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2008-2009

A Project Report on Working of Water Treatment and Effluent Treatment plant At Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Limited

A Project Report Submitted at Amity University, Noida In partial fulfillment of the degree Of Bachelor of Technology In Food technology

Guided by : MR. Istiyaq hussian Utility ExecutivE MR. Abhitosh QA Executive

Submitted to: MR.SELLVOM Utility manger

Submitted Pankaj Roll.no. 118 4th Semester

AMITY INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY AMITY UNIVERSITY NOIDA

Acknowledgement
There are people who simply by being what they are try to influence you to do things which you could never thought of. Their spontaneous and genuine help as and when needed have helped me a lot, to gain profound knowledge and experience in the analytical field. My sincere thanks to HINDUSTAN COCA-COLA BEVERAGE PVT. LIMITED which have given me the golden opportunity to do my project. I feel pleasure to express my gratitude to Mr. Anuman Mathur to allow me to undertake my project work in PLANT for UTILITY & PRODUCTION department of Coca Cola for the relevant period. I am grateful to Mr. SELLVOM ( UTILITY Manager) who encouraged me to reach, much above my natural abilities through his inspiring guidance. I am chiefly indebted to Mr. I. HUSSIAN (UTILITY Executive) for her constant encouragement, meticulous help, devoting her precious time and invaluable guidance during the course of my project. I would also like to thank DR. S.C JAIN (Director, Amity Institute Of Food technology) for his proper guidance and help. In a nutshell it is not a work of one but many others who by their sincere efforts have contributed towards the completion of this project.

DATE:

(PANKAJ)

ABBERIVATION

C 2Na2CO3 AHR AT ATCC BGA BOD BPA BSA CA CaCl2 CaCO3 CB CIP CO2 COD DDS DM DMF DO DOP EMB FC FeCl3 FRP GC GMP H2CO3 H2 O H2S H2SO4 HCl K2 HPO4 KH2PO4 KI KOH LAF MgCl2 MgCO3 MgSO4 MLSS MnSO4 MR-VP MSA Na2 HPO4

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Degree Centigrade Sodium bi Carbonate Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor Aeration Tank American Type Culture Collection Brilliant Green Agar Biochemical Oxygen Demand Baired Parker Agar Bismuth Sulphide Agar Cetrimide Agar Calcium Chloride Calcium Carbonate Cetrimide Broth Clean In Place Carbon dioxide Chemical Oxygen Demand Dodecyl Sulphate De-Mineralized Dual Media Filter Dissolved Oxygen Dioctylphthalate Eosin Methylene Blue Final Clarifier Ferric Chloride Fibre Reinforced Plastic Gas Chromatography Good Manufacturing Process Carbonic Acid Water Hydrogen Sulphide Sulphuric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Potassium Hydrogen Phosphate Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate Potassium Iodide Potassium Hydroxide Laminar Air Flow Magnesium Chloride Magnesium Carbonate Magnesium Sulphate Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid Manganous Sulphate Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Mannitol Salt Agar Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate

NaEDTA NaN3 NaOH NH3 NH4Cl NMT N-Tank OF PC PDA PIA PVC QA QC RI RO S.BLANK SCDA SCOT SHMP SS STP SVI TDS TPC TSI TSP UL UV VJA WCOT

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Sodium Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid Sodium Azide Sodium Hydroxide Ammonia Ammonium Chloride Not More Than Neutralization Tank Oxidation / Fermentation Primary Clarifier Potato Dextrose Agar Pseudomonas Isolation Agar Polyvenyl Chloride Quality Assurance Quality Control Refractive Index Reverse Osmosis Seeded Blank Soyabean Casein Digest Agar Support Coated Open Tubular Sodium Hexa Meta Phosphate Suspended Solid Sodium Tri Phosphate Sludge Volume Index Total Dissolve Solid Total Plate Count Triple Sugar Iron Agar Tri Sodium Phosphate Upper Limit Ultra Violet Vogel Johnson Agar Wall Coated Open Tubular

TABLE OF CONTENTS : 1) INTRODUCTION TO COCA COLA COMPANY 2) RAW MATERIAL 3) SANITATION 4) SYRUP MAKING PROCESS 5) MANUFACTURING PROCESS 6) INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY ASSURANCE 7) MICROBIOLOGY LAB AND TESTING 8) INVERSION 9) WATER TREATMENT PLANT 10) EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

INTRODUCTION
Soft drinks constitute one of the largest beverage industries in t he world today. Tremendous advances have taken place in the process technology in the soft drink industries in the past one or two decades. The beverages are divided into two groups i.e carbonated soft drink like coke, thums up, limca, fanta etc. & non-carbonated soft drink like maaza, minute maid. The major ingredients of soft drinks are Water Sugar and/or sugar substitute Carbon dioxide Flavor emulsion and emulsifiers Coloring agents Acids and preservatives

y Coca Cola: An Insight


Our Roots While much of the world has changed since 1886, the pure and simple magic of one thing stays the same - COKE. The name and the product represent simple moments of pleasure for consumers in nearly 2 0 0 C O U N T R I E S around the globe, who reach for products of The Coca Cola Company hundreds of millions of times every single day. John Styth Pemberton first introduced The Refreshing Taste of Coke in Atlanta, Georgia. It was May of 1886 when the pharmacist concocted a caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard. He first distributed the new product by carrying Coin a jug down the street to Jacobs pharmacy. For five cents, consumers could enjoy a glass of Coat the soda fountain. Whether by design or accident, carbonated water was teamed with the new syrup, producing a drink that was proclaimed

Delicious and Refreshing.


Dr. Pembertons partner and bookkeeper, Frank M.Robinson, suggested the name and penner Coke in the unique flowing script that is famous worldwide today. Mr. Robinson thought the two would look well in advertising. By 1891, Atlanta entrepreneur Asa G. Candler had acquired complete ownership of the Coca-Cola Business. Within four years, his merchandising flair helped expand consumption of Coca-Cola to every state and territory. In 1919, The CocaCola Company was sold to a group of investors for $25 million. Robert W. Woodruff became president of The Coca- Cola Company in 1923, and his more than six decades of Leadership took the business to unrivaled heights of commercial success, making Coca Cola an institution the world over.

FIRST BOTTLED
COKE began as a fountain product, but candy merchant Joseph A. Bedenharn of Mississippi was looking for a way to serve this refreshing beverage at picnics. He began offering bottled Coke, using syrup shipped from Atlanta, during an especially busy summer in 1894. In 1899, large-scale bottling became possible when Asa Candler granted exclusive bottling rights to Joseph B. Whitehead and Benjamin F. Thomas of Chattnooga. The contract marked the beginning of The Companys unique independent bottling system that remains the foundation of Company Soft drink operations. As the Company had many imitators, which consumers would be unable to identify until they took a sip. The answer was to create a distinct bottle for Coke. As a result, the genuine Coke bottle with the contour shape now known around the world was developed in 1915 by the Root Glass Company.

y TRADEMARKS

The trademark Coke was registered with the US Patent & Trademark office in 1893, followed by C in 1945. The unique contour bottle, familiar to consumers everywhere, was granted registration as a trademark by the US Patents & Trademark office in 1977, an honor awarded to only a few other packages. In 1982, The Coca Cola Company introduced Diet Coke to US consumers, marking the first extension of the Companys most precious trademark to another product. Later years saw the introduction of additional products bearing the name of Coca-Cola, which now encompasses a powerful line of six cola products. Today, the worlds favorite soft drink, Coke, is also the worlds best known and most admired trademark, recognized by more than 90 PER CENT of the worlds 90 PER CENT population.

THE PLANT AN OVERVIEW AREA OF LAND


Total site area Built up area Green belt development 40 acres 4 acres 4 acres

Ambitious state-of the-art Dasna Plant. Second Largest as well as the most hi-tech bottling green Field plant in Northern India, established on 16th Feb 1999. The plant in spread on an area of 40 acres which is 45 km away from Delhi. Commissioned in March 1999, it has a sophisticated facility for bottling the PET, RGB as well as fountain filling. The plant has 2 PET and 3 RGB lines. The sales are made through indirect distribution and serve 33000 retailers around 7 districts in total.

Built up area break up


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Main building including Process areas , Packaging areas , Warehouse , Stores & ETP Utility Caustic , HSD, Cooling towers, carbon dioxide , raw water tanks Admin. Block Empty Bottle storage yard Car parking Truck Parking Concrete roads ETP LPG store Driver amenities Contract Labour amenities Forklift repair area Security building Caustic storage area HSD storage area Carbon dioxide storage Raw water storage area Switch yard

13096 m2 1755 m2 3196 m2 918 m2 9600 m2 490 m2 1890 m2 7500 m2 3000 m2 120 m2 64 m2 108 m2 100 m2 24.5 m2 100 m2 324 m2 1800 m2 720 m2 180 m2

HINDUSTAN COCA COLA BEVERAGES PRIVATE LIMITED


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Coca Cola, the name and the product represent simple moments of pleasure for consumers in nearly 200 countries around the globe. John Smith Pemberton first introduced the refreshing taste of coca cola in Atlanta, Georgia. It was May of 1886 when the pharmacist concocted caramel coloured syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard. He first distributed the new product by carrying Coca-Cola in a jug down the street to Jacobss pharmacy. For five cents, consumers could enjoy a glass of Cola-Cola at the soda fountain. Whether by design or accident, carbonated water was teamed with the new syrup, producing a drink that was proclaimed delicious and refreshing. product. In 1899 large scale bottling became possible when Asa Candler granted exclusive bottling rights to Joseph B. Whitehead and Benjamin F. Thomas of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Today coca-cola products reach consumers and customers around the world through a vast distribution network made up of local bottling companies. These bottlers are located around the world, and most are independent businesses. Using syrups, concentrates and beverage bases produced by the Coca-Cola Company. The global bottling system packages and markets products, then distributes them to more than 14 million retail outlets worldwide. The trademark Coca-cola was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark office in 1893, followed by Coke in 1945. In 1982, the Coca-Cola Company introduced diet coke to U.S consumers, marking the first extension of the Companys most precious trademark to another product. Later years saw the introduction of additional products bearing the Coca-Cola name, which now encompasses a powerful line of cola products. Today, the worlds favourite soft drink, Coca-Cola is one of the worlds best-known and most admired trademarks, recognized by more than 90 percent of the worlds population. Thus Coca Cola began as a fountain

RAW MATERIAL TESTING


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1.CARBON DIOXIDE STANDARDS


y y y y y y

Moisture not more than 20 ppm Total sulphur Not more than 0.1ppm v/v Total volatile Hydrocarbon Not more than 50 ppm v/v Purity not less than99.9% v/v Appearance No color or turbidity Taste or Odor Free of foreign taste or odor

TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE a) PURITY PROCEDURE :1. Fill the Zahm CO2 purity tester with water and observe for any air bubbles 2. Attach the connecting tube to the sample valve of CO2 system 3. Open the stop cork between reservoir & body of tester. 4. Open the stop cork on the body of the tester before attaching the tubing and allow water to flow out. 5. Quickly attach the tubing. Which has CO2 flowing through it, forcing the water into reservoir 6. Allow the flow of gas to continue for about 30 sec.Close the stopcock on the body of tester. Then close the stamping valve and reservoir stopcock and detach tester from sampling tube. 7. Fill the reservoir with 30% w/v NaOH 8. Open the stopcock and allow the NaOH to flow into tester body. Agitate the tester to be sure all CO2 is absorbed. 9. When the bubble remains constant in size close the reservoir stopcock. 10. Read % purity from the scale.

b) ODOR (SNOW TEST) PROCEDURE:1. Collect liquid CO2(snow) in plastic bag (approx 550cc) 2. To a flask add about 200ml treated water then add about 250cc of snow and cover immediately. 3. Swirl the liquid in flask and sniff odor in headspace. No odor should be there.

Typical off odors 11

y y y y

Fruity Rotten egg, sewer,silage,sulfury Acetaladehyde Hydrogen sulfide

2. TESTS FOR SUGAR a) TASTE 1. Make 50 Brix solution. 2. Take 10 ml of this solution and make upto 100 ml 3. Check the taste of this sample

b) ODOR 1. Half fill a wide mouth screw capped bottle with dry sugar 2. Heat to 50 C 3. Smell and note the nature of any off odor

c) ODOR AFTER ACIDIFICATION 1. Smell the 50 brix solution at room temperature and note any off-odor 2. Add 0.2ml 75% w/v phosphoric acid to 50 ml of sugar solution in a 100ml glass beaker and mix 3. Cover the beaker with a watch glass and heat to 50C in a water bath or incubator. 4. Smell the solution every 10 min for 30min and note the nature of any off odor. d) TURBIDITY 1. Prepare 492g of 50 brix solution by dissolving 246g of sugar in 246g distilled water. 2. Examine the 50 brix solution in a glass beaker. 3. Turbidity meter ready must be <10 NTU 4. If turbidity is present, fitter the sample through whatman 54 and examine filterate for turbidity. Use if no turbidity is present.

e) MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING

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1. Weigh 10g sugar in a sterile 250 ml flask and add sterile100 ml water upto the mark. Cover with a foil and agitate to dissolve sugar. 2. Pour the solution into filter funnel. 3. Cover the funnel, apply vacuum. 4. Wash the flask twice with 250ml sterile water. 5. Transfer the membrane to a sterile petridish (M-TGE medium for total count and M-green yeast and mold medium on schaufus Pottinger medium for yeast and mold count) and incubate at 35 C or 28 C 6. for total count, count the colonies at 24hrs and at 72 hours. For yeast and count , count colonies at 48 hrs and at 24 hrs interval thereafter until 5 days have lapsed. f) COLOR (ICUMSA) 1.Weight 50gm of sugar sample in a 250ml conical flask, add 50gm of Triethanol amine Solution ( weigh 7.460gm TEA in a beaker and make upto 500ml). Dissolve it by swirling. 2. filter the solution through 0.45 micron filter. 3. set the spectrophotometer at 420nm 4.Rinse the cell with sugar solution and then fill with sugar solution. 5.keep TEA solution as standard blank.

ICUMSA = ABSORBANCE X 1000 Cell Length (in cm) x conc.(g/cm3)

3. TEST FOR CONCENTRATE


To ensure a good quality beverage, concentrate receipts and handling ought to be properly managed. Every possible precaution is taken to guarantee that the containers of flavor concentrates arrive at the bottling plant in perfect condition. Additional precautions must be taken while the concentrate is in storage in the plant. Formulas instructions and packaging labeling should be followed exactly and will indicate the particular requirement needed in terms of storage needs and mixing for a particular product. The following points must be taken care of with regard to concentrates: 1) Sanitary condition: Storage in clean, dry, closed area free from insect infection. 2) Temperature: Storage temperature is between 4 to 10*C /ambient for dry base. No refrigeration should be done until required to do so. 3) First in First out: The oldest stock in hand should be used first 4) Stacking and Sorting: They should be kept on wooden platforms, above the floor right side up and yet not very high above the ground. 5) Inspection: The containers must be scrutinized for seal damage leaks, date of production and other damages. 6) Sealing of containers: Partly used containers contents must be transferred to glass or stainless steel containers and then used as early as possible.

4 AUXILLARY MATERIAL TESTING 13

i) Lime testing:Requirement: y 3N HCL y 0.02N EDTA solution (reagent A). y 1N NaOH y Hydroxy napthol blue. y A conical flask. y 500ml volumetric flask. y A 50ml beaker. y Distill water. y 2 pipettes of 10ml. Procedure 1. Weigh 1.5gm of lime powder in a beaker. 2. Add 10ml of distill water in above beaker. 3. Then add 30ml of 3N HCL. 4. Transfer it to conical flask for thorough mixing. 5. Take a 500ml volumetric flask. 6. Transfer contents of conical flask to volumetric flask, made up the volume by distill water. 7. Put the cap of volumetric flask and mix thoroughly. 8. Pipette out 5ml of volumetric flask content into conical flask. 9. Add 10ml distill water, 1.5ml 1N NAOH and 0.30mg of Hydroxy napthol blue. 10. Titrate it with EDTA solution. 11. End point Blackish purple to blue. Formula used: Lime % = Where, B.R = Burette reading Standard for lime % = 95

B.R 3.705 100 0.02 1.5

ii) Caustic checking:Requirements:y A conical flask. y Distill water. y 50ml beaker. y Dropper. y Measuring cylinder. y Phenolphthalein indicator.

Procedure:1. Weigh 1.5g of caustic sample with the help of dropper in 50ml beaker. 14

2. 3. 4. 5.

Add 40ml distill water to the weighed sample and mix it thoroughly. Transfer it to conical flask and add few drops of phenolphthalein indicator Titrate it with 1N H2SO4 . End point- pink to colorless

Formula used:Caustic % = B.R 4 1.5 Where, B.R = Burette reading Standard for caustic % = 48

iii) Ferrous sulphate checking:Requirements:y 4N H2SO4 . y 3 N HCL. y 1N NaOH. y 0.1N KMnO4. y 50ml beaker. y 250ml volumetric flask. y Funnel. y Distill water. y Conical flask. y Ortho phosphoric acid. y 2 pipettes of 10ml. Procedure:1. Weigh 5gm sample in beaker. 2. Add distill water to weighed sample, mix it thoroughly & transfer it to volumetric flask and make up the volume, again mix it. 3. Pipette out 50ml vol. flask content into conical flask, and then add 10ml H2SO4 and 2ml ortho phosphoric acid. 4. Titrate it with 0.1N KMnO4. 5. End point Colorless to light pink. Formula used:FeSO4 % = 139 B.R 0.1 Wt. of sample taken Where, B.R = Burette reading Standard for ferrous sulphate % = 97

PACKAGING MATERIAL TEST

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The finished products are packaged in cartons and are dispatched for the market. The tests ensure the suitability of the packet for the market, as a packet of insufficient strength would spoil all the efforts of carefully manufactured product. PACKAGING MATERIAL # # # # # # # Glass Bottles Crowns Pets Plastic caps Wrap around Labels Corrugated Cartons Shrink films They are checked for weight dimensions, breaking strength compression strength etc. The other details for expiry date, manufacturer date are printed on the carton.

# RGB (RETURNABLE GLASS BOTTLES) Procedure for sampling of RGBs Select 50 samples from each incoming consignment of 22000 bottles 1. Draw samples from min. 5 different crates / bulk packs with bottles of different mould nos. for equitable sample representation 2. Maintain linkage between samples drawn and the consignment. This shall enable resampling, resorting quarantine of the sampled lot if required. 3. Inspect the Glass bottles as per the quality plan.

# CROWNS
Procedure for sampling of Crowns 1. Packet contains 1200 crowns. 2. Different flavors have different crowns. 3. Select 25 samples from each incoming consignment of 100 boxes (5 from each of 5 boxes). 4. If out of 50 crowns, 5 or 8 found defected then that consignment should be rejected. 5. If only one critical defect is there then neglected.

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There are mainly three types of defects. 1. Critical defects. y No liner. y Deformed crowns y Foreign crowns.(like Limca in ThumsUp) y Foreign material. y Height out of specification(Go No Go) y OD out of specification(Go No Go) y Incorrect text(Std. color should be there) Major defects. y Rust y Burrs. y Die scratches. y Excess liner y Under fill liner Minor defects. y Litho damage. y Litho off center. y Lith off color. y Scratched decoration. y No decoration. y Smudgy decoration. y Liner adhesive poor.

2.

3.

Wrap around labels

Procedure for sampling of Wrap around labels y Select 50 wrap around labels, randomly from each incoming lot of 35000 150000 labels y Maintain linkage between samples drawn and the consignment. This shall enable resampling, resorting quarantine of the sampled lot, if required. y Inspect the Wrap around label as per the quality plan taking samples one from each bundle of 200 labels.

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# Corrugated Cartons Procedure for sampling of corrugated cartons y Select 20 Samples, randomly from each incoming truck load of approx. 6500 7000 Cartons. y Maintain linkage between samples drawn and the consignment. This shall enable resampling, resorting quarantine of the sampled lot, if required. y Inspect the Carton as per the quality plan.

# Plastic closures
Procedure for sampling of plastic closure
y y y y y

Select 25 samples randomly from each incoming consignment of 100 boxes of approx. 2.2mm plastic closure(one container load) Draw samples from min. 5 different boxes; with closures of different liner no. for equitable sample representation. Incase some consignment contains closures of different brands, Draw samples equitable for each brand. Maintain linkage between samples drawn and the consignment this shall enables resampling, resorting quarantine of the sampled lot, if required. Inspect the plastic closures as per the quality plan.

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SANITATION:
The most important sanitation programme in the beverage plant deals with cleaning and sanitizing of the surfaces that come in contact with syrup beverage, or ingredients in their preparation.

Proper sanitation performed at the recommended frequency will minimize and most likely completely eliminate the potential for bacteria, yeast and mold reproduction and growth.

3 step CIP

 Rinse with treated water  Hot water  Final rinse with treated water 5 step CIP  Rinse with treated water  Hot caustic rinse (1.5% - 2.5% of caustic with a temp. of 73 C)  Rinse with treated water  Hot water rinse (85 C)  Final rinse with treated water

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SYRUP MAKING PROCESS:


SYRUP PREPARATION :
Syrup preparation is carried out by two methods: a) Batch System b) Continuous System

BATCH SYSTEM Treated Water

Sugar dissolving tank Heating (85 Deg cent)

Addition of sugar Contact time 30 min Filter Precoating Filtration in Plate and frame filter press Pressure difference-In2.5kg/cm2 Out-2.0kg/cm2

Cooling Plate heat exchanger Refrigerant-Glycol &cold Water (by water-up to 35 Deg cent followed by glycol 22-40 Deg cent) Simple raw syrup Mixing with concentrate

Ready syrup

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CONTINUOUS SYSTEM

(Capacity: 5000 ltr/hr) Treated Water

Heating (PHE) to 85 Deg cent Carbon Sugar

Contisolv

Mixing and dissolving Holding (85 Deg cent-30 min) Filtration

Buffer tank Bag Filter Cooling (PHE) [Pasteurization]

Syrup Tank Concentrate addition

Ready syrup

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MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Depalletizing

Uncasing

Sorting / Removal of Foreign Matter

Bottle Washer

EBI (Empty bottle inspector)

Proportioner

Filling & Capping

Date Coding

Final Inspection

Casing

Palletizing

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1) DEPALATIZING: Separation of bottle cases from palate. It is carried out manually, and cases are supplied to conveyer, for uncasing. 2) UNCASING: Removing of bottles from case. It is carried out by using uncaser machine. 3) BOTTLE WASHING:Bottle washing is completed in following stages: a) Pre-rinse:- Here empty bottles are rinsed by water used in first rinse. b) First soak: - Bottles are soaked in surface active reagent solution like caustic(2.8%) and Divo NEF ( 0.2-0.3%) . Here temperature is 60 deg cent and pressure is 2-3 bars. c) Second soak: - First soak is followed by second soak, here temperature is maintained at 74 deg cent and pressure is at 2-3 bars. d) Third soak: - Here again temperature is maintained as that of first soak. This section wise soaking is carried to avoid thermal shocks to bottles .the temperature difference between two soaks should not be more than 25 deg cent. e) Rinse: - Here rinsing is carried out in four stages as first, second, third and final. For rinsing, truated soft water is used. The flow of water is from final soak to dirst soak. Water from first soak is used in pre rinse Following are major issues and their reasons, during bottle washing. a) Caustic carry over in bottles* Chocked jets or disturbed jet alignment Not proper water pressure. Too high caustic dose. Blowers off. b) Excess breakage Thermal shocks (high temperature difference between two sections of bottle washer) Damaoed poskets. c) M.B. Positive Dirty bottles in feed Caustic and additive percent is not up po limit. Soak wise temperature difference.

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d) Excess damage to bottle neck: Improper jet alignment. Damaged pockets e) M.B. Contamination: Scales in prefinal and final rinse. Improper temperature and contect ti}e.

Flow diagram of Bottle washer


Empty bottles handling

Removal of foreign material

Bottle washing in washer Inspection of returnable bottles

Ready for filling

4) EBI (Empty Bottle Inspector): It is the new technique that is being used in coca cola company. It is used to detect 4 kinds of defects in the returnable glass bottles. In this cameras and sensors are used to check the defects in the bottles. Four kinds of defects are: 1) BASE :- it checks if the base is 3mm or not. 2) ISW ( Inner Side Wall) :- it checks if the inner side of the bottle wall is 3mm or not. 3) IR :- it detects the level of water residue. 4) Radio Frequency :- it checks the level of caustic in bottle.

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5) PROPORTIONER: Machine used for mixing of syrup, carbon dioxide and water in proper proportion is called as Proportioner It contains following major parts: Deairation Proportioning Carbonating unit Cooling unit

6) FILLING:
The operational principle is based on following functions Positioning Pressurizing Filling Closing & decompression

7) CROWNING:
Crowning applies the closure to the filled bottle. The basic types of closures and closing equipment are

Crowns: For glass bottles. Plastic closures : For PET bottles The function of the crowner is to mechanically apply and seal crowns to bottles. This uses a crimping technique that applies pressure to the top and sides of the crown. This pressure causes the crown to adapt to the neck of the bottle The capper applies a pre-threaded plastic closure on the bottle, centers and pre tightens the closure onto the bottle. The final stage seals to a pre-set dynamic torque. When the pre set torque is reached, the clutch steps to prevent further tightening.

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8) PACKAGE LABELLING:
Labellers are used to apply labels to returnable stock bottles and PET containers. Labels can be used for special sales or promotions. Sleeve labels have the advantage of more consistent operation with no glue application Labels can be made of: Plastic laminate Paper Combination of material

9) DATE CODING:
Date coding matter should include following information. Date of production. Time of production. Batch number Line identification. The coder is installed on the production line and identifies the filled beverage package as to establish Production date Regulatory requirements Mandatory information This informations would allow plant to check back if there were any problems with that production and to effectively manage the age of inventory in trade. .10) FINAL INSPECTION: The beverage filled bottles are again passed through a manual inspection station where the beverage is scrutinised for appearance, clarity, presence of any particulate matter, and half filled bottles. Rejected bottles are removed before packaging into cases

11) CASING:
Mechanically by using caser machine casing is carried out.

12) WAREHOUSING:
The filled bottles are arranged in cases and through a belt conveyor system are taken to the shipping or warehouse area where they are stored till they are marketed.

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INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY ASSURANCE


It is the total arrangement made with the object of ensuring that beverage products are of the quality required for their intended use.
y

The system of quality assurance appropriate to the manufacture of food products should ensure that:

a) Beverages are designed and developed in a way that accounts of the requirements of GMP and associates codes such as those of good laboratory practice GLP and good clinical practice (GCP). b) Production and control operations are clearly specified in a written form and GMP requirements are adopted. c) Arrangements are made for the manufacture, supply, and use of the correct starting and packaging material. d) All necessary control on starting materials, intermediated products, and bulk products and other in process controls, calibrations and validations are carried out. e) The finish product is correctly processed and checked, according to the defined procedures. f) Beverages are not sold or supplied before the authorized person have certified that each production batch has been produced and controlled in according with the requirements of the label claim and any other regulations relevant to the production, control and release of pharmaceutical products. g) Satisfactory arrangements exist to ensure, as for as possible, that the pharmaceutical products are stored by the manufacturer, distributed and subsequently handled so that quality is maintained through out their shelf life. h) There is a procedure for self inspection and/or quality audit that regularly appraises the effectiveness and applicability of the QA system.

To achieve the quality objective reliably there must be a comprehensively designed and correctly implemented system of QA incorporating GMP and QC.

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MICROBIOLOGY LAB
To distinguish the food of acceptable quality from food of unacceptable quality required the application of what are known as microbiological criteria. Three different types of microbiological criteria have been identified. 1) A microbiological standard is a criteria specified in a law or regulation. It is a legal requirement that foods must meet and is enforceable by the appropriate regulatory agency.

2) A microbiological specification is a criteria applied in commerce. It is a contractual condition of acceptance that is applied by a purchaser attempting to define the microbiological quality of a product or ingredient, failure of the supplier to meet the specification will result in the rejection of the batch or a lower price.

3) A microbiological guideline is used to monitor the microbiological acceptability of a product or process. It differs from the standard or specification in that it is more often advisory than mandatory.

The microbiological laboratory of QA is well equipped and maintained. All the microbiological work is carried out in it.

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COMMONLY USED INSTRUMENTS IN MICROBIOLOGY LAB

y AUTOCLAVE

An Autoclave

An autoclave is a pressurized device designed to heat aqueous solutions above their boiling point to achieve sterilization. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1879.[1] It is used for moist heat sterilization, which is carried out at 121C for 30 minutes at 15 psi. Media is sterilized by autoclave Under ordinary circumstances (at standard pressure), liquid water cannot be heated above 100 C in an open vessel. Further heating results in boiling, but does not raise the temperature of the liquid water. However, when water is heated in a sealed vessel such as an autoclave, it is possible to heat liquid water to a much higher temperature. As the container is heated the pressure rises due to the constant volume of the container (see the ideal gas law). The boiling point of the water is raised because the amount of energy needed to form steam against the higher pressure is increased. This works well on solid objects; when autoclaving hollow objects, however, (hypodermic needles, tools, etc.), it is important to ensure that all of the trapped air inside the hollow compartments is vacuumed out. Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, veterinary science, dentistry and metallurgy. The large carbon-fiber composite parts for the Boeing 787, such as wing and fuselage parts, are cured in large autoclaves

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INCUBATOR

An Incubator An incubator comprises a transparent chamber and the equipment that regulates its temperature, humidity, and ventilation. For years, the principle uses for the controlled environment provided by incubators included hatching poultry eggs and caring for premature or sick infants, but a new and important application has recently emerged, namely, the cultivation and manipulation of microorganisms for medical treatment and research. It is used for providing favorable temperature conditions for the growth of culture organisms. Generally the temperature of incubator is operated at 37C for the growth of microorganisms Laboratory incubators were first utilized during the twentieth century, when doctors realized that they could be could be used to identify pathogens in patients' bodily fluids and thus diagnose their disorders more accurately. After a sample has been obtained, it is transferred to a Petri dish, flask, or some other sterile container and placed in a rack inside the incubator. To promote pathogenic growth, the air inside the chamber is humidified and heated to body temperature (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius). In addition, these incubators provide the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide or nitrogen necessary for the cell's growth. As this carefully conditioned air circulates around it, the microorganism multiplies, enabling easier and more certain identification.

30

y CENTRIFUGE
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration is used to separate substances of greater and lesser density. There are many different kinds of centrifuges, including those for very specialised purposes It is used to separate the suspended matters as pallets/button/residue from the liquid as supernatant.

MICROSCOPE

A Microscope

A microscope is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. The term microscopic means minute or very small, not visible with the eye unless aided by a microscope. The microscopes used in schools and homes trace their history back almost 400 years

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y pH METER
A pH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the pH (acidity or basicity) of a liquid A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.It is used to obtain pH value of different sample calibration is done carried out with standard buffer solution of pH 4.0, 7.0, 10.0

A simple pH meter with its probe immersed in a mildly alkaline solution. The two knobs are used to calibrate the instrument

LAMINAR AIR FLOW UNIT

A Laminar Air Flow Unit LAF unit is used for providing sterilized airflow by means of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters

32

y HOT AIR OVEN

A Hot Air Oven It is used for dry heat sterilization. Glasswares, Petri plates and pipettes are packed in stainless steel containers and kept at 180C for 2 hrs.

BOD INCUBATOR

A BOD Incubator

It is used for fungal growth at 22C.

33

CYCLOMIXER

It is used to mix the suspended particles.

STOMACHER LAB BLENDER

It is used for dissolving sample without the destruction of the organism for which the cost is to be carried out. Sample + dilution is placed in the recommended bags provided the total volume should be with in recommended capacity of the machine (80 400 ml).

WEIGHING BALANCE

It is a precious weighing instrument for small load. It is used primarily in professional and technical application. It is calibrated against standard weights.

34

VALIDATION OF EQUIPMENTS

In general, validation is the process of checking if something satisfies a certain criterion. Examples would include checking if a statement is true (validity), if an appliance works as intended, if a computer system is secure, or if computer data are compliant with an open standard. Validation implies one is able to testify that a solution or process is correct or compliant with set standards or rules.

In food industry, validation refers to establishing documented evidence that a process or system, when operated within established parameters, can perform effectively and reproducibly to produce a medicinal product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes

35

y MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING:
Different types of media used in microbiology lab to test microbiological count in various samples.

Media used for water testing:

Water being the essential component of beverage industry is tested against microbes using various media.

1. Chloromphenicol yeast glucose agar:

Standard formula: Yeast extract : 5.00 gms/ltr Dextrose : 20.00 gms/ltr Chloromphenicol : 0.10 gms/ltr Agar :14.90 gm/ltr

pH (at 25 c ) 6.6 + 0.2 Directions: Suspend 40.0 gms of salt in 1000ml distilled water. Heat to boiling to dissolve the medium completely. Sterilize by autoclaving at 15lbs pressure at 121 c temperature for 15 mins. Use : To check yeast and mold in water . 36

2. Violet Red Bile Agar:

Standard Formula: Peptic digest of animal tissues : 7.00 gms/ltr Yeast extract : 3.00 gms/ltr Lactose : 10.00 gms/ltr Bile salts mixture : 1.50 gms/ltr Nacl : 5.00 gms/ltr Neutral Red : 0.03 gms/ltr Agar : 15:00 gms/ltr pH (at 25 c ) 7.4 + 0.2 Directions : Suspend 41.53 gms of salt in 1000 ml distilled water . Heat to boiling to dissolve the medium completely. Cool to 45 c and immediately our into sterile petri plates containing the innoculum. If Desired , medium can be sterilized by autoclaving at 15lbs pressure at 121 c temperature for 15 mins. Use : For selective Isolation , detection and enumeration of Coli aerogens bacteria in water, milk and other dairy food products.

37

3.EMB Agar :

Standard formula : Peptic digest of animal tissues : 10.00 gms/ltr Dipotassium phosphate: 2.00 gms/ltr Lactose : 5.00 gms/ltr Sucrose : 5.00 gms/ltr Eosin Y : 0.40 gm/ltr Methylene Blue : 0.005 gms/ltr Agar : 13.50 gms/ltr

pH (at 25c ) 7.2+0.2

Directions: Suspend 36 gms in 1000 ml distilled water. Heat to boiling to dissolve the medium completely. Dispense and Sterilse by autoclaving at 15lbs pressure at 121 c temperature for 15 mins.

Use : Used for differential isolation of Gram-ve enteric bacilli from clinical and nonclinical specimen.

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4. CC2:

Standard Formula: Yeast extract: 9 gms/ltr Cerelose : 50 gms/ltr Bio Peptone : 10 gms/ltr Magnesium Sulphate : 2.10 gms/ltr Potassium sulphate: 2.00 gms/ltr Diastase : 0.05 gms/ltr Thiamine : 0.026 gms/ltr Bromo Cresol Green Agar : 15.00 gms/ltr

pH (at 25 c ) 4.6+0.2 Directions: Suspend 8.82 gms in 1000 ml distilled water . Mix thoroughly. Heat to boiling to dissolve the medium completely. Dispense and Sterilse by autoclaving at 12-15lbs pressure at( 118- 121 c) temperature for 15 mins.

Use : For counting yeast and molds in samples by membrane filter method.

39

Media used for checking and controlling microbial count in MAAZA .

5. Orange Serum Agar:

Standard Formula: Casien enzymatic Hydrolysate: 10 gms/ltr Yeast Extract : 3 gms/ltr Dextrose : 4 gms/ltr Dipotassium Phosphate : 2.50 gms/ltr Orange Serum Agar ( solid from 200 ml): 17 gms/ltr pH (at 25 c) 5.5+0.2 Directions: Suspend 45-5 gms in 1000ml Distilled water . Heat to boiling to dissolve the medium completely. Dispense and Sterilse by autoclaving at 12-15lbs pressure at( 118- 121 c) temperature for 15 mins. Avoid overheating . Mix well and pour into Sterile Petri plates. Use: For Cultivation and enumeration of micro- organisms associated with spoilage of citrus products. Cultivation of Lacto bacilli and other aciduric organism and pathogenic fungi.

40

INVERSION:
INVERTED BRIX: This is the brix which is found after breaking of sucrose in two parts and molecular weight increases due to water molecule addition in the presence of acid. C12H22O11 + H2O (SUCROSE) (342) C 6H12O6 + C6 H12O6 (GLUCOSE) (FRUCTOSE) (180) (180)

(A)
(A) Sucrose is 95% of (B) because of that Inverted Brix * 95 = actual brix 100 Procedure: 1) Expel the CO2 from the sample properly.

(B) {360}

2) Take 50 ml of decarbonated Sample in a cleaned and dry bottle after rinsing the bottle twice with the decarbonated beverage. 3) Add 0.3ml of the HCl stock solution (made for inverted brix checking) in the 50ml of the sample. 4) Cap the bottle properly and keep in water bath to reflux it at 900C for 90 mins. 5) Now cool down the sample to room temperature. 6) Check the brix and note down it.

Inverted Brix should be = (Std. Brix of the flavour/0.95) + - 0.15

41

WATER TREATMENT PLANT


INTRODUCTION The bottling plant receives its water supply from 3 bore wells .This water is first treated and then used for beverage preparation.

NEED TO TREAT WATER Water is treated to remove: Colloidal and suspended particles. Undesirable odor, taste and color. Reduction in alkalinity to desired level. Micro organisms.

COMMON IMPURITIES IN WATER Suspended solids: Includes all matter suspended in water that is large enough to be retained on a filter with a given porosity. Turbidity: Indicates level of colloidal matter of organic or inorganic origin. Alkalinity: Indicates the quantifiable quantities of carbonates, bi carbonates and hydroxides in water. Total hardness: Indicates the quantifiable quantities of calcium and magnesium. Total dissolved solvents: Indicates total content of dissolved solids in water. EFFECT OF CONTAMINATED WATER ON PRODUCT Contaminants present a danger to taste, aroma and appearance of beverage. Physical discrepancies in water as turbidity, color, odour, taste can have an almost immediate effect on beverage flavor or appearance. Even when present in small amounts, there remains a danger to product shelf life. Turbidity or small levels of colloidal matter can cause foaming problem either at the filler or while the beverage is being filled or later when the bottle \can is opened by the consumer. Micro organisms like yeast affect taste & odour and can cause sediment or floc to develop. Organic matter affects beverage sensory characters and shorten the shelf life Chemicals and minerals affect adversely the taste of beverage. High alkalinity _ can quickly neutralize and delicate acidity of the beverage.

42

STANDARS OF WATER AT COCA COLA COMPANY

Turbidity Ntu pH Alkalinity (M as Ca(co)3 Chlorine Chlorides Sulfates Chlorides + Sulfates TDS TH & Cal Hardness Sodium Iron Aluminum Color Taste Odor Trihalomethanes Microorganisms Coliform Total Count

< 0.5 ntu > 4.9 < 85 mg/l Nil < 250 mg/l < 250 mg/l < 400 mg/l < 500 mg/l Per product Requirement -DO< 0.1 mg/l < 0.1 mg/l No visible Color No detectable off taste None Below 100 ppb Nil/100 ml <25/ ml

43

WATER TREATMENT PLANT TESTING It includes various tests under physical and chemical parameters. These tests are:-

1) Physical Parameter: TDS Odour Taste Turbidity Appearance

2 )Chemical Parameters: Calcium hardness Sulfate Iron Total Hardness Total and Partial Alkanity Chloride Free/Total Chlorine

WATER TREATMENT PLANT FLOWCHART

Bore wells

Raw water storage 3 Streams

Coagulation

Softening

Domestic

44

TREATED WATER
Raw Water Tank Free chlorine (2-3ppm)

Coagulation Tank . Lime, bleaching pd., FeSO4

Clear Water tank

Pressurized Sand Filters (PSF)

Dechlorination

Activated Carbon Filters (ACF)

Lead ACF Lag ACF

5 micron filter

UV chamber

3 micron filter

1 micron filter

Treated water

45

USE OF TREATED WATER


Syrup making, beverage preparation and CIP. Filler for cleaning and flushing. Water coolers. Back washing of PSF and ACF of treated water

SOFTENING STREAM
Raw water P.S.F.

A.C.F.

Softener (24% brine)

Soft water

USE OF CHLORINATED SOFT WATER IN Bottle washer. Crate washer. PET rinser.

USE OF NON CHLORINATED SOFT WATER IN Boiler. Chiller. PET blower. Cooling system.

46

KINLEY WATER MANUFACTURE


Water from bore well Coagulation PSF Storage tank Dechlorination ACF Two tier ACF UV chamber Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis membrane filtration process Storage tank Micron filter Ozonation Filling and capping Warmer and blower Labeling Date coding Packaging

Palletizing

47

VARIOUS WATER TREATMENTS


Functions of different water Treatment Process 1) Chlorination Scope Destruction of micro organisms. Oxidation of heavy metal ions and organic impurities.

2) Coagulation and Flocculation Scope Reduction of alkalinity. Removal of dirt clay and other suspended matter. Removes microbial matter Heavy metals and compounds causing off taste.

Chemicals Used in coagulation and flocculation: Lime: Reduces alkalinity and temporary hardness. Bleaching Powder: Removes color, turbidity, kills microbes and acts as a coagulant aid. Ferrous sulphate: Used as a coagulant for quicker settlement of suspended particles. Soda Ash: Reduces permanent hardness and is used when total hardness in water is higher than total alkalinity. 3) Pressure Sand Filter Scope Removes colloidal material Removes suspended micro particles Media Used 6 layers of sand ranging from coarse gravel to fine sand. Optimum Flow Rate Pressure should not exceed 4.8 m2/hr/sq meter of surface area in case of PSF. Pressure should not exceed 8.5 m3/hr/sq meter of surface area for$Gravity Sand Filter Back Wash Frequency Done when turbidity Sanitation Done by 50 ppm chlorine solution. 0.4 NTU (Normally once in 24 hrs.)

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4) Activated Carbon Filter Scope Removes trace level of organic compounds Removes color, taste and odour causing compounds. Media Used Activated Carbon0(by adsorption) Optimum Flow Rate Should not exceed 9.& m3/hr/sq meter of carbon bed

Back Wash and Sanitation(Frequency Turbidity 0.5 NTU Depends on the chlorine carry over Sanitation done by steam at 1.5 kg for around 4 hrs at a temp of 85 C. Noreal frequency once in 9 days.

5) Softener Scope To reduce the hardness of water. Medium Used Sodium resins Resin0Quantity "1500 ltr. ( Ex: Indion 225) Working(Priociple Na+ will be exclcnged with the hardness causing elemunts.MRegeneration Fepends on the hardness of output wa|er (generally every 4 days) Done0by 2<% brine (NaCl) solution. Sanitation!:% As per fresuency & depends on micro count

6) Polishing Filtration Scope Removes granular activated ccrbon$particles and sand(particles Flakes of scale or rust Media Used Micron filters ( 5, 3,1 & 0.2) Reverse Osmosis 7) Ultra Violet Purification System Scope Destroys or inactivates the DNA thus preventing micro organisms from reproducing.Media Ultra violet lamp radiation of 2537 Angstrom units.

49

8) Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis (RO) is most versatile technology available to bottling and canning plants today It reduces alkalinity and total dissolved solids by more than 90 % Reduces inorganic such as Na, Cl, SO4 Reduces large organic molecules and organisms at efficiency more than 99% The usual molecular weight range is below 300 Dalton Operating pressure range is from 200 450 psi.

Advantages: Highly effective against a wide spectrum of contaminants. Easy to operate. Cost effective when designed properly Minimum space requirement Can handle changes in water supply and level of impurities.

Disadvantages: Polyamide membranes must be protected against effects of chlorine. Cellulose acetate membranes are biodegradable. Efficiency of unit affected by the temperature of raw water. Higher the organic content of incoming water, less effective the unit. The effluent waste water from system pose disposal problems.

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9) Decaustisizer: Decaustisizer

Bottle Washer

Rinsing water from bottlewasher

PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger)

Chlorination

Settling Tank

Overflow Tank

PSF

ACF

Decaustisizer (here the pH decreases) Chlorine dozing

Degaser Decausitisizer Storage Tank

Rinsing water bottle washer

51

WATER TREATMENT PLANT TESTING 1. Chloride test:Take 50ml sample in a conical flask

Add 2 drops of P. indicator

Add 0.02N H2SO4 (Until pink color disappears).

Add 5 drops of potassium chromate or 0.5ml (removes turbidity)

Titrate it with N/50 AgNO3 (End point brown color)

NaCl (mg/ltr.) = (R-0.2ml) 23.376 Where, R Reading

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2. Sulphate test:100ml sample

2 drops of P. indicator

Add 1N HNO3 until the color disappear

Boiling to expel CO2

Make up to 200ml by distill water

Cool it & allow to settle

From above soln. take 50ml

Add 1ml NH3 buffer

Add black tincti-cation

Titrate with N/50 EDTA

End point Blue color

53

3. Total hardness:y Standard for total hardness (< 100 ppm)

Procedure:Take 100ml of water sample in a conical flask

Add 3 4 drops of ammonia buffer Add a total hardness tablet Mix thoroughly (Pink color appears) Titrate it with N/50 EDTA soln Development of blue color (Indicates the presence of total hardness)

Result: -

Observation is less than 100ppm.

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4. Alkalinity:-

y Standard for alkalinity(< 85 ppm)

Procedure:Take 100ml of water sample in a conical flask

Add 2 3 drops of Ph indicator

Add 4 5 drops of Methyl orange or Methyl purple

Development of orange yellow color

Titrate it with N/50 H2SO4

Darkning of orange yellow color (Indicates the presence of Alkalinity) Result: Observation is < 85ppm

Note: - Burette reading should be multiplied by 10 to get alkalinity

55

5. Chlorine test:y Standard for chlorine (b/w 3 5ppm)

Procedure:Take 10ml of sample in micro quant bottle

Kept it in colorimeter

Add one Cl2 1A tablet powder

Observe color Development of dark pink color (Indicates the presence of chlorine)

To observe mid readings do testing as follows:

Take 50ml of chlorinated water and 50ml non chlorinated water in a measuring cylinder. Mix it thoroughly and fill it into two cubettes

Add powder of one DPD tablet to one cubette

DPD gives pink color (Pink color indicates the presence of chlorine)

56

6. Calcium Hardness:-

Procedure:Take 100ml of sample water

Add 3 4 drops of NaOH Add one CaH tablet powder

Gives light pink color Titrate it with EDTA soln.

Pink color slightly darkens with purple touch (Indicates the presence of CaH)

7. Magnesium hardness:Procedure:Same as Calcium hardness


MgH = TH CaH Where, MgH Magnesium hardness TH - Total hardness CaH Calcium hardness

57

8. Turbidity:y Collect the sample in a clean dry glass beaker, transfer the sample to the sample cell quickly y Rinse the sample cell with the water to be tested y Cap the cell and dry the outside surface of the cell with a tissue paper y Pour the sample into the sample cell y Examine the water sample in the cell before placing it in the instrument. If bubbles have formed on the inside wall of the cell; gently tapping on the cell wall or mildly agitate the cell to release the bubbles y Gently invert sample once to agitate any particulate that may have settled y Place the cell in the turbidity meter with the direction mark on the cell forward y Lower the light cover and the turbidity will be displayed y Record the turbidity

9. P test (alkalinity):Phenolphthalein indicator gives pink color if alkalinity is there.

10. TDS (total dissolved solids):Measured by TDS meter

58

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT:


INTRODUCTION .Treatment plants remove impurities contained in wastewater so that the treated wastewater can be safely returned to the environment. This same stabilization process occurs in nature to break down wastewater into its most basic components of carbon dioxide and water. Common methods of treatment include physical, biological and chemical treatment steps to stabilize the wastewater.

The effluent treatment facility is installed for biological treatment of the effluent emanating. The effluent bears large amounts of organic matter. The direct discharge of the effluent into the water bodies causes depletion, of DO of the water. Hence, in order to meet the recommended standards of quality of the effluent, it is necessary to treat the effluent before it is finally disposed off. This treatment facility provides for removal of major pollutants from the effluent.

There are three reasons why most companies consider on site treatment of wastewater: a) b) c) d) e) To avoid prosecution To remove restriction on the output of the factory To save money To protect public health in the service area To protect the water quality in the waterway which receives the treated effluent from the processes. f) To protect the environment which receives any residuals from the treatment processes.

Industries carry out cost/benefit studies to show how to achieve the greatest benefit from the investment in effluent treatment. They design plants for the treatment of industrial effluents tailored to the requirements of the site and the industrial process, and they can arrange a complete service through to installation and commissioning of the effluent plant.

59

Wastewater from industrial processes can be difficult to treat. The cost of disposing of the effluent to the public sewer is determined by the volume, the polluting load, the suspended solids in the flow and the treatability of the effluent.

It may not be possible to treat the effluent with municipal sewage, or it may be costeffective to treat the effluent on site. The plant may be designed to reduce the strength of the effluent to a level suitable for discharge to the sewer, or to a standard suitable for discharge to the environment, or to optimise the balance between on-site costs and disposal charges.

Industrial wastewaters are typically much stronger than domestic sewage, and require a different approach if they are to be treated economically. Many of the existing treatment plants are developments of municipal technology. It can be difficult to achieve the required effluent standards, and large amounts of sludge are produced. Sludge disposal is becoming one of the greatest problems both for the industrial wastewater treatment plants. The available routes for disposal are reducing rapidly, and costs are escalating. Modern aerobic treatment plants produce far less sludge with a smaller footprint on the site. Anaerobic plants produce minimal sludge with a by-product of methane, which can be used in the upstream processes for heating or power generation.

60

TREATMENT PROCESS PROCESS CONCEPT

The raw effluent, bears large amount of suspended solids and oxygen consuming organic matter. The conceptual approach of the treatment includes the removal of suspended particles, dissolved organic matters and handling of sludge for disposal. The heart of this treatment scheme is the aerobic biological reactor, which are designed on the basis of activated sludge process. The activated sludge treatment process basically involves the stabilization of organic matter by the action of various microorganisms as depicted in the following equation. Organic + Microorganisms + Oxygen + Nutrients = New cells + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia + Energy This could be restated in engineering term asWaste + Sludge + Air Surplus Sludge + End products In this biological process, a part of the newly synthesized sludge undergoes oxidation called, Endogenous respiration. Cells + oxygen End products + Less cells The preformed biological flocks (MLSS) come in contact with the incoming waste in the aeration tank under highly aerobic environment, and oxidize the organic matter to more stable materials. The efficiency of the system mainly depends upon the concentration of active microorganism present to perform the assimilation of organic matter. The activated sludge, in general, consists bacteria and protozoan, rotifers etc. in the presence of DO. The desirably environmental condition like sufficient DO, substrate and nutrients are required for cell growth and energy for various metabolic functions. It is essential that the biological flock should readily separate from the treated wastewater in the final clarifier.

61

The oxygen supply is required for the following: 1. 2. 3. Oxidation of organic matter (substrate removal) Endogenous respiration of microorganisms. Nitrification

Oxidation of nitrogenous materials is slower. Nitrification generally begins after carbonaceous demand is satisfied and occurs in two steps: Nitrosomonas 2 NH + 3O Nitrobacter 2 NO + O 2 NO 2 NO + 2H O + 4 H

Excess or deficient quantity of food (incoming BOD) adversely affects the physical quality of biological sludge. The activated sludge system is designed on the basis of a particular food to microorganism ratio. This ratio is in practice indicated by the quantity of BOD in influent per unit quantity of mixed liquor suspended solids per unit time. This may be expressed as kg, BOD/kg, MLSS/day. The volatile suspended solid, which repression is between 60 70% of MLSS is used as a measure of active cells in the system. The optimal pH for an active biological aeration system is between 6.5 9.0. In the aeration tank required MLSS concentration is maintained by recirculating the biological solids separated in the final clarifier. The surplus biological sludge (and the sludge from the secondary clarifier) needs further dewatering, which is achieved in sludge drying beds. The final effluent is suitable for discharging into the inland surface water.

62

PROCESS UNITS The units are designed for maximum of efficiency within certain flow range and effluent characteristics. Close control and coordination of the operation of different units are required within limits of design.Efficient plant operation is possible only when the operator is fully conversant with the equipments and function of each unit. This effluent treatment facility consists of the following units: 1) Storage tank 2) Equalization tank 3) Neutralization tank 4) Primary clarifier 5) Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor 6) Aeration tanks 1 & 2 7) Final clarifier 1 8) Final clarifier 2 9) Sludge drying beds

UNIT DISCRIPTION AND OPERATION -

1) STORAGE TANK OBJECT The function of storage tank is that it collects and store the raw effluent from different part of the factory. PROCESS The raw effluent is collected from the different part of the factory and stored. The storage tank is of 40 feet in height. The capacity of the tank is two lack liters. Now from the storage tank the raw effluent is passed to the equalization tank with the help of pump. The pH of the raw effluent in the storage tank is 5.5 6.5, which generally come out from the factory.

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2) EQUALISATION TANK OBJECT The function of equalization tank is to equalize the raw effluent emanating from different processing units. PROCESS The effluent is collected in an existing combined effluent from where it is pumped to the existing aeration tank, which serves as an equalization tank. The floating aerator is operated to homogenized effluent is pumped to the neutralization tank. 3) NEUTRALIZATION TANK OBJECT The function of the neutralization tank is to neutralize the raw effluent, which is generally acidic in nature. PROCESS The raw effluent, which is usually acidic (pH-5.5 to 6.5) in nature is neutralized by adding the saturated solution of NaOH, So, the final pH of the neutralization tank is adjusted to pH- 8.0 to 9.0. Then the raw effluent after has been treated in neutralization tank is allowed to passed in the primary clarifier through gravity. 4) PRIMARY CLARIFIER OBJECT The function of PC is to remove suspended heavy particles from the raw effluent. PROCESS In this tank, the heavy particles along with the sludge, which the bacteria have degraded settles down at the bottom of the tank and the water flows on top of it. A rotator is fixed in the middle of the tank, so that the heavy particle along with the sludge which has been settle down does not block the outlet of the PC. In this tank mostly the inactive heavy particles along with little amount of sludge is thrown out in the Sludge drying beds. The pH of the PC is maintained to 7.0 to 8.0.

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5) ANAEROBIC HYBRID REACTOR OBJECT This unit is provided for the anaerobic treatment of the effluent. PROCESS The effluent after treated in PC is passed to the AHR through gravity. The design of the AHR is in a way that at the bottom of this tank anaerobic bacterias beds are made. The effluent which comes from PC react with the anaerobic bacteria and the break up of organic compounds takes place with the production of Methane gas which can be seen in the form of bubbles on the upper layer of the water in the tank. The pH of the AHR is maintained to 7.0-7.5 because the anaerobic bacteria are stable in this pH. If there is much fluctuation in the pH of this tank the anaerobic bacteria can die.

65

6) AERATION TANKS 1 & 2 OBJECT This unit is provided for aerobic biological treatment of the effluent for the reduction of organic matter in the effluent. PROCESS The effluent from the AHR is received in the aeration tank stage-1 by pumping and is aerated by the help of OXYRATOR mechanical surface aerators in the presence of previously developed biological sludge (Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids i.e. MLSS). The food / microorganism ratio is maintained at about 0.6 and 0.137 in the first and second stage aeration tanks respectively which correspond to about 3500 mg / ml. OPERATION The start up of the activated sludge process can be accomplished by using seed sludge available from night soil develop a suitable microorganism population expressed as MLSS. The following method is recommended for the initial development of MLSS in the aeration tank: The use of seed sludge (Night soil) provides the reliable means of start up. Seed sludge may be added in the aeration tank to provide approx. 500mg/ltr. MLSS. The tank is to be filled up with fresh water prior to the addition of seed sludge. The seed sludge is to be aerated by running both the aerators and be continued for at least 24 hrs. in order to make the sludge into aerobic. With the seed sludge aerated, raw effluent into the aeration tank is to be introduced at approx. 25% of the design flow. If possible, aeration must be continued by all aerators and feeding of effluent increased in daily increments of 25%. If there is no indication of the process deterioration. This enables the treatment process to produce a quality effluent as the MLSS concentration is increasing. During this operation also be added the requisite quantity of nutrients in aeration tank.

Required nutrients viz. N and P are added with aeration tanks by pumping a solution of Urea and DAHP. The aerators also help to keep the biological solids in suspension. The mixed liquor from the aeration tanks is subjected to gravitational settling in the hopper bottom secondary clarifier. 66

7) FINAL CLARIFIER 1 OBJECT The function of final clarifier-1 is to separate biological solids from the mixed liquor first stage aeration tank. PROCESS The mixed liquor from the first stage aeration tank is received in the clarifier by gravity. The clarifier is hopper bottom type. The sedimentation of sludge is withdrawn by pumps and is recirculated back into the aeration tank stage-1 for maintaining the MLSS. Provision is given to transfer the sludge into the stage-2 aeration tank through the necessary connections given on the delivery line of the sludge recirculation pump. OPERATION The clarifier is filled up with effluent by gravity. The biological solids get settled by gravity at bottom. Keep the suctions valves corresponding to each hopper portion of clarifier open. Recirculate the settled sludge by operating pump back into the aeration tank continuously. If the MLSS exceed the required level, or sludge needs to be wasted, divert the sludge into aerobic.

8) FINAL CLARIFIER 2 OBJECT The function of final clarifier-2 is to separate the biological sludge from the mixed liquor from the aeration tanks before the final effluent is disposed off. PROCESS The mixed liquor from the aeration tank is received in the clarifier by gravity. Final clarifier-2 is a circular sedimentation tank with the central chute inlet peripheral overflow laundar. The sedimentation of sludge takes place by gravity setting. The settled sludge is collected to a central circular channel around the inlet chute by a rotating scarper. Scraper is driven by a central drive head. The settled sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank. The clarified effluent from the annular laundar is disposed off through the V- Notch.

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Discharge through V-Notch: The raw effluent, which has been treated through different process, lastly clarified, is now discharge into the water bodies through the V-Notch. This is a pipeline made which have a V shape ending and having a scale mark from which height and discharge of the effluent can be calculated. The following table shows the discharge through V- Notch

Height in cms.

Discharge cubic meter/hour

Height in cms.

Discharge cubic meter/hour

7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50

6.48 7.92 9.00 10.08 12.24 14.04 16.20 18.36

11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 14.50 15.00

20.52 22.68 25.56 28.08 30.96 34.20 37.80 40.68 44.28

9) SLUDGE DRYING BEDS OBJECT This unit is meant for dewatering and drying the excess biological sludge. PROCESS The excess biological sludge from the stage-1 aeration tank after aerobic digestor is conveyed to the sludge drying beds by gravity. The excess sludge from the stage-2 aeration tanks withdrawn to the sludge drying beds by pumping. Each bed comprises of course sand broken stone as sand media support and under drain. OPERATION Allow the sludge to flow to the drying beds. Once the sludge thickness comes to about 300 mm charging of sludge is to be stop and the bed is isolated to dry up by natural evaporation. This takes about 10 days. After drying and dewatering, the sludge cakes are removed manually and are disposed off.

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SPECIFICATION OF ETP -

S.No. 1.

Test pH

Tank name Raw PC AHR FC-1 FC-2 Neutralization tank

Specification 5.00 6.50 7.00 8.00 7.00 7.50 5.50 9.00 5.50 9.00 7.50 9.00

2.

COD

Raw PC AHR FC-1 FC-2

NMT 3500 mg/ltr NMT 3000 mg/ltr NMT 2500 mg/ltr NMT 250 mg/ltr NMT 250 mg/ltr

3.

DO

AT-1 AT-2

NMT 5.0 mg/ltr NMT 5.0 mg/ltr

4.

BOD

Raw AHR FC-1 FC-2

NMT 1800 mg/ltr NMT 1500 mg/ltr NMT 30 mg/ltr NMT 30 mg/ltr

5.

SS

Raw PC FC-1 FC-2

NMT 2000 ppm NMT 1500 ppm NMT 100 ppm NMT 100 ppm

6.

MLSS

AT-1

NMT 2000 ppm

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TESTING -

GENERAL

Full spectrum of water and wastewater testing can be performed to evaluate the specific characteristics of water, wastewater or treated effluent. The ability to determine what is happening within a plant, including evaluations of plant performance, can only be done when proper sampling, storage and transportation techniques have been followed It is imperative to analyze regularly the operational parameters and maintain a systematic record as a ready reckonar. Sampling and testing should be done as per the methods prescribed in: 1) 2) 3) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. (APHA, AWWA, WCPC 1975) Manual for the examination of water, sewage and industrial waste. (ICMR) Methods of sampling and test for sewage and industrial effluent.

SAMPLING POINTS

S.No. 1) 2) 3) 4)

SAMPLE Raw effluent Final effluent Mixed liquor suspended solid Return sludge

SAMPLING POINTS Equalization tank Final clarifier launder Aeration tanks Return sludge line (Stage 1 & 2)

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METHODS OF ANALYSIS -

pH The pH of water refers to its hydrogen ion activity and is expressed as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity in moles per litre at a given temperature. The practical pH scale extends from 0 (Very acidic), to 14 (Very alkaline), with 7 corresponding to exact neutrality at 25C. Whereas alkalinity and acidity are measures of the total resistance to pH change or buffering capacity of a sample, pH represents the free hydrogen ion activity. PRINCIPLE Although the hydrogen electrode is recognized as the primary standard, the glass electrode is less subject to interferences and is used in combination with a calomel reference electrode. The glass reference electrode pair produces a change of 59.1 mg/pH unit at 25C.

APPARATUS 1) 2) Electronic pH meter with temperature compensation arrangement. Glass electrode; are available for measurement over the entire pH range with minimum sodium ion-error types for high pH- high sodium samples. 3) Reference electrode; Use calomel, silver-silver chloride or other constant potential electrode.

PROCEDURE Firstly, calibrate the pH meter with the buffer solution of pH -7.0 and then the pH 4.0. After calibrating it the electrode is washed with DM water and finally the pH is taken of the sample. After doing the work again the electrode is washed with DM water and then the electrode is dipped in DM water.

One-Day Analysis: Raw PC AHR FC N-TANK 6.70 7.28 7.20 8.6 8.58 71

SUSPENDED SOLID Estimation of suspended solid plays a important role for the process evaluation. These solids are mostly of organic species and contributes pollutants load to the treatment system. SS is analysed once in a week. PRINCIPLE This test is based on the evaporation of the residues obtained after filtering a known volume of sample, to dryness under standard conditions and weighing the residue after drying. APPARATUS Gooch Crucibles Measuring cylinder Vacuum pump Dry heat Oven SAMPLE 50 ml. Capacity 100 ml. Capacity

Raw PC FC

100 ml. 100 ml. 50 ml.

PROCEDURE 1) Firstly weigh the apparatus without any sample. 2) Filter the well-known sample (Raw, PC, and FC) through the Gooch crucible under suction, dry at 103 to 105 C to constant weight. Cool and weigh. The increase in weight equals the total suspended solid.

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CALCULATION

Weight of crucible Suspended solids Mg/litre + dry residue -

Weight of empty crucible X1000

= ________________________________________

Volume of sample

One-Day Analysis: -

RAW: - 43.9035gm 43.8786gm

= 0.0249 X 10 = 249 X 2mg = 498 ppm.

PC: - 44.4568gm 44.4371gm

= 0.0197 X 10 = 197 X 2mg = 394 ppm

FC: - 55.8496gm 55.8484gm

= 0.0012 X 10 = 12 ppm

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MIXED LIQUOR SUSPENDED SOLID (MLSS) MLSS is a rough quantitative measure of the microorganisms that are playing an important role in biological degradation of organic matters in the aeration tank. MLSS is analyzed once in a week. Routine analytical estimations of the mixed liquor solid is essentially required to enable an effective functioning of the aeration system and its significances are represented as follows: -

1)

Indicates whether the quantum of biomass presence in aeration tank is sufficient to meet the biological degradation or not.

2)

Whether the biomass population is more or less in compared to the designed food supply (BOD) to the aeration system.

3)

Helps controlling the adjustment of biomass in the aeration tank.

PRINCIPLE

The tests are based on the evaporation of the mixed liquor sample to dryness under standard conditions and weighing the residue after drying. MLSS is the weight of residue, of the known filtered mixed liquor, on evaporation at 103 to 105C.

APPARATUS Gooch Crucible Measuring cylinder Vacuum pump Dry heat Oven 50 ml.capacity 100 ml. Capacity

SAMPLE AT 1 AT 2 50 ml. 50 ml.

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PROCEDURE 1) Firstly weigh the apparatus without any sample. 2) Filter the well-known sample (AT-1 and AT-2) through the Gooch crucible under suction, dry at 103 to 105 C to constant weight. Cool and weigh. The increase in weight equals the total suspended solid.

CALCULATION Mixed liquor suspended solids Mg/litre = Weight of crucible + dry residue Weight of empty crucible

________________________________________ X1000 Volume of sample

One-Day Analysis: AT-1: - 44.1165gm 44.0909gm = 0.0256 X 10 = 256 X 2mg = 512 ppm

AT-2: - 44.0905gm 44.0166gm

= 0.0739 X 10 = 739 X 2mg = 1478 ppm

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SLUDGE VOLUME INDEX

The sludge volume index (SVI) is the volume in milliliters occupied by 1 g of a suspension after 30 min settling. SVI typically is used to monitor settling characteristics of activated sludge and other biological suspensions. Although SVI is not supported theoretically, experience has shown it to be useful in routine process control. In an activated sludge sewage treatment process, the suspended microbial mass coming out of the aeration tank is separated from the bulk of the liquid phase by plain sedimentation of the suspended matter. Further, since the microorganisms are recirculated to the aeration tank it is advisable to have a concentrated sludge. Due to overloading of the activated sludge plant, the sludge does not settle properly resulting in a poor effluent. A poorly settling sludge may also result from an unbalance of nutrients in the incoming sewage. The sludge volume index (SVI) is primarily measured to know the settling characteristic of the sludge. After settling the mixed liquor for 30 min. the sludge settlebility characteristic may be assessed from values of sludge volume index as follows: -

SVI VALUE

Less than 20 20-40 40-70 70-100 100-150 More than 150

Settlable solids Sludge formation Stage Settled sludge excellent Well settled sludge Reasonably good settled Poor settled sludge

APPARATUS Measuring cylinder 1000 ml.

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SAMPLE AT 1 and AT 2 1000 ml.

PROCEDURE a) b) c) Fill 1000 ml. of sample in 1000 ml. measuring cylinder. Allow settling for 30 minutes and noting the volume of sludge occupied in ml. At the same time determine the MLSS.

CALCULATION SVI is computed from the following equation: -

ml. settled sludge X 1000 SVI = ________________________ mg. /liter MLSS

One-Day Analysis: 97 X 1000 SVI = 1300 = 74.61

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CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND The COD determination provides a measure of oxygen equivalent of that portion of he organic matter in a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical oxidant. In the absence of a catalyst however, this method fails to include some organic compounds (such as acetic acid), which are biologically available to the stream organisms, while including some biologic compounds, which are not part of the immediate biochemical load on the oxygen assets of the receiving water. The use of exactly the same technique each time is important because only a part of the organic matter is included; the proportion depending upon the chemical oxidant used the structure of the organic compounds and the manipulative procedure. The dichromate reflux method has been selected for the COD determination because it has advantages over other oxidants in oxidizability, applicability to a wide variety of samples and ease of manipulation. The basis for the COD test is that nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. The amount of oxygen required to oxidize an organic compound to carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water is given

This expression does not include the oxygen demand caused by the oxidation of ammonia into nitrate. The process of ammonia being converted into nitrate is referred to as nitrification. The following is the correct equation for the oxidation of ammonia into nitrate.

The second equation should be applied after the first one to include oxidation due to nitrification if the oxygen demand from nitrification must be known. Dichromate does not oxidize ammonia into nitrate, so this nitrification can be safely ignored in the standard chemical oxygen demand test.

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PRINCIPLE A boiling mixture of chromic and sulphuric acids destroys most types of organic matter. A sample is refluxed with known amounts of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid, and the excess dichromate is titrated with ferrous ammonium sulphate. The amount of oxidizable organic matter, measured, as oxygen equivalent is proportional to the potassium dichromate consumed. COD is analyzed daily.

APPARATUS

a)

Reflux apparatus consisting of a flat bottom 250 to 500 ml. capacity flask with ground glass joint and condenser with 24/40 joint.

b) c) d) e) f)

Hot plate Titrator Reflux flasks Simple flask Pipette

REAGENTS 1) Potassium dichromate 0.25 N Dissolve 12.25 gm of potassium dichromate. previously dried at 103C for 24 hrs, in DM water and dilute to 1000 ml.

2)

Ferrous ammonium sulphate 0.1 N Dissolve 39.2 gm FAS in about 400 ml water, add 40 ml concentrated H SO , then dilute it to 1000 ml DM water. This solution must be standardizing against standard potassium dichromate solution daily.

3)

Ferron Indicator Dissolve 1.735 gm of 1, 10 phenonthroline dihydrate together with 695 mg ferrous sulphate crystalline, in DM water and dilute to 100 ml.

4) 5)

Silver sulphate Mercuric sulphate

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SAMPLES Raw PC AHR FC 1 ml. 2 ml. 5 ml. 10 ml.

PROCEDURE Firstly, take known quantity of samples in reflux flasks. Then, 20 ml. DM water in Blank and others make the volume 20 ml. with DM water. c) After that add 400-mg. mercuric chloride, 10 mg. silver sulphate, 10 ml. potassium dichromate and finally add 30 ml. concentrated sulphuric acid. d) Keep it for 2 hrs. for reflux on reflux apparatus. e) Then cool it for 30 minutes. f) After cooling add 100 ml. DM water. g) Then, titrate with 0.1 N ferrous ammonium sulphate using ferrion indicator. Take as the end point the orange color change to blue, then green and lastly to reddish brown, even through the blue- green may reappear within minutes. CALCULATION (a-b) N X 8000 COD in mg. /liter Where: COD a b N Normality = = = = = Chemical Oxygen Demand ml. Ferrous ammonium sulphate for Blank ml. Ferrous ammonium sulphate for sample Normality of Ferrous ammonium sulphate 0.25 X 10 / Volume consume of FAS for Blank = ml. Sample a) b)

One-Day Analysis: Blank RAW PC AHR FC = = = = = 24.8 23.5 22.8 22.7 22.6 Normality = 0.1008 1.3 X 0.1008 X 8000 / 1 = 1048.30 mg/ltr. 2 X 0.1008 X 8000 / 2 = 806.4mg/ltr. 2.1 X 0.1008 X 8000 / 5 = 338.68mg/ltr. 0.9 X 0.1008 X 8000 / 10 = 96.76 mg/ltr.

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BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

History of the use of BOD The Royal Commission on River Pollution which was established in 1865 and the formation of the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal in 1898 led to the selection in 1908 of BOD5 as the definitive test for organic pollution of rivers. Five days was chosen as an appropriate test period because this is supposedly the longest time that river water takes to travel from source to estuary in the UK. PRINCIPLE Biochemical Oxygen Demand is defined as the amount of O required by microorganism while stabilizing biologically decomposable organic matters in a waste under aerobic conditions. The BOD test is widely used to determine: 1) 2) The pollutional load of wastewater. The degree of pollution in lakes and streams at any time and their self-

purification capacity. 3) Efficiency of sewage treatment plant.

Since the test is mainly a bioassay procedure, involving measurement of oxygen consumed by bacteria while stabilizing organic matter under aerobic condition, it is necessary to provide standard conditions of nutrient supply, pH, absence of microbial growth inhibiting substances and temperature. Because of low solubility of oxygen in water strong sewage is always diluted to ensure that the demand does not increases the available oxygen. The test is conducted for 3 days at 25C as 70 to 80% the waste is oxidized during this period.

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BOD Level (in ppm) Water Quality 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Very Good-not much organic waste present Moderately clean Somewhat polluted Very polluted

APPARATUS

a. Incubation bottles: Use glass bottles having 300 mL capacity. Clean bottles with a detergent, rinse thoroughly, and drain before use. As a precaution against drawing air into the dilution bottle during incubation, use a water seal. Obtain satisfactory water seals by inverting bottles in a water bath or by adding water to the flared mouth of special BOD bottles. 1oC. Exclude all light to prevent

b. Air incubator, thermostatically controlled at 20 possibility of photosynthetic production of DO.

a) BOD Bottles b) Incubator c) Titrator d) Pipette e) Iodine flask

300 ml. capacity

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REAGENTS 1) Phosphate buffer Dissolve 8.5 gm KH PO , 21.75 gm K HPO , 33.4 gm Na HPO . 7H O and 1.7 gm NH Cl in DM water and dilute to 1000 ml and adjust pH to 7.2 Magnesium sulphate Dissolve 22.5 gm MgSO .7H O and dilute to 1000 ml. Calcium Chloride Dissolve 27.5 gm of Anhydrous Calcium Chloride and dilute to 1000 ml. Ferric Chloride Dissolve 0.25 gm FeCl .6H O and dilute to 1000 ml. Manganous Sulphate Dissolve 36.4 gm of MnSO .H O and dilute to 100 ml. filter if necessary. This solution should not give color with starch when added to an acidified solution of KI. Alkali Iodide-Azide Dissolve 500 gm of NaOH and 150 gm of KI and dilute to 1000 ml with DM water. Add 10 gm of sodium azide (NaN ) dissolved in 40 ml of DM water. This solution should not give color with starch solution when diluted and acidified. Starch Indicator Prepare paste of 0.5 gm starch powder in DM water. Pour the solution in 100 ml boiling water, allow to boil fpr few minutes. cool and then use. Sodium thiosulphate 0.025 N Dissolve 6.25 gm of sodium thiosulphate in boiled and cooled DM water, dilute to 1000 ml preserve by adding 5 ml chloroform. Standardize before each titration.

2) 3) 4) 5)

6)

7)

8)

SAMPLES Seeded Blank Raw AHR FC-1 CALCULATION Note the Blank difference. Note the 0 day and 3rd day difference. BOD = sample difference Blank difference X 300/sample taken 9ml. FC 1 ml. 2 ml. 30 ml.

One-Day Analysis: 0 Day 6.8 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.8 3rd Day 6.6 6.8 5.1 4.9 5.6 Blank Difference =0.2ml

S.Blank Blank Raw AHR FC

= = = = =

(1.5 0.2) X 300 / 1 = 480 mg/ltr. (1.8 0.2) X 300 / 2 = 240 mg/ltr. (1.2 0.2) X 300 / 30 = 10 mg/ltr.

DISSOLVED OXYGEN 83

PRINCIPLE Dissolved oxygen analysis measures the amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) dissolved in an aqueous solution. DO is one of the most important indicators of the quality of water for aquatic life. O dissolves freely in water as a result of photosynthesis, community, respiration, diffusion at the air water interface, and wind driven mixing. Temperature, pressure and salinity determine the amount of DO water can hold, or its saturation level. DO concentration below 3.0 mg/l are generally consider harmful to aquatic life, but requirements vary according to species, temperature, life stage, activities and concentration of dissolved substances in the water. When performing the dissolved oxygen test, only grab samples should be used, and the analysis should be performed immediately. Therefore, this is a field test that should be performed on site.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:
Total dissolved gas concentrations in water should not exceed 110 percent. Concentrations above this level can be harmful to aquatic life. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases may suffer from "gas bubble disease"; however, this is a very rare occurrence. The bubbles block the flow of blood through blood vessels causing death. External bubbles can also occur and be seen on fins, on skin and on other tissue. Aquatic invertebrates are also affected by gas bubble disease but at levels higher than those lethal to fish. Adequate dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality. Oxygen is a necessary element to all forms of life. Natural stream purification processes require adequate oxygen levels in order to provide for aerobic life forms. As dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5.0 mg/l, aquatic life is put under stress. The lower the concentration, the greater the stress. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a few hours can result in large fish kills. APPARATUS a) BOD bottles b) Measuring cylinder c) Titrator d) Iodine flask e) Pipette REAGENTS 1) Manganous Sulphate Dissolve 36.4 gm of MnSO .H O and dilute to 100 ml. filter if necessary. This solution should not give color with starch when added to an acidified solution of KI. Alkali Iodide-Azide Dissolve 500 gm of NaOH and 150 gm of KI and dilute to 1000 ml with DM water. Add 10 gm of sodium azide (NaN ) dissolved in 40 ml of DM water. This solution should not give color with starch solution when diluted and acidified.

2)

84

3) 4)

Starch Indicator Prepare paste of 0.5 gm starch powder in DM water. Pour the solution in 100 ml boiling water, allow to boil fpr few minutes. cool and then use. Sodium thiosulphate 0.025 N Dissolve 6.25 gm of sodium thiosulphate in boiled and cooled DM wsater, dilute to 1000 ml preserve by adding 5 ml chloroform. Standardize before each titration.

METHOD Take 300ml of sample of FC 1 and FC 2 in 300 ml BOD bottle. Add 2 ml. of manganous sulphate solution followed by 2 ml. of Alkali Iodide azide solution, weight for 5 10 minutes till the precipitation are settled. Now add 2 ml of concentrated H SO and shake well. Take 203 ml of it into the 500 ml Iodine flask, add 5-10 drops of starch solution as indicator and titrate with 0.025 N sodium thiosulphate till the color changes from brown to colorless. Note the volume of 0.025 N sodium thiosulphate consumed. CALCULATION

DO in mg/ltr ONE-DAY ANALYSIS: -

Volume consumed of 0.025 N Hypo FC 2.0 mg/ltr.

REFERENCES:

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1. Poffer N.Norman; Food Science, III ed. (1987), CBS Publishers and Distributers, Delhi. 2. Colwell R.R. and Grigorova R.; methods in Microbiology, Vol. 19, (1987), Acedemic Press INC. Florida.

3. Varnam H.A. and Evans G.N.; Foob Borne Pathogens, (1991), Wolfe Publishing Ltd. England. 4. Nielsen S. Suzanne; Introduction to Chemical Analysis of Foods, (1994), Jones an Bartlett Publisher, Boston, London. 5. Miller M. James and Crowther B. Jonathan; Analytical Chemistry in G.M.P. Environment (2000), John Wiley and Sons, U.S.A.

6. United State Pharmacopoeia, The national Formulation, Ist ed. (2002), United State Pharmacopeial Convention, INC., U.S.A. 7. 8. Indian Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I, II, III (1996), Controller of Publications, Delhi. British Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I, II (2001), Deptt. of Health, U.K.

9. Aneja R.K.; Experiments in Microbiology, Plant pathology and Biotechnology, IV ed. (2003), New Age International (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 10. Internet

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