk teeth and tattooing (about
17%), and early marriage.

xiv

Illness and death of parents exposed children to severe socio-economic problems such as
psychological problem (67%), food shortage (more 58%), shouldering the responsibility of
caring bedridden parents (39%), forced to work on the streets (more than 22%) and school
dropping out (more than 29%) and forced to leave rented houses (25%). As a result, greater part
of orphans faced serious psychological problems which are reflected in the form of grief
loneliness, disturbance, hopelessness, distress and nightmare.

According to the study 7% of OVC population under family environment was not enrolled in
school in which the rate of children who did not enroll in school and attend in 2006/7 academic
year was higher for females (57%) than males (43%). Due to the fact that most employers of
housemaids/baby-sitters are highly in need of their labor, the likelihood of most of this group of
children to be out of school is high. Moreover, about 10% of sample children were not attending
school in the 2006/7 academic year. The rate of school dropout was found to be significant
which was 10% among OVC population and 25% among the sampled OVC under family
environment. Most OVC dropped out of school due to death of parents. One- third of
respondent OVC under family environment withdrew because of economic constraints and poor
academic achievement. Children living with disability were found to be marginalized in terms
of school attendance (about 38% sampled OVC and 5% of total OVC). The prevalence of a
huge number of OVC under the care of a significant proportion of poor, illiterate and female
headed-households in urban areas is expected to challenge attaining the millennium
development goal of education.
Half of respondent caregivers expressed that OVC under their care had some health problem at
the time of the survey. Among caregivers who expressed the prevalence sick OVC, close to 35%
replied that these children did not get proper treatment due to financial constraint (98%) and lack
of medicine (2%). Although treatment in government health institutions for poor households is
free in the region, significant size caregivers were paying for the treatment of the vulnerable
children under their care. Most of those caregivers who used public health institutions were
lacked drug and referred to buy medicine from private drug vendors (73%). Some 23% did not
have access to free treatment in government health institutions.
The basic needs of majority of OVC under family environment were not adequately met. Thus,
more than 65% and 64% of OVC were not adequately clothed and fed, respectively. It is because
most of the care providers of these children were poor and unemployed. Children's labor (34 %),
xv

support from neighbors (17%), GOs (12%), friends (9%) and GOs (7%) are the main means of
fulfilling food requirement gap.
Besides, the condition of housing and associated facilities of large size of OVC under family
environment is poor. Inadequate rooms and poorly constructed floors and ceilings are
characteristics of the houses. Orphans under family environment were exposed to financial
constraint to pay house rent (54%), forced to leave kebele houses (12%) and private rented
houses (16%) and difficulty of inheriting their deceased parents houses (25%), following the
death of their parents.
Three-fourth of OVC under family environment were residing with households who did have
private pipe water and toilets. The sources of water for majority of the households were buying
from communal water points and other households who had own pipe and unclean water sources.
Moreover, a significant size of these children used to defecate on open field (43%) and common
latrine (33%).

Of the two major categories of street children, children on the street were large majority
(88%).In terms of gender composition, about 90% of street children were males. More than
three-fifth of sampled children of the street were migrant which is higher when compared to
children on the street (41%) and OVC children under family envirioment (30%). Most street
children (more than 90%) migrated from rural areas of Amhara region. The migration rate of
boys on street (78%) was higher than female children on the street (22%). Socio- economic
factors are causes for the migration of street children: death of parents, search for employment,
interest to visit relatives, family displacement, scarcity of land, drought, poverty, lack of school
attendance, and disagreement with parents. A significant number of children of the street (23%)
migrated due to quarrel with parents compared to children on the street (12%).

According to the finding of this study, poverty (47%) is the primary factor that pushed children
on the street to work on street, followed death and illness of parents (28.2%) and disagreement
with parents (7%). On the other hand, the leading factor that pushed children of the street to enter
into street life is death and illness of parents (46%), followed by poverty (33%) and disagreement
with biological and stepparents (19%)
A significant portion of sampled children on the street were orphans (62%) and living in the
households that had large family size (four and more family members). Higher number of
children on the street was paternal orphans (34%) compared to double (17%) and maternal
xvi

orphans (11 %). About 35% of the surviving parents of children on the street were either
separated or divorced.
According to sample survey, street-based economic activities are gender and street children
category-based. Therefore, more boys were engaged in shoe polishing, broker, sale of cigarettes
and household utensils, carrying goods, shop vendor and taxi assistant than girls. On the other
hand, the involvement of girls in sale of semi and processed food items is high as compared to
male street children. More children of the streets were carrying goods of adults at market places
and on the streets, whereas more number of children on the street was engaged in shoe shining
and repairing.
By virtue of the fact that urban streets are places of playing; sleeping and working for all
children of the street; feeding and clothing status of all of children of the street is very much
poor. More than two- third of sample children on the street had shortage of food and used to eat
below thrice a day in which most street children had to look for addtional alternatives to get
food. The major sources of fulfiling the food gap were parents, relatives, neighbors, friends,
GOs, NGOs, collecting leftover food and begging.

Even thought more than two-fifth of sampled children on the street were living with their
relatives and parents, those who did not have such attachment used to live in group rented
houses (19%) and individually rented houses (8%) and friends house without paying rent(11%).
Large majority of children on the street had close relationship with their parents (51%), relatives
(15%), friends (29%) and neighbors (2%), which show the contribution of kinship and social tie-
based relationship for the upbringing of vulnerable children.

More than two-fifth children of the street had some health problem during the survey time
which is higher than that of children on the street. A significant portion of children of the street
(61%) did not have access to free treatment system of government health institutions which
shows high marginalization when compared to children on the streets and children under family
environment.

According to the finding of the study children of the street are highly marginalized in terms of
education when compared to children on the street in which 70% did not attend formal education
in 2006/7 academic year. These street children were out of school due to poverty, death of
xvii

parents, economic constraints to fulfill school uniforms, low academic performance and quarrel
with parents.
A significant size of children on and of the street was victims of different types of abuses. Most
of children on the street faced severe forms of physical and emotional maltreatment at home by
caregivers. Additionally, children on the street were victims of HTP such as uvulectomy, and
removal of milk teeth, tattoo and female genital mutilation.

Furthermore, because of being on the street and lack of supervision of parents more than one-
fifth of street children were exposed to different types of substance abuses such as alcoholic,
cigarettes, khat, hashish, addictive drugs , benzene and gambling. Victimization of substance
abuse is higher among children of the street than children on the street.
Similarly, children of the street are more victims of emotional, physical, sexual, and economic
exploitation and abuses than children on the street during working on the urban streets. Hence,
substantial number of children of the street was insulted (73.1%) and beaten by adults and police
(23% to 62.7%), economically exploited (more than 54%), snatched (39%) and forced to play
gambling (14.7%). A quarter of female children of the street sexually abused and raped by street
boys and adults (55.6%), strangers (44.4%) and their employers. In the case of female children
on the street, 5% were sexually abused.
Similarly, children on the street were exposed to refusal of payment for the work done (29.8%),
receiving low payment for the work done ( 46.1%), insulting by people (74%) and beating by
people on the street (46.2%), beating by policemen (11%), snaching of their money and propery
by others (35%), forced to play gambling (9.2%) by adults and street children and paying
money to get protection from adults (8.7%).
Orphan children have more emotional and psychological problems because they dont get
affection even when they go home after working on the streets. As a result, most these children
have high feeling of grief, loneliness, hopelessness, feeling of disturbance and stress.

The proportion of children of the street (more than half) that perceived the community having
negative attitude towards them were slightly higher than children on the street (about 45%).
Similarly, about 27% of children of the street perceived cruelty and unkindness of the
community towards them. It was 23% in the case of children on the street. Generally, children on
the street have relatively better relationship with the community.
xviii

As per the finding of the study large majority of female children commercial sex workers were
Orthodox Christians (89%), Amhara (92%), in the age range of 16 to 17 years old (87%) and
migrant (77%). Most of them not only had low level of education but also all of them did not
attend school in 2006/7 academic year. Previously, two-third of them were students and
dependents on the family. Close to 18% were housemaids and daily laborers who were most
likely victims of economic, emotional and sexual exploitation. Some 5% were housewives,
which show the contribution of early marriage and divorce in joining prostitution.
Most female children were migrated and involved in commercial sex wok due to combination of
pushing socio-economic factors. Unlike street children in general, the main cause for the
migration of CCSW is quarrel with biological and stepparents (37%) which in fact associated
with lack of fulfilling their needs from their parents and relatives which is attributed to poor
economic condition of parents, parents lack of proper skill for upbringing children and unequal
treatment of children in the case of stepparents. Looking for employment in urban areas (27%)
and death of parents (22.4%) are important pushing factors for the migration of CCSW.
Moreover, most of CCSW joined the business mainly because of death of parents (19%), lack
of employment (19%), poverty (17%) and pressure of friends (16%), disagreement with
biological and stepparent (15%) and quarrel with husbands (2.4%).
In absence of clients, most CCSW were sleeping and resting in alcoholic drinking establishments
(37%), in group shared-rented dormitories (30%), individually rented dormitories (26%) and
houses of their parents and relatives (10%) and night clubs (7%).
Large majority of child commercial sex workers were victims of sexual, labor and economic
exploitation. These exploitation were practiced in the form of verbal assault and insult from the
sexual clients (68%), physical assault from clients (45%), and employers (44%) and verbal
assault form employers (11%), clients refusal to use condom (66%), excessive sexual
intercourse (51%), forced sexual intercourse (35%), clients refusal to pay (48%), sharing
income from commercial sex to employers (17%), workload and low salary (36%), unwanted
pregnancy (18%), and STD (10%). In addition, because of being in commercial sex work, most
of these girls were users of alcoholic drinks (60%), khat (40%), and cigarettes (16%), hashish,
addictive drugs and benzene as well as playing gambling.
Most observable vulnerable children in rural kebeles of Amhara Region are orphan (70% of
reported OVC), children from very poor, divorced and bedridden parents, and children living
with disability (7% of kebele reported OVC).Though majority of these children had attachment
xix

with their parents and extended kinship system, the basic needs of most of this group of children
were not fulfilled because of poor living condition of caregivers which resulted from scarcity and
low land productivity.

In rural kebeles, the principal coping mechanisms of children at risk are to be dependent on their
relatives, employed as daily laborers (carrying out farming activities, animal keeping) and
housemaids in better off peasant households and migration to urban areas. In the study rural
kebeles significant numbers of children did not attend school due to parents' unwillingness, lack
of support and death of parents. After migration to urban areas, most of them become prostitutes,
street children, housemaids, daily laborers and service givers in social and economic institutions.
Majority of them are exposed to labor and economic exploitation as well as physical, sexual and
emotional abuses.
Like orphan and vulnerable children in the study towns, OVC in rural kebeles were facing
problem of inheriting the resources (including land) held by their deceased parents. Inheritance
associated problems are mostly emanated from illegal claimants and long litigation.
Most vulnerable children in rural areas are victims of physical and emotional abuses. Verbal and
physical punishment, uvulectomy, female genital mutilation, removal of milkteeth, early
marriage and tattooing are widely practiced.
To recapitulate, the information obtained from the respondents, key informants, case studies,
focus group discussion indicates increasing trend of OVC in the region. Most OVC do not have
adequate access to basic rights such as access to proper care, shelter, food, clothing, education,
psychological support & supervision. Existence of huge number of vulnerable children is the
effect of synergic socio-economic problems mainly poverty and death of parents. Poverty is the
reflection of low level of socio-economic development of the region. Death of parents is
alarmingly increasing because of the pandemics of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other
causes. The overwhelming result of child vulnerability is violation of the rights of children and
prevalence of more than 16 categories of children at risk.
Therefore, the following major categories of orphan and vulnerable children in Amhara Region
call for economic and psycho-social care and support through child right-based programming.
1. orphan;
2. street children;
3. abandoned and unaccompanied;
xx

4. traumatized children;
5. displaced children;
6. children with disability ;
7. children with insufficient family support;
8. abused and neglected children;
9. child mothers;
10. children in child care in institutions( in orphanages);
11. children in conflict with the law;
12. Children employed as housemaid/ baby-sitters
13. Children living with bedridden parents and guardians;
14. Child headed households;
15. Children with their mothers in prison; and,
16. Child commercial sex workers
With regard to community response to promote the wellbeing of OVC, less than 16% of
caregivers and OVC perceived that the social institutions used to render all kinds of support to
children at risk which shows minimal community response to address the problems of OVC. In
stead, the respondent children and care givers perceived that those relatives, neighbors, friends
and the community had sympathetic attitude towards orphans and vulnerable children. On the
other hand, more than 15% sampled OVC and caregivers believed that relatives, neighbors,
friends and the community have negative attitude towards orphans and vulnerable children. They
perceived that members of the aforementioned social groups reflect their negative attitude
towards OVC by discriminating, excluding, insulting and ridiculing, as well as seeing them as
unlucky, cursed and hopeless.
Concerning options of child care alternatives, a significant size of sample caregivers preferred
kinship-based assistance (62%), followed institutional care (17.3%), adoption (11.6%) and non-
relative foster caregivers (9.6%).

Moreover, the outcome of the study indicates that increasing trend of OVC threatens the capacity
of the kinship system and the local community. Most orphan and vulnerable children are not
under care and support of child-focused organizations. Almost all GOs, NGOs, CBOs and NGOs
use family and community-based approach to provide care and support to OVC. Although the
felt needs of OVC are basic needs such as food, clothing, housing, the focus of care giving
organization is providing educational (56%) and sanitation materials (45.6%) to OVC. The
xxi

source of fund basically depends upon international community. The existing care and support
system lacks prioritizing the neediest OVC, sustainability, continunity and organized local
resource mobilization, networking, integration, and monitoring and evaluation.
The finding of the study indicates that the livelihood of most OVC in both urban and rural areas
of Amhara Region depends upon their parents, relatives, neighbors, friends, and god and step
parents. Similarly, most external driven interventions are relying on family and community-
based care and support. Therefore, OVC and child care providing organizations in the region are
using the social capital, operating through childrens relationship with their immediate family
members and relatives, as well as friends, neighbors and other religious and social based ties.
The existing family and extended kinship based care and support for OVC goes with the Family
Code of the Amhara region. On the other hand, the extent of kinship and social net work based
relationship is not the same for all categories of OVC. For instance, most children of the street
and child commercial sex workers have weak kinship relationship as compared to OVC under
family environment, children on the street and OVC in rural areas.
From the perspective of the CRC, children have the right to get holistic care and support from all
duty bearers including local and international community, government, CBOs, NGOs and FBOs,
parents, relatives and children. What is important is that the international and constitutional
rights of children has to be integrated with kinship and social networking-based relationships in
the process of promoting the wellbeing of orphan and vulnerable children in the region.
In promoting the well-being of OVC in the region, the study proposes the following policy and
intervention recommendations. The recommendations will help duty bearers to accomplish their
responsibilities and mitigate the gaps and weaknesses of stakeholders.
developing regional operational OVC policy and action plan
establishing comprehensive social welfare fund
reinforcing operational structure
conducting situational analysis
prioritizing and defining the neediest children
establishing documentation and memory book
reinforcing family planning
xxii

reinforcing Malaria , TB and HIV/AID Prevention
strengthening the capacity of duty bearers
strengthening networking and partnership on OVC
strengthening family, kinship and social tie-based care and support system
policy advocacy and awareness raising
reinforcing community mobilization and responses
reinforcing the capacity of children and promoting their life skills
OVC focus within development and poverty reduction strategies
Intervention at school level
Monitoring and evaluating of OVC interventions and policy implementation











xxiii

Opcratinna! DcIinitinn

Child refers to a person who is below 18 years.
For this situational study, orphan and vulnerable children include all children who lost one or both of
their parents, and other group of children who live under especially difficult circumstances and faced
severe social, economic and psychological problems because of poor living condition and illness of their
parents and other reasons which are beyond their control.
Caregiver refers mostly to heads of the households including parents, relatives, legal guardians,
neighbors, friends, employers (in the case of housemaids and baby-sitters) and other persons who provide
some economic and psychosocial support and care to orphan and vulnerable children.
Children under family environment refer to vulnerable children who are supported by caregivers at
household level, but who did not join street life and commercial sex work during the survey period.
Double orphan refers to a child who lost both of his/her parents.
Single orphan refers to a child who lost one of his/her parents.
Maternal orphan refers to a child who lost his/ her mother.
Paternal orphan refers to a child who lost his/her father.
Substance abuse refers to use of addictive substances such as drugs, alcohol, smoke, khat , hashish and
other substances to get pleasure and for other reasons. These substances negatively attest the wellbeing of
users.
Khat refers to addictive and stimulant leaf substance which is common in Ethiopia.
Iddir is a voluntary community organization basically to provide burial service to members. Recently,
some Iddirs involve in development activities and psychosocial support for vulnerable groups including
OVC.
For this study, town/city refers to zonal and Wereda (district level) capitals. Major cities are towns having
a population of more than 100,000 which include Bahir Dar, Gondar and Dessie. Next major cities
include urban centers that have 50,000 to 100,000 residents. Medium towns are urban areas comprising of
10,000 to 49,000 people. Small town are towns with a population of less than 10,000.
A rural kebele means the lowest local administrative unit in which most of the residents generate their
means of livelihood from agriculture.
1

Introduction

The Amhara National Regional State (ANRS) is located in the north central and north western
parts of Ethiopia between 9
0
21
'
to 14
0
0
'
N latitude and 36
0
20
'
to 40
0
20
'
E longitude. Approximately,
it covers 170,152 km
2
of land that lies from 600 to 4620 meters above sea level. The region is
divided into eleven administrative zones, which in turn are divided into 150 Weredas. Weredas are
further divided into local administrative units known as kebele administrations (KAs).
ANRS is the second populous region in Ethiopia, following Oromia. By the year 2006, the
aggregate population size of ANRS was estimated to be 19,154,503 (BOFED) with 2.7% annual
growth rate. Though the means of livelihood of 89% of the population depends upon agriculture;
more than two-fifth of the population of the region lives below the poverty line and in state of
chronic food insecure. Malaria, TB, HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases are prevalent in
the regional state.
As demographic data of the region shows women constitute 50% of the population of ANRS. One
of the characteristics of the population is its high rate of total fertility. Though the data is not
disaggregated, for instance by children at risk, about 53% of the population is children under 18
years old (BOFED: 2007).
Understanding the scarcity of data on OVC, BoLSA, which is the major responsible government
organ to promote the rights and welfare of children in ANRS, took the initiative to conduct this
study. The Bureau made contractual agreement with Multi-Sectoral Consultants Private Limited
Company to carry out situational study on OVC in 40 towns and 60 rural kebeles in the region.
The finding of the survey is presented in four major chapters. Chapter One deals with
methodology. Chapter Two contains literature review, theoretical and legal frameworks in the area
of children in general and vulnerable children in particular.
Chapter Three portrays the findings of the situational study. In this chapter the situation of OVC is
presented. It also further describes the condition of OVC under family environment from the point
of view of children and caregivers, street children, child commercial sex workers and rural
children. The fourth Chapter illustrates the care and support programs for OVC. Conclusion and
recommendation are presented in Chapter five and six, respectively.
2

Chapter One
Mcthndn!ngy
1.1 Objective of the Study
1.1.1. General Objective
The main objective of the study is to set the baseline information on OVC in ANRS that enables to
devise alternative intervention strategies to tackle the problem of children.
1.1.2. Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the situational study are to:
assess the overall situation of OVC in ANRS and secure comprehensive information;
assess the extent and magnitude of the prevalence of OVC;
identify the basic factors that contribute to the violation of the rights of children;
assess the attitude, practice and social framework towards OVC and the relevant policy
and legal frameworks;
identify the responsibility of duty bearers at different levels and assess the participation
of community as well as children in the decision-making process in relation to OVC;
identify the current intervention programs for OVC and their families by all
stakeholders & conduct SWOT analysis of the relevant stakeholders;
identify potential collaborators in the area of OVC and assess relevant policy and legal
frameworks; and
come up with findings that help to develop sustainable strategies to address the
problem of OVC in general and establish orphan fund in particular.
1.2 .Targets of the Survey, Methods of Data Collection & Analysis
1.2.1 Coverage of the Study
The survey areas include all capitals of the 10 Administrative Zones (taking Bahir Dar town as the
capital of both West Gojjam Administrative zone and Bahir Dar Special Zone), 30 Woreda
capitals (three woredas from each of the 10 Administrative Zones) selected based on their
economic activities and urbanization status, and 60 rural kebeles (two rural kebeles from each of
these Woredas). Totally, the study covered 40 towns and 60 rural kebeles.
3

1.2.2 Targets of the Survey
It is known that vulnerable children reside either in the households, streets, or institutions. It was
designed to cover all areas and social institutions where these children are living so as to attain the
objective of the situation analysis and to generate data on the magnitude and severity of OVC in
the region. Therefore, households who care OVC, institutions who provided care and support,
children at risk and rural kebeles were used as units of analysis. To get insight into the detail
situation of OVC the following broad categories of children at risk were used as means of entry to
explore orphanhood and child vulnerability in the family and community.
Orphan and other vulnerable children under family environment;
Street children;
Sexually Abused Children/ children engaged in commercial sex work; and
Children under care and support program(s).
1.2.3 Method of Data Collection
All the necessary data collection instruments (questionnaires & checklists) were developed and
tested on a pilot basis in Bahir Dar town. To execute the survey, 50 supervisors (20 zonal & 30
woreda level supervisors) and 3 data collectors per kebeles of each survey town and rural woreda
were trained and deployed.
1.2.3.1. Census & Sampling of Targets
House to house count was carried out in 10 zonal and 30 Woreda capitals in order to know the
magnitude of OVC. Vulnerable children living with families in the survey towns were listed using
the format prepared for the purpose. Along with the counting of OVC, one vulnerable child
(above 8 years), in every 37
th
of households (about 3.0%) who were giving care of OVC were
interviewed in order to understand the detail condition of these children. In the sample, female
children were adequately represented who were 52% of the 834 total sample children under
caregivers). In addition, 783 caregivers of OVC in very 39
th
of households who constituted about
3% of the total heads of the households were sampled and interviewed.
Street children were registered at night and daytime. Along listing these groups of children, every
18
th
children on the street who constituted about 5% of the total street children counted (446 out of
4

8,258). Due to the expectation that there were few children of the street, it was designed to sample
and interview every 2 child who slept on the street at night during listing. As a result, about 43%
of the counted children of the street (484 of 1,131) were sampled. Moreover, due to the fact that
female children of the street are mostly few, all of these children were interviewed in order to have
a good picture about their status.
Observation had been conducted at night to estimate the number of girls below 18 years old, who
were involved in commercial sex work. Accordingly, 2,891 child commercial sex workers were
listed and their estimated age and place of work. Following the count of these children in local and
modern establishments such hotels, bars and local alcoholic drinking houses, it was managed to
collect information from 10% (291 of the 2,891) of these sexually abused children who were
randomly selected from the list.

Additionally, NGOs and institutions working in the area of children were interviewed. Other
relevant information was also collected using data collection formats prepared for the purpose.
The kebele administrative members were interviewed regarding OVC in 60 selected rural kebeles,
2 kebeles from each of the 30 woredas.
1.2.3.2. Case Study
Case studies were made part of the data collection method. In each survey town, children and
caregivers with impressive cases were selected and studied to look into their cases in-depth.

1.2.3.3. Key Informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGD)
Five key informants per target town were interviewed in detail regarding the situation of OVC.
Moreover, one FGD per town was organized to include the views of individuals and
representatives of institutions and communities who were thought to have substantial knowledge
and information about children. Totally, 154 key informants were interviewed, and 39 focus group
discussions were held in order to generate qualitative data.

1.2.3.4. Observation
Situations observed along the course of testing data collection instruments and data collection
process were used as inputs for the study. The observations during counting the OVC at night and
daytime were used as inputs for the analysis of the situation of children at risk.
5


1.2.3. 5 Literature Review
Review was conducted on previous studies, right, policy and legal frameworks on children in
general and OVC in particular.

1.2.4. Method of Data Analysis & Processing
The data collected from the study areas was entered into a statistical package called Census and
Survey Processing (CSPro).The necessary data management and verification (including coding,
editing and verification) were made properly by professionals in the field and short term trained
personnel. The overall statistical data analysis was made using SPSS software. Moreover, the
qualitative data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel and Word and logically summarized
and analyzed.
1.3. Time Reference
The data collection was carried out from July to August 2007 and the validation workshop was
conducted on the 15
th
of April 2008.
1.4. Limitations of the Study
The study was conducted during the rainy season in 2007 in which identification of target children
and caregivers, interviewing them and making supervision of the process of data collection was
sometimes difficult. During counting and interviewing of OVC under family environment, a
number of problems were encountered. First, it was difficult to get some household heads during
the counting process. As a solution to this problem, it was used to obtain information from
household members or immediate neighbors. Second, bedridden and very poor caregivers were
expecting highly some immediate assistance. Third, there was some interruption while the
interview was in progress due to grief and emotional disturbance of OVC and caregivers

The nature of working on the street requires high mobility from place to place. In order to avoid
repetition of counting, it was made to subdivide the major areas of interest and start the counting
at the same time. Each data collector in each subdivision of the study town used to ask any eligible
child whether he/she was counted and interviewed in another subdivision.

6

Data collection from child commercial sex workers was challenging. In the first place, discussion
about the socio-economic background of women who involve in prostitution is by itself a difficult
task that need creating close attachment by taking time and resource. Secondly, some girls were
shameful or creating mechanisms of escaping not to continue the discussion with data collectors.
Thirdly, interruption during in an interview was frequent because of the fact that girls had to serve
the clients of the bars, hotels and local beverage drinking houses where they were engaged in.
Fourth, it was difficult to identify street girls who could involve in commercial sex work from
other girls who walked on the street.

Responsible government organizations did not provide/have complete list of organizations
engaged in the provision of care and support for OVC in the study towns. Therefore, identification
of these organizations required more time. Some child-focused organizations did not have enough
and gender disaggregated data regarding children who were getting care and support. As a result,
staffs of these organizations needed additional time to organize data and to fill-in the
questionnaires.

The data collected regarding OVC in rural kebeles relied on the perception and understanding of
members of kebele administrations and secondary data available in the kebele, which lacked to
include the viewpoints of children at risk, their caregivers and other stakeholders.

Generally, the study is complex in terms of its coverage, objective and units of analysis. The
researchers were expected to examine wide range of socio-economic situations of OVC and their
caregivers within short period of time and with acceptable methodology.

7

Chapter Two
Litcraturc Review & Lcga! Framcwnrks
2.1. Otertleu on OVC

Available literature indicates that the phenomenon of OVC is globally pressing. There are
numerous children who are victims of economic and psychosocial plight due to physical,
economic, social, health and political factors. Though the extent severity and magnitude of
vulnerability of children depends upon the socio-economic status of their parents and countries,
the problem exists almost in every country.
In developing countries, child vulnerability is one of the most serious problems. Sub-Saharan
Africa bears by far the greatest burden of orphans (under 15 years of age) in which the share of 12
countries accounts about 70% of all orphans (13.4 million) in 2001 in the world. Moreover, 12%
of all children in the region were orphans. This is estimated to increase to 15% by 2010.
HIV/AIDS pandemics results in increase both the absolute number of orphans and in the
proportion of orphans in relation to all children. Because of AIDS the number of orphans in Sub-
Saharan courtiers is increasing dramatically, instead of declining. Three countries (Nigeria,
Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of Congo) with largest population have also the highest
number of orphans. The proportion of orphan children due to AIDS is also alarmingly increasing
in these countries. It will increase from 18% to 40% in Nigeria, 26% to 43% in Ethiopia and 34%
to 42% of all children in Congo Democratic Republic in 2001 to 2010. The size of OVC is much
high when it includes orphans less than 18 years and other categories of vulnerable children
(UNICEF, 2002).
Characterization as well as categorization of OVC varies from nation to nation and profession to
profession depending on the socio-economic situation, policy and legal framework, magnitude and
severity of child vulnerability. Countries in Africa dont have the same categories of children
under especially difficult circumstances. Based on the policy definition, Botswana has five
categories of vulnerable children which include street, sexually abused children, neglected, disable
and remote areas children. The local and community assessment in South Africa defines
vulnerable child as orphaned, neglected, destitute, abandoned, terminally ill parent, born of
8

teenager and single mother, living with a parent and adult who lacks income generating
opportunities, abused and disable children. In Zambia Community committees identified OVC as
double and single orphans, doesnt go to school, from female and disabled headed households,
parents are sick and family has insufficient food.

Moreover, the policy definition of Ruwanda grouped vulnerable children into 13 categories:
children living in households headed by children, children in foster care, children living in centers,
children in conflict with the law, children with disabilities, children affected by armed conflict,
children who are sexually exploited and/ or abused, working children, children affected /infected
by HIV/AIDS, infants with their mothers in prison, children in very poor households, returnee and
displaced children , children of single mothers and children who are married before the age of
majority.

Depending on the situation of children under difficult circumstances who are beyond their control,
Tedla identified (1999) 11 the major categories of OVC in Ethiopia: orphan, street children,
abandoned and unaccompanied, traumatized children, displaced children, children with
disability, children with insufficient family support, abused and neglected children, child mothers
, child in institutions and children in conflict with the law. OVC consists of all children who are
below 18 years old and live under difficult circumstances due to the situation that are beyond their
capacity. OVC are groups of children that experience risks and negative outcomes, who face loss
of their education, malnutrition, morbidity, and mortality at a higher rate.

There is limited data on the situation of OVC in Amhara Region. In rural and urban areas where
there is widespread of poverty and bedridden parents (due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases)
thousands of children lack the proper care and support. In this regard, the 2001 Welfare
Monitoring Survey of Ethiopia indicated that poverty is extremely serious in both urban and rural
areas. Similarly, the 1996 estimation of the government revealed 65% of people of Ethiopia and
urban population in the country live below poverty line. A national survey, carried out by MoLSA
in 1995, on the situation of street children came up with the conclusion that majority of street
children (75.5%) were from poverty stricken families (Tefera 2004, BoLSA 1995). The situation
in Amhara Region is more severe as compared to national conditions because the region was
highly affected by previous prolonged war, recurrent drought; and scarcity of land due to high
population pressure.
9

Moreover, a national survey, conducted by MoLSA and its stakeholders in 2003, on the
prevalence and characteristics of orphans because of HIV/AIDS indicated that majority of orphans
(58%) due to AIDS were Amhara. This national survey also showed that between 70% and 75% of
orphans live with their families, while nearly 20% orphans reside with relatives. On the other
hand, between 6% and 9% of orphans in the survey areas were living with neighbors, alone by
themselves, hired as housemaids. More than 40% of the orphans were not well fed and clothed
(MoLSA 2003). However, the national survey lacks through analysis of the condition of orphans
and other vulnerable children in Amhara region.
The assessment, made by BoLSA of ANRS in 2006, did not proportionally take the towns from
each zone and analyze the situation of all categories of children under difficult circumstances in
the region. It is also limited to urban setting. With these limitations, the survey identified about
18,494 orphans in 31 towns. The sex proportion of these children was almost similar (50.4 %
males and 49.6 % females). The size of single orphans was found to be 63% of the total. However,
the data did not disaggregate the size of orphans by maternal or paternal orphan. The number of
double orphans was 36% of the total orphans (BOLSA, 2006).
The same source revealed that about 52% of orphans were under the care of one of their parents.
Some 36% of orphans were dependent of close relatives and siblings. This indicates that kinship
relationship has significant role in the care and support of orphan and vulnerable children. About
5.5% orphans obtained support from non-relatives which to some extent indicate the response of
the community to address the problem. 2.3% and 2.2% of orphans live alone by renting house and
sleep on the street, respectively. One of the indicators of vulnerability of orphans is non-enrolment
and non-attendance of school. Hence, according to previous assessment of BoLSA, about 13% of
orphans in the study towns were out of school (Tefera, 2007, BoLSA 2006).
Another survey conducted concerning HIV/AIDS and its effect on the rights of child in North
Wollo zone in 2000 indicated that about 26% of the respondents were living with an orphan in
their family. Moreover, 30% and 13% of the population in the zone knew orphan in the
community and child headed housholds, respectively. Acccording to about 22% of the respndents,
the major cause for the death of parents in North Wollo was tuberculosis. It focused only on
HIV/AIDS in general and orphans, but not on the other categories of children at risk. Therefore,
it had limited coverage and scope.
10

Most orphan children join street life. An assessment carried out by BOLSA indicated that more
than 50% of street children were orphans. There were 2,659 street children in 31 towns in 2006.
Roughly, 89% of street children were Orthodox Christians. Ethnically, 91% were Amhara, 5%
Agew and the rest 4% were from Oromo, Tigrai, Afar and other ethnic groups.
Previous assessment of BoLSA depicted that substantial size of street children (82%) were boys.
The rest 12% were females. About 6% of street children did not mention their sex. About 48% of
street children were under 14 years old. Those between 15 and 18 years accounted 49%.
According to BoLSAs data, significant number of street children was out of school. Nearly 30%
street children were withdrawn from school. About 48% of children were migrants.
Child beggars are unaccompanied. Out of 3,576 beggars identified in 2006 in the 31 towns of
Amhara region, about 11% (392) were below 18 years. More than 71% of the beggars were
migrants to the towns where the assessment was carried out.
In Amhara Region, there is no active displacement at present. However, there are scars of previous
displacements because of war and drought. For instance, there were more than 25, 000 displaced
people and refugees in the region from 1996 to 1998. Of these, 35% were children below 18 years.
Earlier assessment made by BoLSA showed that women become mainly prostitutes because of
socioeconomic factors. The leading causative factor was poverty (33%) followed by divorce
(25.8%) and family related problems (25.5%). The fourth contributory factor was peer pressure
(10%). About 3% of prostitutes involved in commercial sex work due to unwanted pregnancy. Out
of the 2589 prostitutes counted in the 31 towns of Amhara region, 25 % were below 18 years.
Moreover, about 49% of prostitutes were involved in prostitution when they were below 19 years
old. Most of these commercial sex workers were children. The majority of prostitutes (91.5%)
were Amhara and Orthodox Christians. The next large size of prostitutes was Muslims. About
44% of prostitutes were illiterates and had sexual relation when they were below 16 years. This
indicates the widespread of early sexual intercourse, abuse and exploitation in the region. It is also
the reflection of wide prevalence of early marriage in the region. More than 73% of the prostitutes
were migrants. A survey in 1995 at Bahir Dar indicated that 95.6% of the children involved in
commercial sex work were migrants (BOLSA 1995). Similarly, a survey conducted at Dessie in
2000 showed that 97.7% of this group of sexually abused children were migrants, 47% were
11

victims of early marriage and 52% lost one of their parents and involved in sex work due to
conflict with their alive parent (FSCE, 2000).
Moreover, the socio-economic situation of the region reflects the living standard of the population
and children. Existing data indicates that about 42% of the people live under the poverty line and
are chronically food insecure. Though 89% of the population of Amhara Region depends on
agriculture, domestic food production is far below the food requirement of the regions population
resulting in perpetual food deficit /shortage. As a result of this, more than 52 % of the children are
stunted, 9.2% wasted and 44 per cent are under weight (Investment Office, 2006).
The report from the regional Health Bureau depicted that the prevalence of malaria, respiratory
disease, TB, and HIV/AIDS is high. Hence, over 80 % of the land is malarious and about 75% of
the population is at risk. Reported number of malaria cases per annum ranges between 0.5-1.2
million and hence malaria is the leading cause of outpatient morbidity, hospital admissions and
hospital deaths (Ibid).
Moreover, the HIV/AIDS pandemic becomes one of the major socio-economic problems in
Amhara region. The overall regional HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate, which is 6.1 %, is higher
than the national average of 4.4 %. The national adult HIV incidence rate in Ethiopia is 0.68 %
while that of the region is 1.02 %. The adult prevalence rate in the regional capital of Bahir Dar is
24.3 %. In terms of zonal distribution, highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is observed in North
Shoa (15.5%), Eastern Gojjam (17.95%) and Northern Gondar (16.3%). Available data indicated
that the estimated number of People living with HIV/AIDS in the region is 528,000 which is more
than a third of the national figure of 1.5 million. Of these, nearly 90% of PLWHA are within the
age group of 15-49.The national estimation indicated that about 33% orphans due to HIV/AIDS
are from Amhara region (Ibid).
To conclude, available data have limitation in scope and coverage to show the magnitude, and
severity and characteristics of OVC in the region. There is no data that show the strength and gap
of care and support for OVC in Amhara Region. It is difficult to provide proper service and care to
vulnerable children without having adequate data. Moreover, it is essential to review some
theoretical and legal frameworks in the area of the rights of children in general and OVC in
particular.
12

2.2. Legal & Right Frameworks
In any society, children are central for future generation. There are many perspectives that focus
on child nurturing. Fox-Harding (1991) identified four perspectives to intervene child right and
welfare These are: a laissez-faire patriarchy which endorses minimal intervention in the state; a
child protection perspective that legitimates active state intervention in appropriate
circumstances; a parents right perspective which promotes parents control over children and a
childrens right perspective that sees the child as an independent person whose wishes and needs
to be respected (Dominelli 2004:103).
According to familialist perspective children have to be grown up within family environment. This
perspective rests on the assumptions that the family is powerful to deal with the problems of its
members; only inadequate parents require intervention because they usually lack parenting skills
or abilities. In the condition of insufficient capacity of parents, intervention is justified if it is in
the best interests of the child and for the welfare of the child (Ibid: 102).
The government of Ethiopia enacted most of the international declarations, conventions and
covenants. Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children (1990),
Millennium Development Goals (2000), the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Education
for All, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1996), Poverty
Reduction Strategy and the Convention on the Rights of the Child give primary consideration for
survival, development, protection, non-discrimination, participation and best interests of all
children, including OVC. Specifically, the declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS recognizes
that OVC need special assistance and appeals to nations to develop (2003) and implement (2005)
policies and strategies to build and strengthen governmental, family and community capacities to
provide supportive environment for OVC.
The international Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) advocates childrens right
perspective. It is because it forwards and recognizes the responsibility of state parties and other
duty bearers to intervene on the rights and welfare of the child. The question here is that does the
holistic rights of children respected according to the international conventions and national
legal frameworks? This is central issue to this study because it aims at investigating the extent of
promotion of equal treatment, survival, development and participation rights of vulnerable
children in the context of the best interest of the child in Amhara Region. All legal frameworks in
Ethiopia enacted based on CRC and human right issues and principles. Wellbeing right of all
13

children is universal but priority should be given to the most disadvantaged. Concerning
accountability, children are recognized as holders of right and should not be considered as objects
of charity.
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child also recognizes the holistic rights of
children. The constitutions of Ethiopia and Amhara Region give special protection and assistance
to orphan and vulnerable children.
CRC rests on the general principles of no-discrimination and gender equality (article 3), best
interests (Article 2), survival, development (article 6) and participation (Article 12) rights of the
child.
Moreover, the convention recognizes the rights of the child to health facilities and medical
assistance, provision of adequate nutritious food, clean drinking water and living in healthy
environment (Article 24). It also recognizes the rights of children to benefit from social security
(Article 26).
Children have moreover recognized right of education (Article 28 and 29). Accordingly, it
emphasizes in making primary education compulsory and available free for all (Article 28).
Moreover, the CRC give due emphasis to protection of children from all forms of exploitation and
abuse including protection from substance and drug abuse (Article 33), economic exploitation
(Article 32), sexual exploitation (Art.34), child sale and trafficking (Art.35), emotional and
physical abuse and punishments (Art.37). State has to work towards protecting children from
performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their education, or to be
harmful to their health, physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development (Article 31).
Pertaining to sexual exploitation, state has responsibility of taking appropriate measures to prevent
inducement and coercion of children in any illegal sexual activities and exploitative use of
children in prostitution and pornographic performances.
Every institution and individual is duty bearer to promote the right and welfare of children. The
degree of responsibility depends upon the legal frameworks. Parents or legal guardians are core
caregivers. The Africa Chapter on the Rights of the Child in Article 20 states the responsibilities
of parents and other legal responsible duty bears to ensure that the best interests of the child are
their basic concerns at all times; to ensure, within their abilities and financial capacities, conditions
14

of living necessary to childs development and to ensure that domestic discipline is administered
with humanity and in a manner consistent with the inherent dignity of the child.
According to the constitution of the Amhara region every child has the right to life, to know and to
be care by his parents or legal guardians, to be protected from exploitative and abusive practices
including corporal punishment and inhuman treatment in schools and other institutions and to
promote equal rights of children born out of wedlock with children born in marriage (Art.36).
Moreover, it considers the family as fundamental unit of the society which institutionally entitled
to the rights of protection by society and the state (Art.34). It also respects equality of women in
all social, economic and cultural spheres, services and benefits (Art.35).
Ethiopia, moreover, has National Developmental Social Welfare Policy to promote the rights and
welfare of children in the country. However, stakeholders not only have limited awareness but also
the effort to implement the policy at grass root level is minimal.
In the context of the Family Code of the Amhara National Regional State, the father and mother
are the core tutors and guardians of their children. Parents are also responsible to appoint through
will, the guardian or tutor of their minor after his/her death. In the absence of appointment of
caregiver and when children lost their parents, the family code devolves the function of
guardianship to relatives (persons) of the child in order of importance. The first responsible tutors
are ascendants of the child. In their default, the brothers or sisters of the child who attained
majority are the next responsible persons to nurture the child and in default of siblings, the uncle
and aunt have legal accountability to care the child. According to this code, the role of relatives for
the foster of orphan and vulnerable children is very much important.
When parents lack the capacity to care, local community members, relatives, institutions, state and
the international communities are expected to play their respective roles to contribute to the
survival and normal development of the vulnerable children (see the Constitutional and
International rights of OVC in Table 1).
15

Table 1: Major Legal Frameworks on the Care and Support for OVC


Major rights
of the child

The Convention on the Rights
of the Child (CRC)

African Charter on the
Rights and Welfare of the
Child

Constitution of Ethiopia

Amhara
Region
Constitution

Federal Developmental Social Welfare
Policy



Care and
support to
vulnerable
children
The right of the child
deprived of his or her
family to special
protection and assistance
from the state and
alternative care by
fostering , adoption or
other arrangement
(Art.20)
The right of the child with
mental or physical
disability to special care
(Art.23).

Care to children
separated from parents
(Art.25)
Special care to children
of imprisoned mothers
(Art.30).
Care to handicapped
children (Art.13).
The state shall accord special
protection to orphans and shall
encourage the establishment of
institutions which ensure and
promote their adoption and advance
their welfare and education (Art 36).

The same to
federal
constitution
Every effort shall be made to create
an environment conducive to
addressing problems of children in
specially difficult circumstances
Conditions that will enable orphaned
and abandoned children to get the
assistance they need and to eventually
be self-sufficient
Effort shall be made to find
appropriate and effective ways and
means of dealing with the problems of
children with physical and mental
impairments
16

State, as primary duty bearer to promote the rights and welfare of all children, has responsibility of
providing the appropriate assistance to primary caregivers (CRC Article 18). According to the
Africa Chapter on the Rights of the Childs, state has duty to provide assistance to caregivers and
take following measures based on its means and national conditions (Art.20).
To assist parents and other persons responsible for the child and in case of need to
provide material assistance and support programmes particularly with regard to
nutrition, health, education, clothing and housing
To assist parents and others responsible for the child in the performance of child-
rearing and ensure the development of institutions responsible for providing care of
children.
Concerning orphans and affected people due to HIV/AIDS the policy on HIV/AIDS of Ethiopia
aims at promoting proper institutional, home and community based health care and psychosocial
support for people living with HIV/AIDS, orphans and surviving dependents. The policy gives
special emphasis for care and support of orphans because of HIV/AIDS.
International, regional and national legal frameworks recognize all the rights and welfare of
vulnerable children. However, realization of these rights, including survival and development,
depends upon the economic development of member nations. During lack of national capacity,
state can call for resources from international community. Regarding the responsibility of the state
to allocate resources the convention (Art.4) depicts that states parties shall undertake such
measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the
framework of international cooperation. Similar to the convention, allocation of resources to
promote the welfare of orphan and vulnerable groups is not mandatory in context of the
constitution of Ethiopia and Amhara Region. It is stated as: The state shall, within available
means, allocate resources to provide rehabilitation and assistance to the physically and mentally
disabled, the aged, and to children who are left without parents or guardian (CRC Art.41NO.5).



17

Generally, policies and legal frameworks are too general which need specific provisions and
implementation instruments. There are no specific legal frameworks concerning the care and
support to be given for OVC who lack caregivers due to death and other reasons. For instance,
immediate measure to be taken by the state, when primary caregivers are not in a position to care
and support their children, is lacking. It seems that assistance to most vulnerable children depends
upon the economic capacity of the country, region, and immediate caregivers and their relatives.
In consideration to inadequacy of data on OVC, the right and theoretical orientation regarding
children at risk, situational analysis of OVC in Amhara region was carried out in 2007.












18

Chapter Three
SltuutlonuI Stud on OVC ln Amhuru Reglon

This section describes the situation and problems of children under family environment, street
children, and children involve commercial sex work as well as OVC in selected rural kebeles in
Amhara Region. It also includes the causes of child vulnerability.
3.1. Demographic Characteristics
Based on the data obtained from house to house listing of OVC in the study towns, the section
presents the characteristics of orphan and vulnerable children in the survey towns. It also states the
characteristics of population of heads of household, who were providing care and support for
vulnerable children.
3.1.1. Characteristics of Heads of Household
Large family size and female headed households characterizes the caregivers of OVC. The size of
a household is defined to include all members living in the same house who have social, cultural
and economic relationship. According to the data obtained from house to house counting of the
most vulnerable children the average household size was 4.14. Most OVC were living in large
family size constituting more than four members.
Table 2: Household Size by Sex of HH Head
Male % Female %
1 - 3 2,741 21.2 10,206 78.8 12,947 42.1
4 - 6 5,396 37.1 9,161 62.9 14,557 47.4
7 - 9 1,463 51.1 1,402 48.9 2,865 9.3
Above 9 223 60.8 144 39.2 367 1.2
Total 9,823 32.0 20,913 68.0 30,736 100.0
Total HH Size %
Sex of HH Head

As depicted in Table 2, nearly 58% of the households had large family size that had four and
more household members. About 11% of heads of the households had very large family size that
19

contained more 6 household members. Moreover, 68% of OVC were living in female headed
households and the rest 32% were residing with male headed households. Table 3 shows the age
of the head of the households who care children in especially difficult circumstances.
Table 3: Age of HH Head by Sex of Head
Male % Female %
10 -14 57 51.4 54 48.6 111 0.4
15 - 17 280 41.9 388 58.1 668 2.2
18 - 30 1,735 23.5 5,661 76.5 7,396 24.1
31 - 49 4,547 33.0 9,234 67.0 13,781 44.9
50 - 59 1,461 33.6 2,892 66.4 4,353 14.2
60 - 70 1,280 36.8 2,202 63.2 3,482 11.3
Above 70 458 49.4 469 50.6 927 3.0
Total 9,818 32.0 20,900 68.0 30,718 100.0
Total
Age of HH
Head
%
Sex of HH Heod

The age of heads of the households was between 10 and 100 years old. Of these, 2.6% of the
households were found to be headed by children who are below 18 years. 24.1% was between 18
to 30 years, 49.9% were in the age range of 31 to 49 years, 14.2% were between 50 to 59 years
and 11.3% were in 60 to 70 years of age and the remaining 3% were above 70 years. This
indicates that about 14% of vulnerable children were under the care of aged persons.
3.1.2. Characteristics of OVC Population under Family Environment
3.1.2.1. Sex and Age Composition of OVC
Disaggregating OVC data by sex and age helps to develop intervention to the needy children. The
number of female OVC was found to be higher than male and most counted OVC were school age
children.
20

Table 4: OVC Population by Age and Sex
Male % Female %
Below 1 Year
370 47.6 408 52.4 778 1.5
1 to 4 years 2,730 50.9 2,634 49.1 5,364 10.6
5 - 6 2,161 50.8 2,094 49.2 4,255 8.4
7 - 12 9,528 49.3 9,809 50.7 19,337 38.3
13 - 14 3,977 48.3 4,249 51.7 8,226 16.3
15 - 17 5,981 47.6 6,579 52.4 12,560 24.9
Total 24,747 49.0 25,773 51.0 50,520 100.0
Total Age %
Sex of OVC

As presented in Table 4, 51% of OVC under family environment in the study town were females.
OVC population under 15 years constituted 75% and children between 15 and 17 years had share
of 25%.
3.1.2.2 Religious and Ethnic Composition
Even though religious and ethnic backgrounds of OVC are reflection of the general population
size, these are important social indicators in understanding the background of the parents of OVC
population in the survey towns.
Table 5 : Religion of OVC by Sex
Sex of OVC Religion
Male % Female %

Total

%
Ethiopian
Orthodox
18,583 48.3 19,873 51.7 38456 76.1
Islam 6,052 51.3 5,754 48.7 11, 806 23.4
Protestant 89 44.7 110 55.3 199 0.4
Catholic 16 41.0 23 59.0 39 0.1
Other 2 22.2 7 77.8 9 0.02
Total 24,742 49.0 25,767 51.0 50, 509 100.0

21

As indicated in Table 5, the religious background of majority of OVC population (76.1%) is
Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity. Muslims constitute the next share (23.4%). The share of other
religions is very small.
Table 6: Ethnic Background of OVC by Sex
Male % Female %
Amhara 22,655 49 23690 51 46,345 91.8
Oromo 630 51 614 49 1,244 2.5
Agaw Awi 783 48 839 52 1,622 3.2
Agaw Himra 221 53 199 47 420 0.8
Kimant 111 47 127 53 238 0.5
Tigrie 124 52 114 48 238 0.5
Other 213 54 183 46 396 0.8
Total 24737 49 25766 51 50,503 100.0
Sex of OVC
Ethicity % Total

As shown in Table 6, OVC under family environment from Amhara ethnic group have substantial
size (about 92%). The rest (7%) were from Awi Agew, Himta and kimant ethnic groups. The share
of other ethnic groups (including Tigrie) is below 1.3%.
3.1.2.3. Distribution of OVC by Town
The prevalence of OVC in each town basically depends upon the total population size and socio-
economics dynamics. Besides, availability of basic infrastructures and services such roads,
tourism destinations and employment opportunities also attract people to migrate to economically
active towns. Scarcity of land and poverty in rural areas, moreover, are pushing factors for the
migration of individuals and households to urban areas to seek employment and generate income
through involving in formal and informal economic activities including working on the streets and
begging.
As indicated in Table 7, nearly 42% of the counted OVC were living in three major towns of the
region: Bahir Dar (18.2%), Dessie (13.3%) and Gondar (10.4%). Each of these towns has more
than 100,000 dwellers. In Bahir Dar, more than 11,000 OVC were counted which is higher than
other major towns. Due to the fact that it is the capital of ANRS, located adjacent to Lake Tana
and near Blue Nile Fall and other tourist attraction sites the likelihood of migration of a number of
22

OVC is high. Most residents of the city are poor. Moreover, most of the children of the Woito
Community in Bahir Dar were counted because of the poor living condition of their parents.
Table 7: Number Counted OVC by Study Town and Major Categories
Zone Town OVC UFE Children on the street Chilren of the street CCSW Total %
West Gojjam BAHIR DAR 9,085 1,822 167 331 11,405 18.2
ADET 849 106 8 16 979 1.6
FINOTE SELAM 733 105 6 13 857 1.4
MERAWI 741 105 3 9 858 1.4
Total 11,408 2,138 184 369 14,099 22.4
East Gojjam DEBRE MARKOS 3,142 456 32 289 3,919 6.2
BICHENA 511 45 7 17 580 0.9
DEJEN 338 96 5 40 479 0.8
MOTA 930 85 3 20 1,038 1.7
Total 4,921 682 47 366 6,016 9.6
Awi ENJIBARA 1,156 74 2 57 1,289 2.1
DANGLA 698 141 10 61 910 1.4
ADIS KIDAM 403 62 2 47 514 0.8
CHAGINI 938 197 9 67 1,211 1.9
Total 3,195 474 23 232 3,924 6.2
North Shoa DEBRE BIRHAN 2,715 604 17 249 3,585 5.7
SHOA ROBIT 720 67 7 33 827 1.3
CHA CHA 269 33 2 5 309 0.5
DEBRESINA 664 134 7 18 823 1.3
Total 4,368 838 33 305 5,544 8.8
Oromia KEMISIE 1,223 41 4 25 1,293 2.1
BATI 867 72 2 42 983 1.6
CHEFA ROBIT 309 54 3 366 0.6
SENBETIE 345 10 8 363 0.6
Total 2,744 177 17 67 3,005 4.8
South Wollo DESSIE 6,409 1,320 195 455 8,379 13.3
KOMBOLCHA 2,793 723 170 247 3,933 6.3
HAIK 700 158 21 15 894 1.4
WUCHALE 274 23 3 5 305 0.5
Total 10,176 2,224 389 722 13,511 21.5
North Wollo WOLDIYA 1,657 58 45 27 1,787 2.8
LALIBELA 696 20 6 43 765 1.2
KOBO 1,071 25 4 14 1,114 1.8
MERSA 843 64 36 23 966 1.5
Total 4,267 167 91 107 4,632 7.4
South Gondar DEBRE TABOR 1,020 101 37 47 1,205 1.9
ADIS ZEMEN 387 63 20 470 0.7
WORETA 272 175 22 32 501 0.8
NEFAS MEWCHA 420 83 8 96 607 1.0
Total 2,099 422 67 195 2,783 4.4
North Gondar GONDAR 5,196 729 244 375 6,544 10.4
DEBARK 471 156 6 33 666 1.1
MAKSEGNIT 562 133 10 60 765 1.2
TIKIL DINGAY 357 52 5 18 432 0.7
Total 6,586 1,070 265 486 8,407 13.4
Waghimra SEKOTA 478 44 29 24 575 0.9
TSITSIKA 175 16 12 203 0.3
ASKETEMA 109 6 6 121 0.2
Total 762 66 29 42 899 1.4
Grandtotal 50,526 8,258 1,145 2,891 62,820 100.0
Dessie is an age old town in east Amhara which is surrounded by drought-prone woredas.
Historically, Dessie had been a recipient of war displaced people from Assab and Tigray. These
and the general poor living conditions of the residents and death of parents contribute for the
prevalence a huge number of OVC.
23

Moreover, Gondar is located in the north side of the region and one of the oldest towns in the
country with many tourist attraction sites (Castle of Gondar and the mount Ras Dashen the highest
mountain in Ethiopia and the Simien Mountain National Park) and has relatively high socio-
economic dynamics. These conditions together with poor living conditions and death of parents
contribute for existence of more than 6,500 children at risk. Similarly, due to population size,
socio-economic interaction and conditions as well as location along main asphalt, there were more
than 3,500 highly vulnerable children in each of Debre Markos, Kombolcha and Debre Berehan.
Due to its location at the juncture of two main roads, population and location in drought prone
areas, there were more than 1,700 children under especially difficult circumstances in Woldiya.
On the basis of the population, location along main roads and socio-economic situations and
activities, 1,000 to 1,300 OVC were counted in most of medium towns. The number of OVC in
small towns was below 1,000.Asketema, the smallest found in Waghimra zone had the lowest
number of OVC.
3.1.2.4. Orphanhood and Parents' Health Status
Orphanhood and parents health status are indicators of child vulnerability. The following table shows
OVC population in relation to life status of their biological parents.
Table 8: Surviving Status of Parents of OVC

Alive Bedridden Died
Don't
know
Alive 3,695 400 11,679 545 16,319 32.3
Bedridden 189 169 436 45 839 1.7
Died 2,057 146 5,027 140 7,370 14.6
Don't Know 38 10 84 78 210 0.4
Subtotal 5,979 725 17,226 808 24,738 49.0
Alive 3,844 379 11,540 536 16,299 32.3
Bedridden 165 153 453 51 822 1.6
Died 2,330 140 5,804 166 8,440 16.7
Don't Know 36 3 78 85 202 0.4
Subtotal 6,375 675 17,875 838 25,763 51.0
Total 12,354 1,400 35,101 1,646 50,501 100.0
% 24.5 2.8 69.5 3.3 100.0
Male
Female
%
Status of OVC's
Mother
Status of OVC's Father
Total
Sex of
OVC


The counting in the study towns indicated that more than 69 % OVC population under family
environment were single or double orphans. The percentage of double orphans is about 23% of the
total OVC population. Paternal and maternal orphans constitute 66% and 8%, respectively.
24

Paternal orphans were much higher than maternal orphans. In others words, close to 65% of the
mothers of OVC under family environment were alive during the survey period. Moreover, more
than 3% of the parents of OVC were seriously sick. Both parents of some 0.7% of the total OVC
were bedridden. The percentage of bedridden mothers is 3.3% and that of fathers is 2.8%.
Respondent caregivers who did not know the health and surviving status of their parents were
about 3.3% of the total OVC.
3.1.2.5. Relationship of OVC with Heads of the Household
The study portrayed the contribution of kinship and social bondage for the care of vulnerable children
under family environment. It also indicated the role played by relatives and social ties of OVC and the
relationship of OVC with their caregivers.
Table 9: Relationship of OVC with their Caregiver by Sex of OVC
Male Female
Child 16,588 15,568 32,156 63.7
Sibling 1,413 1,549 2,962 5.9
Grand Child 3,396 3,411 6,807 13.5
Brother's Child/Nephew 626 854 1,480 2.9
Sister's Child/Niece 1,145 1,749 2,894 5.7
Neighbour's Child 477 626 1,103 2.2
Housemaid 429 1,096 1,525 3.0
Kinship 458 573 1,031 2.0
others 214 341 555 1.1
Total 24,746 25,767 50,513 100.0
% 49.0 51.0 100.0
Total
Relationship of the OVC
with the Caregiver
% Sex of OVC

As demonstrated in Table 9, about 94% of OVC under family environment were living with their
parents and relatives. Of this, about 64% of OVC population was residing with one or both of their
biological parents. Next to parents, about 30% of OVC were dependent upon their relatives:
grandparents (13.5%), siblings (6%), uncles and aunts (8.6%) and other relatives (2%) which
indicate strong kinship bondage. Of relatives, grandparents were highly responsible for the care of
children at risk.


25










Figure 1: Relationship of OVC with caregivers
The above indicates the significant of extended kinship system for the care and support of
vulnerable children. On the other hand, the rest 6% were residing with their neighbors, friends,
employers, stepparents and godparents. Of the later, housemaids were 3%, who were most likely
exposed to labor and sexual exploitation as well as emotional and physical maltreatment.
3.1.2.6. Migration of OVC
The birth place of OVC was incorporated in the study instruments so as to understand the
migration status of caregivers or children at risk. It was found that more than 82% of the OVC
population were born and lived in the surveyed town.
Table 10: Birth Place of OVC by Sex
Male Female
In the Surveyed Town 21,132 20,453 41,585 82.3
Other Town in Amhara Region 1,094 1,522 2,616 5.2
Rural Area in Amhara Region 1,797 3,037 4,834 9.6
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 652 642 1,294 2.6
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 52 91 143 0.3
Don't Know 18 27 45 0.1
Total 24,745 25,772 50,517 100.0
% 49.0 51.0 100.0
Total
Sex of OVC
Birth Place of OVCs %

%
63.7
5.9
13.5
2.9
5.7
2.2 3 2 1.1
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
C
h
i
l
d
S
i
b
l
i
n
g
G
r
a
n
d

C
h
i
l
d
B
r
o
t
h
e
r
'
s

C
h
i
l
d
/
N
e
p
h
e
w
S
i
s
t
e
r
'
s

C
h
i
l
d
/
N
i
e
c
e
N
e
i
g
h
b
o
r
'
s

C
h
i
l
d
H
o
u
s
e
m
a
i
d
K
i
n
s
h
i
p
o
t
h
e
r
s

T
o
t
a
l
%
26

As shown in Table 10, nearly 18% of the vulnerable children were found to be migrants from rural
and urban areas of Amhara Region and other parts of Ethiopia. Vulnerable children could migrate
with or without their parents. The migration status of OVC population is presented in Table 11
below.
Table 11: Birth Place of OVC by Age
Below
1 Year
1 - 4 5 - 6 7 - 12 13 - 14 15 - 17
In the Surveyed Town 720 4,919 3,754 16,048 6,503 9,638 41,582 82.3
Other Town in Amhara Region 16 140 142 967 490 859 2,614 5.2
Rural Area in Amhara Region 29 190 243 1,745 968 1,658 4,833 9.6
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 9 100 93 505 230 357 1,294 2.6
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 2 13 16 53 24 35 143 0.3
Don't Know 2 1 5 15 9 13 45 0.1
Total 778 5,363 4,253 19,333 8,224 12,560 50,511 100.0
% 1.5 10.6 8.4 38.3 16.3 24.9 100.0
Age of OVC
Total Birth Place of OVC %

Out of the total migrant OVC population under family environment, 79.5% were between 7 and 17
years old. The rest (20.5%) were under 7 years old.
3.1.2.7. Education of OVC
Literacy and school attendance are important parameters to assess right of children in relation to
education. It is because children less than 18 years have internationally recognize right to attend
school, instead of working, if the work affects their schooling then it is violation of the rights of
the child.





27

Table 12: Educational Level of OVC by Sex and level of education
Male Female
Not enrolled 1,208 1,602 2,810 5.6
Grade 1-4 7,607 8,259 15,866 31.4
Grade 5 -8 7,832 7,895 15,727 31.1
Grade 9 -10 2,471 2,458 4,929 9.8
Grade 11 - 12 175 192 367 0.7
10+1 & 10+2 66 64 130 0.3
Read & Write Only 77 66 143 0.3
Child Below 5 Years 5,310 5,238 10,548 20.9
Total 24,746 25,774 50,520 100.0
% 49.0 51.0 100.0
Sex of OVC
Total Educational Level of OVC %

As indicated in Table12 &.13, 79% (39972) of OVC listed were more than four years old. OVC
less than five years old were 21%. In urban areas children more than four years are mostly
expected to be enrolled in school, including kindergarten which is important for proper
socialization and physical and intellectual development of children. Based on this context, 7% of
OVC who were 5 to 17 years old in the study towns were not enrolled. The rate of children who
did not enroll in school is higher for females (57%) than males (43%) which shows gender gap
and most the housemaids and baby-sitters were more likely out of school because most of the
employers of these children are highly in need of their labor, instead of sending to school. The
educational level of 93% of OVC was from grade 1 to 10+2.
28

Table 13: Educational Level of OVC by Age
Below
1 Year
1 - 4 5 - 6 7 - 12 13 - 14 15 - 17
Not enrolled 117 1,248 406 1,039 2,810 5.6
Grade 1-4 639 12,343 1,513 1,369 15,864 31.4
Grade 5 -8 19 4,799 5,744 5,163 15,725 31.1
Grade 9 -10 15 57 479 4,377 4,928 9.8
Grade 11 - 12 2 7 9 349 367 0.7
10+1 & 10+2 3 3 124 130 0.3
Read & Write Only 17 48 21 57 143 0.3
Child Below 5 Years 777 5,361 3,444 831 53 81 10,547 20.9
Total 777 5,361 4,256 19,336 8,225 12,559 50,514 100.0
% 1.5 10.6 8.4 38.3 16.3 24.9 100.0
Age of OVC
Educational Level of OVC Total %

Majority of OVC (62.5%) were in first and second cycle primary education level. The following
table indicates the school attendance of OVC population in 2006/07 academic year.
Table 14: Status of School Attendance of OVC by Sex in 2007
Male Female
Attending
16,257 16,998 33,255
65.8
Not Attending
3,189 3,436 6,625
13.1
Child Below 5
5,297 5,337 10,634
21.1
Total
24,743 25,771 50,514
100.0
% 49.0 51.0 100.0
Sex of OVC
Total Status of School Attendance %

Even though large majority of OVC were attending school (65.8%) in 2006/7 academic year, those
who did not attend were significant, about 17 %( 6,625) of the total school age OVC ( 39,880) in
the urban context (age 5 to 17). The percentage of female OVC who did not attend school was
52% which is higher than boys by 4% and also shows gender gap in children out of school.

29

Table 15 : Status of School Attendance of OVC by Level of Education in 2007
Attending Not Attending Child Below 5
Below 1 777 777 1.5
1 - 4 0 5,361 5,361 10.6
5 - 6 710 460 3,085 4,255 8.4
7 - 12 16,177 2,181 978 19,336 38.3
13 - 14 7,060 1,008 156 8,224 16.3
15 - 17 9,303 2,975 277 12,555 24.9
Total 33,250 6,624 10,634 50,508 100.0
% 65.8 13.1 21.1 100.0
Status of School Attendance Age of
OVC
Total %

Table 15 indicates level of education and status of school attendance of OVC under family
environment. Of the total number of children school age (39873) that was between ages 5 to 17,
about 15% (6624) were no attending school in 2006/7. Comparing the number of children (6625)
who did not attend school in 20006/7 with those who werent enrolled (2810), it most likely that
nearly 10% of the total number of OVC who were in the age range of 5 to 17 were dropped out
of school. This indicates that significant number of children were out of school.
3.1.2.8. Children with Disability
Children with disabilities are vulnerable in many respects. Table 16 indicates population of
children with disability in the survey towns by sex.
Table 16: Percentage of Children with Disability & Sex
Male Female Total
Disable 1,262 1,223 2,485 4.9
Not disable 23,483 24,543 48,026 95.1
Total 24,745 25,766 50,511 100.0
% 49.0 51.0 100.0
Sex
Disability Status
%

Children with disability constituted 4.9% of the total OVC under family environment. Of the total
population of children with disability, nearly 51% were males. Table 17 indicates school
attendance condition of children with disability.
30

Table 17 : School Attendance by Children with Disability
Disable Not Disable
Attending 1,294 31,957 33,251 65.8
Not Attending 796 5,823 6,619 13.1
Child Below 5 394 10,238 10,632 21.1
Total 2,484 48,018 50,502 100.0
% 4.9 95.1 100.0
Status of Disability
Total Status of School Attendance %

Out of 2080 children with some disablities who were in the age range of 5 to 17 years, 38%(796)
were out of school which is a clear indicator of margnilization of disable children in education.
3. 2. Sltuutlon of OVC ln Vleu of chlIdren und Dut Beurers
This section describes the insider and outsiders perspectives on the situation of OVC. It discusses
the view of sampled vulnerable children under family environment, between 8 and 17 years old,
about their socioeconomic situation. It also highlights the living situation of caregivers from the
view point of these children. Moreover, the perspective of key informants, focus group
participants, case studies on OVC and their caregivers are incorporated in this part.
3.2.1. Migration
According to participants of focus group discussion in Bahir Dar, migration contributes for
increment of vulnerable groups, including children, in urban areas. Urban kebeles that are near to
the bus stations are the first receivers of all sorts of migrants. The Administrator of Gish Abbay
kebele in Bahir Dar justifies the situation as follows:
Gish Abbay kebele, located around Bahir Dar bus station, receives all sorts of
migrants. Children are among these. Most of the residents of Gish Abbay kebele
are poor. They live in the shanty areas. There are all sorts of social problems.
There are many commercial sex workers, street children and brokers.
Dessie, Gondar, Debre Markos, Woldiya, Debre Tabor, Debre Berehan, Kombolcha,
Wereta, Nefas Mewocha, Finote Selam, Dangla, Kemissie, Chagni, Enjibara, and other
towns that have bus stations are destinations of migrant children from both rural and
other urban areas. Places around the bus terminals are usually centers of marginalized
groups, including street children and beggars. Mostly, brokers communicate migrant girls
to ask their interest for employment in bars, hotels, restaurants and households as
housemaids and nannies.
31

The sample survey indicated that 30.2% of the sampled OVC were migrant children. As shown in
Table 18, children under especially difficult circumstances left their original birth and migrated to
the towns where they were living at the time of the study due to a number of factors.
Table 18 : Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Towns
Reason for Migration Number of Respondents %
To Visit Relatives
4 1.6
For Education
45 17.9
Family Displacement
44 17.5
Quarrel with Parents
3 1.2
Search of Employment
32 12.7
Shortage of Land
1 0.4
Urban Lure
8 3.2
To Migrate Abroad
1 0.4
Health Problem
17 6.7
Don't mention
8 3.2
Death of Parent(s)
88 34.9
Poverty
1 0.4
252 100.0

As indicated in the Table above, most of children used to migrant due to pushing factors. Death of
parents is found to be the first cause for migration of 34.9% of sampled OVC under family
environment. Next to this, 17.9% and 17.5% of sampled children left their birth place because of
their need to attend education in urban areas and family displacement, respectively. The fourth
contributory factor is seeking employment (12.7%).The contribution of health problem to the
migration is about 7%. Some 1.2% of the sample children migrated due to quarrel with parents.
Shortage of land and poverty are contributed for the migration of some 0.8% children.
Moreover, 3.2% and 1.6 % of the OVC migrated to the survey town due to urban attraction and for
the purpose of visiting their relatives in urban areas. Some 3.2% did not mention the reason for
migration.
3.2.2 Life and Marital Status of Parents
Orphan children are more vulnerable than children whose parents are alive. Table 19 indicates the
health and life status of parents of sample OVC children under family environment.

32

Table 19: Survival and Health Status of OVC's Parents
Survival & Health
Status of OVCs
parents

Frequency & %
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
Mother % Father % Both
parents
% Col.(2)
col.(6)
% Col.(4)

col.(6)
%
Alive 397 47.6 135 16.2 71 8.5 325 39 64 7.7
Bedridden 28 3.4 14 1.7 6 0.7 22 2.6 8 1
Died 405 48.6 662 79.4 337 40.4 68 8.2 326 39.1
Do not Know 4 0.5 23 2.8 2 0.2 - - - -
Total 834 100.0 834 100.0 - - - - - -

Generally, 79.4% of sampled OVC under family environment were single or double orphans.
About 40% were double orphans. As shown in columns 8 to 11 excluding respondents who replied
that both parents were died, the fathers and mothers of about 39.1% and 8.2% of the respondents
OVC were found to be died, respectively. This indicates that death of fathers was high compared
to mothers. In society where males are the main breadwinners, death of fathers resulted in high
economic crisis for the family members as a whole and children in particular.
Both parents of 0.7% of the respondents were seriously sick. Moreover, 3.4% and 1.7% of the
mothers and fathers of vulnerable children were bedridden, respectively. In other words, mothers
were found to be more bedridden than fathers.
Both parents of only 8.5% of sampled orphan and vulnerable children under family environment
were alive. Close to 3% of the children didnt know the health and surviving status of either one
or all of their parents.
The marital status of parents is one of the indicators of the wellbeing of children It is believed that
separation from father and mother affects negatively the normal development of children.
Remarriage exposes children to stepparents. From the view point of the community and children,
stepparents abuse and discriminate children severely than biological parents.
33

Table 20: Marital status of Surviving Parents of OVC
Do parents live together ? No. %
Yes 31 39.2
No 43 54.4
Don't Know 5 6.3
Total 79 100.0

Out of 834 sampled children, both parents of 9.4% sample OVC under family environment were
alive during the survey. However, significant proportion of surviving parents of OVC (54.4%) was
not living together in marriage. In other words, it was found that about 3.7% of the sampled OVC
were residing in households where their mother and fathers were living together. Separation and
divorce of parents affects the normal development of children socially, psychologically and
economically. About 3% of the OVC who replied that both of their parents were alive during the
survey did not know the marital status of their parents.
Table 21: Marital Status of Parents of OVC






Concerning the marital status of parents majority of mothers of OVC under family environment
were not remarried (75%). According to the findings of survey, remarriage of fathers is higher
(42.1%) than mothers (19.3%). This indicates that in urban areas women mostly prefer to care
their children by working themselves instead of remarrying because of their anticipation of the
difficulty that their children might face while living together with stepfathers and stepchildren.


Marrital Status of
Mother
No.of
Respondents
%
Marrital Status
of Father
No.of
respondents
%
Not Remarried 237 75.0 Not Remarried 29 25.4
Remarried 61 19.3 Remarried 48 42.1
Don't Know 8 2.5 Don't Know 23 20.2
Other 10 3.2 Other 14 12.3
Total 316 100.0 Total 114 100.0
34

3.2.3. Survival and Development Status of OVC
The means of livelihood of parents and caregivers is one of the indicators of the well-being of
children. Table 22 indicates employment situation of caregivers of OVC under family
environment.
Table 22: Means of Livelihood of Household Heads
Means ofLivelihood of Caregivers No. of resondent OVC %
High/Middle Trader 28 3.4
Factory Worker/Government 16 2.0
Agriculture 27 3.3
Civil Servant 41 5.0
Private Enterprize Employee 22 2.7
Pensioner 70 8.5
Daily Labourer 313 38.2
Petty Trader/Gulit/ 69 8.4
Local Beverage Seller 111 13.5
Soldier/Police 110 13.4
Other 13 1.6
Total 820 100.0

According to sample OVC under family environment, majority of caregivers and parents of OVC
were engaged in low paying economic activities. Sample children responded that majority of the
breadwinners (68.5%) were daily laborers, sellers of local beverages, pensioners and petty traders.
About 23% of the heads of the household were private and government employees (including
members of military and police). The percentage of middle and high traders is only 3.4%. The
caregivers of 3.3% of the sample OVC were generating income by engaging in agricultural
activities. Poor households lack to fulfill the basic needs of their members.
3.2.3.1. Food
The sufficiency, frequency and type of food children get mostly indicate the feeding pattern.
Childrens own perception on the adequacy of food and type food was assessed.

35

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
S
u
f
f
i
c
ie
n
t

N
o
t

S
u
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

O
n
c
e

T
w
i
c
e

T
h
r
ic
e
Percentage

Figure 2: Sufficiency and frequency of Daily Meal
Majority of sample children (58%) mentioned that their daily food requirement is not sufficiently
fulfilled. The survey indicated that more than 55% of sample OVC ate not more than twice per
day. This is a clear indication of food shortage in the family. The following table shows the most
frequently eaten food.
Table 23: Types of Food Most Frequently Available for OVC
Food Type
No. of Respondents
%
Enjera with Shiro/Kik Wot 820 98.3
Bread with Tea 742 89.0
Boiled/Roasted cereal 522 62.6
Enjera with meat sauce 49 5.9
Milk and its Products 15 1.8
Vegetables 65 7.8
Fruits 12 1.4
Egg 2 0.2
Fish 7 0.8
The percentages are computed from 834 sample OVCs.

The first most frequently available type of food (98.3%) in the households where sample OVC
were residing was flat bread (Injera) with sauce (Shiro/Kiki Wot) which is prepared from powder
of pulses (like chickpeas, grass peas and beans). The second most repeatedly eaten food is bread
with tea (89%). The third most frequently available food is boiled and roasted cereals. OVC who
obtained meat, milk, vegetables, fruits, egg and fish to some extent were about 10%. The survey
also tried to assess childrens means of fulfilling food requirement gap of OVC.



36


Table 24: Children's Means of Fulfilling Food Requirement Gaps
No %
277 34.1
72 8.9
54 6.7
31 3.8
38 4.7
292 36.0
398 49.0
93 11.5
141 17.4
59 7.3
Support from Gov.
Begging
Collecting Leftover Food
Other (social ties and Philanthropi individuals)
Parental Care
Support from Relatives
Support from Friends
Support from Neighbours
Means of Fulfilling Food Gap
Responses
Working Myself
Support from NGOs

* The percentage is taken from 812 respondents
As displayed in Table 24, majority of sample children obtained care from their parents and
relatives. Therefore, 36% of the sampled children were getting their food requirement from their
parents. A significant size of respondent children (49%) acquired support from relatives. More
than 35% of sample children were obtaining food assistance from neighbors, friends, philanthropic
individuals and other social ties. Generally, kinship and social relationships have important
contribution to fulfill the food of gap of vulnerable children. On the other hand, 8.9% and 6.7% of
the respondents fulfill the food gap through support from non-government organizations (NGOs)
and government organizations (GOs), respectively.

On the other hand, about 34% of the sample children fulfilled their food requirement by working
themselves. The percentage of respondents who supplement their food shortage through collecting
leftover food and begging is 4.7% and 3.8%, correspondingly.

3.2.3.2. Clothing
The survey assessed the perception of children with regards to adequacy of clothing. Accordingly,
among those who responded to the questions on clothing, more than 65% of sample children under
family environment reported that that they were not properly clothed.
3.2.3.3. Availability of Facilities at the Household Level
Facilities at households are indices of the health condition and wellbeing of children. The study
indicates that the housing condition of most of the respondents is poor.
37

{{

Table 25: Availability of Household Facilities
Responses
Facilities Yes % No %
Total %
Adequate Rooms 180 21.9 642 78.1 822 20.0
Proper Floors &
Ceiling
104 12.7 718 87.3 822 20.0
Electricity 617 75.1 205 24.9 822 20.0
Potable water 298 36.3 524 63.7 822 20.0
Clean toilet 225 27.5 594 72.5 819 19.9
Total 1,424 34.7 2,683 65.3 4,107 100
% 34.7 65.3 100 - -

Most OVC live not only in congested houses but also in poorly constructed walls, floors and
ceilings. Table 25 shows that more than 87% sample children under family environment were
living in the houses where floors and ceilings were inadequately constructed. The rooms of the
houses were inadequate to 78.1% of the respondents.

Some case studies indicate that the housing condition of poor households with large family size is
severely poor. Poor housing condition is also one of the bottlenecks to involve households in
income generating activities around house and compels members of the household to participate in
works which expose children to sexual abuse and to be out of school. In this regard, a 50 years
old mother with 10 household members in Bahir Dar stated the following.
I am the main breadwinner. My husband is 80 years who is too old to work. We live in
Bahir Dar, kebele 16, in the Woito Village. We live in small hut with my 7 children and one
grandchild. The house is too narrow to sit, sleep and live. It is difficult to sleep especially
during rainy season because of wetness of the floor due to flood. We defecate at the open
field. We migrate from Kemkem woreda due to scarcity of land. We generate income
through preparing household utensils from Dengel (papyrus) and other grasses as well as
sale of Dengel (green papyrus). My husband and children cut and bring papyrus from
banks of Lake Tana and River Abbay daily by traveling more than five kilometers. They
have to go early in the morning because the papyrus is diminishing from time to time. This
condition exposed my daughters for sexual abuse. My 16 years old daughter was raped by
unknown man while she cut papyrus in 2005. As a result of this she gave birth. She is still
collecting grass because we dont have another alternative to obtain income. Two of my
daughters dont attend school because they have to work and it is also difficult to fulfill
38

school materials. My son was working as shoe shiner. If I get some money to reconstruct
my house with corrugated iron and revolving fund I will involve in preparation and selling
local alcoholic drinks.
Moreover, 72.5% and 63.7% of the sampled children replied that they had no clean toilet and
potable water. As the entire sample children from urban areas, about 75.1% had adequate
electricity facility. But some 25% of respondent children didnt have sufficient supply of
electricity. As displayed in Table 26, the survey tried to assess the water sources of the
respondents.

Table 26: Source of Water

Source of Water No. of Children %
Buying from Private Pipe Water 317 38.6
Communal Pipe Water 240 29.2
River/Stream 18 2.2
Unprotected Spring 24 2.9
Protected Spring 13 1.6
Own Pipe Water 194 23.6
Unprotected Well 15 1.8
Total 821 100.0

More than 76% of the respondent children were living in households where they had no access to
own pipe water. Because of lack of own pipe water source, majority of the households of the
respondents (67.8%) used to buy water from households who had private pipe water and
communal water points. About 7% of the respondents reported that their sources of water were
rivers, streams, unprotected spring and wells. Inaccessibility to clean water is likely to expose
children to poor sanitation and communicable diseases.

Availability of toilet is one of the indicators of sanitation and means of controlling communicable
diseases at household and community level. Table 27 shows the toilet of condition of sample
children.


Table 27: Toilet Condition


Place of Defecation No. of Children %
Open field 289 35.1
Common Toilet 246 29.9
Private Toilet 152 18.5
Temporary Toilet 136 16.5
Total 823 100.0
39

The survey indicated that about 19 % of the respondents had private toilets. The remaining 35.1%
of the respondents used to defecate on open field. 29.9% and 16.5% of sample children were using
common (community) and temporary toilet, respectively. Therefore, significant proportion OVC
under family environment did not have proper toilet and were living in poor sanitary condition.

3.2.3.4. Access to Information
Availability of communication equipments at household level helps children to get information from the
media that contribute for their overall development.
Table 28: Access of Vulnerable Children to Mass Media
Yes % No %
Radio 438 53.2 386 46.8 824
Taperecorder 238 28.8 587 71.2 825
Television 109 13.3 709 86.7 818
Availability of
Response
Total

As presented in Table 28 above, 86.7%, 71.2% and 46.8% of the respondent children did not have
access to television, tape recorder and radio at household level respectively. Thus, important
portion of sample OVC under family environment did not have access to information everyday.
3.2.3.5. Education of OVC
In urban areas presence of children out of school, including dropouts is one of the precursors of
prevalence of children in especially difficult circumstance. The data source from sampling survey
indicates that 10.2% of school age vulnerable children under family environment were not
enrolled in school.
Table 29: Educational Level of Sampled OVC by Age
8_12 13_14 15_17 Total %
Not enrolled 38 21 26 85 10.2
Read & Write Only 1 1 0.1
Grade 1-4 156 45 51 252 30.2
Grade 5-8 92 129 140 361 43.3
Grade 9-10 2 7 115 124 14.9
Grade 11-12 1 8 9 1.1
10+1& 10+2 2 2 0.2
Total 288 203 343 834 100.0
% 34.5 24.3 41.1 100.0
Age of OVC
Educational Level

40

As shown in Table 29, the educational level of 30.2% of the sampled children was in the first
cycle primary school (Grade 1 to 4). About 43.3% of the OVC were in second cycle primary
school level (grade 5 to 8). The level of education of 16.2% of OVC is above grade 9. Of the
sampled children, about 25% were dropouts. Table 30 indicates reasons of withdrawal from
school.
Table 30: Reason of School Dropouts by Sex
Male Female
Death of Parent(s) 63 79 142 68.6
Lack of School Uniform 10 5 15 7.2
To work on the street 13 11 24 11.6
Low Academic Performance 11 15 26 12.6
Total 97 110 207 100.0
Sex of OVC
Total
Reasons for Dropping out of
School
%

Of those dropped out of school, large portion of the respondents (68.6%) dropped out of school
due to death of parents. The remaining 31.4% withdrew from school because of financial
constraint to fulfill school uniforms, to work on the streets and low academic performance.
3.2.4. Child Abuse and Neglect
Prevalence of child punishment and harmful practices are indices of child abuse and neglect at
household level. Sample OVC depicted that their parents use the following of types of
punishments as means of disciplining.

Table 31: Parents & Caregivers Methods of Child Discipline
Method of child Discipline No. of Respondents %
Advice 646 78.6
Insulting 604 73.5
Physical Punishment 399 48.5
Ignoring 226 27.5
Scolding 138 16.8
Withholding Food 79 9.6
Other 45 5.5

* The percentages are computed from 822 sample OVC respondents.
Of 822 of the respondent who answered the question regarding child disciplining methods of their
caregivers, 78.6% of the OVC replied that caregivers and parents mostly advise to discipline them.
41

Parents mostly used warning and advising as first step to correct the misbehavior of the children
under their care. On the other hand, according to 73.5% of the sample OVC, caregivers and
parents used to insult children to correct their misbehavior. Close to 49% the respondent children
replied that parents and caregivers used physical punishment as means of child disciplining.
According to 27.5%, 16.8% and 9.6% of the sample OVC, caregivers used to scold, ignore and
withhold food to correct misconduct and misdeed of children, respectively.

Table 32: Exposure to Harmful Traditional Practices by Sex
Yes % No Don't Know
Uvulectomy 142 35.7 200 56 398
Tattoo 34 8.6 346 16 396
Removal of Milkteeth 69 17.5 228 98 395
Early Marriage 11 2.8 354 26 391
Removal of Tonsil/suvulectomy 141 32.9 224 63 428
Tattoo 55 12.9 351 22 428
Female Genital Mutilation 178 41.6 203 47 428
Removal of Milkeeth 74 17.2 269 86 429
Early Marriage 20 4.6 390 21 431
Female
Male
Total Sex Harmful Traditonal Practices
Responses

Both genders were sufferers of harmful traditional practices. Therefore, 41.6% of the respondent
female children were victims of female genital mutilation. About 33% and 36% of the respondent
boys and girls had encountered uvulectomy, respectively. As expected the percentage of removal
of milk teeth is almost the same for both sexes but girls (12.9%) were found to be more victims of
tattooing than boys (8.6%) under family environment. Girls (4.6%) were more victims of early
marriage than boys (2.8%).
3.2.5. Problems of Orphans and Children of Bedridden Parents
Children became seriously vulnerable either when their parents are seriously sick or dead. In
households where parents become bedridden, most of the income of the household is more likely
to be used for the care of the sick. As a result of the emphasis to household members who become
sick, children lack adequate adult attention and they are likely to face severe socio-economic
problems in most cases.



42

Table 33 : Problems of Children of Bedridden Parents
Yes % No %
Drop Out from School 222 29.5 531 70.5 753
High involvement in caring of bedridden parents 292 38.8 460 61.2 752
Working on the street to support parents 162 21.7 583 78.3 745
Getting Insufficient Food 436 58.4 310 41.6 746
Other Problem 66 19.0 281 81.0 347
No. of Respondents
Socioeconomic Problem Total

As indicated in Table 33 above, 58.4% of respondents faced shortage of food when their parents
were bedridden. About 39% of the respondents became caregivers of seriously ill parents. Nearly
22% of the respondents forced to work on the street to support their sick parents. Due to serious
illness of their parents 29.5% of sampled OVC were obliged to dropout of school. Obviously,
children were exposed to socioeconomic problems when their parents were seriously ill. Some
19% of the sample OVC were exposed other problems like lack of adult attention, emotional
stress, fear of death of parents and loss of household income. The situation of children following
the death of their parents is presented in Table 34.

Table 34: Problems of Faced by Orphans after the Death of their Parents
Yes % No %
Dropping Out from Shcool 220 29.2 533 70.8 753
High Involvement in Caring of bedridden parents 268 36.0 477 64.0 745
Working on the street to support family 168 22.7 573 77.3 741
Getting Inadequate Food 438 58.8 307 41.2 745
Forced to Leave Private Rented House 185 24.9 558 75.1 743
Psychological Problem 500 67.0 246 33.0 746
Other Problem due to death of parents 71 20.6 273 79.4 344
Socioeconomic Problems
No. of Respondents
Total

A significant size of OVC under family care (67%) was exposed to different types of psychosocial
problem following the death of their parents. Continuing education is one of the challenges of
orphans. The finding of the study showed that 29.2% of the respondents were obliged to withdraw
attending school because of lack of school materials and associated economic reasons. Nearly 59%
of respondents faced inadequacy of food. Upon the death of the breadwinner or the prime care
provider of the household, decrease in the quantity, quality and frequency of meals per day was
common in of households the poor, female headed and aged persons.
43

It is unlikely that sick parents die at the same time. Therefore, preceding the death of one of their
parent, relatives and children continue to care the remaining one. In this regard, it was found that
36% of the respondents were highly involved in the care of bedridden parents. Following the death
of their parents almost 25% of the respondents were forced to leave rented houses due to shortage
of finance to pay house rent. Economic problem due to death of parents also forced about 23%
orphans to work on the streets so as to support themselves and their family. Orphans, moreover,
faced other socio-economic problems such loss of family, lack of parental love, supervision and
sense of security (20.6%). In addition, the focus group discussions held in the study towns and key
informants indicated that the academic performance of children of bedridden parents and
orphans is mostly poor due to regular absenteeism and tardiness.

Moreover, the focus group discussion at Bahir Dar indicated that orphans and children of
bedridden parents are exposed to economic and inheritance problems. Bedridden parents use
most of their properties to treat themselves while they are seriously sick. This is common in
patients due to HIV/AIDS. Most of the key informants and participants of the focus discussion in
the study towns stated that most orphans face difficulty of inheriting the resources of deceased
parents.
3.2.5. 1. Housing Condition
As presented in Table 35, the most serious problem to children of low income households is
shelter after the death of their parents. There is no security of living if children or their guardians
are unable to pay house rent.
Table 35 : Housing Related Problem Following Death of Parents
Housing Problems No of Respondents %
Forced Leaving of Kebele House 64 12.0
Finacial constraint to Pay House Rent 286 53.6
Forced Leaving of Private House 85 15.9
Difficultt to Inherit Parents' House 132 24.7

* Each percentage are computed from 534 valid cases
About 53.6% of sampled OVC were facing difficulty of paying house rent following the death of
their parents. Besides, 12% and 15.9% of the respondent children replied that orphan children
forced to leave kebeles and private rented house, respectively. This indicates that even the kebeles
which are local government structures dont sometimes respect the housing rights of vulnerable
44

children. Close to 25% of the respondents encountered difficulty in inheriting their parents
house. Children of government employees face serious challenge to inherit the pension rights of
their deceased parents because children have limited knowledge and capacity on the procedure of
legal frameworks concerning inheritance. As a result of lack of fulfilling the necessary
documents and money to facilitate inheritance rights in courts and organizations that are
responsible to see cases of pension orphans are mostly exposed to complex social, psychological
and economic problems.
Some of their relatives abuse the property of the orphan children, instead of shouldering the
responsibility of care and providing proper advice how to inherit assets of their parents. Key
informants and participants of focus group discussion expressed their concern that some
guardians of orphan misuse the allowance of children obtained from pension. As a whole, the
study indicates that the importance of protecting inheritance right of children and women.
3.2.5. 2. Psychological Problems
In most cases, death of parents exposes children to psychological problems. Children reflect their
problematic situation by showing their feeling through crying, by being so silent and telling to
adults and children around them. The feeling of orphans following the death of their parents is
shown in Table 36.
Table 36: Psychological Problems of Orphans
Psychological Problems No. of Respondents %
Grief 642 88.3
Hopelessness 350 48.1
Nighmare 104 14.3
Distress 300 41.3
Loneliness 453 62.3
Disturbance 362 49.8
Other 53 7.3

* The percentages are computed from 727 respondents (cases)

About 88%, 62%, 50%, 48% and 41% of sample children stated that orphans faced feeling of
grief, loneliness, disturbance, hopelessness and distress, respectively. After the death of one or all
of their parents, 14.3% of the respondent children replied that orphans faced nightmare due to the
misery they encountered as a result of death of their parents.

45

3.2.6. Social Relationship and Attitude to Orphans
Analysis of the perception of the community, relatives, neighbors, friends towards orphan children
reflects the situation of local responses and gaps to address the psychosocial problems of
vulnerable children. The following table displays how different social groups perceive orphans in
view of sample OVC.

Table 37: Attitude of Social Groups towards Orphans
Social Institutions
Relatives Neighbors Friends Community

Attitude
Response % Response % Response % Response %
Sympathetic 398 52.8 468 62.0 512 67.8 424 66.5
Ostracizing 119 15.8 107 14.2 66 8.7 86 13.5
Provide all kinds of
support
112 14.9 80 10.6 68 9.0 86 13.5
Consider me as
unlucky
48 6.4 32 4.2 7 0.9 14 2.2
Consider me as
cursed
6 0.8 9 1.2 3 0.4 4 0.6
Consider me as
hopeless
49 6.5 35 4.6 19 2.5 17 2.7
Insult me 20 2.7 18 2.4 18 2.4 4 0.6
Ridicule me 2 0.3 6 0.8 13 1.7 3 0.5
No friend - - - - 31 4.1 - -
Not informing about
the death of parents
- - - - 16 2.1 - -
Others - - - - 2 0.3 - -
Total 754 100.0 755 100.0 755 100.0 638 100.0


As indicated in Table 37, some 32.2%, 26.6%, 14.9% and 19.6% of the respondents reported that
relatives, neighbor, friends and the community had negative attitude towards orphans,
respectively. These respondents perceived that the social groups mentioned above exclude, insult
and/or ridicule orphans and consider them as unlucky, cursed and hopeless. HIV/AID positive and
46

orphan children are the most discriminated in the community and face socio-economic problem.
With regard this a 15 years old years boy states the following.
I am grade 10
th
student with no future prospect. I don not feel happiness. Except my
aunt and one neighbor woman no one knows my real situation because we fear
stigma. Even our neighbors who knew the situation of our parents death exclude us.
My father told to our aunt to care us. She is keeping her promise since his death in
2003. I become ill regularly. Through the support of my aunt I took examination and
test for HIV/AIDS. I become positive and my 8 years old sister too. I am currently
taking drug to prolong my life but not my sister. I thought that I most probably
affected by HIV/AIDS while caring my younger sister. My sister had some wound
and itch and I used to clean her when she had some bleeding including her teeth. I
guessed that my father and mother died due to HIV/AIDS, within one year interval.
My elder brother who is 17 years old withdrew from school to work and care us. We
do not yet get any care and support either from the community or welfare
organizations.
More than 52% of the respondents perceived that relatives, neighbors, friends and the community
had sympathetic attitude towards orphans. It was reported that 14.9%, 13.5%, 10.6% and 9% of
respondents perceived that relatives, the community, neighbors and friends of the orphans provide
them all kinds of support. This indicates that the community response to the needs of orphans is
not only at lower level but also reflects the social exclusion that these children faced following the
death of their parents.{
3.3. Situation of OVC in View of Caregivers
This section states the perspectives of caregivers regarding the welbieng of children under thier
care.It also explores the categories and causes of children vulnerbility at household and
comminity level.
3.3.1. Demographic Characteristics of Respondent Caregivers
Describing the sex, age, ethnic and religious composition of respondents helps the users of the
data to know their characteristics. Table 38 shows the age and sex composition of respondents.
47

Table 38 : Caregivers (Heads of the Households) by Sex and Age
Male % Female %
11 - 14 1 50.0 1 50.0 2 0.3
15 - 17 10 55.6 8 44.4 18 2.3
18 - 30 65 37.6 108 62.4 173 22.1
31 - 49 118 36.3 207 63.7 325 41.5
50 - 59 49 38.0 80 62.0 129 16.5
60 - 70 39 38.6 62 61.4 101 12.9
Above 70 18 51.4 17 48.6 35 4.5
Total 300 38.3 483 61.7 783 100.0
Coded Age
Sex of HH Head
Total %

About 62% of the sampled caregivers of OVC were female heads which is not that much far from the
general demographic data of caregivers of counted OVC (68%). The remaining 38% of respondents were
male headed. The survey indicated that majority of OVC under family environment were female headed
households lacking father figure for socialization and economic support.
Majority of the caregivers (80%) were between 18 and 59 years old. More than 17% of the
caregivers were aged who were more than 59 years old, who were under elderly age category.
Nearly 5% of the caregivers were extremely aged who were above 70 years old and need care for
themselves, instead of caring vulnerable children. It is also important to note that 2.6% of the
caregivers of OVC were children under 18 years and were child headed households.
Table 39 : Sample Caregivers by Religion and Ethnic Composition
Male % Female % Male % Female % Total %
Orthodox 235 36.8 404 63.2 639 81.6 Amhara 279
38.4
447
61.6
726
92.8
Muslim 62 44.6 77 55.4 139 17.8 Oromo 6
31.6
13
68.4
19
2.4
Protestant 3 60.0 2 40.0 5 0.6 Agaw /Awi 7
35.0
13
65.0
20
2.6
Total 300 38.3 483 61.7 783 100.0 Agaw Wag 3 42.9 4 57.1 7 0.9
Kimant 2 50.0 2 50.0 4 0.5
Tigrie 3 50.0 3 50.0 6 0.8
Total 300
38.4
482
61.6
782
100.0
Sex of HH
Religion
Sex of HH Head
Total % Ethinicity


Religious and ethnic composition of the sampled caregivers is almost the same to caregivers of
counted OVC children under family environment. Hence, majority of the respondent caregivers
were Amhara (92.8%) and followers of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity (81.6%). The next large
population in terms of religion is Muslim (17.8%). In terms of ethnic composition Oromo, Awi
Agaw, Himta Agaw, kimant and Tigrie constituted the remaining 7% of the total respondents.
48

3.3.2. Prevalence and Causes of Child Vulnerability
The survey attempts to identify the major categories of OVC at family and community level. In
this regard, caregivers of OVC under family environment were asked about the existence of OVC
in their household and village community. The response of sampled caregiver about the existence
of OVC is described below in Table 40.
Table 40: Response of Caregivers on the Prevalence of OVC in the Family Community
Prevalence in the
Family Village Community
Yes No Yes No
Types OVC
Response % Response %
Total
Response % Response %
Dont
know &
missing
Total
Early married girls 74 9.5 709 90.5 783 114 14.6 575 73.4 94 783
Female children
involve in
Commercial Sex
Work
47 6.0 736 94.0 783 122 15.9 587 76.4 74 783
Street child 167 21.3 616 78.7 783 225 30.4 466 62.9 92 783
Orphan due to
HIV/AIDS
178 22.7 605 77.3 783 292 39.5 386 52.2 105 783
Children in conflict
with the law
278 35.5 505 64.5 783 282 36.3 410 52.8 91 783
Suspected Orphans
Because of
HIV/AIDS
191 24.4 592 75.6 783 319 40.7 374 48.3 89 783
Orphan not because
of HIV/AIDS
490 62.6 293 37.4 783 457 58.4 263 33.6 63 783
Displaced children 120 15.3 663 84.7 783 185 23.9 496 64.1 102 783
Sexually
abused(raped ) child
24 3.1 759 96.9 783 97 12.6 551 71.5 135 783
Abandoned child 29 3.7 754 96.3 783 95 12.3 563 73.0 125 783
Child with
Disability
104 13.3 679 86.7 783 226 29.2 477 61.5 80 783
Housemaid/baby-
sitters
63 8.0 720 92.0 783 235 30.9 442 58.2 106 783
* As this table is used repeatedly to show the prevalence of OVC at family and community levels in this section, users of
this report are advised to refer to issues presented in this Table while reading the succeeding descriptions.
49

3.3.2.1. Orphans
As show in Table 40, the prevalence rate of orphan children is high at family and community
level. About 63% and 58% of the respondents mentioned the existence of orphan, not because of
HIV/AIDS who were the member of their households and in their village community,
respectively. The prevalence rate of suspected orphans due to HIV/AIDS was about 24% at the
household level. About 40% of the respondents expressed their expectation of prevalence of
children who lost their parents due to HIV/AIDS in their village community.
Table 41: Causes of Death of OVCs Parents
Causes of death No. of Respondents %
Tuberculosis(TB) 248 37.5
HIV/AIDS 175 26.5
Malaria 260 39.3
Accident and sudden causes 130 19.7
Others 17 2.6

* Each the percentages are computed from 661 valid cases/respondents.
As indicated in Table 41, the survey found out that that malaria is the major cause for the death
of parents (39.3%), followed by tuberculosis (37.5%), HIV/AIDS (26.5%) and death due accident
and sudden causes (19.7%). Commonly, TB is one of HIV/ AIDS related diseases. Therefore, TB
and HIV/AIDS seem to be the leading factors for the death of parents in the surveyed towns.
Others include respiratory, typhoid typhus and other diseases.
Almost all the key informants and participants of focus group discussion agreed with the above
outcome. Accordingly, many children become orphans due to death of their parents because of
HIV/AIDS and related diseases. However, the community doesnt want to state clearly the cause
of the death of the parents if it was due to HIV/AIDS and husbands and wives die within short
period time because of such disease. In Amhara region where most of areas are malaria prone, it
is obvious that it causes death of a significant size of population.
50

3.3.2.2 Street Children
As indicated in Table 40, 21.3% of respondents reported the existence of street children who were
members of their households. The same Table showed that more than 30.4% of the respondents
knew street children who were living in their village community at the time of the survey.
Table 42: Causes to Become Street Children

Causes to Become Street
Children
No. of Respondents %
Poverty 74 36.5
To Help Oneself 40 19.7
Death of Parent(s) 76 37.4
Quarell with Parents 5 2.5
Quarell with Step Mother 1 0.5
Peer Pressure 4 2.0
War/conflict 1 0.5
Own Interest 2 1.0
Total 203 100.0

As presented in Table 42, some 37.4% of the respondent caregivers reported that the major
reason that pushed children to street life was death of parents , followed by poverty (36.5%) and
childrens interest to help themselves (19.7%).About 3% and 2% of respondents also reported
that children join street due to quarrel with parents and peer pressure, respectively.
3.3.2.3. Children with Disability
As shown in Table 40, some 13.3% of the respondents reported the prevalence of children with
disability in their family. Some 116 respondents indicated type and causes of disability (see Table
43).
51

Table 43 : Types of Disability by Cause
Physical
Disability
Blind Deaf Retarded Mute
Just at Birth 19 3 7 6 1 36 31.0
Due to Disease 26 5 8 10 1 50 43.1
Accident 10 5 2 1 18 15.5
Lack of Vaccination 3 1 1 1 6 5.2
Hereditary 1 4 1 6 5.2
Total 59 14 18 21 4 116 100.0
% 50.9 12.1 15.5 18.1 3.4 100.0
Type of Disability
Total Causes of Disability %

Table 43 indicates that out of children with disability in 116 sampled households, nearly 51%
had physical disability. Moreover,18.1%, 15.5% , 12.1% and 3.4% were metally retarded, deaf,
blind and mute repectively. Large proportion of these children (43.1%) became disable due to
disease. The next percentage (31%) of children were found to have some disability when they
were born. Children who became disable due to accident and lack of vaccination consitiuted
15.5% and 5.2%, respectively. On the other hand, 5.2% of the respondents said that the cause of
the disability is heriditary.
Being in state of disablity exposes children to other forms of abuses including sexual violence. A
23 years old woman was vulenerable since early childhood. Carrying her own vulnerable son on
her back states the following:
My parents told me that I became blind when I was seven days old. I do not
know the cause of my blindness. My parents curse and hate me. I separated
from my parents since five years to save myself from their insult. They were
frequently saying it was better if I died instead of living in this situation. I dont
have contact with them. My parents dont visit me because they are extremely
poor. I think they might let me help myself through begging. I bore my child
when I separated from parents due to unwanted pregnancy. I face stress
thinking that what will happen to me in the future because I dont have any
person to rely on. I worry about my shelter, clothing and food and to my child
too. I eat when I earn through begging, if not I sleep praying to God without
taking food. Shelter wise, I am dependent of a philanthropic individual who
assists me for the sake of his spiritual life. I live on the charity of the people of
Sekota. I do not have enough clothing. I dont have shoe at all. I hope my small
son may help me when he grows up. I beg and hope the people of Sekota too.
52

3.3.2.4. Displaced Children
As displayed in Table 40, 15.3% of the respondent caregivers reported that there were displaced
children in thier families. About 24% of the respondents knew displaced children in thier village
comminity (seeTable 40). In Amahra Region, the major causes of displacemnt were man-made
and naural calamities.
Table 44 : Causes for Child Displacement
Causes No. of Respondents %
Drouqhf 100 70.4
Wor/ConfIicf 39 27.5
Ofher 3 2.1
TotuI 142 100.0

As presented in Table 44 above, 70.4% of the repondents said that the cause for diplacement and
migration of OVC was drought. For 27.5% of the interviewed caregivers, war and conflicts were
the next important facorts for the displacement of vulnerable children under thier care. About 2%
of the caregivers reported that the displaced children abaondoned their place of birth due other
causes: economic reasons and flood.
3.3.2.5. Housemaid/baby-sitters
Urban households who have young child and need manpower that can invlove in the preparation
and sale of local beverages usualy employ vunerable female children. Better off households also
hire girls who have economic constraints and lost thier parents. As presented in Table 40, 8% of
the respondents reported the prevalence of OVC who serve as housemaid or nannies in their
houeholds.In the same Table, nearly 31% of the respondents knew children who work as
housemaid and baby-sitters in their village community.
Focus group discussion participants at Bahir Dar stated that housemaid children are the most
vulnerable ones. They are victims of physical, emotional abuse and labor exploitation in both
urban and rural areas. In urban areas, female vulnerable children carry out many household
activities for many hours and beyond their capacity, mostly until midnight. They are caregivers of
children of the wealthy and middle income households. They are physically punished and insulted
53

by their employers and their children. Most employers hire orphan and vulnerable children with
very low payment. Some of the employers even fire housemaids without paying their salary.
3.3.2.6. Child Marriage
As presented in Table 40, about 10% of the caregives responded that there were early married girls
in thier family. In the same Table, nearly 15% of the respondents also knew girls who were
victims of child marriage in their village communiy.
3.3.2.7. Child Commercial Sex Workers
As indicated in Table 40, about 6% of the caregivers reported the involvement of young girls in
commercail sex work who were members of their household. Moreover, about 16% of the
repondents knew young girls under 18 years old who were exposed to sexual abuse and
prostitution in their village community.
Table 45 : Causes to Become Child Commercial Sex Work

Causes No. of Respondents %
Poverty 43 61.4
Death of Parent(s) 19 27.1
Displacement 3 4.3
Quarell with Parent(s) 1 1.4
Peer Pressure 1 1.4
Low Academic Performance 1 1.4
Own Interest 2 2.9
Total 70 100.0

As presented in Table 45, the major factor that pushed girls to involve in commecial sex work is
poverty (61.4%), followed by death of parents (27.1%) and displacement (4.3%). Quarrel with
parents, peer pressure and low academic performane together contributed to the involment of
girls in prostirution (4.2%). Only 3% of caregivers replied that children joined prostitution due to
thier own interest.
54

3.3.2.8. Sexually Abused Children
As shown in Table 40, 3.1% of the repondents reported cases of sexual violence (including rape)
at household level. The same Table shows that about 13% of the interviewed caregivers knew
sexually abused child in their village community.
3.3.2.9. Child Abandonment
Infant abandonment is the most serous form of child maltreatment. It is also illegal act that some
mothers use to abandon their newly born child out of sight at night in hidden places such as under
bridges and sometimes near health institution. As indicated in Table 40, about 12.3% of caregiver
respondents replied that they knew case of infant abandonment in their village community in the
last five years. As shown in the same table, nearly 4% of the repondents said that there were
abandoned children which were under thier care during the survey period.
Table 46 : Reason to Abandon Infants by Type of Committer
Student
Street
Girl
Prostitute Homemaid
Married
Woman
Don't
Know
Pregnancy Due to Rape 4 3 1 1 1 2 12 9.4
Unwanted Pregnancy 28 4 4 9 1 7 53 41.4
Low Income/Poverty 1 7 12 5 0 11 36 28.1
Don't Know 2 0 1 3 0 17 23 18.0
Cause of Abandonment
Committer
Total %

As presented in Table 46, some girls and women used to abandon their newly born children while
they faced socio-economic crisis and conceived due to seual violence. Morover, the respondents
reported that majority of mothers (50.8%) whom they knew abandoning their infants due to the
fact that these mothers were raped and victims of unwanted pregnacy.As indicated in the Table
most of raped girls and victims of unplanned pregnancy were students, street girls, prostitutes and
housemaids. Some 28% of the respondents replied that poor mothers (low income women) used
abandoned infants when they lacked to food themselves, lack shelter and finacial constraint to
provide the neceesary care to their infants. Moreover, 18% of the repondents did not know the
reason that the mothers whom they knew abandoned thier children.
As to 27.3% of the respondent who knew cases of child abandonment ,the leading committers of
infant abandoment were students ,followed by prostitutes (14.8%), housemaids (14.1%), street
girls (10.9%) and married women (3.9%). It is because many people know that child
55

abandonment is criminal activity that relatively large proportion of the respondents (29%) did not
know the social status of the mothers who committed it.
3.3.2.10. Children in Conflict with the Law
As presented in Table 40, about 36% of the repondents reported to know children who involved
in criminal activities in their village community. Moreover, the survey indicated that 42% of the
respondents knew suspected cases of children who were involved in criminal activities. Table 47
shows the details of suspected types of crime.
Table 47 : Types of Suspected Crimes Committed by Children
Types of crimes No. of Respondents %
Theft 173 52.7
Group Fighting 59 18.0
Robbery 10 3.0
Sexual Violence/Rape 7 2.1
Gambling 42 12.8
Individual Quarrel 37 11.3
Total 328 100.0

Repondents (caregivers) reported that youngsters mostly involved in theft and robbery (55.7%),
followed by group and individual conflicts (29.%), gambling (12.8%) and sexual violence (2.1%).
Table 48 : Pushing Factors to Commit Crime
Factor No. respondents %
Povery 469 90.9
Peer pressure 399 77.3
Sexual Desire 72 14.0
Political Factor 3 0.6
Low Academic Performnce 242 46.9
Others 1 0.2

*The percentages are computed from 516 valid cases/respondents.
Almost corresponding to major type of criminal activity, 91% of the caregivers responded that the
leading factor that pushed children to commit crime is poverty ( see Table 48) , followed by peer
56

pressure (77.3%), low academic performance (47% ) and sexual desire (14%) and political factors
(0.6%).
3.3.2.11. Presence of Bedridden Parents and Child Headed Households
Serious illness and thereby death of parents affects negatively the social, intellectual and physical
development of children. Available literature depicts the increasing trend of bedridden parents and
child headed households due to the death of parents because of HIV/AIDS and other causes of
death. The survey indicated that about 35% of the respondents reported that they knew bedridden
parents in their village.
Table 49 : Causes for Being Bedridden
Causes No. of Respondents %
Tuberculosis (TB) 116 43.9
HIV/AIDS 69 26.1
Malaria 45 17.0
Accident 28 10.6
Other 6 2.3
Total 264 100.0

Large majority of the respondents (70%) of the respondents reported tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS
as the leading causes of being bedridden for parents. Moreover, parents became bedridden because
of malaria (17%) and Accident (10.6%). Respiratory, typhoid typhus and other diseases are also
causes illness.
The data obtained from this survey depicted that about 33% of the respondents knew child headed
families in their village the community. The existence of households that are headed by children
below 18 years old is an indicator of prevalence of a number of double orphan children These are
most vulnerable groups of OVC who lack the care, advice and supervision of adults in economic
and social issues. A 14 years old child household head states their living condition as follows:
I live in Dessie with my two sisters and one brother. I am the head of the household
because I am the eldest. We usually eat bread with tea if not we sleep without eating
any food. I bring in some money by shoe shining and repairing. My sisters involve in
separating crops from unnecessary materials to earn some money from a
businessman. I think thoroughly about the misery and problem that will face me and
my siblings if we are acutely ill.
57

3.3.2.12. Child Punishment
Caregivers of the OVC portrayed that they used the following measures to correct children when
they believed that children commit mistakes. The finding of this survey goes in line with previous
experience concerning child disciplining methods of parents in the region. The perspective of
sampled caregivers and OVC is also similar.

Table 50 : Child Disciplining Methods of Caregivers
Types Child Disciplining Frequency %
Physical punishment 444 58.0
Scolding 95 12.0
Insulting 539 70.0
Withholding food 88 11.0
Ignoring 173 22.0
Advice 683 88.0
* Each percentage is computed from 772
In Amhara Region, it is common that parents and caregivers advice and warn children not to
commit mistakes. Even during advice some caregivers use to mistreat children. Therefore, the
finding of the study shows that 88% of the caregivers use to advice the children under their care.
As indicated in Table 50, substantial number of caregivers uses severe forms of punishment.
Large majority of caregivers (70%) used insulting as means of disciplining their children.
Significant size of caregivers used to punish their children physically (58%). Beating with stick,
pinching, slapping, stamping, kicking using hands and legs and others are common forms of
punishment in the surveyed towns. Some 22%, 12% and 11% of the caregiver punish their
children through ignoring, scolding and withholding of food, respectively.
3.3.2.13. Psychological Problem of Vulnerable Children
Child vulnerability has psychological consequences. Health complication of parents for long time
and then death, poor living condition, quarrel and divorce of parents expose children for severe
emotional problems which affects the normal development of children in many ways. In this
regard, respondents described the following psychological problems.

58

Table 51: Psychological Problems of OVC
Problem No of Respondents %
Hopelesness 476 61.7
Grief 586 75.6
Nightmare 58 7.5
Stress/Anxiety 212 27.5
Loneliness 502 65.0
Disturbed Feeling 230 29.8
Fear 67 8.7

* The percentuqes ure computed from 77Z vuIid cuses/respondents

As presented in Table 51, about 76%, 65% and 62% of the respondents reported that OVC mostly
develop feeling of grief, loneliness and hopelessness correspondingly. Moreover, these children
face feeling of stress, anxiety, nightmare, fear and disturbance.

3.3.3. Attitudes of Some Important Social Institutions towards OVC
The perception of neighbors, relatives, friends and the community towards OVC reflects the
response of the local setups to intervene their needs. The survey also tried to examine the situation
of discrimination on OVC. In Table 52, the perception of major social groups to orphans is
presented from the perspective of respondent caregivers.

Table 52 : Attitude of Social Institutions towards Orphans
Social Groups
Relatives Neighbors Friends Community

Attitude
Response % Response % Response % Response %
Sympathetic 500 65 503 65.1 510 65.8 445 57.3
Ostracizing 98 12.5 96 12.4 82 10.6 79 10.2
Provide all kinds of
support
102 13.3 82 10.6 96 12.4 120 15.5
Consider as unlucky 29 3.8 35 4.5 7 0.9 41 5.3
Consider as cursed 2 0.3 4 0.5 4 0.5 12 1.5
Consider as hopeless 29 3.8 39 5 36 4.6 56 7.2
Insult 5 0.7 6 0.8 24 3.1 6 0.8
Ridicule 4 0.5 8 1 16 2.1 17 2.2
Total 769 100 773 100 775 100 776 100

Between 10% and 16% of the respondents said that the major social groups, in the Table 52,
provided all kinds of support to children at risk. Significant percentage (57% to 66%) of the
59

caregiver respondents expressed their point of view that relatives, neighbors, friends and the
community had sympathetic attitude towards OVC. This means that the response to socio-
economic problems of OVC is limited to lip service, showing their sorrow about the death of their
parents and the state of being in problematic condition without giving any practical care and
support. On the other hand, some 20 % to 27% of the respondents perceived that the above
mentioned social institutions have negative outlook towards OVC. Accordingly, the members of
these social institutions ostracized, insult, ridicule and considered vulnerable children as unlucky,
hopeless and cursed.

3.3.4. Child Survival and Development
As OVC under family environment live with thier cargivers, their survival and developnent
depend upon the economic and eduactional status of breadwinners. Income of the household
derermines the extent of fulfiling the basic needs of children (feeding, clothing, housing, education
and health facilities).
Table 53 : Educational Level of Caregivers by Sex








Most careproviders had low levele of education.As presented in Table 53, about 51% and 8% of
the respondents were illiterate and could read and write respectively. The percentage of
respondents who had education background up to 8
th
grade is nearly 35 %. Respondents attained
high school and above educational level were about 14%. A significant gender gap is observed in
terms of illiteracy rate. Women heads of the households (64.6%) were found to be illiterates than
male household heads (35.4%)
Male % Female %
Illiterate 140 35.4 256 64.6 396 50.6
Read & Write Only 29 47.5 32 52.5 61 7.8
Grade 1 - 4 38 40.9 55 59.1 93 11.9
Grade 5 - 8 51 41.8 71 58.2 122 15.6
Grade 9 - 10 23 35.4 42 64.6 65 8.3
Grade 11 - 12 9 29.0 22 71.0 31 4.0
10+1 & 10+2 4 66.7 2 33.3 6 0.8
Diploma 5 83.3 1 16.7 6 0.8
Degree & Above 1 33.3 2 66.7 3 0.4
Total 300 38.3 483 61.7 783 100.0
Educational Level Total %
Sex of HH Head
60

Table 54 : Employment Status of Heads of Households
Employment Frequency %
Daily Laborer 447 59.3
Civil Servant 37 4.9
Police/Soldier 10 1.3
Factory Worker 16 2.1
Petty Trade 103 13.7
Local Beverage sellers 77 10.2
Privately Employed 13 1.7
Remittance/assistance 31 4.1
Middle income merchant 20 2.7
Total 754 100.0

There is positive relationship of level of education with types of employment. Hence, almost all of
the respondents were engaged in economic activities that don't require high level of education
such as laborers, petty traders and local beverage sellers which also generate low income. As the
educational level of most of the respondents ((98%) is up to high school it is more likely that the
monthly salary of most the employees engaged in civil service, factory work, police and military
and private enterprise is low. The livelihood of some 4.1% of the caregivers depends upon
assistance of others (remittance).

Respondents were asked to express the source of income to fulfill the food requirement of OVC
who lived with them. As reported by more than 27% of the respondents, the primary source of
income to fulfill food requirement of the children was parents and guardians own economic
activity. The rest 73% of the caregivers required other sources of income to fill up the food
requirement gap of OVC under their care, such as support from relatives, friends and institutions
as well as the involving of children in income generating activities and begging.
3.3.4.1. Food and Clothing
The survey indicated that 62% respondent caregivers responeded that vulnerable children under
their care are not well fed because caregivers are poor and unemployed. Moreover, as the income
of most of the caregivers is low, majority of heads of the households (75%) replied that many of
vulnerable children are not adequately clothed.
61

Table 55: Reasons for not Feeding Children Well
Reason for not well fed No. of
Respondents
%
Low Income 468 92.5
Unemployment(no permanent ) 275 54.3
Withdrawal from Work due to Health Problem 85 16.8
* The percentages are computed from 506 valid cases/respondents.
As presented in Table 55, povery is the major cause for not feeding children adequately. Large
majority of OVC undrer family environment were living with low income households (92.5%).
More than half of the caregivers had not permanent employment. Some 17% of the respondents
also left working due to health problem.
5.8
47.3
46.9
Once
Twice
Thrice

Figure 3: Daily Meal of OVC by % of Respondents
As indicated in Figure 3, nearly 53% of the caregivers responded that children under thier support
mostly get food below three times in a day. Eating food below three times in a day is not only state
of violating the survival right of these children but also negatively affects their develpment.

3.3.4.2. Health Status of Vulnerable Children
Health and treatment are indicators of the availability of health care services to the needy children.
Table 56 : Health Status of OVC
Health Status No. of Respondents %
Well 364 49.1
Sometimes Sick 326 43.9
Frequently Sick 52 7.0
Total 742 100.0

According to 49% of respondent caregivers, OVC who were under their care were healthy during
the time of the survey. The remaining 51% were sick some times and frequently. The survey also
indicated that about 35% of the caregivers replied that sick children did not get proper treatment.
62

Out of 126 respondents who answered the reasons for not getting treatment, substantial size of
them (98%) did not take sick children to health care institution because of financial constraint. The
rest 2% of the respondents replied that lack of medicine was the reason for not getting treatment of
children. As discussed in previous sections, poor economic condition of caregivers as well as
illness and deaths of parents have negative effects on the health status of children.
On the other hand, of those respondents who replied that children got proper treatment (65.5%),
majority of them (87%) used government health institutions and most (74%) of them paid for the
treatment of OVC. The rest 8% and 5% took the sick children under their care to private health
care institution and traditional healers, respectively.
0
20
40
60
80
100
Gov.Health
Institution
Private Health
Institution
Traditional Healers
%

Figure 4 : Percentage of respondents by types of health Institution used

Nearly 94% (248) respondents faced problem while using government health institution for the
treatment of children under their care. Of these, 73% lacked drug and referred to buy from private
pharmacies. The remaining 27% said that children were not freely treated in public health service
centers.
3.3.4.3 Housing Condition
Housing condition and facilities indicate the living standard of the members of the households.
Generally, it was found that most of the respondents were living in crowded houses that were
lacking basic facilities.

63

Table 57 : Availability of Household Facilities
Response
Facilities
Yes % No %

Total

%
Adequate rooms 160 20.6 615 79.4 775 100
Proper floor /ceiling 93 11.9 687 89.1 780 100
Electricity 596 76.6 182 23.4 770 100
Potable water 328 42.1 451 57.9 779
Radio 402 51.7 376 48.3 779 100
Tape Recorder 233 29.9 545 70.1 778 100
Television 91 11.7 584 88.3 775 100
Clean Toilet 219 28.2 558 65.9 777 100
Total 2122 34.1 4098 65.9 6,220 100

As presented in Table 57, 79.4%, 89.1.%, 65.9%, 88.3% and 70.1% of the respondents did not
have adquate rooms, proper floor and ceiling, clean toilet, television and tape recorder,
correspondingly. About 58% and 48% of the caregives did not have their own private pipe water
and radio facilities, respectively. Abailibility of elecricity was in a better condition compared to
aforementioned facilites in the interviewed households. Only 42.1% of the households had pipe
water. Table 58 shows the source of potable water of caregivers who did not had their own pipe
water.
Table 58 : Water Sources of Respondents
Source of Water No.of Respondents %
From Communal Pipe Water 222 49.2
From River/Stream 21 4.7
From Protected Spring 13 2.9
From Unprotected Spring 19 4.2
From Unprotected Well 11 2.4
From Protected Well 8 1.8
From others Pipe Water 157 34.8
Total 451 100.0


Of those who did not have own pipe water, sizeable households used to fetch water from
communal water points. Next to this, 34.8% of the respondent heads of the households use to buy
64

water from other households who had their own pipe water. Nearly 5% of the caregivers did not
have their own pipe water used to fetch water from protected springs and wells. On the other hand,
about 11% of the households responded that they used to fetch water from unprotected water
sources including rivers, streams, spring and wells. This group of households was most likely
exposed to water borne diseases.
275
215
92
61
643
43
33
14 10
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
O
p
e
n

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

T
e
m
p
o
r
a
r
y

P
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t

T
o
t
a
l

Frequecy
%

Figure 5 : Means of Excretion
The toilet status of most of the households is poor. As presented in Figure 5above, 43% of the
respondents used to excrete in open field. And about 33% of the households used community
toilet. Households who had well constructed permanent toilet and temporary latrine constituted
9% and 14%, respectively.
3.3.4.4. School Dropping Out
Poor economic situation, illness and death of parents have effect on schooling of children. Accordingly,
24% of caregivers replied that children, age 7 to 17, were withdrawn from school. Reasons of school
dropout are presented in Table 59.
Table 59 : Causes for School Dropout

Reasons Response %
Economic Problem 120 74
Deaths of parents 140 82
Ilness of parents 11 6
Disability 4 2
Disciline problem in school 1 1
To work on the street 17 10
Percentages are computed from 171 cases

65

Generally, the leading contributing factors for school dropout were death of parents (82%) and
economic problem of caregivers (74%). OVC were obliged to work on the street (10%) when
they faced economic constraint in order to meet their basic needs.
3.4. Street Children
3.4.1 General Situation of Street Children
Some researchers (Heinonen 2002, Tedla 1999) subsume risky and destitute children who are not
yet using streets as their means of livelihood but potential joiners under the category of street
children. However, it is difficult to identify and trace these children before they really involve in
the situation. Due to this, the study focuses only on the children who actually involved in street
life. Researchers grouped them into two categories. The first group is referred as children on the
street which includes those children who work on the streets during the daytime and return to
home to sleep with their parents, relatives and social ties at night.

The second group is referred as children of the street that comprise those street children who use
the street as living, playing, begging, working and sleeping milieu at night and daytime. Street
children were counted at night and during daytime in order to know the magnitude of children of
and on the streets. In the counting, the types of children were clearly identified. Along counting
the two categories, street children were interviewed in order to assess their situation in detail.

Table 60: Children on the Streets and Children of the Streets by Age and Sex
Male Female Male Female
1_4 42 40 82 1.0 2 0 2 0.2
5_6 29 28 57 0.7 2 0 2 0.2
7_12 1,533 249 1,782 21.6 128 9 137 12.0
13_14 1,881 222 2,103 25.5 238 12 250 21.8
15_17 3,866 368 4,234 51.3 740 14 754 65.9
Total 7,351 907 8,258 100.0 1,110 35 1,145 100.0
% 89.0 11.0 100.0 96.9 3.1 100.0
Age %
children of the street by age & sex
%
Children on the street by age & sex
Total Total
Sex sex

As presented in Table 60 above, 9,403 street children (8,258 children on the street and 1,145
children of the street) were counted in the survey towns. Majority of street children (87.8%) were
66

children on the street. In terms of sex, the overwhelming majority (about 90%) were boys. Only
3.1%% and 11.0% of children of and on the street were females, respectively.

In the survey, children who were found on streets with their mothers were counted as street
children. As a result, nearly 1% of the total counted street children were found to be under 5 years
old. The number of street children increases with increase in the age of the children. Percentage of
street children below 7 years is 2%. Large size of street children (98.0%) was between 7 and 17
years old.

3.4.2. Children on the Street
As discussed previously, children on the street have thier own life style and thus sample children
were interviewed. The results of the sample survey are presented in this section..
3.4.2.1. Sex and Age Distribution
Similar to street children population, the percentage of sampled children on the street increases
with increase in the age of the children (Table 61).
Table 61: Distribution of Children on the Street by Age & Sex
Male Female Total
8 - 12 48 40 88 19.7
13 - 14 81 26 107 24.0
15 - 17 203 48 251 56.3
Total 332 114 446 100.0
% 74.4 25.6 100.0
Sex of OVC
Age %

Out of the total interviewed children on the street, 74.4% were males and the rest 25.6% were
females.
3.4.2.2. Ethnicity and Religion
Ethnic and religious composition of the respondent children on the street is the reflection of the
total OVC population of urban areas. Table 62 depicts the composition.




67

Table 62: Distribution of Children on the Street by Religion and Ethnicity
Religion
No. of
Respondents
%
Ethnic
Composition
No. of
Respondents
%
Orthodox 349 78.3 Amhara 409 91.7
Muslim 83 18.6 Oromo 8 1.8
Protestant 14 3.1 Agew Awi 14 3.2
Total 446 100.0 Agew Himta 6 1.3
Kimant 2 0.4
Tigrie 7 1.6
Total 446 100


Large majority of street on children (78%) were followers of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity. The
next larger group of children on the street was Muslims (19%), followed by Protestants (3%).Most
of the interviewed children on the street (92%) were from Amhara ethnic group. Other ethnic
groups together constituted the rest 8%.
3.4.2.3. Migration
Migration to urban areas is one of the coping mechanisms of vulnerable children. This section
describes the birth place and migration status of children on the street.
Table 63: Distribution of Children on the Street by Place of Birth &d Sex
Male Female Total
In the Surveyed Town 190 74 264 59.2
Other Town in Amhara Region 34 15 49 11.0
Rural Area in Amhara Region 97 19 116 26.0
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 9 3 12 2.7
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 2 3 5 1.1
Total 332 114 446 100.0
Birth Place %
Sex

As indicated in Table 63 above, about 59% of sampled children on the street were born in the
survey towns. The remaining 41% (182) were migrants.





68

Table 64: Distribution of Migrant Children on the Street by Age
8 - 12 13 - 14 15 - 17
Other Town in Amhara Region
11 8 30 49
26.9
Rural Area in Amhara Region
17 24 75 116
63.7
Other Town Outside Amhara Region
1 4 7 12
6.6
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region
1 4 5
2.7
Total 29 37 116 182
100.0
% 15.9 20.3 63.7 100.0
Birth Place
Age
Total %

As indicated in the Table 64, of those migrants, most children on the street (64%) were migrated
from rural areas of Amhara Region. The next size of children on the street (27%) was come from
urban areas in the region. Among sampled children on the street more than 9% came from rural
and urban areas outside of Amhara Region.
As can be seen from Table 64 the rate of migration of children increases as the age of children
increases. As presented in Table 65 below, children migrated to urban areas due to socio-economic
factors.
Table 65: Reasons for Migration of Children on the Street
Reason No. of Respondents
%
Death of Parent(s) 46 25.3
To Visit Relatives 4 2.2
For Education 28 15.4
Family Dislocation 22 12.1
Quarell with Biological Parents 12 6.6
Quarell with Stepparents 9 4.9
Search of Employment 54 29.7
Scarcity of Land 1 0.5
Urban Lure 1 0.5
Health Problem 1 0.5
Drought/Famine/Poverty 1 0.5
Peer Pressure 3 1.6
Total 182 100.0

Almost all of the children on the street migrated due to family and kinship related and economic
reasons such as death of parents, to visit relative, family displacement, scarcity of land, drought,
poverty, lack of school attendance and disagreement with parents. Nearly 30% sampled children
whose age is between 15 and 17 migrated to survey town to seek employment. The second cause
69

of migration is death of parents (25.3%), followed by childrens interest to attend education
(15.4%) and dislocation of family (12.1%), respectively. The contribution of quarrel with both
biological and stepparents for the migration of children to urban areas was also significant
(11.5%). About 2% of children also migrated to survey towns because of peer pressure and urban
attraction.
3.4.2.4. Causes for Being Children on the Street
Similar to other surveys in develping countries chidren in Amhara Region joined street because
of socio-economic factors. The finding of the this survey is depicted in Table 66.
Table 66: Causes for Being Street Children
Causes No. of Respondents %
Death of Parents 118 26.6
Illness of Parents 7 1.6
Poverty 209 47.1
Disagreement with Parents 24 5.4
Damage/lose of property/asset 1 0.2
Quarrel with Stepparents 7 1.6
To Help Myself 50 11.3
To Help Family 25 5.6
Peer Pressure 3 0.7
Total 444 100.0

As reported by 47.1% of the respondents, the primary factor that pushed children to work on the
street is poverty, including children who said to help oneself and family. To some 28% of the
respondents, the second contributory factor is death and illness of parents. Disagreement with
biological and stepparents is the third contributory factor for joining street life (7%).As compared
to the other reasons the role of peer pressure is insignificant(0.7%).
3.4.2.5. Family Size, Survival and Marital Status of Parents
As mentioned above, death and health problem of parents affects negatively the well-being of
children. The survey attempted to assess family size, survival and marital status of parents of
children on the street. It is because children from large families were found to have economic
problem , mostly lack to fulifil the basic needs of their family members.


70


Table 67: Family Size of Caregivers
Family Size No.of respondents %
1 - 3 203 49.0
4 - 6 180 43.5
7 - 9 28 6.8
Above 9 3 0.7
Total 414 100.0

According to Table 67 above, 51% of children on the street were living with households who had
large family size, consisting of four and above household members. As most of the caregivers of
OVC are low income groups, it is a fact that child from large family who had difficulty of meeting
the basic needs at home is likely to join street life. Life and health status of parents also has impact
on the wellbeing of children.
Table 68: Orphanhood of Children on the Street
Status of parents Yes %
Both parents alive
169 37.9
Double orphan
76 17.0
Paternal Orphan
153 34.3
Maternal Orphan
48 10.8
Total 446 100.0

About 62% of sampled children on the street were orphans. Of these, 34.3%, 17% and 11 % were
paternal, double and maternal orphans respectively. The parents of about 38 % of children on the
street were alive at the time of the survey.
Table 69: Marital status of parents

Of those children on the street whose parents were surviving, close to 35% sampled children on
Response No. of Respondents %
Yes 110 65.1
No 59 34.9
Total 169 100.0
71

the street reported that their parents either separated or divorced. On the other hand, both parents
of 65.1% of children on the street, who were alive during the survey period, were living together
in marriage.
3.4.2.6. Economic Activities
As exlained above, majority of children entered into street life due to economic reasons and to
protect themselves from maltreatment of caregivers. The immediate and affordable alternative
for these children is to involve in economic activities that are availaible on urban streets.
Table 70: Economic Activities of Children on the Street


Nearly 32% of respondent children on the street were engaged in shoe shining and repairing. The
second important income generating activity to about 22% of this category of children is carrying
goods. Sale of processed and semi-processed food items, including sugarcane, fruits and
vegetables was the third economic activity that 22% of children engaged in. About 30% of the
respondents were involved in many other activities, including collecting garbages, shop vendor,
barber, broker, taxi assistant, and sale of cigarette, plastic household utensils and lottery. Some 3%
of children on the street were beggars. Some economic activities seem to be gender based. For
instance, girls were not involved in broker, sale of cigarettes and household utensils. More boys
were engaged in shoe shinning, carrying goods, shop vendor and taxi assistant than girls. On the
Male Female
Carrying Goods 93 4 97 21.8
Collecting Garbages 9 3 12 2.7
Begging 8 5 13 2.9
Selling of Roasted Cereals & Food 6 46 52 11.7
Shoe Shining & Repair 131 10 141 31.8
Shop Vendor 19 5 24 5.4
Barber 1 1 2 0.5
Selling of Sugare Cane 14 16 30 6.8
Broker 6 0 6 1.4
Taxi Assistant/Woyala 12 2 14 3.2
Selling of Fruits/Vegetables 3 13 16 3.6
Selling of Cigarette 6 0 6 1.4
Selling of Plastic Materials 3 0 3 0.7
Selling of Lottery 19 8 27 6.1
Other 1 0 1 0.2
Total 331 113 444 100.0
Sex
Total Activities %
72

other hand, the involvement of girls in sale of semi and processed food items is high as compared
to boys on the street.
Table 71: Durations of working on the street in Years
Duration of working on the
street in Years
No. of Respondents %
Less than 1 year 53 11.9
1 - 3 289
64.8
4 - 6 79
17.7
7 - 10 23
5.2
11 - 12 1
0.2
Above 12 1
0.2
Total 446
100.0

Large proportion of children on the street was working on the street one to three years (64.8%).
Close to 23% of the sample children were working on the street for more than three years. Nearly
12% of the sample children used to stay on the street for less than a year. From this it is easy to
conclude that most children on the street work on urban streets during their childhood.
3.4.2.7. Survival and Development Needs of Children on the Street
In this section, feeding , clothing, housing ,education and health condition of children on the street
is discussed.
3.4.2.7.1. Food and Clothing
The survey attempted to assess the clothing and feeding condition of children on the street. About
58% of the repondent were not well clothed. More than 66% of these children replied that their
daily meal was not sufficient.

6%
61%
33%
once
Twice
Thrice

Figure 6: Frequency of Daily Meal of Children on the Street
73

As shown in Fig 5, majority of children on the street (67%) feed below three times per day. The
survey also assessed the types of meal consumed regularly by children on the street.
Table 72: Most Frequently Eaten Meals by OVC
Types of meals No. of Respondents %
Flat bread (Injera ) with pulses
sauce
445 99.8
Bread with tea 413 92.6
Roasted and Boiled cereals 215 54.9
Flat bread (Injera) with meat
sauce
14 3.1
Milk and milk products 8 1.8
Vegetables 22 4.9
Fruits 19 4.3
* Percentages are calculated from 446 valid cases / respondents
As indicated in Table 72, majority of children on the street most frequently eat flat bread (Injera)
with sauce prepared from powder of pulses (99.8%) and bread with tea (92.6%). Next to these
about 55% of this group of vulnerable children used to feed roasted and boiled cereals regularly.
Children who frequently got vegetables, fruits, meat, milk products were below 5%.
Most of these children (about 92%) met their food requirement by working themselves. Only
10.4% of children on the street said that the income working on the street is enough to fulfill their
daily food requirement. The rest were relied on other means.

Table 73: Means of Getting Food
Means No. of Respondents %
Working Oneself/self support 406 91.6
Supported by Government 35 7.9
Supported by NGOs 14 3.2
Begging 36 8.1
Colleting Leftover Food 83 18.7
Provided by Parents 141 31.8
Provided by Relatives 62 14
Provided by Friends 80 18.1
Provided by Neighbours 48 10.8

74

* The percentages are computed from 443 valid cases/respondents
About 32% of children on the street used to get supplementary food from their parents. A
significant size of children on the street obtained support of kinship and social bondages: relatives
(14%), friends (18.1% and neighbors (10.8%). It was found that more than 18% and 8% of
children on the street fulfilled their daily food requirement by collecting leftover food and
begging, respectively. Street children mostly collect leftover food from hotels, restaurants, bars
and training institutions such as universities. Respondent children on the street who obtained
assistance from governments and non-government organizations were 7.9% and 3.2%,
correspondingly.
3.4.2.7.2. Housing Condition of Children on the Street
Because streeet are places of work and sourrce of income, most street chidren spend the daytime
on the street.
Table 74: Daily Working Hours of Children on the Street
Working hours No. of respondents %
1_3 27 6.7
4_6 157 39.0
7_10 149 37.0
11_12 66 16.4
More than 12 4 1.0
Total 403 100.0

As shown in Table 74, more than half of sampled children on the street (54%) used to stay more
than 7 hours on urban streets every day . About 45% of respondents were working on the streets
for less than seven hours every day.
Table 75: Residential House of Children on the Street
Place of Rest No. of Respondents %
In group Rented House 83 18.7
individually Rented House 34 7.7
In Relatives/parents House 276 62.2
With Friends without paying rent 50 11.3
Other 1 0.2
Total 444 100.0

75

Table 75 indicates that more that 62% of children on the street live in the houses of their relatives
and parents, which show their close relationship with their extended families. Next to this, nearly
18.7% and 7.7% % of this group of children slept at night by paying rent in group and
individually, respectively. More than 11% of this group of children slept at night with their
friends houses free of payment.
Table 76: Kinship and Social Attachment of Children on the Street
Attachment No. of Respondents %
Parents 210 49.9
Friends 123 29.2
Brothers 13 3.1
Sisters 16 3.8
Grand Mother/Father 18 4.3
Step Mother/Father 3 0.7
Neighbour 9 2.1
Uncle 9 2.1
Aunt 16 3.8
Adopted Parents 1 0.2
Housemaid 3 0.7
Total 421 100.0

About 51% of the respondent children on the street were living with their parents (including step
and adopted parents). Significant number of sample children on the street was living with their
siblings, grandparents and uncles and aunts, which indicates the role of kinship relationship in the
care of orphan and vulnerable children. More than 29% and 2% of children on the street were
residing with friends and neighbors, respectively.
3.4.2.7.3. Health Status and Treatment of Children on the Street
The survey attempted to asses the health and treatment condition of children on the street. It is
indicated in Table 77 and 78.
Table 77: Health Status of Children on the Street

76

The survey finding indicates that 69% of children on the street were well. The remaining 31% had
some illnesses.
Table 78 : Treatment Status of Children on the Street
Treatment No. of Respondents %
Free of Charge 29 22.3
With Payment 53 40.8
Didn't get treatment 48 36.9
Total 130 100.0


Most of the children on the street (40.8%) got treatment by paying to government health institutions as
against those treated without paying (22.3%). Nearly 37% of children on the street who had some illness
did not get treatment.
3.4.2.7.4. Education of Children on the Street
According to CRC, all children have the right to education. From this perspective, attempt was
made to assess the educational level and attendance of children on the street.
Table 79: Distribution of Children on the Street by Educational Level and Sex
Male Female Total
Not enrolled 34 8 42 9.4
Read & Write Only 5 3 8 1.8
Grade 1- 4 77 41 118 26.5
Grade 5 - 8 166 50 216 48.4
Grade 9 -10 49 11 60 13.5
Grade 11 - 12 1 1 2 0.4
Total 332 114 446 100.0
% 74.4 25.6 100.0
Sex
Educational Level %

As the respondent children on the street were more than 7 years old, those who did not start
attending school were 9.4%. Those childern who read and write were 1.8%. The educational
level of most of these children (75%) was between grade one and eight. Children attained high
school education were 14%.
Though majority of sample children on the strreet were attending school (64.1%), significant size
of sample chidren were not attending school (35.9%) in 2006/7 academic year because of a
number of factors ( see Table 80).
77

Table 80: Reasons for not Attending School
Reason No. of Respondents %
Death of Parents 41 25.8
Lack of School Uniform 19 11.9
Earning Money by Working
on the Street 67 42.1
Quarell with Parents 14 8.8
Low Academic Performance 18 11.3

As the main cause of becoming street children is poverty, most children on the street (42.2%) did
not attend school because they had to earn income by working on the streets. Significant number
of children was not in school because of death of parents (25.8%) which is also associated with
economic constraint after the death of their parents. Nearly 12% of children on the street were out
of school because of economic constraints to fulfill school uniforms. Because of working for long
hours on the street such children couldnt attend school regularly and study properly, which could
result in low academic performance and withdrawal from school (11.3%). The size of children
who withdrew due to quarrel with parents was 8.8% which might be related to maltreatment of
children.
3.4.2.8. Health Status of Caregivers of Children on the Street
As discussed earlier, children joined street when their parents and caregivers became ill and
dead.This could also indicate the vunerablity of children of bedridden parents.
Table 81: Health Condition of Caregivers
Health Status No. of Respondents %
Well 213 50.7
Sometimes Sick 165 39.4
Frequently Sick 42 10.0
Total 420 100.0

The health status of nearly 51% of the cargivers of street children was well. More than 39% of
respondent chidren replied that their caregivers became sick sometimes. Nearly 10% of the sample
children replied that their caregives were frequently sick. Children on the street who replied that
their caregivers were sick sometimes and frequently were asked to express the types of diseases as
they perceived or heard.
78

Table 82: Types of Disease for Illness of Caregivers
Type of disease No. of Respondents %
Tuberculosis(TB) 64 30.9
HIV/AIDS 48 23.2
Malaria 84 40.6
accident 20 9.7
Don't Know 34 16.4
Other 8 3.9

The percentages are computed from 207 valid cases/respondents.

The leading cause of illness of caregivers of children on the street was malaria (40.6%), followed
by tuberculosis (30.9%), HIV/AIDS (23.2%) and accident (9.7%). HIV/AIDS and TB together
contributed to illness of more than 54% of the caregivers of the children on street. Some 16.4% of
children on the street did not know the type of diseases that made their caregivers to become sick.

3.4.2.9. Child Maltreatment
The survey attempted to explore the status of handling of children at household level and on the
streets. This includes discipline methods of caregivers, harmful traditional practices, substance
abuse and handling of police and the interaction of children on the street to each other.
3.4.2.9.1. Child Punishment
Parents and caregivers methods of child discipline are indicators of the prevalence of child abuse
and neglect at family level. Children on the street depicted that their parents use the following
means of discipline.
Table 83: Child Disciplining Methods of Caregivers
Types of punshiment Response %
Physical Punishment 245 58.1
Scolding 82 19.4
Insulting 314 74.4
Withholding Food 72 17.1
Ignoring 92 21.8
Advice 288 68.2

* The percentages are computed from 422 valid cases/respondents
As presented in Table 83 above, 68% respondent children on the street replied that their caregivers
used to advise them. On the other hand, significant size of respondent children reported that
caregivers used to practice severe forms of child discipline methods if children did not improve
79

their conduct. Accordingly, more than 74% used to insult and 58.1% used to punish physically.
Moreover, 21.8%, 19.4% and 17.1% reported ignoring, scolding and withholding food,
respectively.

3.4.2.9.2. Harmful Traditional Practices (HTP)
The survey indicates that some of children on the street were victims one or more HTPs.

Table 84: Harmful Traditional Practices by Sex
Frequency and percentage of respondents
Sex Types of HTP
Yes % No Don't Know
Total
Uvulectomy 96 28.9 164 72 332
Tattoo 10 3.0 311 11 332
Removal of Milk Teeth 36 11.0 206 84 326
Male
Marriage under 18 years 5 1.6 296 12 313
Cutting of Tonsil 34 29.8 52 28 114
Tattoo 9 7.9 102 3 114
Female Genital Mutilation 43 37.7 49 22 114
Removal of Milk Teeth 16 14.3 72 24 112
Female
Marriage under 18 years 3 2.7 103 5 111

Including male and female, about 29%, 12%, 4% and 2% of the respondent were victims of
removal of uvulectomy and milk teeth, tattoo, and early marriage, respectively. Close to 3% of the
respondent girls encountered female genital mutilation.
3.4.2.9.3. Abuses on the Children on the Street
Children on the street faced maltreatment while working on the streets.This is presented in detail
by sex and types of abuses in the following table.





80

Table 85: Types of Child Abuses
Abused children on the street Abuses
Male Female Total %
The percentage is
computed from
Beaten on the street 162 44 206 46.2 446
Insulted on the street 247 81 328 73.5 446
Snatched money & property 123 33 156 35.0 446
Sexually Abused/Raped 0 6 6 5.3 114
Low Payment for their work 172 33 205 46.1 445
Refusal to pay for the work done 110 23 133 29.8 446
Forced to play Gambling 39 2 41 9.2 446
Beaten by Police 44 7 51 11.5 444
Paid money to get protection from
adults
33 5 38 8.7 436

A siginificant number of the respondents reported labor and economic exploitation, including
refusal of payment for the work (29.8%) and receiving low payment for the work done (
46.1%). About 74% and 46.2% of children on the street mentioned that they were insulted and
beaten by people on the streets, respectively. More than 11% of childrenon the street replied that
they were beaten by police. Children were victims of different types of economic exploitation,
including those who reported that their money and propery was snatched (35% ), forced to play
gambling (9.2%) by adults and street children and paid money to get protection from adults
(8.7%). In addtion to the above forms of abuses, 5.3% of girls on the street were sexually
abused.These girls were raped and sexaully abused by street children, adults and strangers.
3.4.2.9.4. Substance Abuse
Because of being on the street and lack of supervision of parents, some of children on the street
were exposed to substance abuse. The survey data indicated that out of 446 sample children on the
street, 22% (94) were users of one or more substances. The distribution of substance abuse and
other social evil acts done by children on the street are presented by sex in Table 86 by sex of the
respondents.

81

Table 86: substance Abuse

Yes % No
Smoking 16 4.8 316 332
Alcoholic 44 13.3 288 332
Chewing Khat 30 9.0 302 332
Using Addictive Drugs 6 1.8 325 331
Using Hashish 16 4.8 316 332
Gambling 46 13.9 286 332
Smoking 0 0.0 114 114
Alcoholic 2 1.8 112 114
Chewing Chat 1 0.9 113 114
Using Addictive Drugs 1 0.9 113 114
Using Hashish 0 0.0 114 114
Gambling 0 0.0 114 114
Female
Male
Response
Total Sex
Abuse

Boys on the street were more exposed to substance abuse than girls. Only less than four girls were
using addictive drugs, drinking alcoholic beverages and chewing Khat. More boys were found to
involve in alcoholic drinking (13.3%) and gambling (13.9% than other forms of substance abuses.
Next to these, more street boys used to chew khat (9 %). Moreover, the same percentage (4.8%) of
boys on the street was smokers and users of hashish. Those who used addictive drugs were 1.8%.
Substance abusers were asked to forward their reasons for using these substances.
Table 87: Reasons to Use Substance
Reasons No. of Respondents %
Fashion of the time 45 47.9
Source of Pleasure and refreshment 42 44.7
Helps to sleep in Uncomfortable Place 18 19.1
Protects from Cold during Night 20 21.3
Gives Confidence & Energy
17 18.1
Not Knowing its Side Effects 28 29.8

* The percentage is computed from 94 valid cases/respondents
Out of 94 children on the street who were found users of substances, 47.9% use substances to
follow the fashion of the time. Moreover, 44.7% reported that taking substances is their source of
pleasure and refreshment. About 21%, 19% and 18% used to take these substances to protect
oneself from cold during the night, to sleep on uncomfortable places and to get confidence
(energy), respectively. Some 29.8% of abusers of substances involved without prior knowledge of
the side effects of the substance they used.
82

3.4.2.10. Psychological Problems of Children on the Street
As children on the street are without the supervision of their relatives and working far from their
villages, they are exposed to feeling of insecure and emotional problems that emanate from their
overwhelming situation. The feeling of orphan on the street children is more serious. Their feeling
on some emotional situation is presented in 88.


Table 88: Psychological Problems Faced Due to Death of Parent(s)
Problem No. of Respondents %
Grief 247 89.8
Hopelessness 133 48.4
Nighmare 23 8.4
Stress 51 18.5
Loneliness 154 56
Disturbed Feelling 100 36.4

* The percentages are computed from 275 valid cases/respondents.

Most orphan children on the street had feeling of grief (89.9%), followed by loneliness (56%),
hopelessness (48.4%), disturbance (36.4%) and stress (18.5%) in order of frequency of
respondents.
3.4.2.11. Perception of Children on the Street
From sociological and psychological perspectives, human beings review themselves in terms of
self and others - looking in and outward. Children perceive themselves. This is self image that is
the attitude of children towards the general public. On the other hand, street children perceive the
outlook of others towards them. This is looking oneself from others perspective that is the attitude
of the public towards street children. In relation to these orientations, the survey attempted to
assess the reflections of respondents. The analysis emanates from the fact that children perceive
themselves as part and parcel of the community and expect some response from the community to
their current problematic situation. Children on the street perceived that the public had both
positive and negative perception towards street children.





83

Table 89: Attitude of the Community towards Children on the Street
Attitude No.of Respondents %
Innocent Victims 239 54.0
Deliquents/criminal/and danger to the community 201 45.4
Other 3 0.7
Total 443 100.0

54% of respondent children perceived that the public considered them as innocent victims who
joined street due to socio-economic reasons and death of parents. However, 45.4% of the
respondents perceived that the community considered them as delinquents, criminals, and danger
to the community.
104
299
39
442
24
68
9
100
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Cruel Helpful Don't Know Total
Frequency
%

Figure 7: Attitude of Children on Street towards the Community
For 68% % of the respondents, the public is kind and helpful to street children. On the other
hand, for 24% of the sample street children the public is inhuman and cruel. Nearly 9% of
the respondents did not know or did not want to tell about their attitude towards the
community. This shows the gap of the community response to the need of children on the
street.

3.4.2.12. Involvement in Criminal Activities
According to the information gathered from children on the street, 12% of the respondent
children on the street were arrested by police due to suspicion of committing criminal
activities.

84

Table 90: Suspected Delinquents by Type of Crimes
Crimes No. of Respondents %
Theft 8 17.7
Drug Smuggling 2 4.8
Individual Conflict 37 59.7
Group fight 9 14.5
Robbery 2 3.2
Total 58 100.0


A significant number of children on the street (59.7%) mentioned that they were arrested by police
due to suspicion of involvement in individual and group conflict. The rest (27.7%) were arrested
because of theft, robbery and drug smuggling.

3.4.3. Children of the Street
Children of the street are more vulnerable and exposed to evil situations. Analysis is made using
the data gathered from interviewing sample children of the street.
3.4.3.1. Sex and Age Distribution
As indicated in Table 91, similar to population of children of the street, the number of sampled
children of the street increases as the age of children increases. Thus, most children of the street
(85.5%) were in age range of 13 to 17 years old. Children in this age range could handle the
challenges of street life at night than younger ones.
Table 91: Distribution of Children of the Street by Age and Sex
Male Female
7 - 12 66 4 70 14.5
13 -14 109 11 120 24.8
15 - 17 274 20 294 60.7
Total 449 35 484 100.0
Age
Sex
Total %

As staying at night on the streets is risky for girls, only 35 female children of the street were
respondents and thus large majority of interviewed children of the street were boys (92.8%).


85

3.4.3.2. Migration and Factors for Being Children of the Street
As indicated in Table 92, a substantial size of children of the street was migrants (61%).About
39% of the respondent children of the street were born in the surveyed town.
Table 92: Distribution of Children of Street by Place of Birth
Place of Birth
No. of
Responde
nts
%
In the Surveyed Town 189 39.1
Other Town in Amhara Region 83 17.2
Rural Area in Amhara Region 188 38.9
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 20 4.1
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 3 0.6
Total 483 100.0

Among the migrants, considerable proportion of children of street (64%) came from rural areas of
Amhara region, followed by migrants from urban areas of the region (28%). Children who came
from urban and rural areas other than Amhara Region were close to 8%.
Table 93: Distribution of Migrant Children of the Street by Age
7 - 12 13 -14 15 - 17
Other Town in Amhara Region 12 23 48 83
28.2
Rural Area in Amhara Region 25 52 111 188
63.9
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 1 3 16 20
6.8
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 1 1 1 3
1.0
Total 39 79 176 294
100.0
%
13.3 26.9 59.9 100.0
Place of Birth
Age
Total %

The rate of migration of children increases as they grew up. Therefore, 59.9% of the respondents
were between 15 and 17 years. The rest 39.1% were in the age range of 7 to 14.
86

147
31.5
319
68.5
466
100.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Yes No Total
Frequency
%

Figure 8: Attachment to Parents and Relatives
Most children of the street didn't have attachment with their parents and relatives (68.5%).This
goes with some of the factors that pushed these children to migrate to the town they were living
during the time of the study.
Table 94: Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Town
Reasons No. of Respondents %
Death of Parent(s) 98 33.2
To Visit Relatives 4 1.4
For Education 13 4.4
Family Dislocation 12 4.1
Quarell with Biological Parents 49 t
Quarell with Stepparents 20 6.8
Search of Employment 71 24.1
Urban Lure 4 1.4
Health Problem 2 0.7
War/Conflict 1 0.3
Drought/Famine/Poverty 8 2.7
Peer Pressure 12 4.1
Total 294 100.0

Causes for the migration of children of the street were related to family and economic factors. Of
these, death of parents (33.2%) was principal. The second contributory factor for children to
migrate to the survey towns was search of employment (24.1%). For 23.4% of respondents quarrel
with biological and stepparents was the third pushing factor. The remaining 19.3% of children
87

migrated due to poverty, urban attraction, peer pressure, family dislocation, and interest to attend
education, war, visiting relatives, and drought and health problems.
Reasons for migration and joining of street life are very similar. Almost all of the children of the
street joined streets because of family and economic related factors.
Table 95: Factors for Joining Street Life
Reason
No. of
Respondents
%
Death of Parent(s) 212 43.9
Illness of Parent(s) 11 2.3
Poverty 104 21.5
Disagreement with Parents 67 13.9
Damage/loss of household property 2 0.4
Quarrel with Stepparents 24 5.0
To Help Myself 51 10.6
To Help Family 4 0.8
Peer Pressure 8 1.7
Total 483 100.0

Nearly 44% of children of the street entered into street life because of death of one or both of their
parents. For 2.3% of this group of children, illness of parents was the pushing factor. Moreover,
about 33% of children of the street joined streets due to poverty, to help themselves and their
family by working on the street. The contribution of disagreement with biological and stepparents,
including disagreement as a result of damage/loss of household property, for joining street is also
significant that pushed 19.3% of this group of children.
3.4.3.3. Survival and Development Needs
By virtue of living, playing, sleeping and working on the street; the feeding, clothing and shelter
requirements of children of the street are not adequate. Moreover, the survey attempted to assess
the educational and health situation of these children.
3.4.3.3.1. Education of Children of the Street
Majority of children of the street (70%) did not attend formal education in 2006/7 academic year.
Only 30% of them were attending. Their educational background is shown in the Table 3.94
below.
88


Table 96: Distribution Children of Street by Educational Level & Sex
Male Female
Not enrolled 82 11 93 19.2
Read & Write Only 18 2 20 4.1
Grade 1 - 4 150 11 161 33.3
Grade 5 - 8 173 10 183 37.8
Grade 9 -10 26 1 27 5.6
Total 449 35 484 100.0
% 92.8 7.2 100.0
Educational Level
Sex
Total %

More than 19% of the respondent children were not enrolled in school. Almost 4% of sample
children of the street didn't attend formal education but can read and write. The educational level
of a significant size of these children (71.1%) was grade 1 to 8. The percentage of those who
attained high school was roughly 6%. It is easy to conclude that most of these children of the
street were dropped out of school.
3.4.3.3.2. Economic Activity and Means of fulfilling Food Gap
For children of street, urban streets are not only sleeping places but also sources of means of
livelihood and places of socialization. Children of the street are engaged in different type of
economic activities to generate income (Table 97).
Table 97: Economic Activities of Children of the Street
Activities No. of Respondents %
Carrying Goods 240 49.7
Collecting Garbages 38 7.9
Begging 24 5.0
Selling of Roasted Cereals & Food 13 2.7
Shoe Shining & Repair 76 15.7
Shop Vendor 13 2.7
Barber 1 0.2
Selling of Sugare Cane 6 1.2
Broker 21 4.3
Taxi Assistant/Woyala 33 6.8
Selling of Water 2 0.4
Selling of Fruits/Vegetables 3 0.6
Selling of Cigarette 3 0.6
Selling of Plastic Materials 3 0.6
Selling of Lottery 6 1.2
Tourist Guide 1 0.2
Total 483 100.0


89

Unlike children on the street, carrying goods is the first type of economic activity for 49.7% of
children of the street The next large size of children of the street were engaged in shoe shining and
repairing (15.7%) which was mentioned as the first type of employment for children on the street.
Some 30% of the respondents used 13 different types of economic activities as means of
generating income. Begging was a means of getting income for 5% of children of the street which
is greater than the proportion of children on the street. This group of children reported that the
income from working on the street is not sufficient to their livelihood. In order to supplement their
food shortage, children used to involve in begging (leftover food and money) from hotels,
universities and charity givers in the streets and around churches and mosques.

Table 98: Means of Fulfilling Food Gap
Means of Covering No. of Respondents %
Collecting Leftover Food from Hotels 287 59.3
Collecting Leftover from Waste Disposal 31 6.4
Begging 58 12.0

* The percentages are computed from 484 valid cases/respondents
Besides working on the streets, 59.3%, 6.4% and 12% of children of the street supplement their
food gap by collecting leftover food from hotels, waste garbage and begging, respectively. A 13
years old child from Mota stated this situation after being child of the street as follows:

My father refused to continue my education. Because of this; I quarreled with him and
joined street life. I work as taxi assistant commonly known as Woyla. Since I become
street boy I feel anxious. I have pneumonia and stomachache due to sleeping on
verandah. I have friends on the street. We sleep and play together as well as help each
other in order to protect ourselves from the assault of others. Except this tore and half
bare daytime cloth I dont have any other. I have shortage food .If I dont have coin to
buy food I eat bule (which means leftover food) by begging from bar and hotel
owners. I also fear serious illness due sleeping on the street without night clothing.
This indicates that the causes and effects of joining street life. Like the above boy, most of this
category of children has serious food, clothing, shelter and health problems.
90



3.4.3.3.2. Health Status of Children of the Street
About 62% of the respondents reported that they were healthy during the survey period. The rest
(38%) had some illnesses. Of the later, about 4% became sick frequently.

Table 99: Payment Condition for Treatment of Sick Children of the Street
Mode of Treatment No. of Respondents %
Free 19 10.5
With Payment 49 27.1
Not Treated 113 62.4
Total 181 100.0

Most children of the street who had health problem did not get treatment (62.4%). Nearly 27% of
the respondents used to pay to government health care institutions for their treatment. Only 10.5%
of the sick children of the street obtained chance of free treatment.



3.4.3.4. Abuses on Children of the Street
3.4.3.4.1. Substance abuse
Because of being on the street and lack of supervision of parents some of children of the street are
exposed to substance abuse. The distribution of substance use is presented in Fig.9 below.
Children of the street are the most vulnerable groups

91


86
81
97
16
12
101
14
17.8
16.9
20.2
3.3
2.5
21.0
2.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Smoke Alcohol khat Addictive
Drugs
Hashish Gambling Inhaling
Benzene
substance users
%

Figure 9: Proportion of Children of Street Involved in Substance Abuse and Social Evil Acts

More than 20% of sample children of the street reported that they used to play gambling and chew
khat. About 17% of children of the street were smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. 2.5% to
3.3% were users of addictive drugs, hashish and benzene. Moreover, the survey tried to assess the
reasons of these children to abuse substances as follows:
It is the fashion of the time (14.1%)
Source of pleasure and refreshment (27.1%)
It helps to sleep in uncomfortable places (16.1%)
In order to protect oneself from cold during night (16.1%)
It gives confidence and power (10.5%)
Not knowing its side effects (15.8%)
3.4.3.4.2. Abuses on the Street
Children of the street are not only exposed to substance abuses but also other forms of severe
abuses on the streets. The result of the survey is presented in Table 100.


92

Table 100: Types of Abuses Faced Children of Street
Yes % No
Beaten 302 62.7 180 482
Insulted 354 73.1 130 484
Snatched Money & Property 186 38.5 297 483
Sexually Abuse/Rape 9 25.7 35 35
Low Payment for Work 258 53.4 225 483
Refusal to Pay for work done 143 29.6 340 483
Forced Gambling 71 14.7 412 483
Beaten by Police 111 23.0 372 483
Paid money to get Protectionfrom Adults 67 14.4 398 465
Types of abuses Total
Responses


A substantial number of children of the street were insulted (73.1%) and beaten (62.7%) on the
street. Moreover, 23% of children were beaten by police. Children were victims of labor and
economic exploitation such as low payment for the work done (53.4%), snatching of money and
property (38.5%), refusal to pay for the work done (29.6%), forced to play gambling (14.7%) and
payment to get the protection of adults and older street children. About 26% of respondent girls
of the street were sexually abused and raped by street boys and adults (55.6%), strangers (44.4%)
and their employers.

3.4.3.5. Involvement in Criminal Activities
About 22.5 % of children of the street replied that they were arrested by police because of
suspicion of committing criminal activities.

Table 101: Types of Crimes
Types of Crimes No. of Respondents %
Theft 18 18.2
Drug Smuggling 1 1.0
Raping 1 1.0
Individula Conflict 55 55.6
Group Conflict 16 16.2
Robbery 8 8.1
Total 99 100.0

Like children on the street, most children of the street (71.8%) were arrested due to group and
individual conflict. About 26% of these children were arrested for suspicion of involving in theft
and robbery. A very small proportion of this group of children (1%) was suspected for committing
sexual violence.
93

3.4.3.6. Perception of Children of the Streets
The survey assessed the perception of children of the street towards the community and the
attitude of community towards these children. In view of both sides, the public and children have
both positive and negative perception towards each other.

Table 102: Attitude of the Community towards Children of the Street
Attitude No. of Respondents %
Innocent victims 235 48.6
Deliquents/Criminal 210 43.4
Danger to Community 39 8.0
Total 484 100.0

According to the survey finding, 51.4% of children of the street perceived that they were viewed to
be delinquents, criminals and dangerous by the community. The remaining 48.6% said that the
community considered them as innocent victims.
132
27.3
328
67.9
23
4.8
483
100.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
cruel Helpful donot know Total
Frequency
%

Figure 10: Attitude of Children of the Street towards the Community

Though children of the street felt that the community had negative attitude towards them,
majority of children of the street had positive attitude (67.9%) towards the community who
perceived the general public as helpful and supportive. For about 27% of these children, the
community is inhuman and cruel who did not share their problems. Nearly 5% of the
respondents either did not know or were not willing to express their perception towards the
community.
94

3.5. Child Commercail Sex Workers (CCSW)
Sexual harrasment and involving girls in prostitution are forms of violation the rights of childen.
This section explores the situation of female commercial sex workers who were under 18 years
old on the basis of the data obtained from interviewing girls.
3.5.1. General Characteristics of CCSW
The survey indicated that majority of child commercial sex workers (87.3%) were between 16 to
17 years old. The rest 12.7% were in the age range of 14 to 15. Regarding religion, 89% of
respondent commercial sex workers were followers of Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The rest were
Muslims (11%). As presented in Fig.11, large majority of respondent female child commercial
sex workers (about 92%) were Amhara. The rest were Oromo (2%), Awi Agaw (3%), Agew
Himta (1%) and Tigrie (2%).
267
7 9
2
6
291
91.8
2.4 3.1
0.7 2.1
100.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Amhara Oromo Agew/awi Agew/Himta Tigrie Total
frequency
%

Figure 11: Percentage of Respondent by Ethnic Background
3.5.1.1. Education Background of CCSW
As shown in Table 103, all of respondent CCSW were below grade 11. Level of education of most
of child commercial sex workers (21%) was primary school. 45% of female children commercial
sex workers attained grade 5 to 8. CCSW who reached high school were only 10%. This indicates
large size of this group children were school dropouts.

95

Table 103: Distribution of CCSW by Level of Education
Not enrolled /illitrate 64 22.0
Read & Write Only 6 2.1
Grade 1- 4 61 21.0
Grade 5 - 8 131 45.0
Grade 9 -10 29 10.0
Total 291 100.0
Educational Level % Female

Out of the sampled CCSW, 22% were illiterate and 2.1% of the sampled girls didn't have formal
educational but could read and write. It was found that all of CCSW were not attending school in
2006/7 academic year.
3.5.2. Migration and Causes
Like children of the street, most of sample CCSW were born outside the survey town. This is
demonstrated in Table 104.
Table 104: Distribution of CCSW by Place of Birth
Place of Birth No. of Respondents %
In the Surveyed Town 68 23.4
Other Town in Amhara Region 84 28.9
Rural Area in Amhara Region 124 42.6
Other Town Outside Amhara Region 12 4.1
Rural Area Outside Amhara Region 3 1.0
Total 291 100.0

Out of the sampled CCSW, 76.6% were migrants. Rural-urban migration was the main pushing
factor (43.6%). Urban to urban migration was the next which contributed for the migration of
34.7% of CCSW. The respondents indicated that most of them came from rural and urban areas of
Amhara Region (71.5%). Since involving in prostitution in ones birth place is discouraged by the
community and is very much shameful to girls, they prefer to migrate to towns that are far away
from their birth places. The survey also explores reasons of migration.



96

Table 105: Reasons for Migration to Surveyed Town
Reason
No. of
Respondents
%
Death of Parent(s) 50 22.4
To Visit Relatives 4 1.8
For Education 7 3.1
Family Dislocation 8 3.6
Quarel with Biological Parents 63 28.3
Quarel with Stepparents 19 8.5
Search of Employment 59 26.5
Urban Lure 13 5.8
Total 223 100.0

Unlike street children in general, the main cause for the migration of CCSW is quarrel with
biological and stepparents (36.8%). Lack of fulfilling the needs of children due to poor economic
condition of parents, parents lack of proper skill for upbringing children and or unequal treatment
of children are mostly causes of disagreements between parents and children. The next pushing
factor is found to be search of employment (26.5%). The third factor was death of parents
(22.4%).The remaining 14.3% of CCSW migrated to visit relatives in urban areas and attend
education as well as because of family dislocation and urban lure.
Quarrel with parents' most likely associate with disagreement between couples. Though this
sample survey did not indicate the contribution of conflict at family level, key informants and
participants of focus group discussion argued that nagging, separation and divorce used to push
girls to migrate and involve as housemaids, street girls and CCSW.
3.5.3. Causes for Engaging in Prostitution
There is association between causes of migration and engagement in prostitution. As indicated in
Table 106, girls became mainly prostitute due to synergic effects of socio- economic factors.






97

Table 106: Reasons for Engaging in Prostitution
Reason No. of Respondents %
Death of Parent(s) 55 19.0
Disagreement with Parents 39 13.4
Poverty 48 16.6
Disagreement with Husband 7 2.4
To help family 9 3.1
Lack of employment 54 18.6
Urban Attraction 12 4.1
Pressure of friends 45 15.5
sexaul Desire 4 1.4
Lack of Education 12 4.1
Quarrrel with stepparents 5 1.7
Total 290 100.0

Majority of the girls (81%) were engaged in prostitution because of economic problems. This
includes death of parents, poverty, helping family, lack of employment, urban attraction, friends
pressure, and lack of attending education. It is obvious that most of parents in urban setting die
mostly after being bedridden for long time that depletes the economic resource of the households,
which could push girls to become prostitutes to fill the economic gap following the death of their
parents. When one comes across the effect of each factor on the children, death of parents was the
leading (19%), followed by lack of employment (18.6%), poverty (16.6%) and pressure of friends
(15.5%). Girls most likely become prostitute by comparing their clothing and living condition with
those of their friends who had some improvement after involving in prostitution. Mostly, girls are
attracted by better services and condition in urban areas. The contribution of quarrel with parents
(including stepparents) for the engagement of girls in prostitution is about 15.1%. On the other
hand, 2.4% of respondents were involved in prostitution because of disagreement with their
husbands, indicating the contribution of early marriage to divorce and child sexual abuse. It is only
1.4% of the girls who used commercial sex work as means of fulfilling their sexual desire.
3.5.4. Previous Employment Situation
The survey tried to assess the previous status of child prostitutes. This was done just to understand
their social and economic background.


98


Table 107: Previous Employment Status
Type of previous employment No.of respondents %
Agriculture 33 11.3
Housewife 13 4.5
Student 146 50.2
Dependent on Family 46 15.8
Housemaid/child minder 46 15.8
Day Laborer 7 2.4
Total 291 100.0

Most respondent girls (66%) were students and dependents on family before becoming prostitutes.
Next to this, 18.2% of were housemaids and daily laborers. This indicates that girls who faced
labor exploitation, emotional, physical and sexual abuses by employers and the household
members at home and workplaces might lead them to prostitution. Some 4.5% of these girls were
housewives. This shows the contribution of early marriage and divorce to join prostitution. As
most of child prostitutes were migrants from rural areas, 11.3% of the sampled CCSW were
involved in agricultural activities prior to engagement to prostitution.

3.5.5. Accommodation of Child Commercial Sex Workers
Prostitution is usually a nighttime business and commercial sex workers are mostly expected to
spend the night with their sexual clients though not always. In the absence of client and during
daytime, they have to have a room (house) to sleep and rest.
Table 108: Residential House of Commercial Sex Workers
Place of Rest and sleep
No. of
Respondents
%
In group Rented House 87 30.1
individually Rented House 74 25.6
In Relatives/parents House 30 10.4
Night Club 21 7.3
In the establishement where I work 107 37.0
Wondering on the streets 3 1.0

* Percentages are computed from 289 valid cases
Child commercial sex workers did not have regular house. Depending upon the situation, they
could use more than one sleeping place during the survey week, when they did not have sexual
99

clients. Hence, the percentages in Table108 are independently computed to each alternatives of
accommodation. The residential place of significant proportion of this group of children (37%)
was in alcoholic drinking establishments such as hotels, bars, night clubs, and local beverage
selling houses where they served. Next to this, 30.1% were sleeping and resting in rented
dormitories that were shared in group. Some used to rest in individually rented dormitories
(25.6%) and houses of their parents and relatives (10.4%).
Some of them spent most of the nighttime by serving, chanting up, and dancing with men in night
clubs (7.3%) where young and pretty girls are used as a means of attraction of men to come to
dancing house. Child commercial sex workers who did not have financial capacity to rent
dormitories, sometimes, used to spend the night by wondering on the streets. In other words, some
1% of sample commercial sex workers were street girls.
3.5.6. Violence and Abuses on CCSW
CCSW encountered different kinds of abuses and challenges while they involve in the
commercial sex business. Being in prostitution by itself exposes girls to violence and initiates
them to substance abuse.
Table 109: Abuses Faced by Child Commercial Sex Workers
Responses
Yes % No Total
Vebal Assualt from Clients 197 67.7 94 291
Physical Assualt from Clients 132 45.4 159 291
physical Assualt from Employers 33 11.3 258 291
Physical Assualt from Employers 129 44.3 162 291
Clients' Refusal to Use Condom 191 65.6 100 291
Clients' Refusal to pay 138 47.6 152 290
Excessive Sexaul Intercourse 149 51.2 142 291
Too much work 105 36.2 185 290
Lack of Enough money to Sustain Life 188 64.6 103 291
Obligation to share my income to Employers 50 17.2 241 291
Forced Sexual Relation 102 35.2 188 290
Unwanted Pregnancy 53 18.2 238 291
Sexually Transmitted Disease(STD) 29 10.0 262 291
Types of Abuses

As presented in Table 109, CCSW were victims of physical assault, from their sexual clients and
employers. Large majority of the respondents (67.7%) faced verbal assault and insult from the
sexual clients. In addition, a significant proportion of child commercial sex workers encountered
physical assault from clients (45.4%), and employers (44.3%) and verbal assault form employers
100

(11.3%). Moreover, 65.6% of interviewed girls reported clients refusal to use condom. It is still
great challenge for most of girls whose principal source of income is commercial sex work and
wants to use condom as a means of saving oneself from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and
HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Child commercial sex workers also faced sexual, labor and economic exploitation. It is found that
some 51% and 35% of the respondents were victims of excessive and forced sexual intercourse,
correspondingly. Concerning economic exploitation, 47.6% and 17.2% of children engaged in
commercial sex reported clients refusal to pay and obligation to share the income from
commercial sex to their employers, respectively. About 36.2% of the respondents were engaged
in tiresome and long hours work in hotels, bars, restaurants and small alcoholic drinking places
with low or without payment for the service they were providing to their employers. It seems that
because of economic exploitation and lack of sexual clients regularly, nearly 65% of respondents
replied that they had financial constraint to fulfill their basic needs. Moreover, 18.2% and 10% of
the respondents were exposed to unwanted pregnancy and STDs respectively. Only 11% of
CCSW had child as against 71.5% who did not give birth.
The income from prostitution is not sufficient to most girls, exposing them and their children to
economic problems and situation of hopelessness. A 25 years old prostitute stated the problem of
herself and her child as follows.
I am a mother of a child. I dont have contact with my biological parents. I have stress
due to finacial problem , lack of income to feed myself. I sell my body to feed my child.
Due to involment in unsafe commercial sex, I fear that I may become sick and die due
to HIV/AIDS in the future . The income is not sufficiant to feed myself and my child. We
usally eat one flant bread ( Injera) for two. We live in between the alive and the dead
ones. I live in the house of my social mother ( yetut Enat) at Sekota. She supports me
for the sake of her spiritual life. I have only one daily cloth and plastic shoe. If I get the
support of the community and philantropic individuasls, I want to earn through
involving in productive works other than prostitution. But I don't expect that this will
happen. I do not have hope.
3.5.7. Substance Abuse
It is clear CCSW work in establishments that most likely to substance abuse. The chance of
socialization to ill behavior is very much high. Assessment had been carried out on substance
abuse of girls who involve in commercial sex work.


101



Table 110: Involvement CCSW in Substance Abuse
Yes % No
Smoking 47 16.2 244 291
Alcohol 175 60.1 116 291
Chewing khat 117 40.2 174 291
Using Addictive Drugs 10 3.4 281 291
Using Hashish 16 5.5 275 291
Gambling 8 2.7 283 291
Inhaling Benzene 4 1.4 287 291
Substances
Responses
Total

As CCSW were serving at alcoholic drinking places, considerable size of the respondents (60.1%)
were users of alcoholic beverages. Next to this, 40.2% of them used to chew khat. Moreover,
16.2% of the respondents were smokers of cigarette. Less than 6% of the respondents reported to
use hashish, addictive drugs and benzene as well as involved in gambling.
3.6. Situation of OVC in Rural Kebeles
Attempt was made to assess the condition of OVC in some rural kebeles of the Amhara Region.
The sources of data were rural kebele administrations.
3.6.1. Magnitude and Relationship with their Caregivers
In 60 rural kebeles that are situated around survey towns, administration offices of the kebeles
reported a total of 4,739 orphan and vulnerable children. On average, about 79 orphan and
extremely vulnerable children were reported in each selected rural kebeles. The age and sex
distribution is presented in Table 111.






102

Table 111: Distribution of Rural OVC by Age and Sex
Male % Female %
Below 1 19 57.6 14 42.4 33 0.7
1 - 5 320 46.3 371 53.7 691 14.6
6 - 9 688 54.5 574 45.5 1,262 26.6
10 - 14 1,069 52.8 954 47.2 2,023 42.7
15 - 17 409 56.0 321 44.0 730 15.4
Total 2,505 52.9 2,234 47.1 4,739 100.0
% 52.9 47.1 100.0
Sex
Age Total %

Out of the total OVC population of rural kebeles, 52.9% were males and 47.1% were females.
15.3% of these children were below 6 years. The percentage of those children who were 6 to14
years old was 69.3%. Older children, 15 to 17 years, were 15.4%. Majority of these children had
attachment with their parents and extended kinship system.

Table112: Relationship of OVC with the Family


As indicated in Table 112 above, 60% of OVC in rural Kebeles were living with their parents.
Next to this, 21.5% were residing with their grand parents and 0.6% of them were getting care
from their God and stepparents. Thirdly, 7.2% of OVC were living with their siblings. Fourthly,
6.9% of orphan and vulnerable children were dependents on their uncles and aunts. This implies
that the role of kinship to the care and support of orphan and vulnerable children is still important
in rural kebeles of Amhara region. Some 3.8% of OVC were living with voluntary caregivers
other than mentioned above. According to the report of the administration of rural kebeles, 7.4%
of the total OVC registered in the kebeles was found to have some disability.



103

3.6.2. Orphanhood in Rural Kebeles
Assessing the survival status of parents is important because death and illness of parents have
high adverse effect on the survival and development of children. According to CRC, children have
to get the care of their parents. Children who lack care and supervision of parents are exposed to
social, psychological and economic problems in many aspects.

Table 113: Surviving Status of Parents of OVC in Rural Kebeles
Alive Died Don't Know
Alive 535 1,994 107 2,636 55.6
Died 690 1,316 57 2,063 43.5
Don't Know 17 6 16 39 0.8
Total 1,242 3,316 180 4,738 100.0
% 26.2 70.0 3.8 100.0
Status of
Mother
Status of Rural OVC's Father
Total %

As Computed from Table 113, majority of rural OVC 70% were double or single orphans.
Concerning to the three categories of orphan children, 42.2%, 14.5% and 27.7% were found to be
paternal, maternal and double orphans, respectively. On the other hand, both parents of 11.3% of
OVC were alive during the survey period. The administration of kebeles did not know the life
status of the parents of 3.7% of the OVC.

3.6.3. School Attendance
According to the administration of 60 rural kebeles, there were many children who were not
attending school in 2006/7. The reasons for not attending are presented in Table 114.

Table 114: Reasons for not Attending School in Rural Kebeles
Reason No. of Kebeles %
Absence of School 4 7.1
Lack of Interest of Parents to send to School 29 51.8
Lack of Support 14 25.0
Death of Parents 9 16.1
Total 56 100.0

According to the information obtained from the kebeles administration, significant number of the
children in their respective kebeles was not attending school because of lack willingness of parents
to send their children to school (51.8%). It was also due to the fact that in rural areas child labor is
important for keeping cattle and carrying out agricultural activities. In 25% and 16.1% of the rural
104

kebeles, children did not attend school as a result of lack of support and death of parents,
correspondingly. Only four of the kebeles reported lack of school.
3.6.4. Problems and Causes of Child Vulnerability
Children in rural areas are exposed to socio-economic problems. The causes are also related to the
life and economic condition of rural households.
ferquency
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
Parents'
Death
Disability Poverty Divorce Bedridden
Parents
ferquency


Figure 12: Causes of Child Vulnerability
Death of parents and poverty are the major causes of child vulnerability in all of the study rural
kebeles. Serious illness of parents and divorce are the next factor that exposes children socio-
economic problems. Disability also exposes children to psychosocial problems.
Table 115: Problems of Rural OVC
Problems No. of Kebeles %
Shortage of Food 60 100.0
Lack of Clothing 59 98.3
Health Problem 57 95.0
Lack of Housing 8 13.3
Absence of School 59 98.3
Other 1 1.7

As shown in Table 115, the reported problems are highly related to causes which expose children
to shortage of food, inadequate clothing, health problem and inadequate houses in rural areas.
Thus except housing, more than 95 % of the kebeles expressed the seriousness of socio-economic
problems on the survival and development of rural children.
105

3.6.5. Care and Support
According to responses of administration of rural kebeles, orphan and vulnerable children in 36
kebeles received some support, where as aid was not given in 24 of the kebeles. The source of
fund to assist those children was the community, government, non-government organizations
(NGOs), community-based Organizations (CBOs) and faith-based organizations (FBOs).

Table 116: Source of Fund to Support OVC in Rural Kebeles
Source of Fund No. of Kebeles %
The Community 7 19.4
Government 17 47.2
NGOs 28 77.8
CBOs 5 13.9
FBO 3 8.3

As indicated in Table 116, NGOs play the leading role in the care and support of OVC in 28
(about 78%) rural kebeles, which is followed by government aid (47.2%), the community (19%),
CBOs (13.9%) and FBOs (8.3%) in rural kebeles. In drought-prone and degraded rural areas,
government and non-government organizations provide food aid and financial support through
safety net programs and involving in income generating schemes. These institutions support
children in different forms (Table 117).

Table 117: Types of Support to OVC in Rural Kebeles
Yes % No Total
Financial 24 66.7 12 36
Food 16 44.4 20 36
Clothing 16 47.1 18 34
Educational Materials 14 42.4 19 33
Health 9 27.3 24 33
Housing 4 12.5 28 32
Responses of Kebeles
Types of Support


In 24 kebeles (66.7%) children obtained financial assistance. In fourteen to sixteen rural kebeles
children received assistance in the form of food, clothing or fulfilling education materials. In 4 and
9 kebeles, OVC got the health care service and solving their housing problem respectively. Out of
the 60 kebeles, there was community-based and fait-based support in only 8 kebeles (5 Idirs and 3
106

religious associations). The sources of fund of these community and faith-based originations are
depicted in Table 118.
Table 118: Source Fund of CBOs and FBOs
Source of Fund
No. of
Kebeles
%
Contribution from the Community members 5 55.6
NGOs 2 22.2
FBO 2 22.2
Total 9 100.0

The major source of income to care OVC was contribution from members of the community (in 5
kebeles). For CBOs in 4 kebeles, the source of fund to assist vulnerable children was donation
from NGOs and FBOs.

3.6.6. OVC Coping Mechanisms and Abuses in Rural Kebeles
Besides the care children obtained from the community and philanthropic organizations,
vulnerable children in rural kebeles use other coping mechanisms to sustain their life. Assessment
was made to understand the survival strategies of OVC.
Table 119: Copping Mechanisms of OVC in Rural Kebeles
Copping Mechanisms Numbe of Kebeles %
Employed as a Shepherd 58 96.7
Housemaid 54 90.0
Depend on Relatives 60 100.0
Daily Labourer 60 100.0
Migrate 53 88.3
Other 1 1.7

As indicated in Table 119, all the kebeles reported that the principal coping mechanism of children
at risk is to be dependent on their relatives and became daily laborers in rural areas or migrating to
other areas. In rural area, the coping mechanisms of boys who lost their parents or whose parents
are poor is to be employed as shepherd and hired to carry out agricultural activities in better off
peasant households. According to the response of 54 kebele administrations, girls who faced
serious economic problem and lost their parents were employed as housemaids and baby-sitters in
rural and urban households who were in need of the labor women. Fifty three kebeles expressed
that migration is one coping mechanism of children at risk in rural areas.

107

Moreover, 45 rural kebele administrations reported migration of a number of vulnerable children
to other areas in 2007 due to death of parents in 24 kebeles and poverty in 21 kebeles.
In rural areas, vulnerable boys were employed by framers to tend and keep cattle, sheep, goat and
equines of the better of households. Some of the relatives of the disadvantaged children deal with
employers regarding the amount of the salary and receive on the basis of the agreement. These
children were victims of harsh physical punishment. One of the focus discussant in Bahir said that
around the Hidar 20 in Bahir Dar, a boy who had been employed to keep cattle had faced rupture
of his thigh due to beating of his employer. The beating by throwing big stick exposed the boy to
gangrene. Similarly, this participant went on his personal experience regarding vulnerable children
in rural setting near Dembecha town in West Gojjam zone as follows:
A boy who had been employed as cattle keeper faced flood accident while he was
running away to save himself from the beating of his employer. Fortunately, the life of
the boy was saved from the flood through the help of a traveler. The yearly salary of
this victim child was 19 Birr which was received and used by his grandparent.
3.6.7. Prevalence of Bedridden Parents
In 48 (80%) of the studied rural kebeles, there were seriously sick parents. Children of bedridden
families faced a number of socioeconomic problems.
Table 120: Problems of Children in Bedridden Parents
Problems No. of Kebeles %
Shortage of Food 48 100.0
Dropping out of School 47 97.9
Burden of household activities 47 97.9
Caring of sick parents 47 97.9
Stress 45 93.8

*The percentages are computed from 48 valid cases/kebeles

In all the kebeles that reported the existence of bedridden parents, children faced shortage of food.
In 47 kebeles, children dropped out of school, shouldered the responsibility of carrying out
households economic and domestic activities and caring of the bedridden parents. In 45 kebeles,
children were exposed to high stress.



108

3.6.8. Difficulties to Inherit Land
In rural areas, one of the challenges of orphans is to inherit the land that was held by their
deceased parents. Everyone wants to hold additional land. Due to their age, children also have lack
of knowledge and experience to deal with legal issues and procedures related to inheritance of
land.
Table 121: Orphans Problems to Transfer of Land
Types of Problem No. of Kebeles %
Give it to Other Farmers 35 58.3
Taken by Siblings 54 90.0
Denied of being a child 42 70.0
Given only some portion 46 76.7
long litigation 51 85.0
Misuse of resource from the land 41 68.3
Other 5 8.3

* The percentages are computed from 60 valid cases
According to administrations of kebeles(90%), the land to be inherited by orphans was
mischievously taken by elder siblings and persons had no legal ground. In 51 kebeles, orphans
faced long litigation and difficulty of handling the legal procedure to inherit the land which was
held by deceased parents. In 46 kebeles, due to illegal claimants and litigation, some portion of the
land held by their deceased parents was transferred to others. As reported in 42 rural kebeles, some
children were denied of being legal children of their deceased fathers by the motive of individuals
who wanted to inherit land on the basis of the Amhara National Regional State Rural Land
Administration and Use Proclamation. These individuals mostly apply on behalf of children who
are said to be born out of wedlock. This is partly due to lack of birth registration in the region
which is important to get important evidence regarding the age, parents and birth place of each
child . Moreover, due to lack of in fulfilling the legal evidences and other requirements as well as
delay in taking the case to concerned bodies, the land held by the deceased parents could also be
transferred to non-legitimate claimants by considering the land as land of motekeda
1
. Furthermore,

1
Motekeda is an Amharic word which refers to land that was previously held by some one but nobody claimed it
after the death of the previous passed holder.
109

orphans in 41 kebeles faced misuse of the resources from the inherited land. Some caregivers and
tutors misused the income obtained from the land inherited by orphans.

3.6.9. Child Maltreatment
Presence or absence of physical, emotional and sexual abuses and harmful practices are some of
the indicators of child abuse. Child maltreatment is one of the contributary factor for migration
many OVC to uran areas. The survey attempted to assess the occurrence of these conditions in
rural kebeles.
3.6.9.1. Punishment
The survey assessed parents method of child disciplining in rural kebeles. The outcome indicates
widespread prevalence of child abuses and neglect in rural areas.
Table 122: Rural Parents Child Discipline Methods
Discipling Methods No. of Kebeles %
Physical Punishment 50 83.3
Scolding 18 30.0
Insulting 51 85.0
Withholding Food 22 36.7
Ignoring 14 23.3
Advice 21 35.0


In rural areas urban parents and caregivers, the first and widely used child disciplining methods
were insulting (85% and physical punishment (83.3%). The kebele administrations reported that in
36.7%, 30% and 23.3% of the study kebeles caregivers scold, withhold food and ignore children
under their care. It seems that more parents in rural areas used to practice physical punishment and
insult their children as compared to urban. It was in 35% of the study rural kebeles that parents
used advice as means of reshaping the misconduct of children.

3.6.9.2. Harmful Traditional Practices
Previous studies indicated that harmful traditional practices were common in rural areas of
Amhara Region. This survey also tried to assess the current situation in the study rural kebeles.

110

Table 123: Prevalence of Major HTP in Rural Kebeles
Yes % No
Uvulectomy 51 87.9 7 58
Tattoo 21 36.2 37 58
Female genital Mutilation 39 68.4 18 57
Removal of Milkteeth 45 77.6 13 58
Early Marriage/child marriage 34 59.6 23 57
HTP
Response
Total

Uvulectomy was commonly practised in 51 rural kbeles. Moreover , removal of milkteeth, female
genital mutilation, and early marriage were widely used in 77.6%, 68.4% and 59.6% of the
kebeles, respectively.Tattooing was reported in 21(36.2%) kebeles.This implies that the
prevalence of harmfull practices is still widespread in most of rural rural kebeles.
3.6.10. Prevalence of Food Insecure Households
Assessing the prevalence of households that have shortage of food is important to understand food
inadequacy for vulnerable children. Almost all the kebeles administrations (98%) reported the
existence of households that had food shortage during the study period. It is true that children who
were living with food insecure households were also exposed to serious food insufficiency.

Table 124: Causes for Food Insecurity of Rural Households
Causes No. of Kebeles %
Lack of Land 53 91.4
Shortage of Land 58 100.0
Drought 40 69.0
Low Productivity of Land 52 89.7

* The percentages are computed from 58 kebeles.

Table 124 shows that the major causes of food shortage for rural households were shortage of land
(100%), landlessness (91.4%), and low land productivity (89.7%).The cumulative effect of these
situations is poor living situation and providing inadequate for children.
111

Chapter FOUR
Response to Promote the Well-being of OVC
4.1. Care and Support Programs
All of the key informants and participants of focus group discussion stated that the number of
OVC in Amhara region is alarmingly increasing. However, the communitys response to intervene
psychosocial and economic of problems of OVC is incomparable. The increasing trend and
prevalence of a large number of OVC in region threatens the capacity of the kinship system and
the local community.
Particpants of the focus group discusion in all the survey towns argued that there is limited
resource to care needy children. At present much of the financial source to care and support of
OVC highly depends upon the international community. The care and support is limited to urban
areas with low coverrage, and lacking sustainablity and continunity. It also lacks prioritizing the
neediest children due to scantiness of data on the magnitude and severity of OVC. There is
limitation of identification of the right target groups. As a result of limited coverage of support,
the rights and welfare of huge number of children violated. Lack of obtaining basic needs (food,
clothing and housing) due to poverty, death of parents and other factors lead these children to
street life, beggary and prostitution. Children with disability are one of the most at risk who have
limited opportunity for education, training and employment.
On the other hand, there is uncoordinated resource mobilization to care and support OVC in some
towns. Community-based resource mobilization is done here and there by voluntary teachers, Idirs
(voluntary associations for providing burial service and other support to members) , philantropic
individuals and households.The comminity also provides charity to vulerable children in
unsustainable and unorganized way. The support is intemitant and does not address the daily basic
needs of OVC. The chartity provided during church holidays, around bus stations and streets to
beggars even pushes children and parents to streetism. Individual-based charity coins create
dependncy syndrome instead promoting the survival and develpment rights of children at risk.
112

Almsgiving has religious orientation and good indicator of the willingness of the public to share
the problem of disadvantages in the comminity but also the need to establish organized resource
mobilization and utilization system to assist the growing number of children in a sustainable way.
About 76% of the key informants argued in favor of the establishing of community based resource
mobilization and social welfare fund in Amhara region. In the context of participants of focus
group and key informants, every citizen who has some economic and social capacity has to be
involved in sharing the problem of children under risk. Welfare based associations, civic societies,
community-based organizations and individuals have to participate in the area of resource
mobilization. On top of this, wealthy citizens and investors have to play active role in providing
care and support to OVC in financial, material and institutional terms.
Focus group participants strongly argued that the care and support given to orphan and vulnerable
children is lacking integration and networking. As a result, there is duplication of effort,
sometimes. There is lack of follow up and control of the resource from international community.
Due to this and other problems, most vulnerable children are not getting appropriate care and
support.
Government controls the resources allocated to OVC and vulnerable segments of society at three
levels. The first level is provision of official license to involve in no-profit socio-economic and
community development. At this level the federal and regional organs and other responsible
government organization review the capacity, structure, objectives, trustworthiness and rational to
establish local NGOs. The second level is acceptance of the project or program. At this level, in
order to get acceptance and agreement (memorandum of understanding) to start a project or
program from Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission concerned government
organizations appraise the project by prepared concerned NGOs and other implementers. The third
level is monitoring and evaluation of implementation. The memorandum of understanding entails
the implementer of the project to present progress report to signatories. Conducting monitoring
and evaluation is also part of the agreement. However, some signatory organizations don't carry
out timely financial inspection, monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the activities.
In order to urge community-based response mechanism, NGOs and FBOs (EOC, Care Ethiopia,
Save the children UK and Norway, UNICEF, OSSA etc ) and GOs (like BoLSA and HAPCO)
are trying to strengthen the capacity of community-based organizations through awareness raising,
training, experience sharing and organizing community based help groups. There are notably
community based care systems in some urban areas such as Debre Berehan, Bahir Dar, Chagni
113

and Nefas Mewocha and others areas of the region. But adequate and holistic system has not yet
established. This needs developing appropriate strategies to urge and mobilize the efforts of
members of the community and strengthen the capacity of duty bearers.
Local level coping mechanisms have to be developed in the area of database management,
identification of OVC and their felt needs, resource mobilization and channeling of care. It has to
be integrated to every echelons of the structure.
Most of the key informants and participants of the focus group discussion have some awareness
on CRC but not on Developmental Social Welfare Policy and other legal provisions concerning
children.They argued that even the available policies and strategies lack considering the local
situation and are not operational. The attention given to address the issue of OVC is less as
compared to its magnitude and severity. There is lack of commitment and active cooperation on
the part of satkeholders to implement the the policies and CRC. Moreover, most of the care
programs lack to partcipate and include the views of children in programining , imlemenation,
monitoring and evaluation. Some child focused gorganizations have strategy of participating
children . For instance Save the Children UK gives priority for the participation of children in
affairs that concern them through establishing CRC committees, supporing orphan and female-
headed households and bedridden parents.
CRC and federal and regional the constitutions in Ethiopia are general legal frameworks. In order
to curb the violation of rights of children by duty bearers, developing operational legal
provisions is very much necesary. For instance, according to CRC primary educaction is free
and compulsary. However, informants argued that there is no provision that obliges parents to
enroll children and no measure if parents fail to send children to school. Therefore, the right of
children to education must not only depend on the willingness of thier parents but parents have
obligation to educate their children. Goverment and non-goverment organizations have to raise the
awaress of the community and strengthen the economic capacity of low income households.
The information from focus group discussions in the study towns revealed that the health care
system provides attention to children who are affected with HIV/AIDS and under the care of
caregivers. Care is provided durining pregnancy, after birth and when they become cariers.The
health care system gives free medical service to poor family members who can present certificate
from local level administration (kebele). But unaccompanined and street children do not have
acccess to this service. As most of street and child child comrecial sex workers are migrants, they
114

do not have attachment to family and kebele adminiatration in the surrvey towns . Therefore, the
health care system do not cover children who lost parents and lack to secure certificates for free
treatmernt in government health institutions. Health institutions do not give free treatment if a
child comes without certficate of free treatment from the kebele through their parents and adult
caregivers.
Though there is scarcity of data, in the surveyed town more than 31,142 vulnerable children were
getting care and support. The support is provided by FBOs, NGOs GOs and CBOs. Most of these
child focused organizations were recently established (See Annex 1).The sex of 28, 047 OVC
who received some support was reported. Of these children 52% and 48% were males and
females, respectively. This indicates gender gap. According to the finding of the survey, the
magnitude of female OVC is higher as compared to male counterparts. The Organizations that
provide care and support are concentrated in major urban areas such as Debre Berhan, Bahir Dar,
Dessie , Gondar, Debre Markos and Debre Tabor. Majority of these organizations have family
and community-based support systems. Only 9 organizations provide institutional care. Some
children in conflict with the law and infants with prisoner mothers were reported by correction
institution. The number and types of OVC who obtained care from these institutions is
summarized in Table 125
Table 125 : Types of Children Getting Support
Type of OVC Male Female Total %
OVC (includes orphans and other at risk children) 9,252 8,457 18,213 76.2
Street Children 118 10 344 1.4
Children with Disability 790 973 1,763 7.4
Displaced children 6 30 36 0.2
Children in conflict with the law 34 5 39 0.2
Children in poor households 1,453 1,603 3,050 12.8
Abandoned children 3 3 11 0.1
Raped/sexually abused children 24 24 0.1
Children in correction institutions with their mothers 16 12 28 0.1
Children in Orphanages 146 131 401 1.7
Total 11,818 11,248 23,909 100.0

Almost all categories of OVC such as orphans, children with disabilities, displaced children,
children in conflict with the law, sexually abused children, children in correction institutions with
their mothers, children from poor households, street and abandoned children were getting some
care and support. Some organizations did not give full information regarding the background of
115

children who are being supported. Most of organizations that were providing care and support did
not have disaggregated data by categories of OVC. As a result, 76.2% of children who were
receiving some care were OVC which includes orphan, abandoned, street, displaced, and sexually
abused and other types of children at risk. Moreover, the difference between the total of each sex
and the total is the result of lack gender disaggregated data.
On the other hand, some child focused organizations had disaggregated data on the basis of the
condition of disadvantaged children and targeted categories of children such as street, sexually
abused and orphan children. Due to the emphasis to community and family- base support and lack
of fulfilling basic necessities, some of caring organizations prefer to provide some care, such as
school materials, for OVC with their parents and close relatives (see the detail of types of support
in Table 26). Only 2% of all OVC are in orphanages and correction institutions such as police and
prisons. This indicates that 98% of orphan and vulnerable children are under family and
community-based care. Some 12.8% children under care and support were from poor households.
About 8.8% of children under care and support were street and had some disabilities. Moreover,
the support to 23,909 children in following table indicates the types of support given to OVC in
the region.
Table 126: Types of Support and Number of Children under Support
Types of Support Number of cjildren %
Providing Sanitation Materials 10909 45.6
Treatment 5621 23.5
Tutorial service 5941 24.8
Educational Material 13536 56.6
Educational Fee 5148 21.5
Housing 888 3.7
Food 6870 28.7
clothing 6916 28.9
Vocational Training 770 3.2
Psychosocial/ counseling 2388 10.0
Health Counseling 1967 8.2
Financial Support 1795 7.5
Credit and revolving fund 634 2.7


As indicated in 126, care giving organizations were focusing on providing educational (56%) and
sanitation materials (45.6%) to vulnerable children. Nearly 25% and 22% of the children under
care and support programs were getting tutorial service and covering of educational fee,
116

respectively. Children who got curative treatment were 23.5%. About 29% of children obtained
support in the form of food and clothing.

Some 7.5% of the OVC received financial support. Most of cares giving organizations provide
less than 200 Birr for each OVC as stipend. Regarding this, target children and key informants
argue that this amount money is too small to fulfill the basic necessities of the children where the
price of food items and other important good is high in urban areas of the region.

Furthermore, the proportion of OVC who obtained care and support in the form of food, clothing
and finance is not comparable to magnitude and severity of the problem because food and clothing
are found to be the most severe problems to many children who lost their parents, whose parents
are bedridden, street children, and children from very poor households. As described in the
preceding chapter most OVC had psychological problems. However, as indicated in the above
table only 10% of OVC who received care and support by different organizations were getting
psychosocial /counseling service. The care providing organization rendered credit (revolving fund)
and vocational training to only 3.2% and 2.7% children, respectively.

Generally, the care and support program lacks data on the magnitude of OVC and care receivers,
prioritization of the neediest vulnerable children, evenness of distribution, organized local
resource mobilization, sustainability, networking, integrated system, monitoring and evaluation.
Moreover, dependent on foreign source of fund, little community pressure and response, limited
capacity of the coordinating organization and duplication of efforts characterize OVC care and
support programs in Amhara Region.
4.2 Alternatives of Care and Support to OVC
Assessment was made to know the viewpoint of caregivers on the best alternatives of supporting
orphan and vulnerable children. This is presented in Table 127.





117

Table 127: Options to Care OVC
Alternatives of care No. of Respondents %
Support by placing with relatives 472 61.5
Foster care by placing with non-relatives 74 9.6
Inter -country adoption 41 5.3
Local adoption 48 6.3
Orphanage 133 17.3
Total 768 100.0

About 62% of sampled heads of the households (caregivers) chose kinship based assistance as the
most appropriate to care and support OVC. Accordingly, the best option to care children under
difficult circumstances is to provide financial and other economic support by placing with their
close relative. 17.3% of the respondents chose institutional care as alternative to orphan children.
Foster care is preferred by 9.6% of the caregivers as good alternative option to support children at
risk. It is a care system by placing OVC with voluntary caregivers who are not their relatives of
orphans. Foster care parents receive financial and other socio-economic support from government,
non-government, faith and community based institutions, which is necessary to the survival and
development of the children. The caregivers preferred local adoption than inter- country adoption.
4.3. Stakeholders Analysis
Due to the fact that children are central to society, all socio-economic institutions and humankind
(including children) are key to promote the survival and development of OVC. All stakeholders
can affect the wellbeing and right of children negatively and positively. The finding of situational
analysis indicates that vulnerable children are victims of parents, relatives, non-relatives,
households, friends, neighbors, employers, siblings, administrative structures, the international and
local institutions, and the community. These institutions and social groups are also playing
significant role in providing care and support to children at risk. These duty bearers dont have
same functions. They have specific duties and responsibilities. Analyzing the duty, strengthen, gap
and future directions of major stakeholders is important for intervention and to design appropriate
strategy. Strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) Analysis on duty bearers is
presented in Table 128.

118

Table 128: SWOT Analysis on Duty Bearers
Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
Federal
Government
Ratified CRC and
African Charter on the
Rights and Welfare of
the Child
Developmental Social
welfare policy
HIV/AIDS prevention
and Control policy
Limited enforcing legal
provisions and directives to
implement the rights of the
child
limited resources to implement
the policy
No specific policy and
guideline on OVC
discrepancy in institutional
arrangement of the
government organ responsible
for the right and welfare of
children at federal( Women
Affairs ) and regional ( Labor
and social affairs) and
separation of the welfare of
children from the family affairs
International
attention to
promote the
rights of the
child and
care OVC
Growing
numbers of
children at risk
limited local
response to
alleviate the
problems of
OVC
Policy and legal provisions on OVC
Strengthening local coping mechanisms
alleviate the current institutional
discrepancy and integrating child and
family affairs
allocate resource to promote the rights
and wellbeing of children in general and
OVC in particular
establish functional resource
mobilization from international and local
community
establish appropriate monitoring and
evaluation on policy and program
implementation,

International
community
Donation of some fund for
care and support programs
to OVC
Duplication of efforts to some
extent
Lack of monitoring and
evaluation
Emphasis to
child right-
based
programming
Limited
resource that
could not cover
alarmingly
increasing OVC
Creating networking and monitoring and
evaluation system
Regional
Government
The regional
constitution and family
code
Law enforcement
bodies up to kebele
level
No regional policy on OVC
No specific regional action
plan on OVC
No regional guideline on
how to care and support
The regional
constitution
give due
attention to
the welfare
of OVC and
the basic
rights of
Growing
numbers of
OVC due to
poverty HIV/
AIDS
pandemic,
malaria and
Formulation regional operational
policy and action plan to promote the
rights and welfare children
developing legal provision and Legal
protection
strengthening institutional setup at
119

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
Institutions that
provide educational
and health are
expanding at Kebele
level
Poverty alleviation
programs and
strategies including
income generating
activities in urban
areas and safety net in
rural areas
organization
responsible (BOLSA)
to promote the rights
and welfare of
children has
organizational setup
up to zone
administration level
only
Allocate resource to
basic services such as
education , health
Encouraging NGOs
to involve in care and
support of vulnerable
OVC
Lack of allocating matching
fund to promote the right and
welfare of OVC

children other diseases












local level
Allocation of matching fund for the
welfare of OVC
Establishing monitoring and evaluation
system
Establishing social welfare fund at the
regional level
strengthening the structure and the
capacity of responsible organs for OVC

Labor and
social Affairs
structure up to zone
level
interest to promote the
right of children
Carry out some
mandate of MOLSA to
promote the right and welfare
of children is shifted to
Ministry of Women Affairs
at National level where as in
Amhara region it is still under
Growing
attention of the
international
community to
promote the
wellbeing of
Growing
number of OVC
lack of
integrated and
community
Establish data base on OVC
establish branch up to local level
develop policy, strategy , directive and
guidelines on OVC
120

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
program to care and
support vulnerable
children in major
towns


mandate of the BOLSA
Amhara region BOLSA has
no structure at wereda and
local level
no regional policy and
guideline on CRC and
promoting the wellbeing of
OVC
no data on the problems of
OVC and support system

OVC based social
welfare system

Establish networking among concerned
among concerned organizations
resource mobilization and establish
social welfare system
strengthen institutional capacity at all
level
enhance the capacity of family socially ,
psychologically and economically so as to
create conducive environment to children
develop monitoring and evaluation
system and implement accordingly
law
Enforcement
Bodies
Establishment of Child
protection units under
police stations in major
towns
allocation of food ration
for children who are in
prisons with theirs
mothers
Separate room for
children who are found
to be in conflict with the
law
lack of separate correction
institution for children in
conflict with the law
child abuse by some law
enforcement bodies , for
instance street children
reported beating by policemen

Growing
interest to
promote the
rights of
children
Prevalence of
street children
widespread of
child abuse in
the community
enforcing to implement existing legal
frameworks
Raising the awareness of law
enforcement bodies
develop guideline and provisions that
protect children from abuse
HAPCO Soliciting Fund from the
international community
strong commitment and
effort to prevent the
spread of HIV/AIDS
Scarcity of data on OVC
lack of establishing strong
networking among child focus
NGOs
duplication of efforts and focus
Growing
International
response to care
OVC
Growing number
of OVC
Establish strong networking among
funding and OVC focused institutions
Establish appropriate monitoring and
evaluation system
121

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
Home based care and
support for people
living with HIV/AIDS
attempt to strengthen
community based
response
to care of OVC in urban areas
Women's
Affairs
growing effort to
promote the equality
of women
Establishment child
and mothers section
growing effort to
prevent and control
sexual violation
Lack of focus on OVC Packages to
strengthen
the
economic
capacity of
women
Growing
number of
OVC and
women in
difficult
circumstances
enhancing the program to prevent sexual
abuse
strengthening the economic capacity of
women

Education
Bureau
Expansion of schools
in rural and urban
area
Education for all by
2015

Lack of focus on OVC
Lack of system and guideline
to provide help OVC who
dropout of school due to
poverty and death of parents
Compulsory
and free
primary
education
Existence of
children out of
school
School dropout
due to death of
parents and
poverty
Develop system to curb school dropout
due to socio- economic problems
Create conducive conditions to OVC to
attend their education
To carry out income generating and
resource mobilization to help OVC at
school
To establish clubs that promotes the rights
and welfare of orphan and vulnerable
children and to carry out need assessment
to solve their problem.
To psycho-social support/provide
guidance and counseling to OVC in
schools
122

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
to establish networking with organization
responsible for the welfare of OVC

Health Bureau Emphasis to
Prevention health
Free health care for the
poor
Focus on HIV/AIDS
prevention and control

Lack to cover most marginalized
and migrant Vulnerable
children in the free treatment
Lack of essentials drugs
Lack of pediatric ART;
Lack of Child friendly VCT
service


Emphasis to
promote the
health of
children
through MCH
program
Lack to supply
adequate
essentials drug to
growing number
of poor
Develop strategy to cover the most
marginalized children in free health
service system
Zone
administration
Encourage NGOs to
start Care and support
o OVC
Commitment to
promote poverty
alleviation programs
including safety net

Lack of data on OVC at zonal
level
Lack monitoring and
coordination
Lack of networking and
organized local resource
mobilization for OVC

Existence of
some NGOs at
zonal capital
level
Growing
number of OVC
Monitor and follow up responsible
organs to have data on OVC
work towards establishing organized
community based resource mobilization
monitor and evaluate policy and program
implementation

Woreda
Administration
Growing Interest to the
care and support of
OVC
Lack of gender , sex and
category disaggregated data on
OVC
lack of adequate data on care
and support programs for OVC
Growing
interest of
local and
international
NGOs to
care OVC
Growing
number of OVC
Limited local
and community
Response to
the felt needs of
Providing attention to organizing data,
right based programming , monitoring
and evaluation
Establishing responsible Government
organ and networking
123

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
lack of monitoring and
evaluation on care and support
programs for OVC
lack of establishing
government organ responsible
for OVC at Wereda and grass
root level
Lack of creating network
OVC
Kebele
Administration
Growing interest to the
welfare of OVC
Lack of identification the most
vulnerable groups
Lack of integrated and
systematized local resource
mobilization
lack of close monitoring and
evaluation of the care and
support programs

Provide the list
of some of
OVC
Growing
number of OVC

establish system responsible for OVC
Aware the community about the rights
and problems of OVC
prioritize and organize accessible data on
OVC
Identification of appropriate voluntary
care providers
Assess, monitor and evaluate the gap of
care and support for OVC
Family parents commitment to
upbringing of their
children
Large family size
maltreatment of children
divorce and family
disorganization
lack to deposit fund which is
essential for their children
existence of
many poor
households and
widespread of
poverty in the
region
increasing
death of parents
Build the caring and proper treatment
capacity of parents through awareness
raising on the rights of children, family
life education , needs of children and
other issues that are important
comprehensive development of children
establish family and marriage guidance
and counseling system in major towns of
124

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
during risk time in the future
Lack of succession planning

due to
HIV/AIDS,
malaria , TB
time to time
increase in the
prices of food
items and other
basic goods
the region
to establish peaceful relationship at family
level so as to prevent family break down
and divorce
give equal affection to vulnerable
children
to give care and support to OVC
saving oneself from HIV/AIDS
participate actively in the care and
support of OVC
Create conducive condition to upbringing
of children under family environment
plan the number of children to be borne
using family planning services
to establish financial saving for children
which serve as risk aversion
promote survival, development and
health rights and play active role in the
implementation of policies and action
plans-
build the economic capacity of households
through diversifying means of income
generation
Relatives significant size of
relatives provide care
and support for OVC
Some relatives don't give
affection and proper care for
OVC
unequal treatment and
Some fund from
local and
international
community to
relatives who
growing
number of
orphans in need
of the care of
providing affection and psycho-social
support
125

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
discrimination
maltreatment of children
negative attitude to OVC
Lack of transparency
have economic
constraint to
care OVC
their relatives
unwillingness
of some of the
relatives to care
orphans
refrain from misusing the resources of
OVC when they become caregivers
Neighbors providing care and
support to few OVC
discrimination of Orphan due
to HIV/AIDS
negative attitude to OVC
lack to provide adequate
information on the background
of OVC
Limited interest and
willingness to care orphans on
foster care basis
The current
community
mobilization
effort helps
to raise the
awareness of
the
community
members
regarding
OVC
Growing
numbers of
orphans and
vulnerable
children
To address the felt needs of vulnerable
children immediately as the problem
happens and inform and report to
concerned bodies
To have good relationship with OVC and
avoid marginalization
Psychosocial support to OVC
to be willingness to become foster care
parents

Friends
(children )
Children help each
other
lack of awareness regarding
their rights
Duty bearers lack to participate
children in issues that concern
children
some children discriminate and
abuse OVC at villages , schools
and other places during
playing, setting in class rooms
and other conditions
lack of child friendly programs
that protect the rights of
Increasing
involvement
of GOs and
NGOs in
areas of
raising the
rights of
children to
duty bearer
violation of the
rights of most
children
hampers their
move and
contribution to
help OVC
Awareness raising on the rights of
children
participating children in need assessment,
programming , implementation ,
monitoring and evaluation
establish to transparent care and support
program
establish child and youth friendly groups
and child welfare clubs aim at
protecting children from abuse and
discrimination in schools and villages
provide training to children on how to
126

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
program
lack of children and youth
pressure groups that work
towards promoting the rights
and welfare of children
provide psychosocial and help each
other
Community
( CBOs)
providing some care to
OVC
Lack to view the issue of
OVC as its own problem
Lack of adequate information
on OVC
lack of integrated community
response
Emphasis to care to orphans
whose parents were member of
Iddirs (voluntary burial
service association)
discrimination of children
affected and affected by
HIV/AIDS
Government
employees in
some towns
of south
Gonder start
to care
Orphan
through
contributing
money
Growing
effort of
Iddirs to care
OVC, For
instance,
the
establishmen
t "our for
our" orphan
and street
children
supporting
Association
at Chagni.
Growing
number of OVC
To have adequate information on OVC
enhancing the effort of Iddirs to care
OVC in integrated way
to organize community conferences that
discuss the problems of children so as to
mobilize resource to support and positive
attitude to orphan and vulnerable children
To participate and mobilize members to
support children
to solve the social problem of OVC and
to help children to continue their
education
to have positive attitude towards
vulnerable and orphan children
Religious
institution
Almsgiving to
disadvantaged groups
such as orphans , disable
and aged persons
Lack organized and community
resource based care and
support system
strong
emphasis to
address the
felt need of
orphans and
Alarmingly
increasing
number of OVC
Emphasis to
Educate the community on different
issues
To mobilize followers to aware the
problem of children and give economic
127

Duty bearers Strengthens Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Future Directions
institutional and family
based care to few
orphans and other
vulnerable children


bedridden
people
give support to
their own
religious
followers

support children
providing education and advice to parents
and children
not to discriminate on the basis of religion
to support vulnerable
advice followers not discriminate
children and adults affected due to
HIV/AIDS
NGOs Awareness raising on
the magnitude and
severity of OVC
Providing care and
support to OVC

Emphasis to vulnerable
children in major towns
duplication of efforts due to
lack of networking and
integration
Limited financial and trained
manpower to intervene the
issue of OVC
Increasing
establishmen
t of local
NGOS
Prevalence of
many OVC in
need of care
and support
Lack of
sustainability of
the support
To implement policies ,strategies and
programs
To coordinate and create networking
among stakeholders
To strengthen the capacity of institutions
to design and implement income
generating schemes for vulnerable
children and their caregivers
To take the issue of children as their key
task and responsibility
To make easy the free treatment system
for children and poor families
To aware the legal frameworks and rights
of children to the community
To fill the gap that the government is
lacking


128

Chaptcr Fivc
Conclusion

The number of orphan and vulnerable children in Amhara region is alarmingly increasing from
time to time, mainly due to poverty, death of parents and other socio-economic factors (see
Fig.13).The prevalence of a huge number of orphans, street children, child commercial sex
workers, out of school children and children beggars are observable indicators of child
vulnerability in the region which results in the violation of the rights of children in many ways.
However, OVC have internationally and constitutionally recognized rights to get care and
support from the international community, government, NGOs, CBOs, FBOs, the family,
relatives, neighbors and members of the community. Child rights perspective recognizes
integrated efforts of all duty bearers to promote the wellbeing of orphan and vulnerable children.
The stakeholder analysis identifies the gaps; strengths and future directions (see Table 128).
5.1. Magnitude of OVC
According to the projection of ANRS BoFED, in 2007, there were 565, 578 children under 18
years in 39 study towns (BOFED, 2008). The counting conducted in 39 study towns identified
62,820 OVC (below 18 years), who had severe socio-economic problems. Accordingly, more
than 11% of the total children in these towns were OVC. Majority of OVC were under family
environment (about 80%). Street children and commercial sex workers constituted close to 15%
and 5% of the counted OVC population in 39 towns, respectively. The size of vulnerable
children varies from town to town. There is huge number of OVC in major towns due to large
population and socio-economic dynamics of these towns to attract people from rural and other
urban areas (see Table 7). The administration in 58 rural kebeles reported 4,741 orphan and
vulnerable children. On average, there were 79 highly vulnerable children in each rural kebele.
Based on the findings of the study, the situation of OVC is summarized below.
5.2 Situation of OVC under Family Environment
In the surveyed towns, female OVC population (51%) was slightly larger than male (49%).
Large majority of OVC were from Amhara ethnic group (92%) and households of Ethiopian
Orthodox Christianity (76%). Muslims constitute the next larger population of OVC (23.4%).
129

The data obtained from counting indicated that majority of OVC (68%) were living in female
headed household population. Some 3% of heads of the households were headed by children
below 18 years. Moreover, about 14% of OVC were under the care of aged persons who
themselves need care and support of adult instead of caring their children and grandchildren.
According to the finding of this study, OVC were living in households that had 4 household
members, on the average, which almost the same with the regional average household size(4.4).
A significant number of OVC (58%) were dependent on households who had four and more
members of households and of these close to 10% of the households had very large household,
more than six members. Moreover, as per sampled heads of the households a substantial size of
OVC were living with low income households in which more than 82% were engaged in low
paying economic activities. The educational level of majority of heads of the household was
illiterate (more than half) and up to 8
th
grade (35%).
More than 69% of the OVC population under family environment was either single or double
orphans. About 23% of the total OVC population was double orphans. Of the counted OVC
population paternal orphans (66% were much higher than maternal orphans (8%).
Similar to the result of the counting of OVC under family environment, large size of the sample
OVC under family environment (79.4%) were single or double orphans. About 40% of sampled
OVC were double orphans. The fathers and mothers of about 39.1% and 8.2% of the respondents
OVC were found to be died, respectively. In both the counting and sample study death of fathers
was high compared to mothers. The importance of mothers for survival and development is not
debatable. However, in society where males are the main breadwinners, death of fathers resulted
in high economic crisis for the family members as a whole and children in particular. The finding
of the counting and sample study concerning bedridden parents is the same in which nearly 1%
of parents were seriously sick. In both conditions, the percentage of bedridden mothers is slightly
higher than fathers. The prevalence of more bedridden mothers than fathers reflects the
likelihood of death of husbands due to HIV/AIDS.
Moreover, the sample study indicated that only about 4% of the sampled OVC were residing in
households where their mother and fathers were living together in marriage. However,
significant proportion of surviving parents of OVC (54.4%) was not living together which
negatively affects the normal development of children socially, psychologically and
economically.
130


Kinship and social relationship plays a very significant role for the survival of overwhelming
majority of OVC population under family environment. Large majority of OVC under family
environment (94%) were dependent on their parents and relatives and the rest of OVC under
family were residing using the social tie (3%) and employed as housemaid (3%). Specifically,
about 64 % of the OVC population was living with one or both of biological parents. Next to
parents, grandparents, siblings, aunts and uncles (30%) used to contribute in the care of
vulnerable children.
In the surveyed towns, 18% counted OVC population and about 30% of the sampled OVC under
family environment were migrants who came from rural and urban areas of Amhara Region and
other parts of Ethiopia. Vulnerable children used to leave their birth place due to socio-economic
factors. Of migrant children of the sample, pushing and pulling factors were death of parents
(35%), needs to attend education in urban areas (18%), family displacement (18%), seeking
employment, health problem( 6.7%.) urban lure(3%), shortage of land, poverty, quarrel with
parents, visiting relatives and the need to go to abroad.
The result of the study showed that OVC under family environment suffer from maltreatment of
their caregivers. Although about 79% sampled OVC replied that their caregivers used to give
advice them, significant portion of children under family environment was victim of insult
(73%), physical punishment (48%), scolding (27.5%), ignoring (16.8%) and withholding food
(9.6%). Moreover, 46% of caregivers used harsh forms of punishment to discipline the children
under their care. Moreover, girls were victims of female genital mutilation (42%), uvulectomy
(more than 33%), removal of milk teeth and tattooing (about 17%), and early marriage( 4.6% for
girls and 2.8% for girls).

More importantly, illness and death of parents exposed children to severe socio-economic
problems. The finding of the survey justified that more than 58% of sampled children in the
family faced shortage of food when their parents were bedridden and as a result became
caregivers of sick parents (39%), forced to work on the streets (22%) and withdrew school
(29.5%). Moreover, because of death of parents, sample children faced psychological problem
(67%), inadequacy food (59%), school dropping out (30%), forced to leave rented houses (25%),
working on the streets (23%).

131

In a society where most of the households are poor, illness and death of breadwinners has effect
of aggravating the state of poverty at household level. As a result of continuous illness, adults
generally withdraw from involving in income generating activities. Commonly, households use
the available resources for the treatment and care of bedridden parents and other household
members. Now-a-days, it is familiar that heads of the households use large portion of available
assets and financial resources for the care of seriously sick household members due to
HIV/AIDS. Because of the crisis, the likelihood of neglecting children is high. Furthermore,
following the death their parents, significant size of children faced difficulty of inheriting the
resources of deceased parents. Sometimes, the property of orphans is misused by their relatives
and guardians. They face complex problem during process of securing the right of inheritance
of the assets and pension rights of their deceased parents. Even after securing the legal rights,
some tutors misuse the resources of orphans.
Concerning education, the data obtained from counting OVC under family environment
indicates that of children age 5 to 17, 7% were not yet enrolled in school in which the rate of
children who did not enroll in school is higher for females (57%) than males (43%). Most of the
housemaids and baby-sitters were more likely out of school because employers of these
children are highly in need of their labor, instead of sending them to school
About 10% of sample children were not attending school in the 2006/7 academic year, in which
the rate of children who did not enrolled, and attended school in the survey year was in higher
for females than males. Though there is some variation in the proportion of school dropouts
(10% in OVC population and 25% in the sampled OVC under family environment), the rate is
found to be significant. On the other hand, children with disability were found to be
marginalized in terms of school attendance because more than 38% of school age children who
were under family environment and nearly 5% of the counted OVC were children with
disability were not attending school in 2006/7. According to sampled children and caregivers
the leading contributory factors for school dropping out of OVC were death of parents (68.6%)
as well as economic constraints and poor academic achievement (31.4%). This is a challenge to
attain the millennium development goal of education. According to the millennium goal, by the
year 2015, the education coverage in urban areas has to reach 100%.
Regarding the health situation of OVC, 51% of respondent caregivers replied that OVC under
their care were sick sometimes and frequently, at the time of the survey. About 35% of these
132

mentioned that children who had some illness did not get proper treatment due to financial
constraint (98%) and lack of medicine (2%).
Among those caregivers who took sick OVC under their care to government health institutions
(87%), a significant size of them were paying (74%) and faced some constraint while using
public health institutions (94%) such as lack of drug and referring to buy medicine from private
drug vendors (73%) and lack of access to free treatment (23%).
Though large majority of sample OVC under family environment were dependent on parents and
relatives (85%), the study depicted that the basic needs of OVC under family environment were
not met. Thus, more than 65% of sample children and 75% of sample caregivers reported that
OVC under family environment was not adequately clothed. Moreover, both sample children and
caregivers reported that the daily food requirement of considerable size of sample children
under family environment were facing shortage of food (more than half of them used to eat
below trice per day) and lacked balanced diet (98% of them did not obtain balanced food that
constitute meat, milk, vegetables and fruits). Sixty four percent of guardians and parents of
vulnerable children believe that the children under their care are not well fed because of being
poor (92.5%), unemployed (54.3%) and withdrawal from work due to health problem(16.8%).
Therefore, these children and their caregivers were trying to fill the food shortage through
childrens work (34 %), support from neighbors (17.4%), GOs (11.5%), friends (8.9%) and GOs
(6.7%).

The finding of the study showed that one of the most serious problems of OVC from low
income households is housing and associated facilities. Both sample children and caregivers
mentioned that majority of them (more than 70%) were living in houses that had poorly
constructed floors and ceilings and inadequate rooms.

In addition, orphaned children did not have security of housing. Concerning this, about 54%
sampled children mentioned that most children faced financial constraint to pay house rent
following the dearth of their parents. Some of sampled children were forced to leave kebele
(12%) and private rented houses (15.9%) as well as difficulty of inheriting their deceased
parents houses (25%).
Most OVC (more than 75%) were living in the households that did not have their own private
pipe water. Due to this, the sources of water for majority of the households were buying from
133

communal water points; other households who had own pipe and unclean water sources (such
river, stream, unprotected spring and wells.

Vast number of OVC under family environment (76%) was residing with households who did
not have private toilet facility and used to defecate on open field (43%) and common latrine
(33%).
Vulnerable children and their caregivers have similar perception regarding the psychological
problems of orphans. Accordingly, most sampled children faced grief (88%), loneliness (62%,
disturbance (50%, hopelessness (48%), and distress (41%) and nightmare (14.3% following the
death of their parents. Likewise, caregivers confirmed that grief (75.6%), loneliness (65%,
hopelessness (62%), stress, anxiety, nightmare, and fear and disturbance are the most observable
problem of orphans.

Almost the same proportion of sample children (52% to 67) and caregivers (57% to 66%) of
children under family environment perceived that relatives, neighbors, friends and the
community had sympathetic attitude towards OVC. Similarly, 9 % to 16% of sampled children
and caregivers perceived that the aforementioned social groups used to render all kinds of
support to children at risk. On the other hand, sample children (15% to 32% and caregivers (20%
to 27%) replied that relatives, neighbors, friends and the community have negative attitude
towards OVC. The members of these social groups reflect their attitude towards these children
by discriminating, excluding, insulting and ridiculing, as well as by perceiving them as unlucky,
cursed and hopeless.
Moreover, most sample caregivers preferred kinship-based assistance (62%). It is best alternative
to care children under difficult circumstances are to provide financial and other economic
support by placing them with their close relatives. In absence of relatives it is better to use
institutional care (17.3%), adoption (11.6%) and non-relative foster caregivers (9.6%).

5.3. Situation of Street Children
The study explores the situation of two categories street children (children on and of the street)
who actual join street life. Accordingly, majority of street children were children on the street
(88%).In terms of gender, about 90% of street children were boys.
The proportion of migration of sample children on the street is found to be high (41%) as as
compared with sampled OVC children under family envirioment(30%). On the other hand, large
134

proportion of children of the street (61%) was found migrants compared to children on the street
(41%). Most children on the street migrated from rural (64%) and urban (27%) areas of the
region. The rest 9% came from rural and urban areas outside Amhara Region. The migration rate
(78%) of boys on street was higher than street girls (22%). Almost all of the children on the
street migrated due to family and economic related reasons such as search for employment
(30%), death of parents (25.3%), interest to visit relatives, family displacement (12.1%), scarcity
of land, drought, poverty, lack of school attendance (15.4%) and disagreement with parents
(11.5%).

Like children on the street, substantial proportion of children of the street (64%) came from
rural areas of Amhara region, followed by migrants from urban areas of the region (28% and
outside Amhara region (8%). Majority of children of the street migrated due to synergic socio-
economic factors: death of parents (33.2%), search for employment (24.1%), quarrel with
biological and stepparents (23.4%) and other reasons (19.6%) such as poverty, urban attraction,
peer pressure, family dislocation, and interest to attend education, war, visiting relatives, and
drought and health problem. A significant number of children of the street (23%) migrated due to
quarrel with parents compared to children on the street (11.5%).
According to the finding of this study, the primary factor that pushed children on the street to
work on street is poverty (47.1%) followed death and illness of parents (28.2%) and
disagreement with biological and stepparents (7%). Unlike children on the street, the leading
factor that pushed children of the street to enter into street life is death and illness of parents
(46%), followed by poverty (33%) and disagreement with biological and stepparents (19.3%)
On the basis of this survey half of sample children on the street were living in the households
that had large family size (four and more family members). About 62% of them were orphans.
Of the sample street children, 34.3%, 17% and 11 % were paternal, double and maternal orphans
respectively. About 35% of the surviving parents either separated or divorced.
According to sample survey, children on street were involved in street-base economic activities:
shoe shining and repairing (32%), carrying goods (23%), sale of processed and semi-processed
food items (22%). The rest involve in array of income generating activities and begging.
Street-base economic activities seem to be based on gender division of labor. More boys were
engaged in shoe polishing, broker, sale of cigarettes and household utensils, carrying goods, shop
135

vendor and taxi assistant than girls. On the other hand, the involvement of girls in sale of semi
and processed food items is high as compared to boys on the street.
Different from children on the street most of children of the streets were carrying goods of adults
at market places and on the streets (49.7%), followed by shoe shining and repairing (15.7%)
which is the first type of activity in the case of children on the street. Some 30.6% of children of
the street engaged in 13 different types of economic activities. Begging is a means of getting
income for 5% of children of the street, which is greater in proportion when compared to
children on the street.

Similar to that of children on the street, the income from working on the street is not sufficient to
the livelihood of children of the streets. It is obvious that urban streets are places of playing;
sleeping and working for children of the street. By virtue of this, feeding and clothing status of
all of children of the street is very much poor. More than two- third of sample children on the
street had shortage of food and used to below thrice a day. Only 10.4% of children on street
were said the the income was sufficient to fulfil thier food requirement.Thus, most of children
on the street had to look for addtional alternatives to get food. The major sources of fulfiling
the food gap were parents, realatives, neighbors, friends, GOs, NGOs, collecting leftover food
and begging.
Unlike that of children on the street and OVC under family environment, most children of street
used to beg money from charity givers on the streets and around churches and mosques (12%);
and collect children leftover food hotels, bars ,and universities(59.3% and waste garbage(6.4%).

Concerning the housing of children on the street, more than 62% were living with of their
relatives and parents, 18.7% in group rented houses and 7.7% in individually rented houses and
11% in friends house without paying rent. Moreover, these children had close relationship with
their parents (51%), relatives (15%), friends (29%) and neighbors (2%).

Concerning their health status, the proportion of sampled children of the street (42%) who had
some health problem during the survey time was higher than that of children on the street (31%).
Moreover, majority children of the street had some illness during the data collection time didn't
get treatment (62.4%) which is much higher when compared to 37% in the case of children on
the street. A significant percentage of children on the street (41%) got treatment by paying for
government health institutions as against those treated without paying (22%). Of those sampled
children of the street about 27% used to pay to the health care institutions for the treatment
136

which higher than to those children on the street who obtained the chance of free treatment
(10.5%)

Regarding schooling, about 10% of sample children on the street were not enrolled. Moreover,
36% of the sample children on the street were not attending school in 2006/7 academic year
because of poverty, death of parents, economic constraints to fulfill school uniforms, low
academic performance and quarrel with parents. The proportion of children of the street who
were not yet enrolled in school was found to be higher (19%) compared to OVC under family
environment and children on the street. In contrast to children on the street, large majority of
children of the street (70%) did not attend formal education in 2006/7 academic year, most of
whom were school dropouts due to their severe living condition. This indices that children of the
street are the most marginalized group in terms of education.
Although 68% of sample street children replied that their caregivers used to advise them not
perform mistake, significant size of them reported they were victims of severe forms of
punishment such as insulting (74%), physical punishment (58.1%), ignoring (21.8%),
withholding food (19.4%) and scolding (17.1%). Additionally, children on the street were
victims of HTP and labor exploitation. About 29%, 12% and 4% of the sample children were
victims of uvulectomy and removal of milk teeth and tattoo, respectively. Some 3% of sample
female children on the street encountered female genital mutilation.

Generally, substantial proportion of children of the street was found to be victims of different
types of substance abuses. The percentage of users was between 1.8% and 14% in the case of
children on children where as in the case of children of the street it was 2.5% to 21%.
Furthermore, because of being on the street and lack of supervision of parents some 20% of
children of the street were users of one or substances. Boys on the street were more exposed to
substance abuse than girls. Only less than 2% of girls on the street were smoking, taking alcohol
and chewing khat. Boys on the street were users of alcohol (13.3%) and gambling (13.9%), khat
(9%), smoke (4.8%) hashish (4.8%) and addictive drugs (1.8%). More than 20% of the sampled
children of the street used to play gambling and chew chat. About 17% of children of the street
were smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. 2.5% to 3.3% were users of addictive drugs,
hashish, and benzene.
Children of the street are more victims of different types of abuses than children on the street. A
substantial number of children of the street were insulted (73.1%) and beaten (62.7%), victims of
137

labor exploitation (more than 54%), snatching (38.5%), and forced to play gambling (14.7%).
About 26% of respondent girls of the street were sexually abused and raped by street boys and
adults (55.6%), strangers (44.4%) and their employers. Moreover, 23% of children of the street
were beaten by police.
Though less in percentage when compared to children of the street, a siginificant size of sample
children on the streeet were victims of the following kinds of abuses: refusal of payment for
the work done (29.8%), receiving low payment for the work done ( 46.1%), insulting by
people (74%) and beating by poepole on the street (46.2%), beating by policemen(11%),
snaching of their money and propery by others (35%), forced to play gambling (9.2%) by adults
and street children and paying money to get the protection from adults (8.7%). Close to 5% of
girls on the street were sexually abused by street boys, adults and strangers.
High percentage of sampled children of the street was arrested by police (22.5%) than
children on the street (12%). Most of children of the street (72%) were arrested due to group
and individual conflict. About 26% of later children were arrested on suspicion of involving in
theft and robbery. Similarly, a significant number of children on the street (59.7%) were arrested
by police due to suspicion of involvement in individual and group conflict. The rest (27.7%)
were arrested because of theft, robbery and drug smuggling.

As children on the street are without the supervision of their relatives and working far from their
villages, they are exposed to feeling of insecure and emotional problems that emanate from their
overwhelming situation. The feeling of orphan on the street children is more serious. Most
orphan children on the street had feeling grief (89.9%), which is followed by loneliness,
hopelessness, feeling of disturbed and stress in order of frequency of respondents.

Although 54% of sample children on the street perceived that the public considered them as
innocent victims that joined street due to socioeconomic reasons, a significant proportion (45.3%
of them perceived that community had negative attitude towards them by labeling as delinquents,
criminals, and danger to the community. The negative attitude of the community might be due to
the involvement of some street children in criminal activities. Regarding their perception in
sharing their problem, 67.5% of sample children viewed the public as kind and helpful. For
23.5% the sample children of street the public was perceived to be inhuman and cruel.

According to more than half of children of the street, the community has negative perception
towards them, considering them as delinquents, criminals and dangerous. To about 48.6%
138

perceived that as the community considered them as innocent victims. Majority of the
interviewed children of the street (68%) has positive attitude towards the community, perceiving
helpful and supportive. For about 27% of these children, the community is inhuman and cruel
which lacks to share their problem.
5.4. Situation of Child Commercial Sex Workers
Greater part of sample female commercial sex workers were followers of Ethiopian Orthodox
Church (88.7%), Amhara (about 92%), and 16 to 17 years old (87.3%). The rest were Muslims
and 14 to 15 years of age. Like children of the street, majority of CCSW (76.6%) were migrants
from rural areas (43.6% and other urban centers (34.7%).
Some 22% were illiterate. Level of education of most of this group of (67%) was in primary and
middle high school. What is important is that all of CCSW did not attend school in 2006/7
academic year.
Previously, most of the child commercial sex workers were students and dependents on family
(66%). Next to this, 18.2% were housemaids and daily laborers. This indicates that girls who
faced labor exploitation by employers at households and other activities also involved in
commercial sex work. Some 4.5% were housewives which show the contribution of early
marriage and divorce in joining prostitution.

Unlike street children in general, the main cause for the migration of CCSW is quarrel with
biological and stepparents (36.8%). However, disagreement between parents and children could
arise due to lack of fulfilling the needs of adolescent girls. Lack of fulfilling their needs is
attributed to poor economic condition of parents, parents lack of proper skill for upbringing
children or unequal treatment of children in the case of stepparents. The next pushing factor is
looking for employment in urban areas (26.5%), followed death of parents (22.4%) and other
factors (14.3%) such as visiting relatives in urban areas and in quest of attending education,
family dislocation and urban lure.
Almost all of respondent CCSW were engaged in prostitution because of socio-economic
pushing factors. Death of parents is the leading (19%), followed by lack of employment (18.6%),
poverty (16.6%) and pressure of friends (15.5%) and disagreement with biological and
stepparent (15.1%, quarrel with husbands (2.4%) and sexual desire (1.4%).
139

Female child commercial sex workers did not have regular house, who were using more than one
sleeping places even during the survey week, when they did not have sexual clients. The most
common sleeping and resting places were alcoholic drinking establishments (37%), rented
dormitories that were shared in group (30.1%), individually rented dormitories (25.6%), and
houses of their parents and relatives (10.4%) and night clubs (7.3%). Some 1% spent the night by
wondering on the streets.
Moreover, most child commercial sex workers were victims of one or more assaults from their
sexual clients and employers. Large majority (67.7%) of the respondents faced verbal assault and
insult from the sexual clients. Some 45%, 44% and 11% % encountered physical assault from
clients and employers and verbal assault form employers, respectively. Child commercial
workers were found to be prone to STDs and HIV/AIDS because majority of the interviewed
girls (65.6%) reported clients refusal to use condom.
CCSW were also faced sexual, labor and economic exploitation. Hence, they were found victims
of excessive sexual intercourse (51.2%), forced sexual relation (35.2%), clients refusal to pay
(47.6), sharing income from commercial sex to employers (17.2%), workload and low salary
(36.2%), unwanted pregnancy (18%), and STD (10%). As a result of exploitative situation and
the demand of girls to wear fashion clothes that most of the girls in commercial work had
financial constraint. Some 11% of these girls gave birth and had a child. In addition, because of
being in commercial sex work, these girls were users of alcoholic drinks (60.1%), khat (40.2%),
and cigarettes (16.2%), hashish, addictive drugs and benzene as well as playing gambling.
5.5. Situation of OVC in Rural Kebeles
Out of the total children in 60 rural kebeles, about 53% were males. In rural areas orphan,
children from very poor and divorced parents, and children living with disability are most
observable vulnerable children. Some bedridden parents were reported in 48 kebeles. Children in
these situations faced shortage of food, inadequate clothing, housing and health problem. Almost
in all the study rural kebeles, there were some households that had food shortage because of
absence of land to carry out agricultural activities (in about 91% of the kebeles), shortage of land
in all the kebeles and low land productivity (90%).
A substantial proportion of rural OVC (70%) were double or single orphans. Majority of these
children had attachment with their parents and extended kinship system. About 7% of the total
reported OVC in rural kebeles were children with disability.
140

In rural kebeles, the principal coping mechanism of children at risk is to be dependent on their
relatives. In most of rural kebeles, orphan children, who don't have relatives to rely on, have to
be employed as daily laborers for farming activities, animal keeping and as housemaids in better
off peasant households. One-third of rural kebeles reported migration of orphans and children
from poor rural households to urban areas, due to dearth of parents and for looking job
opportunities such to work on urban streets, to be employed as housemaids and baby-sitters in
urban households, daily laborers and home-base, service giving institutions and economic
activities. These children are victims of labor and economic exploitation and physical and
emotional abuses.

In the study rural kebeles, there were significant number of children who did not attend school
due to parents' unwillingness (in about 52% of the study kebeles), lack of support (in 25% of the
kebeles and death of parents (in 16% of the kebeles). Lack of school reported as reason for not
attending school in only four kebeles.
Similar to urban OVC, OVC in rural kebeles were facing problem of inheriting the resources
(including land) held by their deceased parents. In most rural kebeles (90%), orphans faced
difficulty of inheriting the land held by their deceased parents due to illegal claimants and long
litigation. Because of delay in fulfilling the requirements and absence of taking the case to
concerned bodies, the land held by deceased parents could sometimes be transferred to other
landless rural residents.

Like OVC in urban settings, vulnerable children in rural areas were victims of physical and
emotional abuses. However, rural parents practice, emotional, verbal and physical punishment as
the first and widely used method of child discipline in most kebeles.Uvulectomy, female genital
mutilation, removal of milkteeth early marriage, tattooing are widely practised in majority of
the study kebeles .
OVC in only 24 rural kebeles obtained some support from the community, government, non-
government (NGOs), Community- based (CBOs) and faith -based organizations (FBOs). NGOs
play the leading role in the care and support of OVC in about 78% of the rural kebeles, followed
by government aid (42%), the community (19%), CBOs (13%) and FBOs (8.3%). Some children
in rural kebeles obtained financial, food, health care, housing, clothing and educational materials
assistance. In only 8 kebeles, there was community based support which relied on financial
contribution of members of the community and donation of NGOs and FBOs.

141

5.6. Cause and effect relationships of Child Vulnerability
As discussed above causes and problems OVC are multifaceted which depend upon the socio-
economic situation of the community and family. According to respondents, key informants and
participants of focus group discussion the major causes for the prevalence of OVC are poverty
and death of parents. Poverty is the reflection of low level of socio-economic development of the
region. Large family size (due to high fertility and population pressure), drought, earlier period
prolong war, shortage and low productivity of land and unemployment are the main causes of
poverty in the region. Death of parents is alarmingly increasing because of the pandemics of
HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other causes which leave thousands of children without
caregivers. The overwhelming result of child vulnerability is violation of the rights of children in
many respects and prevalence of different types (categories) of OVC. Based on the out come of
the survey, the cause-effect relationship of child vulnerability is analyzed using problem three
approach ( see Fig. 13).










142


Figure 13: OVC Problem Three Analysis

5.7. Major Categories of OVC in Amhara Region
As presented in Figure 12 above, the effects of poverty and death of parents are prevalence of
a number of children out of school, insufficient food, poor housing condition, illness and poor
access to health care services, child abandoning and others child abuses. Based on the
response of caregivers and institutions that provide care and support for OVC, the study
identifies the following major categories of OVC in Amhara Region.
1. Orphans: Large majority of OVC are orphans in Amhara Region who constitute 69% of
the total OVC population in the study towns and 70% of vulnerable children in rural kebeles.
It is alarmingly increasing at family and community level. About 63% of the respondent
caregivers reported the prevalence of at least one orphan who lost one or both of his/her
Violation of Child Right
Poverty
Psychological problems
Inheritance problem
Children without adequate
care
Death of parents
Illness of parents
Unemployment
Large family size
Shortage of land
Low productivity
Migration Out of school
children
Insufficient
food
Housing
problem
Malaria
TV & HIV/AIDS
Other Causes
Illness and
poor access to
health
services
Infant
Abandoning
Child Vulnerability
Population Pressure and
Socio-cultural factors
Increasing Number of OVC in Amhara Region
Child headed
households
Street children
Orphans
Children of
Bedridden

Child
Prostitutes
Child abuse
discrimination
and
exploitation
and others
143

parents not because of HIV/AIDS who was under their care. In 24% of sampled heads of the
household (caregivers) at leas one suspected and actual orphan due to HIV/AIDS was found,
respectively. The major causes for the presence of orphans were malaria, tuberculosis and
HIV/AIDS.
2. Street Children: Street children are easily observable category of OVC who were household
members of 21% of respondent caregivers.
3. Children Living with Disability: About 5% of counted OVC population under family
environment was children with disability. About 13 % the respondent heads of the households
reported the prevalence of at least one child with disability in their family. Of these heads of
households who reported children with disability, nearly 51% of children with disability were
physical disable and the rest 49% were mentally retarded, deaf, and blind and mute. Large
proportion of these children became disabled due to disease (43.1%), at birth (31%), due to accident
(15.5%) and lack of vaccination (5.2%), hereditary (5.2%). Being in state of disability exposes
children to other forms abuses including sexual violence and discrimination and exclusion from
social services.
4. Displaced Children: According to more than 15% of the respondent households, there were
displaced children in their families. About 24% of the respondents knew displaced children in their
village community. According to respondents' heads of the households, the major causes for the
displacement of parents and children were drought, .war, internal conflicts and economic reasons.
5. Housemaid/Baby-sitters: These are invisible group of OVC. Better off rural and urban
households usually employ orphan and vulnerable girls as nannies and housemaids to carry out
home-based chores such as preparation food, house cleaning, fetching water and firewood, washing
clothes, and sale of beverages. Better off households also hire girls who have economic constraints
and lost their parents. Therefore, 8% of the respondents reported the prevalence of OVC who were
housemaid or baby-sitters in their households. Nearly 31% of the respondents knew children who
work as housemaid and baby-sitters. Child housemaids are victims of physical, emotional abuse and
labor exploitation in both urban and rural areas. In urban areas, female vulnerable children carry out
many household activities for many hours and beyond their capacity, mostly until midnight. They
are caregivers of children of the wealthy and middle income households. They are physical
punished and insulted by their employers and children. Most of the employers hire orphan and
144

vulnerable children with very low monthly or yearly payment. Some of the employers even fire
housemaids without paying their salary.
6. Child Marriage: In about 10% sampled heads of households, there were early married girls.
About 15% of the respondents also knew female children who were victims of child marriage in
their village communiy. This is the reflection of the wideprevalnce of early marriage in the region.
But the regional goverment is trying to stop child marriage in rural area by increasing the minimum
age at first marriage to 18 years.
7. Child Commercial Sex Workers: Six percent of the caregivers reported the involvement of
young girls in prostitution from their household members. Moreover , about 16% of caregiver
repondents knew young girls under 18 years old who became prostitute in the community due to
combination of socio-economic factors.
8. Sexually Abused Children: About 3% of the respondent heads of the households care sexually
abused (including rape). About 13% of the interviewed caregivers knew sexually abused child in
their village community.
9. Child Abandonment: Infant abandonment is the most serious form of child maltreatment in
which mothers abandon their new born child out of sight at nights near health institutions and
bridges. About 4% of the repondents said that there were abandoned children which were under
their care during the survey period. Similarly, 12% of the repondents knew cases of child
abandonment in their village community in the last five years.
Mothers abandon thier children because of socioeconomic factors. According to 50.4% of the
repsondents (caregivers) the causes of child abandoment were child birth due to rape and unwanted
pregnacy. Nearly 28% of the respondent heads of the household replied that mothers also
abandoned infants due to povery ( low income).Moreover ,18% of the repondents did know why
mothers abandoned their children. According to sampled heads of the households, infants were
ababdoned by students( 27%), by prostitutes(14.9%), housemaids (14.1%), street girls (10.9%) and
married women (3.9%). It is because child abandonment is criminal activity that nearly 29% of the
respondents did not know the social status of the mothers who committed it.
10. Children in Conflict with the Law: more than 36% of the repondents knew children who
involved in criminal activities in thier village community.Moreover, about 42% of the respondents
knew suspected cases of children who involve in criminal activities. Close to 56% of sampled
145

heads of the household replied that children mostly involve in theft and robbery which is followed
by group and individual conflicts (29.%),gambling (12.8%) and sexual violence (2.1%). Almost
corresponding to major type of criminal activity, 91% of the caregivers responded that the leading
pushing factor to committ is povery , which is followed by peer pressure (77.3%), low academic
performance (47%) and sexual desire (14% and political factors ( 1%).
11. Children of Bedridden Parents: Serious illness of parents affects negatively the social,
intellectual and physical development of children. Available literature depicts the increasing trend
of bedridden parents and child headed households due to the death of parents because of
HIV/AIDS. Nearly 35% of the respondents (caregivers) reported that they knew bedridden parents
in the village. According to majority of the respondents (heads of the household), malaria,
tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are the leading causes of being bedridden for parents.

Identification of the types of vulnerable children is valuable for intervention. Merging vulnerable
children in particular categories could overlook the need and characteristics of specific category of
children at risk. Categorizing and characterization of OVC has to be based on assessment and the
current situation of children at risk.

On the basis of the findings of this situational analysis on OVC and reviewing categories of
Ethiopia and other African countries, characterization and categorization of vulnerable children
become important. In addition to the previous 11categoriies of OVC in Ethiopia, the following
additional types of children at risk has to get attention in right- based child programming by GOs,
NGOs, FBOs, and CBOs in Amhara Region.

1. Children employed as housemaid/baby-sitters;
2. Children living with bedridden parents and guardians;
3. child headed households;
4. Children with their mothers in prison; and,
5. Child commercial sex workers
Generally, the intervention programs on OVC in Amhara Region have to give focus to address the
felt needs of the following categories of orphan and vulnerable children.
1. orphan;
2. street children;
3. abandoned and unaccompanied;
146

4. traumatized children;
5. displaced children;
6. children with disability ;
7. children with insufficient family support;
8. abused and neglected children;
9. child mothers;
10. children in child care institutions ( in orphanages);
11. children in conflict with the law;
12. children employed as housemaid/ baby-sitters
13. children living with bedridden parents and guardians;
14. child headed households;
15. Children with their mothers in prison; and,
16. Sexually abused female children (child commercial sex workers )
5.8. Responses to promote the Rights of OVC
The Response to promote rights of OVC in Amhara Region has the following characteristics.
1. Increasing trend of OVC threatens the capacity of the kinship system and the local community
response
2. More than half of OVC in the study towns don't get care and support from children focused
organizations
3. The care and support:
basically depends upon international community
lacks data to prioritize the most neediest OVC
limited to urban areas with low coverrage
lacks sustainablity and continunity
lacks organized local resource mobilization, networking, integration, and monitoring
and evaluation system
98% of orphan and vulnerable children are under family and community-based care
The most felt needs of OVC are food; clothing and housing. However, below 30% of
OVC obtained holistic assistance.
Care giving organizations were focusing on providing educational (56%) and
sanitation materials (45.6%) to OVC.
147

To conclude, OVC face not only economic, social and psychological problem as a result of death of
parents and poverty but also victims of discrimination and social exclusion to some extent.
The major finding of the study indicates that the livelihood of most OVC in both urban and rural areas of
Amhara Region depends upon their parents, relatives, neighbors, friends, and god and step parents. Similarly,
most external driven interventions are relying on family and community based care and support.
On the basis of this condition, it becomes imperative to take a look at the Theory of Social capital. As cited
by Awan (2007) , Coleman (1988), Bordieu (1993) and Hunter (2003) conceptualized social capital theory
as networks of social relationship which are characterized by norms of trust , reciprocity, and closeness
which emanate from on living together, kinship, friendship and neighborhood, and which leads to mutually
beneficial.
Therefore, OVC and child care providing organizations in the region are using the social capital, operating
through childrens relationship with their immediate family members and relatives, as well as friends,
neighbors and other religious and social based ties. The existing family and extended kinship based care and
support for OVC goes the family code of the Amhara region. On the other hand, the extent of kinship and
social net work based relationship is not the same all categories of OVC. For instance, most of children of
the street and child commercial sex workers have weak kinship relationship as compared to OVC under
family environment and children on the street.
The respondents, focus group participants and key informants argued that the relatives, the
community, neighbors and friends of OVC are important social institutions for care and support of
OVC. More importantly, from the perspective of the CRC, children have the right to get care and support
from all duty bearers including local and international community, government, CBOs, NGOs and FBOs,
parents, relatives and children. What important is that the international and constitutional rights of children
has to be integrated with kinship and social networking-based relationships in the process of promoting the
wellbeing of orphan and vulnerable children in the region.






148

Chapter Six
Recommendations

The recommendation is developed based on the situation analysis on OVC, gaps of care and support
program and stakeholders analysis of this situational study. It is proposed formulation of
operational policy, action plan, structure, strengthening community and kinship based response to
address the need of orphan and vulnerable children. The strategy of promoting the wellbeing of
OVC has to depend on prevention based holistic care and support program. Preventing children
from exposure to vulnerability and abuses has to rely on synergic policy, legal, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation frameworks.
6.1. Developing Regional Operational OVC Policy and Action Plan
The constitution of Amhara National Regional state recognizes the survival and development rights
of children and the care to be provided to orphan and vulnerable children. However, there are many
children who are at risk in the region. This is due to the limited capacity of the regional government
and lack of strong functional system to intervene the needs of most vulnerable children. The effort
of GOs, NGOs, CBOS and FBOs to alleviate the issue of OVC has to be back-up by operational
policy and enforcing legal framework
The Amhara National Regional State has core role in ensuring the rights and welfare of orphan and
vulnerable children. The international agreements, the regional constitution and the family code and
other legal frameworks oblige it to take action.
The growing number of OVC because of povery and death of parents (due to HIV/AIDS marlaria,
tuberclosis and other diseases) entails developing workable policy and guideline to adresss the
problem. Care and support to the needy is constitutional, human right and development issue. Key
informants and focus group discussion participants in the study towns stated that the government
has to strengthen its effort and commitment to address the needs of orphan and vulnerable children
through formulating operational, comprehensive and appropriate policy and developing action plan.
The effort of non-government organizations to alleviate the issue of OVC has to be back-up by
operational policy and enforcing legal framework. It is also necessary to set policy and strategy in
the areas of increasing the income of the households, resource mobilization, institutional setup,
149

programming, and implementation, prioritization of the most needy children, implementation,
networking, monitoring and evaluation of interventions on OVC, addressing rural and urban
children, types of care and support and legal protection.
The programmatic frameworks of protection and care of children must be multicultural and have to
be integrated to health, education and development programs. Strategies must include: developing
regional action plan to guide programming, reviewing, strengthening, and developing child laws
and protection services; and strengthening delivery of education, health, securing the food
requirement of OVC and other essential services. These efforts require widespread governmental
collaboration with international organizations, donors, NGOs, religious groups, community
associations and the private sector.
Administrative organs at all levels have to play strong mobilization and leadership roles to pool
resources of local, national and international community in order resolve shortage fund for essential
services. Orphan and vulnerable children have to benefit from the resources allocated. To this end,
establishing supervision, monitoring and evaluation system is imperative to ensure implementation
of policies, laws and programs. The regional policy and action plan has to incorporate the following
issues:
1. Defining the problems and special cosideration to most vulnerable chilkdren identfiied by
this situtional study.
2. Mechanisms of promoting family, kinship, social tie and community based care and
support to OVC;
3. setting minimum standards for alternative care of OVC living with guardians or foster care
parents ;
4. developing protection measures to prevent separation of siblings;
5. Developing mechanisms of free legal counseling and service to protect the inheritance
rights of OVC;
6. Mechanisms of prevention of discrimination of OVC and HIV/AIDS affected citizens in
health care, schools and other social services ;
7. Mechanisms of resource mobilization both from the international community and local
community;
8. mechanisms of ensuring survival and development rights of OVC including education,
housing, nutrition, clothing health care and social services ;
9. Mechanisms of protecting orphans and vulnerable children from all forms of abuse,
violence, exploitation , discrimination, trafficking and loss of inheritance;
150

10. Mechanisms of providing appropriate counseling and psycho-social support at individual
and community level ;
11. Mechanism of ensuring non-discrimination and full and equal enjoyment of all human
rights through the promotion of an active and visible policy of de-stigmatization;
12. Developing mechanisms of regular assessment and supporting participatory strategic
program planning to each categories of OVC in the region;
13. Strengthening community mobilization to increase the capacity of communities to identify
vulnerable children and design, implement and monitor their own OVC support activities;
14. Integrating OVC support with home-based care to bedridden parents and caregivers and
comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention;
15. Supporting comprehensive, culturally appropriate psychosocial interventions for OVC;
16. Assisting in the development of strategies and partnerships to create or maintain
household resources and community safety nets;
17. Developing mechanisms of supporting child-headed households and children as
caregivers;
18. Supporting interventions to reduce institutionalization and abandonment of children;
19. Monitoring and evaluating OVC programs and protecting OVC resources ;
20. Mainstreaming the care and support of OVC (multi-sectoral policy development, advocacy
and capacity building);
21. Promoting the establishment of grassroots child advocacy organizations;
22. Mechanism of Integerating OVC with the broader CRC promotion advocacy; and,
23. Mechanisms of increasing child participation in all areas that concern OVC.
6.2. Establishing Comprehensive Social Welfare Fund
Majority of key informants and focus group discussion participants argued that local community
response to promote the rights and welfare of OVC is not only at lower level (under the interest of
few benevolent individuals and community based organization) but also lacks integration.
Establishing social welfare fund by pooling the effort of the community members will contribute to
the welfare of children at risk. Moreover, conditions that necessitate the establishment of social
welfare fund in the region are:
Growing number of OVC who face shortage of food , out of school, health problem, street
life
Scattered and unorganized individual and religious -based philanthropic support
International community driven care and support for few OVC
151

Lacking integrated local community resource and initiative based care and support
Loosening of parents and relatives based care due to poverty
Attempts to help OVC
Lack of system to mobilize local responses

Moreover, respondents stated that community has good attitude towards OVC. It shows its response
to help orphans through organizing itself in philanthropic associations and Iddirs. In some urban
areas community based organizations (Iddirs) are trying to update their by-law in a way to care and
support members and their children who face economic and pychosocial problems. Establishing
child welfare fund is very essential. In this regard, there is an attempt to mobilize resource from the
community to help persons affected by HIV/AIDS. It is also better to share experience and model
from the financial mobilization for sport in the region
As a result of low economic capacity of the families, parents encourage and push children below 18
years old to work on the street by saying you have to work to eat. In addition, children who
observe the poverty of their parents look outside to eat and dress well. Due to this the issue of OVC
is wide and severe that becomes beyond the capacity of scattered and almsgiving-based support by
community members to the neediest segments of society of the community and also limited
intervention of the government in establishing organized way of resource mobilization.
Effort has to be made to mobilize resource from the community. In order to establish child welfare
fund government employees, traders, investors, peasants and other have to clearly discuss about the
magnitude and severity of OVC. Every citizen has to contribute and pay by considering it as
important as government revenue tax. Employees have to be organized in a way to help poor
children. System has to be created so as to mobilize the community towards contributing its
resources to the needy children in an organized way. Moreover, the community has to be aware of
the problem and find appropriate intervention mechanisms and participate actively in resource
mobilization. Appropriate community-based system has to be established at all levels.
Moreover , the regional government has to strengthen its commitement by allocating some fund for
OVC. The most serous problem of OVC in Amhara region is food shortage. Chidren that do not get
food three times in a day are too many. The size of children that is out of school is siginificant.
The state support should take the form of exemption from school frees, free health care and securing
their food requirement through establishing urban social safety net program. Even though the
152

some support is availaible, like universal primary education, in reality, there are many children who
are dropped out of school because of lack of money to fulfil school uniforms and educational
materials. In addition, children may not attend school due to family demands, such as the need for
children to generate income to replace lost adult income or to care for ill family memnbers.
6.3. Reinforcing Operational Structure
At present, Amhara National Region Bureua of Labor and Social Affair is the major responsible
government organization to promote the welfare and rights of vulnerable children. The regional
HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Secretariat office (HAPCO) is the other important
institution in the area of mobilizing resource for OVC and HIV/AIDS prevention and control
from the international community. Mostly, HAPCO directly monitors and evaluates funds
channeled through it. On other hand, child focused NGOs , CBOs and CBOs soliciate financial,
technical and material assistance from more than one donor in which HAPCOs direct
involvement in project appraisal, monitoring and evaluation is minimal. It is difficult to
control funds that are mobilized and solicited other than HAPCO. As a result of this gap , the
likielyhood of depulication of efforts is high.
On the other hand, data on magnitude of vunerable children, and support to OVC is lacking.
There is also limiattion of coodinating, monitoring and evaluation of OVC programs which are
carried out by different organizations and the community.
Therefore, strengthening capacity of BOLSA in terms of structure, manpower and budget is
timley so as to program, coordinate, implement, monitor and evaluate the issue of child rights
and welfare. BOLSA has to play its leading role, properly. It has to be to be transformed into key
sector and capacitated in a way to influence and actively incorporate the issue of children in
allover development and poverty reduction endeavors in Amhara region. It has to have structure
at wereda and kebele level because children at risk and stakeholders are at grass root level. The
finding of the situational analysis indicates that the issue of OVC is wide in terms of the severity
and magnitude as a well as support programs which need strong coordinating body. It is becuase
governement is the major duty bearer accoding to the Federal and Regional Constitutions and
the Covention on the Rights of the Child .
As the policy of regional government appreciates accessing to the needy at the grass root level,
OVC and the service providers to the vulnerable children are available at household and local
153

level where as the structure of the organization responsible to coordinate and control the issue
of children is not available at community level. The structure of the coordinating body must,
therefore, be also extended down to the local administration level. As kebele is a bridge between
the needy and the upper echalon, it has to shoulder the following responsibilities:
1. Raising the awareness of the community to understand the problem of children;
2. Establishing data bank and networking on OVC through identifying and listing OVC in the
kebele, identifying of voluntary caregivers, establishing maps of the resource and caregivers
GOs, NGOs and CBOs;
3. Data collection, analysis and dissemination in the area of OVC and child rights;
4. Right-based programming for holistic care and supprt of OVC;
5. Faciliation of protection of the reources of OVC from misusers;
6. Help OVC to get support in the area of legal issues so as to enable children to get legal
protection;
7. Follow up children at school and in community;
8. Implementation of child focused programs;
9. Enhance the participation of children
10. Provide guidance and couseling srevice to OVC;
11. Help children to know altrnatives in order to free themselves from their current vulnerable
situations;
12. To monitor and evaluate the programs and resources on OVC and child rights;
13. To mobilize community to pool its effort to address the need of OVC and manage resource
at kebele level; and,
14. Monitoring the fund released to caregiving organzations.
6.4. Conducting Situational Analysis, Prioritizing & Defining the Neediest Children
The survey indicates that there is scarity of data concerning OVC. Intervention is possible when
there is data that qualify the problems of OVC. Intervention and recommendations are forwareded
in the presence of information on each category of children at risk. Data gap has to be solved
through organizing reports, regular baseline surveys and situational analysis. The assesment has to
focus on:
The magnitude and severity of OVC crisis;
Indentification of the rights of orphans that are being unfulfilled or violated;
154

Qauntification of the present and future costs of these problems;
Describtion of the current roles, programs, service coverage and alternative approaches
to reponding to the orphans crisis;
Estimation of the ratio of orphaned children reached or not reached by various services
and
Proposing a system , including indicators that will monitor and evaluate the effects of
interventions.
Focus discussion group participants give emphasis to redefining and prioritizing OVC. For instance,
participants in Debre Tabor defined vulnerable child as child who is below 18 years old and fulfils
one or more of the following criteria: who lacks adult supervision and care, has unfulfilled basic
needs, lives outside his original residence, resides and sleeps outside home environment, begs and
involves in activities that are beyond his capacity.
In the first place, we have to identify and define and prioritize most vulnerable children. For
example, some informants confirmed that children who join street due to lack of alternative have to
get priority. There is lack of attention to address the problem of street children. They have to get
shelter, attend school, cloth and health service.
Solving the problem of children is part of ensuring good governance. It is difficult to conclude that
all the children that get support are certainly most vulnerable. Under the current system, all those
who can bring letter from kebele administration that certify their vulnerability can benefit from
support programs of no-government organizations. However, there are others who are at most risk
and do not obtain any support. There are conditions where the children of well-to-do are labeled as
poor in order to acquire aid. The financial and material aid channeled through NGOs is lacking
proper monitoring and evaluation and exposed to corruption. This indicates the moral crisis of the
community and lack of local level good governance in the area of addressing the issue.
6.5. Establishing Documentation and Memory Book
According to assessment on OVC in Amhara Region, there is scarcity of recorded data about the
situation of OVC, the care and support that OVC are getting by age, OVC category and type of
institution, limitation and strengthens of child care programs. Duty bearers at every level are
responsible to organize complete and reliable information regarding OVC. Management
information system (MIS) has to be establishing through developing formats and forms of recording
and reporting concerning OVC at risk and receiving care and support. Establishing such data bank
155

is important to understand, monitor and evaluate the extent and magnitude OVC, caring programs,
resource utilization and mobilization, community response, number of children covered by care and
support program, reasons of interventions successes and failures as well as existing and potential
problems.
The reports and data regarding OVC should include the following information.
Characteristics of each vulnerable children ( age,sex ,level of education, date and place of
birth , family details , health status residence(urban and rural),
relationship with the care provider and income of caregiver
Category of OVC and reason that makes the children to become at risk
The type of care and support that the child is receiving and the institutions providing care
Status of achieving survival and development needs
Condition of community response and participation to promote the wellbeing of OVC
Challenges of promoting the wellbeing children
Another tool for communication and documentation is the Memory Book. The memory book is a
journal of facts and memories concerning the life history of OVC who are facing loss or separation
from a parent, including divorce, any terminal illness or adoption, and it is appropriate for any
culture or background. If children are separated from their parents, memories and identity tend to
fade. The Memory Book is an attempt to keep the memories alive and strengthens the childs sense
of belonging.
There are various ways of completing the memory book. The parent or caregiver fills in information
and personal stories under different headings. The parent can complete it and then go through it
with the child or the child can help in its completion. Life history about the child can also take from
the neighbors of his/her parents, the institutions that their parents were working, friends of parents
and persons who can provide about the background of the child and his/her parents. If the parents
and information providers wish, the book can include input from other family members,
photographs and other memories to remind the children of life before the separation from their
family. It is a photocopiable resource, which makes it affordable and easy to distribute to parents
and carers. Therefore, mechanism and system of recording the life history of orphan and vulnerable
has to be developed. The following contents have to be included and registered in the memory
book.
156

The information about his/her parents
Favorite memories of the child
Family traditions and special events
Health and life history of parents
Date and place of Birth
Family tree and background of his/her relatives
Asset and properties of deceased parents
Will as well as important information and message of parents
Other relevant issues must be incorporated in the memory book
The memory book has the following importance:
Documentation of family history helps to prepare contingency plans for children
It serve as source of data on the situation of OVC
It encourages family and community integration, the child who lost his/he identity can find
his kins and original community and establish attachment when she/he grows up
It helps the children to understand the past and move on to a more secure future
The child has the opportunity to ask questions about its history and future.
It is a tool to help the parent and the child to deal with the past, present and future of the
child.
As it is common for orphaned children to be moved into a different area, the book serves as
a reminder of their roots so they do not lose their sense of belonging.
It is beneficial with regard to HIV prevention, because the children witness and understand
the ordeal the parent is going through and do not want to repeat it.
The data collected has to be organized and analyzed and computerized and data management on
OVC have to be available and accessible to key duty bearers. Data has to be analyzed and
organized by sex and categories of OVC, types of care and support and the organization involve
in the program. Establishing reporting flow chart on care and support, child abuses and
protection measures is also important. Reports and data must be available for users and reported
to responsible body for coordinating the issue of child rights and welfare in general and OVC in
particular at each echelon at least every quarter. Regional and annual OVC Profile has to be
157

prepared by government organization responsible for coordinating children and OVC and
disseminated to stakeholders.
6.6. Policy Advocacy and awareness Raising
Formulation of policy and legal framework that promote the wellbeing of children in general and
OVC in particaular is not an end by itself. The situation study reveals that most of the legal
frameworks and policy that concern children are found to be far behind implementation. Most
stakeholders have limited awareness on the existing policies and legal frameworks.Therefore,
continuos policy advocay forums, trainings and workshops has to be organized to regional council
members , policy makers, planners, executive bodies and law enforcement organizations.
All stakeholders has to have clear undrstanding and awareness on the rights of children, problems
of OVC, child maltreatment and abuses and policies , legal frameworks, guidelines and
alternatives of care and support for OVC. Interrvening and solving problems of OVC is best
practiced when duty bearers have knowledge. Raising the level awareness on OVC helps to
mobilize the community members and organizations to add their resources for promoting the
wellbeing of vulnerable groups. Developing and conducting awareness programmes for children,
parents, civic societies, religious institutions, community based organizations, private and
government employees, rural and urban community, school community, businessmen and others
segments of society must get attention in the process of enhancing the rights and welfare of
children at all levels.
6.7. Strengthening the Capacity of Duty Bearers
As presented in stakeholders analysis, promotion of the rights and welfare of children needs the
partcipation of many stakeholdres. As the care and support to OVC is mostly given through the
comminity and voluntary cargivers, lack of commitment in the voluntary groups and caregives
sometimes hampers the provision of care and support. Therefore, the capacity of Iddir leaders and
youth has to be enahnced through training and awareness raising programs.
The capacity of organizations that work in the area of children (GOs, NGOs, CBOs, FBOs) have to
be strenghtened in the area of right-based programing and community mobilization and the rights of
children through training, awareness raising and experience sharing. They have to be aware to
work in a sense of philanthropy and humanity. They have to be equipped with appropriate skills,
modalities of working and trained manpower. Besides, preparation of modalities of helping and
158

building the capacity and self-reliance of children at risk are important to promote the rights and
wellbeing of OVC.
Implementing organization has to be equip with modalities and guidelines how to
identify the most needy OVC;
Guidelines on the treatment the psychosocial problems of OVC and stress reducing
mechanisms are important ;
The staffs of GOs , NGOs , FBOs and CBOs have to get continuous training on how to
manage the issues of OVC and their caregivers and
Build the capacity duty bearers on participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation,
community mobilization, child rights-based programming, identification and
prioritization of the neediest children.
6.8. Strengthening Networking and Partnership on OVC
Necessary conditions for reinforcing networking and partnership are duplication of efforts, lack of
sharing experience and information, uncoordinated and weak collaboration among stakeholders,
lack of comprehensive norms of work, lack of timely evaluation on the magnitude, severity and the
status of care and support program.
Establishing strong link, networking and partnership among civic societies and government has
important role in fulfiling the basic survival and development needs of OVC, addessing
discrinination, stigmatization and disclosures and develoing mechnisms of protection from
maltreatment, neglect and all forms of exploitation.
Networking and partnership among stakeholders has to be strengthened at each echelon because
networking helps to share experience, and channel and distribute resources without duplication of
efforts. It is also important to establish strong linkage among child right-based international, local
and community-based organizations and associations.The networking can serve as regional
consultations have to be organized and to review the policy implementation, progress and redirect
strategies, right violation, gaps adrerssing vulnerability and strenghthening programs. The
foolowing are important focus areas for establishing strong networking and partnership at each
levels:
Identify conditions that necessitate networking
159

Establishing based on program areas and every echelons
Develop norms networking
Develop functions and roles for stakeholders involve in the network
6.9. Reinforcing Family Planning
Available information indicates that Amhara region is characterized by high population growth,
high fertility, population pressure, scarcity of land, rural-urban migration, widespread poverty,
undergrowth and weight of children, and large family size. This shows that the importance of
planning the number of children that parents to have. Moreover, family planning has the following
benefits to the community, families and individuals.
It reduces the numbers of unwanted pregnancies
Reduces the risk of maternal and child morbidity and mortality
Reduces sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS
Promoting survival and development rights of children
Improving the living standard of parents and to better plan their life
Large family size and upbringing many children aggravates poverty and limits of
educational opportunity for individuals and families .Through family planning , however,
individuals and families can obtain greater prosperity and security because they can have
better chance at receiving education, devoting more time to earn income and saving.
Planning the number of children reduces the number of children who join street life , child
beggars and migration due to lack of basic needs at home
Informed family planning is part of basic human right. The 1994 International Conference on
Population and Development clearly endorse this right CDC 1999:1-2): All couples and
individuals have basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their
children and to have information, education and means to do so.
Therefore, government and non-government organizations has to be further strengthen and easily
accessible informed and knowledge-based family planning at village level and nearest distance.
Child focused NGOs, CBOs, FBOS and GOs have to incorporate family planning in their holistic
intervention programs. Special intervention mechanisms has to be developed in order to make
more easily accessible and aware vulnerable social groups such poor households/families, street
children, people living with disabilities, and commercial sex workers, youth and others. Accessing
adequate supply of contraceptive methods has to be supplemented by regular, well-scheduled,
160

continuous and quality family planning education and counseling which needs building the capacity
of family planning health professionals and service providing setups .
6.10. Reinforcing Malaria , TB and HIV/AID Prevention
According to the finding of the study, malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB and communicable diseases are the
leading causes of morbidity and mortality of parents and children in ANRS. Moreover, the
prevalence of men who refuse to use condoms during unsafe sex, such as with prostitutes, indicates
the gap in behavioral and attitudinal change. The involvement of a number of female children in
commercial sex due to economic constraint indicates the contribution of poverty for wide spread of
HIV/AIDS pandemics in the region. All in all, the current prevalence rate of malaria and
HIV/AIDS needs strong emphasis, comprehensive, coordinated and continuous effort of all
stakeholders in the upcoming years. Malaria is curable vector- borne disease that also requires
strengthening the treatment system in the region through accessing the needy.
Key informants and participants of focus group discussions argue that most of the awareness
raising programs on HIV/AIDS does not address the right targets. There is gap in identification of
participants. For instance, in some awareness raising workshop, there is duplication of participants
in which similar individuals used to partake in the workshops that have similar contents.
Interventions to reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS need house to house and piece by piece
approaching of all segments of the society at grass root level. In order understand the reasons
behind lack of attitudinal change detail qualitative and quantitative-based research is imperative.
Though prevention health (including HIV/AIDS, TB malaria) is priority area of the health sector
development program of the region, it needs further strengthening. In this regard, the region
launches health extension package in recent years. This has to be reinforced with further training
and retraining of grass root level health extension workers. The interventions have to be based on
continuous assessment in order to identify the gaps and strengths of the current prevention
strategies. Community mobilization towards prevention and control has to be integrated with overall
development, poverty reduction, psychosocial and social safety net strategies and programs and
give emphasis to all segments of society and malaria-prone areas.
6.11. Strengthening Family, Kinship & Social Tie-based Care & Support System
The survey indicates that the effort to address the problems of orphan and vulnerable children has to
make the family the center of intervention. In this regard, one of the focus group participant at
161

Bahir Dar stated the role of family for the wellbeing of children as "enabling the family to stand
strong creates the opporyunity to care for the needy child. It is because community-based responses
and the interventions of majority of duty bearers revolve around kinship and social-ties of parents of
children at risk.
The vast majority of OVC are living with their immediate or extended family members. The
survival and development of these children depends upon the socio-economic ability of their
parents, relatives and social ties of their parents.
According to the outcome of the survey, some OVC obtained care and support based on religious
and social ties. In the context of Orthodox Christian, godparents assume religious responsibility to
up bring their godchildren as their biological children. The church leaders and religious fathers,
Yenisiha Abat or Yenefs Abat has to encourage the followers to work accordingly.
In Amhara and Agaw societies, there is a system that creates social tie between persons who do not
have blood relationship but basically targeted to create socially established child-parent
attachments. In this system, the child is called Yetut Lij while the parent is Yetut Abat or Yetut
Enat, which literally means breast-child or parent in which parent-child relationship is established
after the would be social child symbolically sucked the thumb of the woman or man who would
be social parent.
6.12. Reinforcing Community mobilization and Responses
The community is a core social institution for the protection and care of vulnerable children and
households. However, it is not strengthened and mobilized in line with the felt needs of children.
The community groups have to participate actively in prioritizing the neediest children - protection
from all forms of abuse, becoming foster care and adoptive parent, giving economic support,
providing guidance and counseling and testimony during legal and socioeconomic conditions. It
needs using the existing organized groups (such as voluntary community-based organizations
locally known as Iddirs which are widely available at grass root level, religious-based institutions
and associations) and organizing additional community groups so as to mobilize and channel local
resources to the most needy ones.
Community mobilization engages all sectors of the population in a community-wide effort to
address the holistic needs of OVC. The Efforts of policy makers and opinion leaders, local, state,
and federal governments, professional groups, religious groups, businesses, employees and
162

individual community members have to be brought together. Community mobilization empowers
individuals and groups to take some kind of action to so as to promote the wellbeing of OVC and
vulnerable groups. The mobilization effort and community response efforts should focus on:
Designing how to access the social groups for mobilization
Establish and broaden the representivity of intersectoral forums to manage holistic
delivery of training, funding, information dissemination, and monitoring and evaluation
Mobilizing communities for early identification vulnerable children and families
Establishing village level childcare committees
Raising the awareness of the community on the need of voluntary caregivers
Participating the community in identification of voluntary care providers
Finding foster and adoption placement for children
Building the capacity, adoptive , foster parents and alternative caregivers and link them
with services and resources
Mobilizing policy makers and opinion leaders
mobilizing community-based and faith-based organizations
Ensure the development of culturally competent interventions.
Mobilizing care providers
Using the media as instrument for community mobilization
Facilitation of community dialogues which are important community capacity building and
empowering families through information sharing on issues that affect children and families
such as HIV/AIDS , poverty reduction mechanisms and protection and prevention of
children from violence , maltreatment , stigma and discrimination
6.13. Reinforcing the Capacity of Children and Promoting their Life Skills
In a condition where there is widespread poverty and HIV/AIDS, the capacity of the family and
community is also weakened that threatens survival of children and forces them to leave school
when they are in need of preparing for their own future. Girls are often the first to dropout of
school. In order to survive, they have to care and support themselves and their families. Older
children and young people have to be at the forefront in helping the needy ones, prevention of
HIV/AIDS and involving in income generating activities. Therefore, equipping their capacity
through formal and non-formal education and vocational training is very much important. Children
163

have to be kept in school. Interventions must focus on stopping school dropout rates through
covering school expenses and compensating for lost income.
As the finding of the situational analysis indicates one of problems of OVC is lack of adult
supervision and proper socialization due to separation from primary caregivers. Therefore, these
children have to get life skills to enable them to deal effectively with day-to-day challenges in life.
Promotion of life skills for OVC includes creative thinking, problem solving, empathy, effective
communication and negotiation, coping with emotions, assertiveness, self-awareness and self-
esteem. The mode of transmission of message can be through music, dance, drama and other means.
The life skill education and training can focus on prevention HIV/AIDS, poverty alleviation , stress
reducing , behavioral change, environmental management , prevention of gender based violence and
child maltreatment and norms of society.
6.14. OVC focus within Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies
Since most of vulnerable children live in poverty-striken households, it is also important to
incopporate and integrate the issue of addressing child vulnerblinity into broader development and
povery reduction policies, laws, and strategies. In addtion, most OVC live with female and child
headed households,aged heads of the households and families that have large family size. The
current high cost of living and the the rise in the price of food items is also serious challenge to
low income households. The limited economic support for children who live in these economically
marginilized families is most likely shared by other members of the household.Therefore, these
group of marginilized households need special economic and social interventions. The regional
governement and non-organizations that involve in povety reduction have to consider the following
issues in their intervention to reduce the poor living situation of urban dwellers.
Establishing urban social safety net program for most maginalized groups such as poor
households, bedridden, OVC, age households and other susceptible segments of the society ;
Expanding and diversified income generating activities ;
Accesing basic needs with reasonable price ;
Provision and facilitation of revolving/ credit schemes;
Establishing proper system of free treatment for most vulnerable groups such as
street children, migrant , housemaids , female children involve in commercial sex work;
Measures to improve the housing conditions and
164

Measures to imporve the availability of basic facilities such clean water, toilets and
electricity.
6.15. Intervention at School Level
Schools and teachers are key to address the neeeds and the development of OVC, especially for
those children who lost their parents and are lacking adult supervsion and guidance.The school
system also provides an opportunity to provide pychosocial support. It is because the finding of the
study shows that providing counseling service for OVC is most often neglected in favor of meeting
critical material, economic, nutritional and other pysical needs. School system has to gear its effort
to:
Ensure that OVC are both prominent in education for all plan of action;
Promote policies and practices that favor gender equity and nondescrimination, school
attendance, and holistic support for OVC;
Establish systems at the school level for recording (and regularly updating) basic
information on OVC and on their home circumstances. This information can and must
inform action, for example, assisting decisions by those teachers responsible for
monitoring vulnerable children and making appropriate referals;
Encourage peer support at school and,
Implmentation of CRC at school level.
6.16. Monitoring & Evaluating of OVC Interventions & Policy Implementation
Monitoring policy implementation represents a major challenge as there are few well developed
indicators that capture the number of children reached, their location, the quality of care, and
whether activities are making difference in lives of children.The monitoring and evaluation on OVC
should focus on reviewing the implementation of policies and strategies, capcacities of goverment,
family and community, access to shelter good nutrition, health services and social services,
protection from abuse, violence, exploitation, discriminination, trafficking and violation of
inheritance rights.
Developing modalities of monitoring and evaluation of program intervetion and legal
frameworks
Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of policy and legal frameworks by duty
beares
Assessing the implemenation of programs in terms of child rights- based programming
165

Monitoring and evaluation the effective and efficiancy of the resources allocated to
promote the welfare and righs of children
establishing efficient reporting system and instruments (formants and checklists ) on every
needy child and care and support
166

RcIcrcncc

Andargachew Tesfaye (2002a). Alterative Methods of Correction, Addis Ababa.
________________ (2002b) Juvenile Justice and Institutional Correction in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
ANRS (2003). The Revised Federal the constitution Amhara National Regional State, Zikre Hig ,
Proclamation No. 59/2001, 5
th
Day of November 2001, Bahir Dar
ANRS (2001). The family Code of Amhara National Regional State, Zikre Hig , Proclamation No.
79/2003, 25
th
Day of June 2003, Bahir Dar
Awan Abdulwasie (2007). AIDS Affected Children and their Challenges :The Case of Semen
Mazegaja and Kolfe in Gebre Yintiso (Ed.) Children at Risk : Insights from
Researchers and Practitioners in Ethiopia , Proceeding of the 5
th
Annual
Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Sociologists, Social Workers and
Anthropologists(ESSSWA), Addis Ababa.
BoFED (2007) 2005/2006 Budget Year Annual Statistical Bulletin, Amhara region, Bahir Dar
BoFED (2006) 2004/2005 Budget Year Annual Statistical Bulletin, Amhara region, Bahir Dar
BOFED (2006) The Socio-economic and Political Situation of Women in Amhara region, Bahir Dar
BOFED (2006) The Socio-economic and Political Situation of Youth in Amhara region, Bahir Dar
BoLSA(2006 )The 2006 Statistical Data of Social Affairs Department Bahir Dar
BoH (2007) Training Manual on Anti-AIDS drugs and how to live healthily with HIV/AIDS.
Bahir Dar
CDC(1999) Family Planning Methods and Practices: Africa , 2
nd
edition, Atlanta, Georgia.
CYFWO (1992) Convention on the Rights of the Child, Addis Ababa
Department of Social Development (2002) National Guidelines for Social services to Children
Infected and Affected by HIV/AIDS, Pretoria, South Africa
Dominenlli, Lena (2004) Social Work: Theory and Practice for a Changing Profession, Cambridge:
Polity Press
FDRE (1995).The Constitution of FDRE, Federal Negarit Gazetta, 21
st
August ,1995, Addis Ababa
FDRE (2000). The Revised Family Code, Federal Negarit Gazetta, Proclamation No. 1/2000, 4
th

Day of July 2000, Addis Ababa.
Heinonen, Paula (2002) Defining Street Children: an anthropological perspective in Baye Yimam,
et al (ed.) Ethiopian Studies at the End of the Second millennium Proceedings of XIV
th

International Conference of Ethiopian Studies ,Nov.6-11,2000, Addis Ababa: Institute of
Ethiopian Studies(AAU).
167

International Save the Children Alliance (2002) Child Rights Programming: How to Apply Rights-
Based Approaches in programming, London.
ANRS Investment Office (2006).Health Sector: Final Report , Addis Ababa.
MOH (2003) National HIV/AIDS Counseling Training Manual, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
MoLSA and UNICEF( 2005). African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child Addis Ababa
MOLSA, Italian Cooperation and UNICEF (2003) Survey on the Prevalence and Characteristics of
AIDS Orphans in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
MOLSA (2002) Overview of the Policy and Practice Review for Orphan and Vulnerable Children
(OVC) in Ethiopia (unpublished), Addis Ababa
MOLSA (1996) Developmental Social Welfare Policy, Addis Ababa
MOLSA (1995). The National Study on Street Children: Nature and Magnitude of the Problem and
Methods of Intervention, Addis Ababa
MoLSA (1996). Developmental Social Welfare Policy, Addis Ababa.
Mosley, W.H. (1992) Child Survival: Research and Policy in W. Henry and Lincoln C. Chen Child
survival Strategies for Research, New York: The population Council.
Mosley, W.H. and Chen, L.C. (1992).An Analytical Framework for the Study of Child Survival in
\Developing Countries in W. Henry and Lincoln C. Chen Child survival Strategies for
Research, New York: The population Council.
National HIV/AIDS Council Secretariat (2000) National Guidelines for Voluntary HIV Counseling
and Testing in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Neuman, W.L (1994) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Second
Edition, Boston: Allyn and Becon.
Robertson, A.H. and Merrilis (2006) Human Rights in the World: An introduction to the Study of
the International Protection of Human Rights, 4th edition, New Delhi: Universal
Save the Children (Denmark) and PADET (2002) HIV/ AIDS and its Effect on the Rights of
Children in North Wollo, Ethiopia
Schultz ,T.P (1992) Studying the Impact of Household Economic and Community Variables on
Child Mortality in W. Henry and Lincoln C. Chen Child survival Strategies for
Research, New York: The population Council.
Tedla Diressie (1999) Situation Analysis of Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances (CEDC)
in Ethiopia, paper prepared for the National Workshop on CEDC 22-24 November, 99
Addis Ababa.
Tefera Tegegne (2004) Street Children in Ethiopia: An overview (unpublished) Addis Ababa
____________ (2000) Child Abuse and Neglect in proceeding of the Workshop on the Rights of
the Child, Child Abuse and Neglect, Addis Ababa: ANPPC]
168

______________ (2001)Strategies of Preventing Early Marriage in Amhara Region in Azmera
Magazine of Amhara Region, Bahir Dar
_____________ (1999) Promoting the Welfare of Youths in Azmera Magazine of Amhara
Region, Bahir Dar
_____________ (1998) Promoting the Welfare of the family in Azmera Magazine of Amhara
Region, Bahir Dar
______________ (1993 E.C). The Social Crisis due to HIV/AIDS, A paper Presented to Workshop
to Aware Teachers on the Socio-economic Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Amhara
Region,(unpublished ) Bahir Dar
UNICEF (2002) Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program
Strategies, New York: TvT Associates.
Ware, Helen ( 1992) Effects of Maternal Education , Womens Roles , and Child Care on Child
Mortality in W. Henry and Lincoln C. Chen Child Survival Strategies for
Research, New York: The population Council.
169

Annexes
Annex 1: OVC Receiving Care and Support from Different Organizations
OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
Mekane Eyessus Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1997 582201190 family based and sponsorship 76 74 150
Ethiopian Womem Lawyers
Association
Bahir dar Bahir dar 4 1990 582201780 Family and Community Based
720 780 1500
OSSA Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1987 582205889 Family and Community Based 1047 1060 2107
Bahir Dar Meseret Kiristos Bahir dar Bahir dar 14 1997 _ Family and sponsorship 267 134 401
SOS Infant Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1999 582201548 Orphanage to AIDS Orphans
and adoption 8 9 17
Cheshire Foundation Bahir dar Bahir dar 14 1993 582206902 Community based
Rehabilitation 1381 948 2329
Addimas Child Renabilitation
and Development
Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1994 582262336 Family , Foster care and
sponsorship 102 98 200
Alem Child Care Organization Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1996 582208034 Family , community and
Sponsorship 339 359 30
Wabi child care and Training
Organization
Bahir dar Bahir dar 4 1996 family based
11 18 241
Bahir Dar Mulu Wongel Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1997 582200148 family based 126 115 875
Mekidem Ethiopia Bahir Dar Bahir Dar 13 1989 582200148 Family and Community Based 412 463 875
170

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
SOS Childern's Village Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1992 582208585 orphanage, Family , and
community 186 159 345
Newday children center Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1998 918781317 Feeding center , orphanage 11 3 14
Forun on Street children Ethiopia Bahir dar Bahir dar 15 1989 582200375 family, community , and
police station 475 506 1081
Hiwot Berhan church Bahir dar Bahir dar 15 1999 582220785 family based 116 121 237
Bahir Dar prison Bahir dar Bahir dar 10 0 582201505 correction 5 4 9
CVM Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1987 582201137 1354
Bahir Dar child care center Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1980 270
BOLSA Bahir dar Bahir dar 13 1997 582201375 family based 220 129 349
Wold Vision Ethiopia W.Gojjam Adet 1 0 Community based and
sponsorship 1500 1500 3000
EOC Mecha W.Gojjam Merawi 2 1998 583300393 community based and family 30 20 50
Merete Kiristos W.Gojjam Merawi 1 1998 583300406 Family and Community Based 96 94 190
Correction( Prison ) W.Gojjam Funete Selam 0 1937 587751325 prison 5 4 9
Ensheniyativa proinfancia Awi Enjibara 2 1999 582270378 Adoption 2 10 12
our for our orphan and street
children support org.
Awi Chagni 1 1996 582250037 Family and Community Based
232 220 452
Injibara prison Awi Injibara 1 1988 58227068 correction 13 4 17
171

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
Muluwelgel church Awi Injibara 2 2001 582270098 family , community and
sponsorship 136 115 251
Dangla police station Awi Dangla 1 0 0 correction 3 2 5
Dangla prison Awi Dangla 3 0 582210020 correction 3 1 4
CASCAID Awi Addis Kidam 1 1999 family based 50 50 100
Beza AntiAIDS Assocciation East
Gojjam
D.Markos 2 1986 6633 Family and Community Based
35 40 75
Hulet Ejuenese police East
Gojjam
Mota 3 0 0 family based
10 10 20
Hiwot Beruh Tesfa Association East
Gojjam
Mota 3 1997 586611478 Family and sponsorship
18 13 31
Mota Manicipality East
Gojjam
Mota 3 1934 586610030 Sponsorship
3 2 5
Anti malaria Association East
Gojjam
Bichena 1 1992 family based and sponsorship
4 2 6
Faciltator For Change Ethiopa East
Gojjam
D.Markos 3 2002 G.C 587113951 Family and Community Based
17 0 17
CVM East
Gojjam
D.Markos 5 2002 G.C 587713489 Family , community and
Sponsorship 186 85 291
Felge Erz Child Care center East
Gojjam
D.Markos 7 1968 587780466 Family , Community and
sponsorship 55 46 101
172

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
Addiss Zemen Hiwot Berhan
church
S.Gondar Addis Zemen 3 1994 584440479 family , community and
sponsorship 24 22 46
Kidus Giorgis Tesfa Center-EOC S.Gondar Wereta 4 1996 family , community and
sponsorship 26 30 56
Wabi child care and Training
Organization
S.Gondar Nefasmewocha 1 0 584450046 family ,community based
170 155 325
Beruh Tesfa S.Gondar D.Tabor 3 1995 1060 family , community and
sponsorship 7 5 12
Debre Tabor child care center S.Gondar D.Tabor 4 1964 410035 family , community and
Orphanage 234 72 306
HAPCO-Debre Tabor S.Gondar D.Tabor 1 1996 411543 Family , community and
sponsorship 40 80 120
Nigat Reproductive health
Association
N.Gondar Gondar 0 1993 110911 Family , community and
sponsorship 35 45 80
OSSA N.Gondar Gondar 8 0 Family , community and
sponsorship 44 130 174
Bridge to Israel N.Gondar Gondar 18 1991 581140425 orphanage 60 60 120
HAPCO-Gondar N.Gondar Makisegnet 1 1994 583320349 Family , community and
sponsorship 1149 768 1917
Wold Vision Ethiopia N.Gondar Makisegnet 1 1998 583320484 Family , community and
sponsorship 129 115 244
Tikuret Lehitsanat N.Gondar Gondar 1994 Family , community and 175 154 327
173

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
sponsorship
Mekane Eyessus S.Wollo Haik 5 1980 332220821 orphanage 12 10 22
Tewledere Police S.Wollo Haik 2 332220006 correction 10 16 31
Muluwelgel church S.Wollo Kombolcha 5 1996 335513428 Family , community and
sponsorship 109 138 247
Wold Vision Ethiopia Oromiya Kemisse 1977 Family , community and
sponsorship 1796 1526 3322
sos infant Oromiya Kemisse 3 1989 335541632 Family , community and
orphanage 3 2 5
SC Uk Wag Himra Sekota 334400126 Family based 8 12 20
Sekota Correction instittion Wag Himra Sekota 2 0 2
ORDA Wag Himra Sekota 2 334400036 community based 0 100 100
Sekota Police Wag Himra Sekota 2 1998 334400288 family based 84 16 100
Adefa child welfare and anti
AIDS
N.Wollo Lalibela 1 1996 333360812 Family , community and
sponsorship 30 29 59
Beza Assocciation N.Wollo Lalibela 1 1997 3333360661 Family , community based 27 27 54
Woldiya Prison N.Wollo Woldiya 3 333310010 correction 15 7 22
SOS EE N.Wollo Woldiya 1 1997 333312304 Family , community and
Sponsorship 23 16 39
174

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
Red Cross N.Shewa D.Berhan 8 116811732 Family and Community Based 354 468 822
Debre Berhan Idirs' Association N.Shewa D.Berhan 1 1997 911764069 Community Base
Organization 23 17 40
Ethiopian Rural Selfhelp
Associaotion
N.Shewa Chacha 1992 116320173 Family , community
56 28 84
Kewot EOC N.Shewa Shewarobit 1 1992 336640466 Family , community based 32 33 65
Kewot HAPCo N.Shewa Shewarobit 1 1994 3366440510 Family , community and
sponsorship 117 78 195
Amanual Idir N.Shewa Shewarobit 1 1986 336640043 Family , community based
Association 21 8 29
SOS Infant N.Shewa Shewarobit 1 1999 336640451 Orphanage to AIDS Orphans
and adoption 5 2 7
KALE Hiwot Church N.Shewa D.Berhan 5 1996 116813142 Family , community and
sponsorship 136 139 275
Muluwelgel church N.Shewa D.Berhan 4 1994 116814512 Family , community and
sponsorship 121 127 248
CCF N.Shewa D.Berhan 6 family ,community based
47 46 93
D.B.A.K.H.L.Project N.Shewa D.Berhan 8 1991 116812657 Sponsorship 154 143 297
Mekane Eyessus N.Shewa D.Berhan 4 1992 116813716 Family Based and
sponsorship 131 113 244
Jerusalem Child and N.Shewa D.Berhan 4 1986 116811313 Family based 77 60 137
175

OVC
Organizations Zone Town Kebele Established Telphone Type of support
M F Total
comm.Dev.program
Vision for Ethiopia N.Shewa D.Berhan 1 6811230 Family , and community
based 60 79 139
Amanuel Development
Assocaition
N.Shewa D.Berhan 4 1990 116815444 Family and sponsorship
681 542 1223
Forun on Street children Ethiopia South
Wollo
Dessie 6 1989 331111275 Family and Community Based
325
BOLSA South
Wollo
Dessie Family and Community Based
221 130 351
Abune Petros Child care center South
Wollo
Dessie 19 1972 331117726 orphanage, Family , and
community 10 283 293
Sos Infant South
Wollo
Dessie 10 1999 E.C 331114418 Foster care
16 14 30
I.P.I Ethiopia South
Wollo
Dessie 9 1999 E.C 331125025 Family , Foster care and
sponsorship 11 34 45
BOLSA N.Gondar Gondar Family and community based 225 223 448
Hope Enterprise South
Wollo
Dessie Family and community based
945
Jerusalem Child and
comm.Dev.program
Bahir dar Bahir dar 11 family based and sponsorship
77 60 137
Total 14687 13360 31142
As a result of lack of gender dissagrigated data, the total is higher than the sum of the males and females.
176

Annex 2: Magnitude of Orphan and Vulnerable Children in Rural Kebeles
Zone Rural Kebeles OVC %
West Gojjam Adet Zuria 268 5.7
Mosebo 106 2.2
Shanbekima 13 0.3
Babil Abatir 28 0.6
Anguti 44 0.9
Altewalim 36 0.8
Total 495 10.4
East Gojjam Endeshegnit 76 1.6
Felegeselam 80 1.7
Tekyetnora 34 0.7
Kurara 34 0.7
Shenie Keraniyo 200 4.2
Beza Bizuhan 169 3.6
Total 593 12.5
Awi Bacha Dimsa 42 0.9
Ziguda 12 0.3
Amesha Shenkura 93 2.0
Azimach Gula 95 2.0
Segadie 119 2.5
Luns Degera 59 1.2
Total 420 8.9
North Shoa Agamber 26 0.5
Merye 39 0.8
Cheki 352 7.4
Seritie 186 3.9
177

Zone Rural Kebeles OVC %
Asefachew 27 0.6
Total 630 13.3
Oromia Bira/Kebele 03/ 36 0.8
Salmenie 64 1.3
Cherti 101 2.1
Jara 84 1.8
Betie 1 64 1.3
Betie 2 27 0.6
Total 376 7.9
South Wollo Erfo 170 3.6
Kedida 34 0.7
Bedida 103 2.2
Hitecha 68 1.4
Kemelie 77 1.6
Aredam 65 1.4
Total 517 10.9
North Wollo Shumsheha 58 1.2
Kemelie 93 2.0
Aredam 13 0.3
Kebele 02 31 0.7
Kebele 04 41 0.9
Total 236 5.0
South Gondar Tara Gedam 130 2.7
Bura 82 1.7
Alember 114 2.4
Woji Arba Amba 159 3.4
178

Zone Rural Kebeles OVC %
Gob Gob 94 2.0
Sali 101 2.1
Total 680 14.3
North Gondar Kosoye Ambaras 113 2.4
Gedebye 43 0.9
Jejeba Ginb 101 2.1
Tsion Seguji 221 4.7
Zabula Tsigie 68 1.4
Sertia 53 1.1
Total 599 12.6
Waghimra Birbira/Kebele 021/ 34 0.7
Kebele 018 27 0.6
Kebele 03 31 0.7
N/Melkam(Kebele 02) 34 0.7
Miye 35 0.7
Kebele 02 34 0.7
Total 195 4.1
Grand Total 4,741 100.0

Adequate Rooms
Proper Floor/Celing