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Resma, Annalyn H08311 HISTORY OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving

the quality of products and processes. It is used around the world. TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization. In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies, Cua, McKone, and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices as cross-functional product design, process management, supplier quality management, customer involvement, information and feedback, committed leadership, strategic planning, cross-functional training, and employee involvement. TQM and the Six Sigma The Six Sigma management strategy originated in 1986 from Motorolas drive towards reducing defects by minimizing variation in processes. The main difference between TQM and Six Sigma (a newer concept) is the approach. Along with many other modern management practices TQM originated and was developed within Japanese industry after the Second World War. Japan was a defeated nation with few natural resources and an inability to feed a population of90 million, by its self. The future lay in successfully exporting consumer products across theworld market, yet it had a reputation for shoddy goods and management systems that weredescribed as "feudal" and "despotic". General Douglas McArthur realized the need for radical change and was responsible for theregeneration of the Japanese economy. Key to this was the dismissal of the old management andtheir systems, replacing them with younger men capable of making the changes needed todevelop their economy. As a result the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) was formed, one of their firstactions was to invite a well-known American statistician Dr. W. Edwards Deming, to present hisideas to them. Deming addressed the top business leaders in Japan, including managers fromCompanies which are now household names, Sony, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Toyota. They introduced new management methods, TQM being a key one. This led to Japan being the world leader in quality and productivity.

Total Quality Management History: The tools and methods comprising TQM are not a new discovery. They have been around sinceFrederick Taylor developed the Principles of Scientific Management in 1911.TQMs keyplayers and events: y 1918: Dr. Franklin Bobbitt incorporates Taylors Principles of Scientific Management into his education model (Marshall 176). y Dr. Walter Shewhart, the Grandfather of TQM, is credited for development of thePDSA Cycle; Plan, Do, Study, Act, and Statistical Process Control; using statistics todetermine the health of a process (Marshall 176). W. Edwards Deming, the quality guru, was the key to Japans economic comeback after WorldWar II.The Japanese still use his version of the PDSA developed by Shewhart, and Demings14 Points.

1930s TQM history The history of TQM starts with Elton Mayos Hawthorne experiments from 1927 through 1932. These experiments showed that workers participation in decision making improves productivity. In the 1930s, the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company studied lighting levels,workday lengths, and rest period lengths to maximize productivity. During the lighting levelstudies, researchers found that when the lights were brighter, worker productivity increased.However when lighting level was decreased worker productivity also increased. This change in behavior from the employees is now called the Hawthorne effect. It basically states that when workers are involved in studies or decision making, productivity increases. Also during the 1930s, Walter Shewhart developed control charts. This is a statistical method to control processes. 1940s TQM History In the 1940s US was in World War II. Click here to review the History of the ISO 9001 standard. WWII pushed standardization, statistical control, and best manufacturing practices. 1950s History of Total Quality Management In the 1950s Edward Deming taught statistical methods and Dr Juran taught quality management techniques to the Japanese. Armand Feigenbaun wrote Total Quality Control. This became the first work that started many Total Quality Management theories.

In 1954 Abraham Maslow created a pyramid of self actualization needs. In terms of work productivity, the lower levels of needs must be met prior to employees performing at higher levels. The needs in order are 1.Physiological which is to eat, sleep, and have shelter 2.Safety which is to have economic and physical security 3.Belonging which is to be accepted by family and friends 4.Esteem which is to be held in high regard 5.Self actualization which is to achieves ones best 1960s TQM History In the 1960s Douglas McGregor formed the Theory X and Theory Y leadership models. A Theory X leader applies a negative approach to management. They assume most workers really do not like to work and try to avoid work. A Theory Y leader believes workers want to do a good job. They believe workers will offersolutions to problems and participate in problem solving events. An involved employee is aproductive employee. 1970s History of TQM In 1968 the Japanese shaped the phrase Total Quality Control. TQC is a companywide qualitycontrol philosophy. This philosophy drove Japan to the world quality leader in the 1970s. For themost part, Japan remains the quality leader. However the world has significantly closed the gap. 1980s History of TQM In the 1980 the U.S. Navel Air Systems coined the TQM phrase. The Navy based most of the principles on the Japanese Total Quality Control philosophy. Many companies adopted TQM during the 80s. TQM spread like wild fire. Many companies sawsignificant gains in productivity. However many companies started the program and failedmiserably because they weren't willing to change. 1990s History of Total Quality Management In the 1990s' TQM evolved. Experts introduce new methods that supported TQM. These include Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma. 2000s History of Total Quality Management In the 2000s, ISO revised ISO 9001 to focus more on business planning, quality managementand continuous improvement. Other certification standards were created including AS9100 foraerospace, TS16949 for automotive, ISO 14001 for environmental, TL9000 for electronics, andISO 17025 for laboratories. These standards all include the ISO 9001 elements.

TQM Gurus 1.Edward Deming Deming's concepts of process management began with the use of statistical quality control. Hisreal contribution was his ability to cut through academic theory and present ideas in a simpleway that was meaningful and practical right down to the shop floor. He interpreted quality in terms of reliability, dependability, predictability and consistency of product and service. He saw quality improvement as being analogous to reduction in process variation. By reducingthis with the help of statistical control methods, variation in product quality is also reduced. Thefact that processes are now under better control also means lower cost and improved productivity.

2. Joseph Juran Juran published "The Quality Control Handbook" in 1950 which became the standard reference book on quality world-wide. 3. Kaoru Ishikawa Ishikawa is regarded as the father of the quality circle approach which was involved buildingshop floor teams. His legacy is more directly linked to hands on, practical techniques andpromoted many of the tools and techniques of measurement, analysis and problem solvingcommonly used as part of the TQM armory. 4. Philip Crosby Crosby did much to popularize the use of TQM. He first designed a highly successfulprogramme for ITT for whom he worked before setting up his own quality college andconsultancy firm. His training programme has been widely used by a large number of US.

DEFENITION OF QUALITY QUALITY In manufacturing, a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies, and significantvariations, brought about by the strict and consistentadherence to measurable and verifiable standards toachieve uniformity of output that satisfies specific customeror user requirements. ISO 8402-1986 standard definesquality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs."