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Office of Elementary Education

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Grade 4 Science Instruction Unit Guide Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Table of Contents Standard 2: Earth/Space Science Topic


Maryland State Curriculum for Science Skills and Processes Maryland State Curriculum for Science Alignment Vertical Content Map Planning Guide Instructional Support for Science Objectives Word Cards and Vocabulary Sort Careers in Earth Science Concept Attainment for Sun, Moon, & Stars Literature To Support Earth/Space Science Websites To Support Earth/Space Science Science Assessment Collection Windows Teacher Directions for Unit 1 Standard 2 Assessment Answer Key for Unit 1 Standard 2 Assessment MSA Scoring Rubric

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4-6 7-13 14-19 20-35 36-197 198-220 221-230 231-240 241-259 260-268 269 270-275 276-296 297

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Maryland State Curriculum for Science


WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Standarde o f E and m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n O f f i c 1.0 Skills l e Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. A.CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE

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1. Gather and question data from many different forms of scientific investigations which include reviewing appropriate print resources, observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. a. Support investigative findings with data found in books, articles, and databases, and identify the sources used and expect others to do the same. b. Select and use appropriate tools hand lens or microscope (magnifiers), centimeter ruler (length), spring scale (weight),balance (mass), Celsius thermometer (temperature), graduated cylinder (liquidvolume), and stopwatch (elapsed time) to augment observations of objects, events, and processes. c. Explain that comparisons of data might not be fair because some conditions are not kept the same. d. Recognize that the results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, and when the differences are large, it is important to try to figure out why. e. Follow directions carefully and keep accurate records of one's work in order to compare data gathered. f. Identify possible reasons for differences in results from investigationsincluding unexpected differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations. g. Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities are reasonable in a familiar context by comparing them to typical values when measured to the nearest:
y y y y y y y

Millimeter - length Square centimeter - area Milliliter - volume Newton - weight Gram - mass Second - time Degree C - temperature

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. B.APPLYING EVIDENCE AND REASONING 1.Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others. a. Develop explanations using knowledge possessed and evidence from observations,reliableprint resources, and investigations. b. Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others. c. Review different explanations for the same set of observations and make more observations to resolve the differences. d. Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully distinguishes actual observations from ideas and speculations about what was observed, and is understandable weeks or months later. C.COMMUNICATING SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 1. Recognize that clear communication is an essential part of doing science because it enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. a. Make use of and analyze models, such as tables and graphs to summarize and interpret data. b. Avoid choosing and reporting only the data that show what is expected by the person doing the choosing. c. Submit work to the critique of others which involves discussing findings, posing questions, and challenging statements to clarify ideas. d. Construct and share reasonable explanations for questions asked. e. Recognize that doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. D.TECHNOLOGY

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1. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS: Develop designs and analyze the products: "Does it work?" "Could I make it work better?" "Could I have used better materials?" a. Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things. b. Realize that there is no perfect design and that usually some features have to be sacrificed to get others, for example, designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance). c. Identify factors that must be considered in any technological design-cost, safety, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails. 2. DESIGNED SYSTEMS: Investigate a variety of mechanical systems and analyze the relationship among the parts. a. Realize that in something that consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another. b. Explain that something may not work as well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected. 3. MAKING MODELS: Examine and modify models and discuss their limitations. a. Explain that a model is a simplified imitation of something and that a model's value lies in suggesting how the thing modeled works. b. Investigate and describe that seeing how a model works after changes are made to it may suggest how the real thing would work if the same were done to it. c. Explain that models, such as geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world, although such representations can never be exact in every detail. d. Realize that one way to make sense of something is to think how it is like something more familiar.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Maryland State Curriculum for Science


Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. A.MATERIALS AND PROCESSES THAT SHAPE A PLANET 2.Recognize and explain how physical weathering and erosion cause changes to the earth's surface. a. Investigate and describe how weathering wears down Earth's surface. Water Ice Wind b. Cite evidence to show that erosionshapes and reshapes the earth's surface as it moves from one location to another. y Water y Ice y Wind
y y y

Science Correlations/Resources

Other Correlations

Weathering and Erosion Supplemental Lessons Weathering and Erosion Reader

HM Themes 1-2, 4, and 6

Weathering and Erosion Supplemental Lessons Weathering and Erosion Reader

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. B.EARTH HISTORY 2.Recognize and explain that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and about the nature of the environment at that time. a. Recognize and explain that the remains or imprints of plants or animals can become fossils. Science Correlations

Page8 Other Correlations

Fossil Supplemental Lessons Dinosaur and Fossil Reader Structures of Life, Science Stories, pp. 45-48 Fossil Supplemental Lessons Dinosaur and Fossil Reader Structures of Life, Science Stories, pp. 45-48 Fossil Supplemental Lessons Dinosaur and Fossil Reader Structures of Life, Science Stories, pp. 45-48

b. Describe the physical structures of an animal or plant based on its fossilremains. c. Identify what an animal or plant fossil is able to tell about the environment in which it lived.
y y

Water Land

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. D.ASTRONOMY 1. Identify and describe the variety of objects in the universethrough first-hand observations using the unaided eye, binoculars or telescopes or videos and/or pictures from reliable sources. a. Observe and describe the stars and the planets as seen through a telescope, graphically in pictures or in video clips from reliable sources. b. Identify the sun as the Earth's closest star. Sun, Moon, & Stars, Science Resources, pp. 15-35 c. Recognize that stars are like the sun, some are smaller and some larger. d. Recognize and describe that the stars are not all the same in apparent brightness. e. Recognize that the pattern of stars in the sky stays the same although their locations in the sky appear to change with the seasons. Sun, Moon, & Stars, Science Resources, pp. 15, 35 Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 3, Part 2 Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 3, Part 1 Sun, Moon, & Stars, Science Resources, pp. 37-39 Science Correlations

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Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 3, Part 2 Sun, Moon, & Stars, Science Resources, pp 15, 35, 39, 4243

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time. E.INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE 2. Recognize and describe that each season has different weatherconditions a. Describe different seasonal weather conditions using data collected from weather instruments, models or drawings. b. Compare average daily temperatures during different seasons. c. Compare average daily wind speed and direction during different seasons. d. Compare average daily precipitation during different seasons.
y y

P a g e 10 Science Correlations Other Correlations

HM Themes 1-4 and 6 Math Unit 1: Statistics Math Units 3 and 5: Measurement Weather Study and Observation Station Weather Study and Observation Station Weather Study and Observation Station Weather Study and Observation Station

Amount Type

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education GRADE 5 Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces D. ASTRONOMY 1. Identify and compare properties, location, and movement of celestial objects in our solar system. Science Correlations

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Other Correlations

a. Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape. b. Identify the properties of the planet Earth that makes it possible for the survival of life as we know it.
y y y y

Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 1, Parts 1-2 See Lesson Seeds

Temperature Location Presence of an atmosphere Presence of water (solid, liquid, and gas)

c. Compare the properties of at least one other planet in our solar system to those of Earth to determine if it could support life, as we know it. d. Identify and describe physical properties of comets, asteroids, and meteors. e. Provide evidence that supports the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

See Lesson Seeds

See Lesson Seeds Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 1, Parts 1-2

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education GRADE 5 Standard 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces 2. Recognize and describe the causes of the repeating patterns of celestial events. a. Describe the rotation of the planet Earth on its axis. b. Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet earth produces observable affects.
y y

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Science Correlations

Other Correlations

Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 1, Parts 1-2 Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 2, Parts 1-2

The day and night cycle The apparent movement of sun, moon, planets, and stars

FOSS Supplemental Lesson, Seasons

c. Describe the revolution of the planet earth around the sun. d. Recognize and describe that the planet earth produces effects. o The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons Length of the year

FOSS Supplemental Lesson, Seasons

Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 3, Parts1-2 FOSS Supplemental Lesson, Seasons

e.Verify with models and cite evidence that the moon's apparent shape and position change. Sun, Moon, & Stars, Investigation 2, Part 1

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education GRADE 4 Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. B.Environmental Issues 1. Recognize and describe that people in Maryland depend on, change, and are affected by the environment. a. Identify and describe that human activities in a community or region are affected by environmental factors y Presence and quality of water y Soil type y Temperature y Precipitation Science Correlations

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Other Correlations

HM Themes 1-4 and 6 Social Studies: Standard 3: Geography See Lesson Seeds

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Vertical Content Map for Earth/Space Science


Grades 2 & 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
A.MATERIALS AND PROCESSES THAT SHAPE A PLANET 2.Recognize and explain how physical weathering and erosion cause changes to the earth's surface. a. Investigate anddescribe how weathering wears down Earth's surface. y y y Water Ice Wind A.MATERIALS AND PROCESSES THAT SHAPE A PLANET 2.Cite and describe the processes that cause rapid or slow changes in Earth's surface. a. Identify and describe events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and flooding which change surface features rapidly. b. Recognize that the natural force of gravity causes changes in the Earth's surface features as it pulls things towards Earth, as in mud and rock slides, avalanches, etc. c. Cite examples that demonstrate how the natural agents of wind, water, and ice produce slow changes on the Earth's surface such as carving out deep canyons and building up sand dunes.

b. Cite evidence to show that erosion shapes and reshapes the earth's surface as it moves from one location to another. y y y Water Ice Wind

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Grades 2 & 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
B.EARTH HISTORY 2.Recognize and explain that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and about the nature of the environment at that time. a. Recognize and explain that the remains or imprints of plants or animals can become fossils. b. Describe the physical structures of an animal or plant based on its fossil remains. c. Identify what an animal or plant fossil is able to tell about the environment in which it lived. y y Water Land 3.Explain how rock is formed from combinations of different minerals and that smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of bedrock (solid rock underlying soil components) and larger rocks; soil is made partly from weathered rock, partly from plant remains-and also contains many living organisms. a. Observe and classify a collection of mineralsbased on their physical properties. y y y y Color Luster Hardness Streak

b. Identify and compare the properties of rocks that are composed of a single mineral with those of other rocks made of several minerals using their physical properties. c. Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. y y y Weathering Erosion Depositition

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Grades 2 & 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
C.PLATE TECTONICS 1.Gather information and provide evidence about the physical environment, becoming familiar with the details of geological features, observing and mapping locations of hills, valleys, rivers, and canyons. a. Identify and describe some natural features of continents. y y y y Mountains Valleys Rivers Canyons

b. Describe the natural features in their immediate outdoor environment, and compare the features with those of another region in Maryland. c. Identify and describe some features of the ocean floor. y y y Mountains Valleys Canyons

d. Recognize and explain that an ocean floor is land covered by water.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Grades 2 & 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
D.ASTRONOMY 1.Observe and describe changes over time in the properties, location, and motion of celestial objects. a. Identify and record observable properties of the sun, moon, and stars. b. Identify and record the apparent visible changes in the shape of the moon over two months of observations. c. Observe and record changes in the location of the sun and moon in the sky over time. d. Describe and compare the patterns of change that occur in the sun and the moon. b. Identify the sun as the Earth's closest star. c. Recognize that stars are like the sun, some are smaller and some larger. d. Recognize and describe that the stars are not all the same in apparent brightness. e. Recognize that the pattern of stars in the sky stays the same although their locations in the sky appear to change with the seasons. D.ASTRONOMY 1. Identify and describe the variety of objects in the universethrough first-hand observations using the unaided eye, binoculars or telescopes or videos and/or pictures from reliable sources. D.ASTRONOMY 1.Identify and compare properties, location, and movement of celestial objects in our solar system. a. Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape. b. Identify the properties of the planet Earth that make it possible for the survival of life as we know it. y y y y Temperature Location Presence of an atmosphere Presence of water (solid, liquid, and gas)

a. Observe and describe the stars and the planets as seen through a telescope, graphically in pictures or in video clips from reliable sources.

c. Compare the properties of at least one other planet in our solar system to those of Earth to determine if it could support life, as we know it. d. Identify and describe physical properties of comets, asteroids, and meteors. e. Provide evidence that supports the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Grades 2 & 3

Grade 4

Grades 5

2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
2.Recognize and describe the causes of the repeating patterns of celestial events. a. Describe the rotation of the planet Earth on its axis. b. Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects y y The day and night cycle. The apparent movement of the sun, moon, planets, and stars

c. Describe the revolution of the planet Earth around the sun. d. Recognize and describe that the revolution of the planet Earth produces effects. The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons. y Length of year e. Verify with models and cite evidence that the moon's apparent shape and position change. y

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Grades 2 & 3

Grade 4

Grades 5

2.0 Earth/Space Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
E.INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE 1.Recognize and describe that water can be found as a liquid or a solid on the Earth's surface and as a gas in the Earth's atmosphere. a. Describe that air is a substance that surrounds us and contains such things as oxygen, water vapor (gas), pollen, dust, etc. b. Observe and explain what happens when liquid water disappears. y
y

E.INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE 2.Recognize and describe that each season has different weather conditions a. Describe different seasonal weather conditions using data collected from weather instruments, models or drawings. b. Compare average daily temperatures during different seasons. c. Compare average daily wind speed and direction during different seasons. d. Compare average daily precipitation during different seasons. y y Amount Type

E.INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE 1.Recognize and describe that the amount of water on Earth continues to stay the same even though it may change from one form to another. a. Describe how water on Earth changes. y y y Condensation Precipitation Evaporation

Turns into water vapor (gas) in the air Can reappear as a liquid or solid when cooled, such as clouds, fog, rain, snow, etc.

b. Explain that the sun is the main source of energy that causes the changes in the water on Earth. c. Describe the relationship between the amount of energy from the sun and the quantity of water that is changed. d. Describe the processes that maintain a continuous water cycle.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Standard 2: Earth/Space Science Planning Guide


Time State Curriculum Objectives Session 1 1.A.1.b, d, f 1.B.1 a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-8 2. Word Bank Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Focus Question How does the Sun move from sunrise to sunset?

Assess student use of the compass Note: Have a back-up plan for cloudy days.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objectives Session 2 1.A.1.b, d, f 1.B.1 a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 9-14 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 15-16 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Note: Have a back-up plan for cloudy days. Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict Science Notebook Sheet No. 1 Assess how well students recorded time data, predictions, and represented movement of the sun. Focus Question How does the sun move from sunrise to sunset? The response explains that the sun rises in the east, travels from east to west across the sky, and sets in the west. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 21 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 3 1.A.1.b, d, f 1.B.1 a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1, Part 1, Reading the Science Resources, Sunrise and Sunset, FOSS Science Resources, pages 1-3, steps 18 and 19 2. Word Bank/Content Chart 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict,rotate, rotation, position Focus Question Why does the sun change position in the sky through the day? The response explains that the earth is rotating like a top and makes it appear that the sun is moving through the sky from east to west. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 22 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objectives Session 4 1.A.1.d,f 1.B.1.a-b 1.D.3.c Two partsmorning session and afternoon session 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1, Part 2, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-8 in the morning, step 9 in the afternoon 2. Word Bank/Content Chart 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict,rotate, rotation, position, shadow, counterclockwise Focus Question How did your shadow change from morning to afternoon? Why did it change? The response explains that the shadow changed shape and direction from northwest to northeast. The suns position is the sky changed. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 23 Extensions and Modifications

Add a third shadow observation around noon.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical.

Note: Have a back-up plan for cloudy days.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 5 1.A.1.d,f 1.B.1.a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1, Part 2, Guiding the Investigation, steps 10-12 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 13-14 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict,rotate, rotation, position, shadow, counterclockwise Science Notebook Focus Question Focus Question What do you need to have a shadow? Which direction does a shadow always point? The response explains that a light source and object to block the light source are needed to make a shadow. The shadow always points away from the light source. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 24 Extensions and Modifications

Assign Home/School Connection, Teacher Sheet No. 21, Sundials

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical.

Note: Have a back-up plan for cloudy days.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 6 1.A.1.d,f 1.B.1.a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 1 Part 2, Reading in Science Resource, steps 15-16 Read, Changing Shadows and Summary: The Sun, FOSS Science Resources, pages 4-12 2. Science Notebook Sheet Sun, day, night, compass, cardinal directions, North, South, East, West, predict,rotate, rotation, position, shadow, counterclockwise, seasons Science Notebook Sheet No. 2 Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 25 Extensions and Modifications

Assign Math Extension Problem of the Week, FOSS Resource Book, page 13 or Teacher Sheet, No. 18

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.a Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.1.e Provide evidence that supports that the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objectives Session 7 1.A.1.d,f 1.B.1.a-b 1.D.3.c 2.D.1.a Session 8 1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Assess progress using ICheck for Investigation 1. See Benchmark Assessment folio, page 224, for answer guide and rubrics FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 2, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-6 2. Science Notebook Focus Question rotate, rotation, position Science Notebook Focus Question Focus Questions What natural objects can you see in the night sky? Are they the same or different from those you see in the day sky? Do the stars and Moon change position or stay in the same place every night? Compare and contrast the natural objects in the day and night sky. The response should include that the sun, moon, and clouds are seen in the day sky, and the moon, stars, other planets, and clouds can be seen in the night sky. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 26 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 9 1.D.3.a, c-d 2.D.1.e FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 3, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-9 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 10-11 stars, constellations, astronomer, orbit, revolve Focus Question Why do we see different stars in the summer and winter sky? Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 27 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.d Recognize and describe that the planet earth produces effects. y The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons Length of the year

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change. Session 10 2.D.1.a, d FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 3, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 10-11 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 12-13 3. Science Notebook Focus Question stars, constellations, astronomer, orbit, revolve Focus Question Why do we see different stars in the summer and winter sky? The response explains that the Earth revolves around the sun, so the dark side of the Earth faces different directions as the Earth orbits (revolves) around the sun. Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.d Recognize and describe that the planet earth produces effects. y The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons Length of the year

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 11 1.D.3.a, c-d 2.D.1.e FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Read, Star gazing, FOSS Science Resources, pages 35-39 2. Science Notebook Sheet Session 12 2.D.1.e Delta Science Supplemental Lesson The Seasons 1. Guiding the Activity, steps 112 2. Word Bank and Content Chart 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Science Notebook Sheet: The Seasons Science Notebook Sheet No. 7 Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 28 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objectives Focus Question How does the Earths axial tilt cause the season? The response explains that the tilt of the Earth causes the seasons. The tilt causes changes in the length of day and uneven heating all over the Earth. 2.D.2.b ~ Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects 2.D.2.c ~ Describe the revolution of the planet Earth around the sun. 2.D.2.d ~ Recognize and describe that the revolution of the planet Earth produces effects.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 13 2.D.1.a-d FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 3, Part 2, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-5 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 6-7 3. Science Notebook Focus Question Session 14 2,.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Read, Looking Through Telescopes and Star Scientists, FOSS Science Resources, pages 40-46 2. Science Notebook Sheet Session 15 2.D.1a-e FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Read, Summary: The Stars, FOSS Science Resources, pages 47-50 Science Notebook Sheet No. 8 All About the Stars stars, constellations, astronomer, orbit, revolve Focus Question How do telescopes help us to study the stars? The response includes the purpose of a telescope as making things far away look closer. Session 13 Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 29 Extensions and Modifications

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 16 Session 17 Session 18 2.E.2.a-d 2.E.2.a-d 2.E.2.a-d Weather ~ Day 1 Weather ~ Day 2 Weather ~ Day 3 weather, data, seasons, wind speed, average, temperature, precipitation Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 30 Extensions and Modifications

The students are able to make ongoing observations of the weather. They are able to read, record, and report the data from the weather station. They are able compare the average of their findings from season to season. Focus Question Do the stars and Moon change position or stay in the same place every night? The response may include that the moons position and appearance is changing. Students may refer to their Night-Sky Log for evidence.

Finding the average of numbers in is the Grade 5 math curriculum. The teacher can model this skill. The students can compare the average found by the teacher.

Session 19

1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a

FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 2, Part 1, Guiding the Investigation, steps 7-9 2. Word Bank/Content Chart, steps 10-11 3. Science Notebook Focus Question

Moon, cycle, star

www.fossweb.com FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars Student Activity Lunar Calendar

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 20 1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Read, The Night Sky, FOSS Science Resources, pages 14-18 2. Science Notebook Sheet Science Notebook Sheet No. 4, The Night Sky Review Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 31 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 21 1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 2, Part 2, Guiding the Investigation, steps 1-4 2. Word Bank Moon, cycle, star,new Moon, first quarter, full Moon, third quarter, cresent Moon, gibbous Moon, waxing, cresent Moon, waning Moon, cycle, star,new Moon, first quarter, full Moon, third quarter, cresent Moon, gibbous Moon, waxing, cresent Moon, waning Focus Questions How does the shape of the moon change over four weeks? The response includes the phases of the moon and uses terms such as waxing and waning Why does the shape of the moon change over four weeks? The response explains that the moon revolves around the earth and that the light from the moon is a reflection of sun light. Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 32 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change. Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Session 22

1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a

FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars 1. Investigation 2, Part 2, Guiding the Investigation, steps 5-11 2. Word Bank and Content Entries, steps 12-13 3. Science Notebook Entry

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 23 1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars Read, Changing Moon and Summary: The Moon, FOSS Science Resources, pages 1929 Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 33 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.b Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet Earth produces observable effects.

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.D.2.e Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change. Session 24 1.A.1.d 1.B.1.a 1.C.1.a 2.D.1.a FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars Assess progress using I-Check for Investigation 2. See Benchmark Assessment folio, page 230, for answer guide and rubrics

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Curriculum Objective Session 25 2.A.2.a-b Lesson 1: Weathering and Erosion Lesson Overview Vocabulary Formative Assessment

P a g e 34 Extensions and Modifications

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.A.3.b Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. y y y Weathering Erosion Depositition

Session 26

2.A.2.a-b

Lesson 2: Weathering and Erosion

weathering, erosion, earths surface, natural agent, absorb, debris, deforestation, embed, geologist, glacier, gully, mouth

Extension: Grade 5 Objective: The students are able to describe weathering and erosion. Students are able to identify the natural agents that cause weathering and erosion. 2.A.3.b Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. y Weathering y Erosion y Depositition Extension: Grade 5 Objective: 2.A.3.b Describe ways that the following processes contribute to changes always occurring to the Earth's surface. y y y Weathering Erosion Depositition

Session 27

2.A.2.a-b

Lesson 2: Weathering and Erosion

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Time State Lesson Overview Curriculum Objective Session 28 Session 29 Session 30 2.B.2.a-c 2.B.2.a-c 2.B.2.a-c Fossils Fossils Fossils

Vocabulary

Formative Assessment

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fossil, environment, imprint, remains, physical structures

The students are able to describe what a fossil is and how a fossil is formed. They are able to describe the physical features of the animal or plant and its environment.

Session 31 Session 32

Closure Standard 2 Assessment

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Instructional Support for Science Objectives

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2.A.2.a(Assessed)
Investigate and describe how weathering wears down Earths surface.
y water y ice y wind

MSDE Clarifications
Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks into smaller particles near the surface of the Earth by the effects of water, ice and wind. Weathering is part of the rock cycle. Soil and sediment consist of weathered rock and decomposed organic materials from dead animals and plants. Water can expand and contract with wetting and drying. Air in water that is drawn into cracks in rocks and soil can exert pressure when the water moves to a different place. Water may enter a crack in a rock, freeze and push the rock apart. This process is most common in mountainous regions with cold temperatures and plentiful precipitation. It may take many cycles of freezing and thawing to complete the fracture of the rock. Weathering by wind occurs when rocks are exposed to wind-driven particles. The surface of the rock is gradually worn down by the abrasive force of the particles.

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Office of Elementary Education

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Resources to Support 2.A.2.a(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Weathering and Erosion Resource Guide

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 168,170-173 The Weathering and Erosion Resource Guide is included in this unit guide on pages 46-78.

Notes

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. 1 class set (24 books) for each teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Erosion ~ Reading Essentials In Science Safari Montage

These books may be housed with Grade 5. y y y y y Bill Nye: Erosion All About Landforms Earth Alive Land Formations Bill Nye: Wind

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Office of Elementary Education

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Lesson Seeds
To simulate weathering of rocks, use chalk instead of rocks in this activity. Be sure the students understand that the chalk is representing rock. Break several pieces of chalk up into smaller pieces. Ask students to sketch the "rock" (chalk) on paper and identify special characteristics of any rocks in their pile. Place the rocks in a plastic container filled full with water and with a lid. Students take turns shaking the "rocks" (about 50 times). Pour the water through a coffee filter into a bowl and observe the "rocks" and the water. To demonstrate chemical weathering, have the students place the chalk or local rocks in a plastic container with fresh water and a weak acid, such as lemon juice. Have students shake the container another 100 times and observe the rocks to see the impact of chemical weathering. Resource: mdk12.org

Have the students look at sand under a hand lens, and not that the edges of the grains are sharp. Explain that these grains can be blown through the air by wind and that they can scratch and wear away rocks. Ask students to comment on how wind-blown sand and dirt feels against hands and faces. If any student has been in a sandstorm, let him of her relate the experience. Explain that the long-time effect of wind-carried particles gradually wears down the earths surface. Have students find pictures from magazines of wind-worn desert rock formations. In some pictures they might note that the wearing seems to be greatest near the base. Let them hypothesize why.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Borrow a piece of sandstone and limestone from Grade 3 Earth Materials Kit. Rub a piece of sandstone with a piece of limestone over a sheet of black paper. Students will see that time particles of rock are rubbed from the softer rock. Similarly, rub pieces of hardwood and softwood with sandpaper and collect the particles on separate sheets. Students will understand that these experiences are examples of how rocks can be eroded and that particles carried by the wind erode softer materials in a similar way.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Borrow sandstone, limestone, and pumice from Grade 3 Earth Materials kit. Have the students soak several pieces of porous rocks for an hour. Place the pieces in a plastic bag in a freezer overnight. Challenge the students to hypothesize what happen to the rocks, and then examine the rocks the next day. By analogy, students can realize that water from rain and melting snow flows into cracks and pockets in rocks during the daytime, and then the liquid sometimes freezes, expands, and cracks pieces from the rocks.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Cut one side from a milk carton, and half-fill it with moist soil. Plant some soaked corn or lima beans just under the surface of the soil, and pour about inch plaster of paris on top of the soil. Set the carton aside and examine it daily. Students will soon not that the germinating seed push up under the plaster with enough force to break it. Similarly, students can plant the seeds and place a sheet of heavy glass over them. They will soon see that the germinating seeds will push the glass upward the glass allows the students to observe the process directly. Students will learn that germinating seeds can either cause rocks to move out of the way or crack them into smaller pieces. Explore the school grounds to find places where plants have broken through asphalt or cement.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Office of Elementary Education

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2.A.2.b(Assessed)
Cite evidence to show that erosion shapes ad reshapes the earths surface as it moves from one location to another.
y Water y Ice y Wind

MSDE Clarifications
Erosion is the carrying away of weathered rocks by water, wind, ice or gravity. Erosion loosens and carries away rock debris formed by weathering. Rain, wind, moving water, cold and hot temperatures, and ice cause the crust to break up into smaller pieces and be deposited in other areas. Water is the strongest agent of erosion. Erosion from water can occur when the amount of precipitation is greater than the ability of the soil to retain water. Erosion by water can also occur in coastal areas through the action of waves against the shore. Erosion transports particles to a new location. Erosion by ice occurs when glaciers move due to gravity or by melting. As glaciers move they can move rock fragments or erode entire mountain sides or carve valleys. Weathered particles from mountains are deposited by wind erosion in other areas to form sand dunes.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Resources to Support 2.A.2.b(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Weathering and Erosion Resource Guide

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 170-173 The Weathering and Erosion Resource Guide is included in this unit guide on pages 46-78.

Notes

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school. 1 class set (24 books) for each teacher These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Erosion ~ Reading Essentials In Science Safari Montage

These books may be housed with Grade 5. y y y y y Bill Nye: Erosion All About Landforms Earth Alive Land Formations Bill Nye: Wind

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Lesson Seeds

Create a mound of mud, sand and soil. Add rocks and other material to the pile. Use a watering can to see the effect water has on the materials in the pile. The effects of the wind can be simulated with the use of a fan or hair dryer. To extend, brainstorm possible ways to reduce erosion and experiment to determine which suggestions work best. Resource: mdk12.org

Carry a vacuum cleaner outdoors and attach the hose to the end that blows air. (Substitution: Blow Dryer) Explain that the air that is moving from the vacuum represents the wind that might blow across the path of earth. Point to the nozzle at the spot of dry ground and turn the vacuum on. Students will see how the vacuum blows the loose particles of dirt, leaving a small depression. They can realize that wind erodes the land in much the same way blowing dust and small particles from place to place. Have them look around the school grounds to find where wind blows up dirt and dust. See if they can also find places (e.g. in corners of buildings) were the wind deposits the dirt, dust, and other debris.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Fill several flower pots or cans with loose soil until the soil is just level with the edges. Place some small stones or bottle caps on the surface of the soils and set the containers outside or in a sink. Water them with a watering can to represent rain, gradually increasing the flow. When finished, let students notice how the unprotected soil is splashed away, leaving columns of soil under the stones. After a rain, have students look for the same effect in an unplanted area.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Office of Elementary Education

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Prepare a long U-shaped cardboard trough filled with coarse sand. Hold the cardboard in a slanting position over a pan and pour water, a little at a time, on the sand at the upper end. Have students note that as the water flows slowly, it carries small grains of sand with it into the pan while the larger and heavier pieces stay behind. Now pour the water with a greater force. Students will see that both the sand and larger pieces are washed downstream and will begin to realize that moving water carries objects. Students can experiment with the trough by raising and lowering it to see what effect the slope has upon the carrying and deposition of materials. They can experiment by placing a large object, such as a rock, in the flow of the water to see what effect it has on the deposition of sediments.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Have students fasten a sheet of white paper to a piece of cardboard. Set it on the floor, and from a foot above the paper, drop colored water (to represent raindrops) from a medicine dropper. Note the size and shape of six splashed. Carefully remove the paper and replace it with a fresh sheet. Tilt the board slightly and repeat. Students can compare these splashes with the others. Continue the activity by gradually increasing the slope of the surface, using a new sheet of paper each time. When dry, the papers will be a visual record for display. Other tests can be made by varying the height of the falling drops and by varying the height and the slope at the same time.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Obtain a large, 10 inch by 15 inch baking pan, about 5 inches deep. Mix some soil with water to make mud. Fill about one-third of the pan with mud at one end to a height of 4 inches. When it dries, place a 3 inch layer of sand in the remaining portion of the pan and add enough water to submerge the sand. Place a wooded board into the pan at the sandy end and move it back and forth to make small waves. Explain that the model represents the ocean battering a shoreline. Students can observe the waves as they splash against the land mass and not how a beach gradually forms, how the particles are tumbled by the waves, how the land mass is eroded, and how the erode portions are distributed.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Have students rub a piece of ice across the painted surface of a board, noting that the ice is not hard enough to abrade the surface. Now let them press the cube into a dish of sand. When the ice melts a bit, place the dish and cube in a freezer. After it refreezes, remove the cube and rub it across the board again it will have picked up pieces of sand and will scratch the boards surface. Explain that glaciers similarly melt, pick up sediments, and refreeze. Ask what might happen when soil, and, rocks, and boulders become frozen into the edges of a moving glacier. Ask what happens when a rock rubs against other rocks and soil. If possible, show pictures of glacial valleys. Students can note how sliding glaciers have ground away rocks and soils to deepen and widen the valleys through which they travel. Notice that the valleys are always U-shaped.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Lesson 1: Erosion and Weathering

Objective: The students will observe weathering and different types of erosion and describe how they affect the earth. Focus Question: How does weathering and erosion affect the earth? Materials: y Materials for each investigation: - Weathering/Erosion: several different sized soft rocks, a plastic juice bottle - Ice Erosion: modeling clay, ice cube, 1 spoonful of coarse sand, a paper towel - Wind Erosion: a shoebox, mixture of sand and dirt, several small rocks - Soil Erosion: two trays, soil, grass, newspaper, several books, paper cup, small pitcher of water Copy of investigation lab sheet A rough sketch of your school yard and make copies for your students Erosion/wreathing pictures included in this lesson ~ Contact Office of Elementary (Science) for electronic/colored copy

y y y

Safety: Students should be wearing goggles during these investigations. One class set (24) of goggles and alcohol swabs for cleaning are in each school.
Introduction/Warm Up: Give each group a sheet of paper and have them write Weathering vs. Erosion in the center. Have students choose a corner of the paper and allow 2 minutes to jot down everything that they know about the two terms. Then, as a group, have them prepare to share 3-4 concepts on what they know as a team and then share. List their ideas on the overhead or chalkboard and check for correctness as the lesson moves on. Direct students to the objective so they are familiar with what information they need to acquire today. Procedure: 1. Set the expectation of how students should complete the station rotation and demonstrate to avoid confusion. Modeling each investigation briefly to help students transition and complete each station accurately may be an option. Assign groupings and have students move to their first station. 2. Give students about 8 minutes at each station to complete the investigation and answer the questions specific to each station. 3. Allow students to rotate through all four stations. Closure: As a whole group, discuss the results of each investigation. Monitor for understanding and clarify any confusion that students are experiencing. WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Assessment: Provide students with a rough sketch of the school-yard or have students draw it themselves. Have them label on their sketch a place where they can observe the following types of erosion: wind, water and soil. Labeling ice erosion is optional. Turn into the teacher.

Wind Erosion
1. Place a thin layer of sand dirt in a shoe box. 2. Be sure to wear safety goggles during this part of the investigation! Gently blow through a straw toward the sand dirt. Observe what happens. 3. Place rocks on the top of the sand dirt. Gently blow through the straw. Observe the difference between blowing with the rocks and blowing without. 4. Answer the questions that relate to this investigation.

Weathering and Water Erosion

1. Place some of the provided rocks into a plastic water bottle. Set any remaining rocks to the side. 2. Fill the bottle about halfway with clear water. Close the lid of the bottle and shake it for 6-7 minutes. 3. Remove the rocks and note any changes in their appearance compared with the rocks that you set aside. 4. Examine the water. Note your observations on the investigation chart.

Ice Erosion WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education Materials: modeling clay, ice cube, 1 spoonful of coarse sand, a paper towel

P a g e 48

Procedure: 1. Form the modeling clay into a flat circle or square. 2. Press the ice cube lightly on the flat surface of the modeling clay. Move it back and forth several times. 3. Place a small pile of sand on the surface of the clay. 4. Set the cube on the sand. Let it sit for several minutes. Lift the ice cube and look at the surface that had been on the sand. 5. Place the ice cube back in the same position and move it back and forth on the sandy surface of the clay a few times. 6. Remove the ice cube and gently wipe the excess sand from the surface of the clay with a paper towel.

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Office of Elementary Education

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Soil Erosion

Materials: two trays tray A should have only dirt; tray B should have only grass, trays for catching water, several books, paper cup and small pitcher of water

Procedure: 1. Place the trays on a table with trays placed at the end to catch any run off. Tilt both trays with several books so that one end is higher than the other. Both trays should be tipped equally. 2. Poke several small holes in the bottom of the paper cup. 3. Hold the cup about 12 inches over the high end of Tray A. Slowly pour the water into the paper cup to create rain. 4. Hold the paper cup over the high end of Tray B. Slowly pour the water into the paper cup. 5. Answer the questions on the investigation sheet relating to this investigation.

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Weathering/Erosion

What you have just observed is the basic process of weathering? In your own words, explain what weathering is.

When does the weathering process turn into erosion? Explain using words and/or pictures.

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Wind Erosion

What did you observe differently blowing the sand dirt with rocks and then without rocks holding it down?

List objects that wind moves in nature.

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Office of Elementary Education

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Ice Erosion

How does what you observed in this investigation compare with the surface of the land when rock and other materials are dragged over it by a glacier? Explain using words and diagrams if necessary.

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Office of Elementary Education

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Soil Erosion

Compare your observations of what happened to Tray A to Tray B when you poured the water over each one.

Relate your finding to what you think occurs when rain falls on soil that contains no plants. Why does this happen?

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Office of Elementary Education

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Office of Elementary Education

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Lesson 2: Erosion and Weathering

Objective: The students will describe the types of weathering and erosion. Focus Question: How can we describe weathering and erosion? Materials: y y y y y y OR y Reading Essentials in Sciences Erosion Plain paper for introduction activity Overhead transparency of Weathering/Erosion chart OR Anticipatory Guide Science Journal Chart paper for T-chart on Weathering vs. Erosion Copies of Weathering/Erosion chart for students Copies of Anticipatory Guides for students

Introduction/Warm Up: Turn to a partner and Think-Pair-Share information learned during yesterdays lesson. Ask several students to share information that their partner recalled to them. Post the transparency chart on the overhead and ask students questions based on the information collected.

WCPS 2010-2011

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Office of Elementary Education Procedures:

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1. Distribute texts and charts. Allow a moment for students to take a book walk, stressing the genre and what text features are included in the book. 2. Read pages 4-7 together as a group, noting facts about both weathering and erosion and list them on the chart. Provide a short demonstration (see below) to add meaning to the terms of weathering and erosion. Write a definition for each word on the chart.

Rub Away
Materials: paper and a pencil with an eraser

Procedure:  Have students work along with you to write their name on the sheet of paper that was used as the introduction activity and write their name in pencil.  Rub the eraser back and forth over the written name and discuss what is happening to the eraser particles. (Note that they simply fall close to where they were erased.)  Next, have students gently blow the eraser particles and discuss the results.  Differentiate between weathering (particles staying in place) to erosion (particles move when blown.)

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education 3. Assign students their expert parts for the Jigsaw Activity:      Group #1 pp. 8 and 9 Mechanical and Chemical Weathering Group #2 pp. 12-16 Water Erosion Group #3 pp. 17-19 Ice Erosion Group #4 pp. 21-25 Wind Erosion Group #5 26-30 Soil Erosion

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You may choose to have the students use the anticipatory guide to help set a purpose for reading or use the chart. Both are provided below. 4. Groups are to read their assigned sections, which should take about 7-8 minutes. They should also be able to fill in the chart or anticipatory guide for their assigned part and be ready to present. Each group should be ready to present after this time frame has expired. While groups are placing information on their sheets, be sure to monitor groups and clarify correct information if needed. 5. Use the overhead transparency of the chart to guide the expert groups in sharing their information. This provides a visual for the rest of the class to gather the information outside of their expert group. 6. From the Jigsaw activity, add thoughts to the Weathering/Erosion T-chart. Closure: Discuss (using thoughts from the T-chart) how weathering and erosion are related, alike and different. Assessment: Have students write or draw 2-3 ideas about what they learned during the lesson in their science journal. Collect and check for understanding. Be sure that you use this information first thing tomorrow to clarify any confusion.

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Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like? What causes it? An example of.

Weathering: the natural breakdown of rocks into particles, usually by ice, wind and rain. The particles stay where they breakdown. When chemical changes occur in some of the minerals of a rock. Rains, streams, rivers, seawater run over rocks repeatedly to wear them down and make them weak. Breaks apart rock without Mechanical Weathering up. Oxygen combines with iron to change it into rust; feldspar is changed into clay. When water freezes in the cracks of rocks and then melts, the rock breaks apart.

Chemical Weathering

Ice, trees, plant roots work them into smaller pieces.

changing the chemical make- their way into rocks and split

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Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like?


moved to another. Excess water runs off to Water Erosion carry rock particles away to different locations. Area receives excessive rains due to melting snow, hurricanes, severe storms; flooding or ocean waves.
Years of accumulating snow build to create glaciers, which act like sandpaper, rubbing against surface of Earth.

What causes it?

An example of.

Erosion: the natural process in which weathered rock and soil on Earths surface is picked up in one location and

Grand Canyon, along the coastline and near bodies of water.

Rubbing away of surfaces,

Ice Erosion

breaking up rocks and loosening soil, then carrying them away along glaciers path.

Greenland, Antarctica, peaks of mountains all over the world.

Wind Erosion

Wind moves small and large particles through the air.

Flat, dry areas attract wind which moves particles through the air.

Dust Bowl, deserts, northern Africa, Asia and Europe.

Land is left barren and Soil Erosion unprotected from wind and rain.

Heavy rains, animals overgrazing and deforestation.

United States, Africa, Asia and Latin America.

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Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like?


Weathering:

What causes it?

An example of.

Chemical Weathering

Mechanical Weathering

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Weathering/Erosion Chart What does it look like?


Erosion:

What causes it?

An example of.

Water Erosion

Ice Erosion

Wind Erosion

Soil Erosion

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Name _______________________________________ Anticipatory Guide for Erosion

Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

All Students ~ Erosion Vs. Weathering ~ Pages 4-7

Erosion is the removal of rock and soil particles by nature. Weathering is a natural breakdown of rocks into particles, usually by rain, ice, and wind. The particles become soil and dont move. Weathering occurs far away from the Earths surface.

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Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

Red Group ~ Mechanical and Chemical Weathering ~ Pages 8-9

One of the main causes of mechanical weathering is ice.

Tree and plant roots weather rocks in a differently from ice. Chemical weather involves a chemical change in at least some of the minerals within a rock. One of the main causes of chemical weathering is water.

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Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion. Statement Agree or Disagree Supporting Evidence

Blue Group ~ Water Erosion ~ Pages 12-16 Water erosion occurs when an area receives more water that it can absorb. Excess water flows over the ground and takes rocks and other loose weathered material with it. The faster the water moves, the less it erodes the land around it. Erosion on steeper hills and mountains are more severe. Flooding, waves and tides, and severe storms are other ways water causes erosion.

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Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Yellow Group ~ Ice Erosion ~ Pages 17-19 As glaciers move they scrape and grind surfaces below them, breaking up rocks and loosing soil. The ice picks up loosen materials and carries them along the glaciers path. All soil and rock picked up during a glaciers journey is deposited somewhere else. The natural process of erosion happens quickly.

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Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Green Group ~ Wind Erosion ~ Page 21-25

Unlike water and ice, wind can only move very small particles.

Sandblasting, deflation, and abrasion are types of wind erosion.

A sandstorm can change the landscape of a sandy desert.

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Directions: Indicate if you agree or disagree with each statement by writing an A (agree) or a D (disagree). Add any supporting evidence that you find from reading the book on erosion.

Statement

Agree or Disagree

Supporting Evidence

Red X Group ~ Soil Erosion ~ Page 26-30 Soil erosion leaves land bare and unprotected. Soil is easy to replace.

Soil erosion causes nutrients to be strips from the soil.

Heavy rain, animals overgrazing, and deforestation cause soil erosion.

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Writing About Science

Today Im a little pebble, but I remember I used to be a huge boulder sitting on the top of a mountain. How did I get so small? Please tell my story.

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Writing About Science

We know that moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport, and deposition). Imagine that you are a cliff. Describe what it would be like to be beaten by waves every day. Are you eroding? What does that feel like, and is you appearance changing?

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Writing About Science

You and your friend are sitting on a beach while on vacation. Your friend wonders how all that sand got to the beach. After going home and learning about water erosion at school, you decide to write a letter to your friend explaining the production of sand. Remember to us scientific words like weathering, transport, and deposition, and be sure to explain the meaning of these words by giving examples of each.

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Name ____________________

Date: __________________

Formative Assessment for Weathering and Erosion

1. When does the process of weathering turn into erosion? Explain using words and/or pictures.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Which is NOT a natural agent that causes weathering or erosion

A. wind B. water C. ice D. heat

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3. What is the main factor that shapes Earths land? A. erosion B. weathering C. weathering and erosion D. deposition

4. Which landform is formed mostly by erosion of water?

A. B. C. D.

a canyon a sand dune a delta an island

5. Which landform is formed mostly by erosion of wind?

A. B. C. D.

a canyon a sand dune a delta an island


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6. Describe the difference between erosion and weathering.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Formative Assessment Key for Weathering and Erosion Item Performance Criteria/Answer 1. Answers will vary but after the particles break down.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

D C A B Erosion moves rocks from one location to another, compared to weathering which breaks down rocks into particles and they remain where they are.

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Earth Changes Assessment


Use the passage below to answer Numbers 1 and 2.

Tomorrows Forecast - SNOW!


A severe winter storm is forecast for late February and snow will accumulate to two feet. Wind gusts up to 50 mph will impact the eastern states. The storm will be followed by a rapid warm up, and temperatures are to be in the mid-50s. Maryland is the designated bulls- eye for the storm.

The excitement builds leading up to the storm. Food and supply stores are busy with shoppers. Students hold their breath in hopes of a few days off from school.

Now lets consider what these forces of nature do to Earths surface. One winter storm causes changes that reshape the Earths surface. The storm forecasted above will impact the Earth with wind and snow. Later as the snow melts, more changes will occur. Over time these continuing weather events will result in reshaping and changing the surface of the Earth.

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Office of Elementary Education 1. Explain how a winter storm such as the one described in the passage on page 1 would cause changes to Earths surface. In your explanation be sure to include a description of how the land would change as a result of the storm. science vocabulary to identify the processes that shape and reshape the Earths surface.

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y y

Write your answer in the space provided below.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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2. Many processes contribute to the changes that occur to Earths surface. As snow rapidly melts, materials such as soil, sand and small rocks are carried away with the water. This process is known as

A deposition

B weathering

C surfacing

D erosion

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2.B.2.a(Assessed)
Recognize and explain that the remains or imprints of plants or animals can become fossils.

Resources to Support 2.B.2.a(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Fossil Resource and Kit

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 167,177, 184-186 The Fossil Resource is included in this unit guide on pages 82-123. Delivered to SAS Spring 2010 y y y y y Bill Nye: Fossils Bill Nye: Dinosaurs Survivors from the Past: Living Fossils Eyewitness: Dinosaur Colossal Fossil

Notes

Fossil resource kit was delivered in Jan. 2010. Please see your SAS for assistance. 1 class set (24 books) per school These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Dinosaurs and Fossils ~ Delta Science Readers Safari Montage

Website for the Natural History Museum

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/index.html

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2.B.2.b
Describe the physical structures of an animal or plant based on its fossil remains.

Resources to Support 2.B.2.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Fossil Resource and Kit

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 167,177, 184-186 The Fossil Resource is included in this unit guide on pages 82-123. Delivered to SAS Spring 2010 y y y y y Bill Nye: Fossils Bill Nye: Dinosaurs Survivors from the Past: Living Fossils Eyewitness: Dinosaur Colossal Fossil

Notes

Fossil resource kit was delivered in Jan. 2010. Please see your SAS for assistance. 1 class set (24 books) per school These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Dinosaurs and Fossils ~ Delta Science Readers Safari Montage

Website for the Natural History Museum

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/index.html

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2.B.2.c(Assessed)
Identify what an animal or plant fossil is able to tell about the environment in which it lived.
y Water y Land

Resources to Support 2.B.2.c(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Fossil Resource and Kit

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 167,177, 184-186 The Fossil Resource is included in this unit guide on pages 82-123. Delivered to SAS Spring 2010 y y y y y Bill Nye: Fossils Bill Nye: Dinosaurs Survivors from the Past: Living Fossils Eyewitness: Dinosaur Colossal Fossil

Notes

Fossil resource kit was delivered in Jan. 2010. Please see your SAS for assistance. 1 class set (24 books) per school These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Dinosaurs and Fossils ~ Delta Science Readers Safari Montage

Website for the Natural History Museum

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/index.html

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Fossil Information From Delta Education for Teachers

Fossils are the preserved remains or evidence of prehistoric animals. The most common body parts to be preserved as fossils are bones and teeth, but fossilized footprints, skin impressions, and eggs have also been found. Fossils form only under special conditions. Generally, the animal s remains that become fossilized were those that were buried under mud, sand, or silt shortly after the animal s death. While the soft parts of the body usually rotted away quickly, the bones and teeth remained much longer. Occasionally the actual bones or teeth have been preserved intact, but more often they were replaced, cell by cell, by minerals carried in water effectively turning the bones to rock while maintaining the structure of the original bone. Some fossils are simply prints. The footprints that a prehistoric animal made in mud were preserved when they were quickly covered over sediment. Besides footprints, prints of fish, insects, leaves, blossoms, and even impressions of dinosaur skin have been found. Two different types of fossils can form when a dead animal is buried in sediment that later hardens in to a rock: a mold forms when the animal parts disintegrate to leave a hollow in the rock; if this hallow is later filled with sediments, a cast of the animal s original shape is formed. Casts can also be formed when an animal part, such as shell, is filled in the fine sand after the animal dies. Eventually the shell disintegrates, but the sand that filled it turns to stone and the exact shape of the shell is preserved in a cast.

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Lesson ~ Can You Dig It


Description: This lesson integrates science and math. The students use a coordinate to create a map of their fossil finds. They also use measurement to describe their fossil finds. The power point and notes are included on pages Materials: y Fossil Kit (see SAS for assistance) ~ small bag of 5 fossils and cat liter y 1 copy paper box per group of 4 students y 1 piece of acetate paper per group y grid paper (1 per student) y other small treasures to dig for y plastic spoons (2 per group) y measurement tools y Contact Office of Elementary Education (Science) for an electronic copy of the power point

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Preparation: 1. Mark every copy paper box with 1 inch lines around each side inside the box.

2. Place small treasures in the bottom of the box.

3. Cover the treasures with about 1 inch of cat litter. 4. Make copies of grid paper. 5. Make a copy for each group of a 1 inch coordinate grid on the acetate paper.

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Can You Dig It?


Fossil Study

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Focus Quest ons


How can we use a map to show the location of our fossil finds? How can we use measurement to describe the dig site and fossil finds?

Use these focus questions for math objectives. Other focus questions for science would include: y How can you tell if a fossil lived on land or water? y How would you describe the physical structures of the fossil based on its remains? y How did your fossil finds become a fossil?

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Can You Dig It?


You have been invited by the lo al mu eum paleontologi t to a i t with an explo ato y dig at a o il- i h qua y. You ta k i to a i t the paleontologi t in identi ying the lo ation o o il ound at the ite.

Use this to put the focus questions in context with a real life connection.

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For s ou repared for our fossil di ith the paleontologist. Today, you arrive at the site to dig for fossils. The site is an abandoned sedimentary roc uarry that, over time, has been covered ith loose material. Fossils are buried in the soil material.

Use this to put the focus questions in context with a real life connection.

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To b i r cord t e observ tions, includin a descri tion of t e site and t e size of t e area to be investi ated

Students can record their observations in their science notebook. You will want to discuss the job of a paleontologist. The students will need to recognize that the paleontologist works very carefully to find fossils. How will they act in the same manner with finding the fossils in their box? What is their plan for keeping track of their fossil finds? The students may need guidance with creating a coordinate grid as their map.
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Sc ent st Meet ng

Explain ho your ap can be used by another explorer to find the locations of your fossils.

After the students have had time to find their fossils, have a scientist meeting to discuss this slide.

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The five speci ens you excavated fro your site are fossils of organis s that lived long ago.
Draw each speci en on the data table and record details of its structure. Measure the length and width (at the longest and widest points) of each fossil and record the data. If any of the fossils rese ble currently existing organis s, ake inference as to what the familiar organism the fossils might be related to.

During another session the students can find the measurements of their fossil finds.

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Sc ent st Meet ng

Focus Questions ow can we use a map to show the location of our fossil finds? ow can we use measurement to describe the dig site and fossil finds?

Use the focus questions for closure.

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Sifti

or o

il

Au o a Fossil Museum as sent an unlimite sou e of Mio ene age fossils onate by their lo al hos hate mine. In these fossil rich soils, one may fin the remains of ancient sharks, hales, bony fish, corals, shells an other invertebrates. Sift is another or for sort. Sift through the sam le of soil. How can math help yo de cribe yo r findings?
During this session the students will need the sifting trays, bugs, and bag of fossil rich soil. The students sift through the soil to find fossils. They should use the identification key to help them determine the fossil they have found in the soil. They can keep track of their fossil finds and use math to describe their findings. Continue to use the following questions for a science focus: y How can you tell if a fossil lived on land or water? y How would you describe the physical structures of the fossil based on its remains? y How did your fossil finds become a fossil?
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Fossil Identification From Aurora Fossil Museum

Sevengill shark

Sevengill shark

Sevengill shark

Prickly shark

Cookie-cutter shark

Whale shark

Smalltooth sand tiger - extinct

Sand Tiger extinct

Sand Tiger extinct

Sand tiger

Sand tiger

Megatoothed Shark

Great White extinct

Great White extinct

Great White extinct

Great White extinct

Great White

Thresher shark

Mako - extinct

Mako - extinct

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Shortfin mako

Longfin mako extinct

Longfin mako extinct

extinct lamnoid shark

Snaggletooth shark - extinct

Snaggletooth shark - extinct

Snaggletooth shark - extinct

Copper shark

Copper shark

Silky shark

Silky shark

Dusky shark

Dusky shark

Bull shark

Bull shark

unidentified requiem shark

Lemon Shark

Lemon Shark

Tiger-like Shark - Tiger-like Shark extinct extinct

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Tiger Shark extinct

Tiger Shark extinct

Tiger shark

Smooth Hammerhead

skate

Stingray

Stingray

Cownose ray

mobulid ray extinct

shark

fish

fish

Porcupinefish extinct

Pufferfish

Coprolite

Dolphin

Dolphin

Porpoise

Whale - extinct

Puffin

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Crocodile

Crocodile

Turtle

Turtle

Clam shell

Clam shell

Astarte shell

Bittersweet shell

Ark shell

Wentletrap

Turrid shell

(Oyster) Drill C

Drill snail shell

Ecphora

Arene shell

Coffee bean

Sand dollar

Sea Urchin

Sea Urchin

Crab

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Ideas for Differentiation for Can You Dig It

y Differentiate through content (see math and science connections). y Provide students with organizational aids such as a labeled coordinate grid, tables for collecting the data, transparent grid, and sorting mats. y Vary the size of dig sites (area and depth). y Increase or decrease the measurement of the coordinate grid. y Vary the number of fossils per site. y Scaffold the coordinate grid by giving a hint with one of the coordinates.

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Dinosaurs and Fossils Delta Science Reader

After the students have had experiences with the Fossil Kit activities, they should have an opportunity to read Dinosaurs and Fossils. The students may read the book independently, with a partner, or in small group. The students pick one of the following activities to complete that shows their understanding of what they read. y Create a mind map that shows what you learned about dinosaurs and fossils. Be sure to include any information you knew before reading the book. You may include experiences from science/math class. y Create a two-tab book Foldable that shows what you learning about dinosaurs and fossils. Be sure to include any information you know before reading the book. You may include experiences from science/math class. Foldable directions are on the next page. y Create a vocabulary book Foldable that shows what you know about the following vocabulary words: remains, imprints, fossils, physical structure, environment, classify, minerals, paleontologist, mold, cast, and fossil record. Foldable directions are on the next page.
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Directions for Two-Tab Foldable

1. Fold a sheet of paper like a hamburger. 2. Cut the cover of the book in half. 3. Label the book on one side as Dinosaurs and the other side as Fossils. 4. Record the information on the inside of the book.

Directions for Vocabulary Foldable

1. Fold a sheet of notebook paper in half like a hotdog. 2. On one side, cut every third line. This results in ten tabs on wide ruled notebook paper and twelve tabs on college ruled. 3. Label the tabs with the vocabulary words.

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Related Articles

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Fossil Finding Where to Look for Fossils


Geologic forces of uplifting and erosion can reveal long-buried fossils. Major events of uplifting occur when two plates of land on the earth's surface crash into each other. One plate goes under; the other goes up. Many mountains are formed through uplifting. Erosion happens when water or wind wears away bits of rock. The Grand Canyon is a huge example of erosion. The Colorado River and dusty winds carved through the many layers of sedimentary rock, the different layers telling fossilized stories of life on Earth. The deepest layers tell the oldest stories, because they were deposited first. Clue #4: Look for areas where uplifting and erosion have exposed sedimentary rock. Explore mountains, bluffs, buttes, canyons, river banks, deserts, cliffs or eroded hillsides. The Bureau of Land Management oversees public lands where access and fossil hunting is allowed. Or, try looking in your own backyard (with proper clearance from a responsible adult). Be aware not to trespass on private property, and don't disturb protected lands in State and National Parks.
The slanting strata of these sedimentary rocks shows that these rocks have been uplifted.

The risks of fossil hunting: Scientists piece together the mystery of the past by studying fossils. Be aware of the value of fossils in our understanding of life on Earth. Taking fossils can potentially destroy the value of a site. Always be careful when digging! Cliffs can be very dangerous. No fossil is worth getting hurt over.

In the field: A paleontologist maps an excavation.

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How to Look for Fossils


Looking for fossils can be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Knowing where to look narrows the field. Now, what do you look for? Remember fossils can be bones, leaves, footprints, any trace of ancient life. Clue #5: Look for unusual shapes and textures -- objects that are clearly different from the rock around them. Finding Fossils Tips Take your time: work slowly and carefully when uncovering and cleaning fossils. Handle your find with care; it may be fragile. Take note of your location; you may have made an important discovery. Fossil finding tools are neither fancy nor expensive. Shown here are typical tools for a paleontologist in the field. A butterknife and a toothbrush may be all you need.

A Bowhead whale skull uncovered by wind and weather, and the careful work of expert fossil finders.

Discover What You Have


Once you have found a fossil, the detective work is not over. Paleontologists use living things for comparison to help them discover the identity of fossil material. They also draw upon the work of others as they interpret the fossil evidence. Keeping a notebook is very important. Write down where you found your fossil and what type of rock it was found in. Remember, fossils are like words in a book, and the rock layers are the pages.

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Clue #6: Dig into a fossil field guide. A good book may prove very helpful when identifying your fossil. Clue #7: Visit a museum and compare your find to fossils, skeletons, or other objects on exhibit. Clue #8:Talk to a paleontologist at a museum or university. Perhaps they'll learn something from you!
Fossil bones from an extinct sea cow If you find something really unique, tell somebody: your on exhibit at the San Diego Natural parents, science teacher, librarian, or a paleontologist. History Museum. Recently, a three-year old boy uncovered the first dinosaur egg fragments to be found in New Mexico. Now, they are in a museum where they can be studied and appreciated by people now and in the future.

Resource: http://www.sdnhm.org/kids/fossils/ffhow.html

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How They Do It
When people think about archaeologists, they usually think about them digging. There are many steps before and after digging that an archaeologist must take in order to have a successful excavation. First, they decide what they want to look for and find the site (or at least where you think it should be). Then, they survey the area. Next, they dig. Finally, there is lots of lab work for them analyze and interpret what they have found. Step 1: Finding the Site There are three ways of finding a site: 1) accidental; 2) rescue; and 3) planned Accidental archaeology occurs when someone happens to stumble upon an artifact. For example, in 1947, a shepherd named Muhammed Adh-Dhib was looking for a lost goat one day and happened to stumble upon the "Dead Sea Scrolls". Rescue archaeology is performed by archaeologists when they know that artifacts are located in a particular area and need to excavate before they decay (or are destroyed). For example, when land is being cleared for new buildings or older buildings are being torn down, archaeologists are called to excavate the sites in order to collect and preserve the artifacts before the builders/construction crews tear them apart. Planned archaeology helps identify the location for a dig based on the study of historical documents, aerial photographs, radar, previous excavation information, other written material, as well as an archeologists instinct and experience. Step 2: Surveying Surveying is a very important technique for archaeologists. Without it, archaeologists would not know where to dig. Archaeologists are very smart, but they still need help from other team members. In surveying, they often use following types of people to help, including: 1) anthropologists; 2) engineers; 3) aerial photographers; 4) helicopter pilots; 5) biologists; 6) lithic analysts; 7) botanists; 8) ecologists; and 9) a local person who can help with foreign language translation. Surveying is most helpful before and after archaeologists dig.

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Step 3: Digging Digging is the most surgical part of archaeology. When digging, archaeologists use ecologists to help explain the land and other findings surrounding the artifacts. They also may depend on the study of geology, botany, and animal and human bones in the site. The layers of soil help archaeologists in dating the artifacts they find. There are other people who help archaeologists in this step including: 1) photographers; 2) artists; and 3) writers (who keep detailed records of the dig). Step 4: Lab Work Lab work is the next thing that an archaeologist does. There are a lot of other activities done during this step that help the archaeologist better understand what they have found. This includes: 1) the classification and description (the form of an artifact); 2) material analysis by geologists and metallurgists (the material of an artifact); and 3) environmental analysis and other natural science investigations (biological information about the artifact). The dating of artifacts is also an important step. Sometimes artifacts already have dates on them like money while others require relative or absolute dating methods. After archaeologists collect all of this information, the next step is to put their findings in the context of history (historical judgment), and to interpret their findings. Then, most archaeologists share their finds with other archaeologists and the public, through their writings, exhibits and other media. Resource: http://library.thinkquest.org/J001645/htdi.shtml

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I Want To Be A Paleontologist !
Advice for Students and Parents
Paleontological Research Institution Ithaca, NY

There is no luckier person than the person who can make their passion their career. Most professional paleontologists are just such lucky people. They are people consumed with a passion to understand the history of life on earth. Paleontology is fun, thrilling, and fascinating, but it is also hard work. It is not "easier" than the more traditional "core" science disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, or geology. In many ways, paleontology is more difficult than any other science -- because to be a good paleontologist you must know a great deal about all of these fields. Paleontology is among the broadest of sciences. What is paleontology? Paleontology is more than just dinosaurs! Paleontology is the study of the history of life on Earth, as reflected in the fossil record. Fossils are the remains or traces of organisms (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and other single-celled living things) that lived in the geological past and are preserved in the crust of the Earth. There are many subdivisions of the field of paleontology, including vertebrate paleontology (the study of fossils of animals with backbones), invertebrate paleontology (the study of fossils of animals without backbones), micropaleontology (the study of fossils of single-celled organisms), paleobotany (the study of plant fossils), taphonomy (the study of how fossils form and are preserved), biostratigraphy (the study of the vertical distribution of fossils in rocks), and paleoecology (the study of ancient ecosystems and how they developed). Paleontologists also frequently are involved in studies of evolutionary biology.
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What background do I need in high school? The best starting point is a college preparatory program with as many science and math courses as possible. Outside reading in paleontology and visiting museums with fossil displays is helpful for building up knowledge of fossils themselves. No matter how interested or knowledgeable a student is in paleontology, however, good overall grades in high school are almost always required for admission to a good college or university, which is a necessary prerequisite for a career in paleontology. What background do I need in college? Strong background in the sciences is absolutely essential, with strong concentration in both biology and geology. An undergraduate institution should be chosen on the basis of its quality of general science education and especially the quality of its biology and geology programs. At this stage the student often has to make a difficult decision about whether to major in biology or geology. The ideal arrangement is a double-major, with full undergraduate training in both biology and geology. If this is not possible, the best solution is to major in one and take substantial course work in the other. Liberal arts courses should not be ignored. A good reading knowledge of a modern language (especially German, French or Russian) should be obtained as an undergraduate. Don't wait until graduate school! At least a full year of chemistry, physics, and mathematics through calculus, are required by most graduate programs and should be taken as early as possible as an undergraduate. The courses that are most pertinent to paleontology include the following: mineralogy, stratigraphy/sedimentation, sedimentary petrology, invertebrate paleontology, ecology, invertebrate and vertebrate zoology, evolutionary biology, and genetics. Ability in statistical analysis and solid computer skills are absolutely required in modern paleontology and should not be left for graduate school. The more courses and experience in these areas at the undergraduate level, the better.

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What other experience can I get? Although strong academic course work is the most important element of paleontological training, students interested in paleontology can also benefit from obtaining first-hand experience in the field itself. Access to such experiences depend greatly on where you live. Before college, you can often seek out a paleontologist at a nearby museum, college, or university. These people will usually be able to suggest places to collect fossils, and may have volunteer opportunities in their institutions. Local gem and mineral or fossil clubs are often excellent avenues for learning where and how to collect fossils in the local area, and for meeting other people interested in and knowledgeable about fossils. During the undergraduate years, opportunities for outside experiences often increase. If there is a paleontologist at the college or university, you may be able to pursue independent research. If not, you may be able to find volunteer opportunities at nearby museums. It is very important during the undergraduate years to talk directly with a professional paleontologist, who can answer your questions about not just the science but how the field works and how you can enter it. Where should I go to graduate school? A doctoral degree or PhD is almost always necessary for any serious professional career in paleontology. Many universities offer graduate training in paleontology, at both the Masters and PhD levels. Depending on your specific paleontological interests, specific requirements of individual schools, or personal considerations, you may wish to pursue a MS degree before a PhD or enter a PhD program directly. If you have not had much first-hand experience with research in college (such as writing a senior thesis), a master's degree first may be a good idea. More schools offer master's degrees than PhD's. After obtaining an MS, you may be able to remain at the same institution for your PhD or move on to another Institution.

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Different universities have different strengths in different areas of paleontology, usually depending on the interests of individual professors. You can find out what professors are interesting to you by reading their published papers in professional journals such as Journal of Paleontology, Paleobiology, Palaios and Geology. At least some of these journals are available in most college libraries. You should make an effort to contact professors whose work interests you directly, by letter, email or phone, and arrange to visit their departments. This not only helps you learn more about their graduate programs, but may impress them with the seriousness of your interest. A MS in paleontology usually takes 2-3 years to complete. A PhD usually takes 4-6 years (if you already have received a MS) or 6-8 years (if you do not already have a MS). Where can I get a job? Most professional paleontologists in the United States today are college and university professors. Most work in departments of geology, where they usually teach general geology courses in addition to paleontology. Smaller numbers of professional paleontologists work in museums. These paleontologists generally carry out their own research and teach and consult on exhibits only occasionally. A much smaller number of paleontologists work for government surveys, usually in geological mapping or other applied geological problem solving. Until relatively recently, a large number of paleontologists worked for major oil companies, helping to search for petroleum. These companies still employ some paleontologists, but a much smaller number than before. Overall, there are probably fewer jobs in paleontology in the U.S. than there were a few years ago, but a few good jobs still become available each year. Resource:http://www.priweb.org/ed/lol/careers.html

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What an Archaeologist Does


Resource:http://www.lrp.usace.army.mil/lmon/what_arch1.htm

An archaeologist is someone who studies people and what they did in the past from the things they left behind. Archaeologists might study early Native Americans, early European settlers, such as the pilgrims, or old factory buildings.

An archaeologist looks for artifacts (objects made by people) that will reveal more about the past. Artifacts can be many different things. An arrowhead is an artifact, or beads made by Native Americans and so is an old coin. Archaeologists also look for features. When someone disturbs the ground and there is evidence left from that activity, it is called a feature. A feature cant be moved from the site. One example of a feature is a hearth or fire pit, which is like a fireplace. Sometimes an archaeologist might find a hole dug for people to store food or other things. This is called a storage pit. Some storage pits are just trash dumps. Archaeologists may even find the bottom walls of houses called foundations. Some Native American houses were built with tree saplings. They cut saplings and put the bottoms into small holes dug into the ground. These holes are called postholes. Archaeologists working on historic sites even find evidence of a privy. A privy is an outhouse or bathroom -- Yuck! Archaeologists call the place where they find artifacts in the ground a site. If archaeologists are lucky, they also find features at a site. They find artifacts and features by digging into the ground and carefully looking for them. At a site an archaeologist uses many tools to do his job. He uses maps and compasses to locate the site. Then he uses picks and shovels to dig, and buckets to carry the dirt to a screen. Archaeologists dig small amounts of dirt at a time.
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Archaeologists carefully record where everything is found by making maps and drawings of everywhere they dig. This information helps the archaeologists interpret what happened at that location. Archaeologists record how much they excavate at a time by using a line level on a string attached to a spike or stake. A level is a metal bar with a glass window in it. In the window is a bubble. When the bubble is in the middle of the window, it is level. A line level is a smaller version of this which hangs on a string. Archaeologists measure the depth from the level string to the ground before digging. When an artifact or feature is located, the archaeologist uses the line level and string to measure again. This tells the archaeologist how deep the find was below the ground surface. Once an artifact is found, an archaeologist uses a special tool called a trowel that looks like the drawing shown here. He uses it to carefully dig and scrape around the artifact. To find smaller artifacts, dirt is poured through a screen. The screen is like a net that catches very small artifacts like seeds and bones, which can be hard to see. The photo below shows some people using a screen. Artifacts that are found are put in bags. Each bag is labeled with the site name or site number, the exact location where the items were found, and lists the items in the bag. This information is also recorded on a form. Forms indicate the location where the archaeologist was digging on the site, how it was excavated, and what was found. He also makes drawings or graphs on the excavation soils and features. Everyone places their forms in a site notebook. This information is very important to the archaeologists when they begin to study their finds back at a laboratory.

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How to Make a Fossil

Materials: y Small objects to fossilize y Modeling clay (Included in Fossil Kit) y Waxed paper (Borrow from Gr. 3) y Plaster of Paris (Included in Fossil Kit) y Small amount of vegetable oil y A container for mixing y Craft sticks for mixing Follow these five easy steps for making a fossil. 1. For each item youd like to fossilize, place a large ball of clay on a piece of waxed paper and thick circle. 2. Now make an impression in the clay by gently pressing in the object and then removing it. 3. Apply a small amount of vegetable oil to the impression to make it non-stick. 4. Prepare some Plaster of Paris according to the package directions so that it has a smooth but thick consistency. 5. Let the plaster dry completely (about 30-60 minutes), then peel the clay to reveal your fossil.
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Writing About Science

Have you ever seen a fossil? Where did you find it? Was it a plant or an animal? What kind?
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Writing About Science

Imagine you are dinosaur bones becoming a fossil. Write some diary entries about what is happening to you.

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Writing About Science

When all of one kind of animal dies, the animal is extinct. There are no more of them. There never will be. Draw a picture of an extinct animal. Write a biography about this animal.

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Writing About Science

What would life be like on earth if the dinosaurs were still alive? How would both people and dinosaurs survive?

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Writing About Science

How is Earth different today than when the dinosaurs roamed the land?

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Writing About Science

Choose an extinct species youve learned about and compare with a species that is living now. Explain their similarities and differences.
Examples: dinosaurs and lizards woolly mammoths and elephants

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Writing About Science

Youre helping a scientist on a fossil expedition and you find the imprint of a huge fern frond. Imagine the ancient plant that created the imprint, and describe what it looked like and how it felt to sit under that giant fern. Did it let the light in? What was the temperature like under it?
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Poetry

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Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, Tyrannosaurus too. Three big dinosaurs with nothing to do. They went to the river to get a drink, And before they got back they became extinct.

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Fossil What an Impression!

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A fossil gives us a peek, Of a life lived long ago. A print of a leaf, Or a feather or bone, Gets cast in a rock, and so

You or I or anyone, Could be walking along and find, A little gray rock, With a long ago sign, Of this life lived long ago. J. Fox

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2.D.1.a
Observe and describe the stars and the planets as seen through a telescope, graphically in pictures or in video clips from reliable sources. MSDE Clarifications
Stars and planets appear similar when viewed from Earth using the unaided eye. Planets can be shown to be different from stars in two essential ways appearance and motion. Planets appear brighter and change position in the sky. When using binoculars, stars look brighter and appear more numerous; planets closer to Earth can be distinguished by their color. The brighter planets can be seen as disks.

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Resources to Support 2.D.1.a


Name of Resource ScienceSaurus
FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 238-239 y y y Investigation 2 Parts 1-2 Investigation 3 Part 1 Science Resource: Looking Through Telescopes, Star Scientists, Changing Moon, The Moon, The Night Sky and The Stars Science Stories: The Sun Sun, Earth, and Moon All About Earth All About Moon Bill Nye: The Moon Bill Nye: Comets and Meteors All About Earth Magic School Bus Sees Stars Comets and Asteroids Bill Nye: The Sun

Notes

FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

y y y y y y y y y y

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Moon In My Room

Grade 4 teachers received this Spring 2010. Batteries for the moon and remote were included. Please see your team leader if you are unable to locate your Moon In My Room.

This can be used as y y a reinforcement for year round moon observations. a back-up plan for missed observations.

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Lesson Seeds
Students compare images of planets, stars and galaxies using the Hubble Space Telescope web site. http://hubblesite.org/gallery/ Resource: mdk12.org

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2.D.1.a (Grade 5)
Recognize that like all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape.

Resources to Support 2.D.1.a(Grade 5)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 218-219 y y y y y y Investigation 1 Parts 1-2 Investigation 2 Parts 1-2 Science Resource: Sunrise and Sunset, Changing Shadows, and The Sun Science Stories: Living With a Star Sun, Earth, and Moon All About Earth

Notes

FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students. This can be used as y y a reinforcement for year round moon observations. a back-up plan for missed observations.

Moon In My Room

Grade 4 teachers received this Spring 2010. Batteries for the moon and remote were included. Please see your team leader if you are unable to locate your Moon In My Room.

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Lesson Seeds

As the students make observations, continue to have the students describe all planets and stars, the Earth is spherical in shape.

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2.D.1.b(Assessed)
Identify the sun as the Earths closest star. MSDE Clarifications
The sun is the closest star to Earth. There are 10 other stars within 10 light years from Earth including Proxima Centauri, the closest at 4.2 light years away, and Sirius, the brightest at approximately 8.6 light years away. See other data table below. Some data may vary from resource to resource.

Star Sun Sirius A Alpha Centauri A Rigel Procyon Alpha Centauri B

Apparent Magnitude -26.73 -1.47 -0.01 .012 .34 1.33

Distance from Earth 93 million miles 8.6 light-years 4.4 light-years 770 light-years 11 light-years 4.4 light-years

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Resources to Support 2.D.1.b(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, &Stars

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 226-227 y y y y y y Investigation 1 Parts 1-2 Investigation 2 Parts 1-2 Science Resource: Sunrise and Sunset, Changing Shadows, and The Sun Science Stories: Living With a Star Sun, Moon, and Earth Bill Nye: The Sun

Notes

FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson Seeds

Have the students visit online resources that support that the sun is Earths closest star. Students should find data in charts/tables that supports this idea. The students can interpret the data that they found.

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2.D.1.b(Grade 5 Assessed)
Identify the properties of the planet Earth that makes it possible for the survival of life as we know it.
y Temperature y Location y Presence of an atmosphere y Presence of water (solid, liquid, and gas)

Resources to Support 2.D.1.b(Grade 5 Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 187-217 Science Stories: Gas Giant y y All About Earth Sun, Earth, Moon

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

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Lesson Seeds

As the students make observations of Earth, continue to ask about the properties of the planet Earth that makes it possible for the survival of life as we know it. The students should describe these properties and recognize that without them there would be no life on Earth.

Make connections to 6.B.1.b: Identify and describe that human activities in a community or region are affected by environmental issues. y Presence and quality of water y Soil type y Temperature y Precipitation See MSDE clarifications for this objective for guidance.

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Writing About Science

Imagine you have a giant alien for a friend and this giant alien is planning a vacation to our solar system just to get a good suntan. His travel agent told him the best place to be was the moon, but you disagree. Choose a better place for him to catch some solar rays, and write him a letter persuading him to come to Earth for his vacation.

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6.B.1.a(Assessed)
Identify and describe that human activities in a community or region are affected by environmental issues. y Presence and quality of water y Soil type y Temperature y Precipitation MSDE Clarifications
Human activities are affected by environmental factors in the geographic region that they inhabit. In Maryland, opportunities for human outdoor recreational activities are numerous. In and around the Chesapeake Bay, fishing is one of Maryland's major industries. Agriculture is another leading industry in Maryland due to its temperate climate, adequate precipitation and nutrient rich soil. The geography of Maryland, including the mountains in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east, makes it attractive to tourists. Ways people in Maryland depend on the environment: jobs, leisure activities, food, transportation, sources of water, waste disposal Ways people in Maryland change the environment: People make choices and take actions that impact the environment negatively and positively. Driving habits impact the amount of air pollution; decisions about where to live, work and shop impact land use; reducing consumer waste through reuse and recycling can lessen the impact on land, making informed decisions about what foods to eat reduces over-harvesting of aquatic resources and promotes sustainable agriculture.

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Ways people in Maryland are affected by the environment: Resources in Maryland are finite.
y People must have a source of potable (drinking) water and those sources must be protected from pollutants. y Natural and human-made changes in the water quality of Chesapeake Bay may reduce the number of fish and crabs, causing a loss of jobs. y Land is limited in Maryland. Land use planning and soil management are essential to meet the demands for housing, roads, recreation and landfills and to

preserve agricultural areas.


y Air temperatures are moderate in Maryland, and extremely hot or cold temperatures are rare. People can live and work in all parts of the State. y Rainfall is adequate to replenish drinking supplies and to sustain agriculture. However, natural disasters such as hurricanes may impact industries such as

fishing and tourism on and near the coastline.

Resources to Support 6.B.1.a(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 319-353 y y Environmental Health Bill Nye: Biodiversity

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

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Lesson Seeds
Be sure to make connections to 2.D.1.b (Grade 5 Assessed): Identify the properties of the planet Earth that makes it possible for the survival of life as we know it. y y y y Temperature Location Presence of an atmosphere Presence of water (solid, liquid, and gas)

Green Power: 30 People Changing the Environment in Washington Have the students visit http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/people/7200.html to read this article. The students can identify ways people are changing the environment and pick 3 things that they can do to also make a difference.

Get students involved through the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. http://www.cbf.org/Page.aspx?pid=1000 Please visit this website to see how you can help make a difference.

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2.D.1.c
Recognize that stars are like the sun, some are smaller and some larger.

MSDE Clarifications
Stars vary in size according to radius, density and mass. Their size is classified from smallest to largest: white dwarf (Sirius B), main sequence (our sun), giants (Arcturus) and super giants (Betelgeuse).

Resources to Support 2.D.1.c


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, and Stars FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-237 Investigation 3 Parts 1-2 Science Stories: Living With a Star y Magic School Bus Sees Stars

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.
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2.D.1.c (Grade 5 Assessed)


Compare the properties of at least one other planet in our solar system to those of Earth to determine if it could support life, as we know it.

Resources to Support 2.D.1.c (Grade 5 Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 226-233 Science Stories: Living With a Star y y Sun, Earth, Moon All About Earth

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

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Lesson Seeds

As the students make observations of Earth, continue to ask about the properties of the planet Earth that makes it possible for the survival of life as we know it. The students should describe these properties and recognize that without them there would be no life on Earth. Have the students research the properties of other planets and determine if it could support life.

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2.D.1.d
Recognize and describe that the stars are not all the same in apparent brightness.

MSDE Clarifications
The brightness of stars is measured in apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude. Those with the largest negative magnitude numbers appear brightest when viewed from Earth. The sun is -26.72 and the next brightest is Sirius at -1.46. Absolute magnitude is a measure of the true brightness of a star without regard to distance.

Resources to Support 2.D.1.d


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-237 Investigation 3 Parts 1-2 y Magic School Bus Sees Stars

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

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2.D.1.d (Grade 5 Assessed)


Identify and describe physical properties of comets, asteroids, and meteors.

MSDE Clarifications
Comet: Small frozen masses of ice, dust, and gases that travel a definite path through the solar system.

Asteroid: Enormous rocks or boulders that revolve around the sun, usually between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. such objects gathered together to form the planets and satellites. Meteor: A meteoroid that burns as it travels through Earth's atmosphere leaving a streak of light made of hot gases.

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Resources to Support 2.D.1.d(Grade 5 Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Solar Energy Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 233-235 Science Stories: Living With a Star y y Comets and Asteroids Bill Nye: Comets and Meteors

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson Seeds
Have the students research with they can find about the physical features of comets, asteroids, and meteors. They should record their findings using a graphic organizer, Foldable, and/or Science Notebook. Have the students prepare a presentation to share their findings with others. www.nasa.gov would be a great place for students to start their research.

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2.D.1.e(Assessed)
Recognize that the pattern of stars in the sky stays the same although their locations in the sky appear to change with the seasons. MSDE Clarifications
As the Earth revolves around the sun and rotates on its own axis, it appears the sun, planets and stars are moving around the earth. The pattern of stars in the sky stays the same, although they appear to move across the sky nightly. This movement is due to the rotation of the Earth. Because of the revolution of the Earth, different stars and groups of stars can be seen during different seasons.

Resources to Support 2.D.1.e(Assessed)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-237 y y Investigation 3 Part 1 Science Resource: Star Gazing

Notes

Delta Science Supplemental Lesson: The Seasons

This lesson can be found in this guide on pages 145-151.

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Lesson Seeds
Students access Your Sky Tonight on the pbs.org web site and enter their zip code, time, horizon, field of view (naked eye, binoculars, or telescope) and display options for the night sky. They can view the requested image of the sky on the screen or print it to take outside. Seeing in the Dark (http://www.pbs.org/seeinginthedark/explore-the-sky/your-sky-tonight.html) Resource: mdk12.org

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Office of Elementary Education The Seasons Supplement Lesson to FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars for Maryland

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Description Students investigate the affects of the Earths revolution around the sun and the Earths axial tilt. You will need two sessions for this lesson.

Students will y y y identify the four seasons demonstrate the Earths revolution around the sun explain why most of the Earth experiences seasons

Materials y y y y y y y Light source from FOSS Sun, Moon, and Stars Globe Masking tape Yarn Chart paper Student Notebook Sheet, The Seasons Anticipation Guide Student Notebook Sheet, The Seasons Diagram

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Guiding the Activity 1. Complete the pre-assessment portion of The Seasons Anticipation Guide. Have students read each statement and draw a line around agree if they believe the statement to be true or Disagree if they believe the statement to be false. If they believe the statement to be true, have students write evidence to explain their thinking. 2. After students complete all statements, read statement number one to the students and ask those students who drew a line around agree to raise their hands. Count the number of students and record information for yourself. Then ask those students who drew a line around disagree to raise their hands. Count the number of students and record information for yourself. Ask some students who drew a line around agree to share their evidence with the class. 3. Show students a common model of the Earth, the globe. Ask students to think about how the globe is like Earth and share with a partner. Listen to discussions and select students with different ideas to share. **You may want to put the information in a two column chart, one column for how the model is like the real Earth and one column for how the model is not like the real Earth.

Ask students to think about how the globe is like Earth and share with a partner. Listen to discussions and select students with different ideas to share.

4. Place the light source in the middle of the room and tell students that the light source represents the sun. Place the globe in a position relative to the light source that would model the summer season for the northern hemisphere of the Earth. Identify Maryland on the globe and pierce a thumb tack into or place a piece of masking tape on the globe on your approximate location in Maryland. 5. Model the Earths rotation for students. Ask students what happens because of the Earths rotation. The students should indicate the Earths rotation causes day and night. Identify the part of the globe illuminated by the light source as day and the opposite side as night. 6. Model the Earths revolution around the sun for students. Ask students what happens because of the Earths revolution around the sun. The students may indicate the Earths revolution around the sun causes the season. Tell students that they will gather evidence to suggest that the revolution around the sun causes the seasons.

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7. Pose a measurement activity to compare the relative amount of time Maryland has daytime and night time when the earth is in this position relative to the sun. Rotate the globe to the position where sunrise is occurring in Maryland. Tape one end of the yarn to Maryland, slowly rotate the Earth and tape the yarn in a few places along Marylands latitude until the sun sets on Maryland. Cut the yarn and ask students what the yarn represents. The yarn represents the length of day time. 8. Rotate the globe to the position where sunset is occurring in Maryland. Tape one end of the yarn to Maryland, slowly rotate the Earth and tape the yarn in a few places along Marylands latitude until the sun rises on Maryland. Cut the yarn and ask students what the yarn represents. The yarn represents the length of night time. 9. Compare the two pieces of yarn. Ask students which is longer. The day time yarn will be almost twice as long as the night-time yarn. Ask students for the season that has longer days then nights. On a sheet of chart paper, create a three column chart like the one below. Tape the strings in the appropriate column. Season Summer Winter Fall Spring Time June - September December - March September - December March - June Day time string Night-time string

10. Use the same measurement activity for the three seasonal positions around the sun, list the time of the year, and tape the strings to the chart.

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Guiding the Investigation 1. Have students model the Earths rotation and the Earths revolution around the sun using the globe and the light source. 2. Have students discuss the results of the measurement activity from Session One. What did they learn about the length of day time and night time as the Earth revolved around the sun? 3. Introduce the terms spring equinox and fall equinox. The equinox dates are the days in which we have 12 hours of day time and 12 hours of night time. Ask if the evidence found during the measurement activity from Session One (the length of the yarns) support the idea of the equinox? The yarns should be about the same length, thus day and night time is about the same. 4. Introduce the terms winter solstice and summer solstice. Explain that the winter solstice occurs on the date we have the shortest day time and longest night time. Ask students what they think happens on the date of the summer solstice. Explain that the summer solstice is the date in which we have the longest day time and shortest night time. Ask if the evidence found during the measurement activity from Session One (the length of the yarns) support the idea of the winter solstice and summer solstice? The day time yarn is shorter than the night time yarn when the Earths position from the sun is on the first day of winter in Maryland. The day time yarn is longer than the night time yarn when the Earths position from the sun is on the first day of summer in Maryland. 5. Begin to make connections for the causes of the seasons. y Ask students what we get from the sun. Students should respond that we get heat and light energy from the sun. y Ask students during what season are we exposed to more sunlight. What is the weather like during that season? Students should begin to make the connection that the longer the day time, the more time we get heat and light energy from the sun. The more energy from the sun, the hotter the temperature. y Also note that the sun light we get during summer is more direct than the sunlight we get in winter. y Explain to students that the distance from the sun does not affect the seasons. Explain to the students that the Earth is closer to the sun in January when it is winter in Maryland. The Earth is farthest from the sun in July, when it is summer in Maryland. 6. Ask students if we would still have four seasons if the Earth was not tilted. Use the measurement activity from session one, this time adjusting the equator so that it is parallel to the classroom floor. Take measurements from different positions in the Earths revolution around the sun. Tape the pieces of yarn for day time and night time on a sheet of chart paper or chalkboard. 7. After completing the four measurements, ask students to discuss with their group what they notice about the day-time and night-time yarn when the Earth is not tilted and then compare to the day time and night time yarn pieces when the Earth is tilted. WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education 8. Ask students what conclusions they have drawn about the tilt of the Earth and the seasons. Is the tilt of the Earth necessary for the seasons? 9. Add words to the word bank. Have students draw pictures that represent each work and post sample pictures next to the words on the word bank. y Rotation y Revolution y Axis y Axial tilt

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10. Ask students what causes the seasons. The response should include that the tilt of the Earth and its revolution around the sun causes the seasons. The tilt creates differences in the amount of day time and night time around the earth, thus we get more heat and light energy from the sun in the summer. Also the tilt creates differences in the amount of direct sunlight. 11. Have students complete a diagram of the Earth revolving around the sun, identifying the seasons in the diagram.

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The Seasons Anticipation Guide

Name: _______________________________________ Date: __________________

Draw a line around agree if you think the statement is true. Draw a line around disagree if you think the statement is false.

Before Lesson

Statement

After Lesson

Agree Disagree

The Earth is closer to the sun when it is summer in Virginia.

Agree Disagree

Evidence:

Agree Disagree

There are four seasons in Virginia through the year.

Agree Disagree

Evidence:

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Before Lesson

Statement

After Lesson

Agree Disagree

The Earths tilt is one cause of the four seasons.

Agree Disagree

Evidence:

Agree Disagree

The Earths rotation is one cause of the seasons.

Agree Disagree

Evidence:

Agree Disagree

The length of day time and night time in Virginia changes every day during the year.

Agree Disagree

Evidence:

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Assessment: Emmys Moon and Stars

Emmy looked out her windows and saw the Moon and stars. She wondered how far away they were. Circle the answer that best describes were you think the Moon and stars are that Emmy sees.

A. There are no stars between the Earth and the Moon. B. One star is between the Earth and the Moon. C. A few stars are between the Earth and the Moon. D. There are many stars between the Earth and the Moon. E. Several stars between the Moon and the edge of our solar system.

Explain your thinking.

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Emmy Moon and Stars Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about the relative position of common objects in the sky. The best response is A. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick A. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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2.D.1.e (Grade 5 Assessed)


Provide evidence that supports the idea that our solar system is sun-centered.

Resources to Support 2.D.1.e(Grade 5 Assessed)


ScienceSaurus FOSS: Solar Energy Pages 226-228 Science Stories: Why Doesnt Earth Fly Off Into Space? y y Bill Nye: The Sun Sun, Moon, Stars These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Safari Montage

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Lesson Seeds
Making Different Theoretical Models of the Solar System ~ Have students use empty cardboard boxes and Styrofoam balls or clay to make models of the solar system according to an earth-centered theory and sun-centered theory. Students can research and compare the two theories and discuss why astronomers now universally accept the sun-centered theory. You might have students research the work of Claudium Ptolemy (second century A.D.), an Alexandrian astronomer who made the final major refinement of a centuries-old earth centered (geocentric) theory and compare it to the work of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish astronomer who is credited for the sun-centered (heliocentric) theory.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Making a Sun-Centered Model of the Solar System ~ Use a 40 foot (13 m) length of string and chalk to draw a circle on the playground. Within the circle, draw eight more circles at intervals that represent the average scale distance of planets from the sun. Have nine students line up in a row, each on a different line. At a signal, let them move in counterclockwise orbits. Observers will see the outer planets change in their distances from the earth. Tell the students that when the planet make one complete orbit around the sun, the orbit is called a revolution. Some students might be interested in researching the revolution periods of the planets. The periods can be compared to the distances each planet is from the sun.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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2.D.2.a (Grade 5)
Describe the rotation of the planet Earth on its axis. Resources to Support 2.D.2.a(Grade 5)
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, and Stars Delta Science Supplemental Lesson: The Seasons Pages 218-219 y Investigation 1 Parts 1-2

This lesson can be found in this guide on pages 145-151.

Lesson Seeds

See Kinesthetic Astronomy Lessonfrom objective 2.D.2.c (Grade 5 Assessed)

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2.D.2.b (Grade 5 Assessed)


Recognize and describe that the rotation of planet earth produced observable affects.
y The day night cycle y The apparent movement of sun, moon, planets, and stars

Resources to Support 2.D.2.b(Grade 5 Assessed)


ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars Pages 218-239 y y y y Investigation 1 Parts 1-2 Investigation 2 Parts 1-2 Investigation 3 Parts 1-2 Science Resource: Sunrise and Sunset, Changing Shadows, The Sun, Star Gazing, The Stars, The Night Sky, Changing Moon, and The Moon.

Delta Science Supplemental Lesson: The Seasons

This lesson can be found in this guide on pages 145-151.

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Lesson Seeds
Make a pin hole in a piece of black construction paper and fasten the paper to a sunny window. When the rest of the room is darkened, the light from the sun will shine clearly through the hole. Stand a piece of white cardboard about 3 feet (1m) from the window so that the sun makes a small bright spot on it, this spot is an image of the sun. Have the students mark the location of the spot with a pencil and watch it for several minutes. They can soon predict what path the suns image would make on the paper from sunrise to sunset.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Draw a circle and divide it into four equal parts by drawing two lines through the center. Put a star in the center of the circle to represent the North Star. Ineach of the four parts of the circle, draw the Big Dipper, making sure the pointer stars are in line with the North Star in each drawing. Number the drawings. At night, students can hold the paper circle so that drawing 1 is in the same position as the Big Dipper in the sky. Mark the time by the Dipper. Predict at what time the Dipper will be in position 2, and then check the prediction. Let the students discuss where it will be in the day time.

Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Making and Using a Sun Clock ~ Cut a round cardboard carton in half lengthwise. Glue a bead to a length of thread. Fasten the thread through the center of the cartons ends. Place the instrument on a level windowsill or outdoors in precisely the same position each day by lining the thread up in a north-south direction. The threads shadow will indicate the sun time. Students can mark the interior of the carton at fifteen minute intervals where the beads shadow is cast. By connecting these marks, the students will not a shift in the suns apparent position with the seasons.

Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Orienting a Model of the Earth to the Sun ~ In a sunny day, set a globe of the earth so that its axis points toward the North Stars position. Rotate it until the state in which students live is at the highest part of the globe and parallel to the ground the globe is now in the same position as is the earth, relative to the sun. Have students locate where it is daytime and nighttime on the earth. Place a small lump of modeling clay on the globe to represent the location of the school. Stand a toothpick straight up in the clay. The direction of the toothpicks shadow can be compared to that of a nearby flagpole, and students can see how their shadows move throughout the day.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Using a Model to Depict Day and Night ~ Darken a room, turn on a slide projector and slowly rotate a globe of the earth counterclockwise in the light beam. Tell the students that the turning of the earth is called rotation. One complete rotation takes twenty-four hours (one complete day). Now have students imagine how the eastern portion of the United States experiences sunrise as the earth turns into the light and how the western portion eventually disappears in the shadow at sunset.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Using a Model to Depict the Moons Orbit Around the Earth ~ Have the students make one complete turn in place. Tell them that when they or any object faces all directions during one complete turn is called a rotation. Now place a student or globe of the earth in the center of a large circle drawn on the school playground. Have a second student stand on the line of the circle facing the center. Explain that the person in the center represents the earth and the person on the circle represents the moon. Since most students have notices that they see only one side of the moon, have the student on the circle move counterclockwise around the circle so that she is always facing the earth at the center. After one complete orbit, let the students discuss whether or not the moon rotated. By repeating the orbit, students will realize that the moon faced all the direction s as it moved around the earth; therefore, it must have rotated. This activity can be repeated by having the moon face a direction other than the center students will see all sides of the moon during the orbit.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Assessment: Shadows

Five friends were looking at their shadows early one morning. They wondered what their shadows would look like by the end of the day. This is what they said:

Amy: My shadow will keep getting longer throughout the day Boris: My shadow will keep getting shorter throughout the day. Cleveland: My shadow will keep getting longer until it reaches its longest point and then it will start getting shorter. Darlene: My shadow will keep getting shorter until noon and then it will start getting longer. Ernie: My shadow will stay about the same from the morning to days end. Which friend do you most agree with? Describe your thinking. Explain the reason for your answer.
Assessment for 2.D.2.b

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Shadows Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about light and how shadows change through the day. The best response is from Darlene. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick Darlene. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Assessment: Stars

Five friends were wondering where stars were in the daytime. They each have different ideas about why we do not see stars in the sky during the day. This is what they said: Anita: The stars stop shining when the Sun comes out. Blake: The stars are still in the sky above us, but we cant see them. Clark: The stars go underneath Earth during the daytime. Diane: The stars cool down during the day and the Sun gets hotter. Elizabeth: The stars are on the other side of Earth where its nighttime.

Which friend do you most agree with? Describe your thinking. Explain the reason for your answer.
Assessment for 2.D.2.b

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Stars Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about the location of stars in the daytime. The best response is from Blake. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick Blake. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Assessment: Darkness at Night

Six friends were wondering why the sky is dark at night. This is what they said:

Jeb: The clouds come in at night and cover the Sun. Talia: The Earth spins completely around once a day. Nick: The Sun moves around the Earth once a day. Becca: The Sun moves around the Earth once a day. Latisha: The Sun moves underneath the Earth at night. Yolanda: The Sun stops shining.

Which friend do you think has the best reason for why the sky is dark at night? Describe your ideas about why the Earth is dark at night and light during the day.

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Darkness at Night Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about the day/night cycle. The best response is fromTalia. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick Talia. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Assessment: Objects in the Sky

Different things can seen in the sky.

Put a D next to the things that are seen only in the daylight. Put an N next to the things that can be seen only at night. Put a B next to the things that can be seen in both day and night.

_____The sun _____The moon _____The next-nearest star to our Sun _____Constellations

Explain your thinking. How did you decide when you could see different things in the sky?

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Objects in the Sky Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about when objects can be seen in the sky. The best response is D for the Sun, N for the next-nearest star to our Sun and constellations, and B for the Moon. If their explanation shows otherwise, be sure to have them explain their reasoning. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Writing About Science

Your friend would like to know how she might see more stars. Help her by writing out instructions for using a telescope. Should she take it out at night or during the day? Should she stay close to electric lights or go somewhere dark? Give her all the information she needs to see more stars.

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2.D.2.c (Grade 5 Assessed)


Describe the revolution of the planet earth around the sun.

Resources to Support 2.D.2.c(Grade 5 Assessed)


ScienceSaurus Safari Montage Pages 220-221 y y y Sun, Moon, Earth Bill Nye: The Sun All About Earth These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Lesson Seeds
Making a Sun-Centered Model of the Solar System ~ Use a 40 foot (13 m) length of string and chalk to draw a circle on the playground. Within the circle, draw eight more circles at intervals that represent the average scale distance of planets from the sun. Have nine students line up in a row, each on a different line. At a signal, let them move in counterclockwise orbits. Observers will see the outer planets change in their distances from the earth. Tell the students that when the planet make one complete orbit around the sun, the orbit is called a revolution. Some students might be interested in researching the revolution periods of the planets. The periods can be compared to the distances each planet is from the sun.
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

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Kinesthetic Astronomy Grades 3 9 Aleya Van Doren Goddard Space Flight Center ajvandoren@gmail.com

Objectives Students will be able to explain the relationship between the earth and the Sun. Students will be able to model the movement of the earth around the Sun. Materials y Signs for each month y Object to represent the sun y Globe(s) y East and West popsicle sticks y Flashlight y Object or sign to represent Polaris y Optional: Zodiac constellation signs

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Content Predict: (Engagement and assessing prior knowledge) y What is a year? y Draw how the earth moves around the sun. y What is a day? y What does the earths orbit look like? Method: (Body of the lesson) Have students stand in a circle with an object or light bulb in the center of the room to represent the sun. Give each student two popsicle sticks, one with an E and the other with a W. Hold a globe in front of you (a t-shirt with a map on it works well too. ASK: Using the globe as a reference, which hand should hold the East stick and which hand should hold the West stick? (Left = East, Right = West) ASK: Based on our observations, we know that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Imagine there is a man standing on Mt. Nose (your nose). Which way should you rotate so that the sun rises to the east of Mt. Nose and sets to the west? (Counterclockwise) INSTRUCT: Students to stand so that its sunrise, noon, sunset, and midnight on Mt. Nose. Have them do this several times. EXPLAIN:That earth is tilted on its axis towards Polaris, or the North Star. Have students tilt themselves so their heads are lined up with a spot/poster/sign on the wall representing Polaris. INSTRUCT:Students to repeat a days rotation, maintaining their tilt. EXPLAIN: That earth revolves around the sun in the same direction as it rotates on its axis: Counterclockwise. Have students walk in a circle counterclockwise, making one trip around the sun and ending back where they started. INSTRUCT:Students to repeat the years revolution, adding in tilt, and then add in the days rotation. (Note: Some kids might get dizzy and fall down, be prepared.) At this point have students stop and pass the globe around the circle, being careful to maintain its tilt. ASK: What do you notice about the earth as it revolves around the sun? Take several observations, and guide students to the realization that at one time it is pointing towards the sun, and at another time it is pointing away from it. Pass the earth around again. INSTRUCT:Students to observe the tilt of the earth on opposite sides of the sun. ASK: Where are two places where the earths tilt is the same? Where are two places where its tilt is opposite? EXPLAIN:That these places are called the Solstice and Equinox. Introduce the terms Vernal and Autumnal. Optional: Put up signs labeling the locations of the Solstices and Equinoxes. INSTRUCT:Students to make one revolution around the sun and each time they pass a solstice to raise their hand. Do the same with equinox.
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ASK: We have a summer solstice, where the northern hemisphere gets the most hours of daylight, and when summer officially starts. Which solstice is the summer solstice? Which month do you think this occurs in? Where is the winter solstice? You may want to take this opportunity to talk about what causes seasons. Use the flashlight at this point to illustrate which hemisphere is getting the most direct sunlight. INSTRUCT:Students to find the spot around earths orbit where their birthday would be located. Remind them that the earth rotates counterclockwise and where they decided that the summer solstice was located. Optional: Place signs for the months around the room in the correct spot. Add zodiac constellation signs as well. To conclude have students repeat a year with all motions once more. Solar Pizza Stand at one end of a hallway and have students guess where the earth would be if the sun were that size. Give students time to space themselves out, then pace off the correct distance. Science Notebook Ideas: Have students draw a diagram of the earths orbit around the sun then correctly label the axis. Assessment Questions y What is a year? y Describe how the earth orbits around the sun.

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2.D.2.d(Grade 5 Assessed)
Recognize and describe that the planet earth produces effects.
y The observable patterns of stars in the sky stay the same although different stars can be seen in different seasons y Length of the year

Resources to Support 2.D.2.d (Grade 5 Assessed)


ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, & Stars Pages 226-227, 234, 236-237 y y Investigation 3 Parts 1-2 Science Resource: Star Gazing, Looking Through Telescopes, Star Scientists, and The Stars Bill Nye: Earths Seasons All About Climate and Seasons Sun, Earth, Moon These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Safari Montage

y y y

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Writing About Science

Choose your favorite constellation and imagine that it moves freely about the sky. What would a night in its life be like? Write a story of at least two paragraphs telling about an adventure it has with other constellations it meets during the night.

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2.D.2.e (Grade 5)
Verify with models and cite evidence that the moons apparent shape and position change. Clarifications
Much research has been conducted on student misconceptions about the topic of lunar phases. This topic can be difficult for many students as it requires them to visualize the position of the Earth, sun, and moon as they would appear in space and then combine that image with their perspective from on Earth. Some of the more common misconceptions include: y y y Clouds cover part of the moon in such a way that part of the moon cant be seen, thus causing phases. The shadow of the Earth covers part of the moon, causing the phases. People in different locations on Earth see different phases of the moon.

Resource: Teaching Science as Investigations ~ Moyer, Hackett, & Everett

Resources to Support 2.D.2.e(Grade 5)


ScienceSaurus FOSS: Sun, Moon, and Stars Pages 222-225 y y Investigation 2: Parts 12 Science Resource: The Night Sky, Changing Moon, and The Moon Sun, Earth, Moon All About Moon Bill Nye: The Moon These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.
Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Safari Montage

y y y

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Lesson Seeds
WITH PARENTAL PERMISSIONhave students choose a window at home from which they can see the moon. On a clear night, they can line up the edge of the window frame with an object outdoors, such as a telephone pole, tree, or edge of building. Mark the Moons position on the window pane with tape or post it note. If observations are repeated every fifteen minutes, students will realize that the moon apparently changes its position. (Note: Students should be sure to held their heads in exactly the same position for every observation.)
Resource:The Everyday Science Sourcebook, Lowery

Oreo Moon Phases What You Need: y 4 Oreo cookies y Paper towel y Plastic knife, spoon or popsicle stick What to Do: 1. Twist open the Oreo cookies and remove the cream with the knife, spoon or popsicle stick so that it looks like the different phases of our Moon. 2. Place the cookies in order in a line to represent the order of our Moons phases.
Resource:http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/space_days

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Phrases with Phases


Lyrics by Becky Nelson, The Lunar and Planetary Institute Sung to the tune The Ants Go Marching Moon phases and important terms are in capital letters.

Each Moon phase marches COUNTERCLOCKWISE Now, lets start . . . The FIRST PHASE is the NEW MOON that we see as DARK. Then next the WAXING CRESCENT shines A LITTLE LIGHT upon the RIGHT, And after thats the QUARTER MOON, where the RIGHT HALFS LIGHT. Following is WAXING GIBBOUS on the RIGHT, Where the LIGHT continues SPREADING and becoming bright. Well be HALFWAY through the phases soon, With the FULLest, brightest, biggest MOON, Just before the DARK creeps On the RIGHT Of a WANING MOON. The WANING GIBBOUS phase is when the LIGHT will SHRINK, Then what will be the next phase after that, you think? Its once AGAIN a QUARTER MOON, But the DARK HALFs now upon the RIGHT, And the LEFT side is the Ones thats BRIGHT!! Did you get that right? The next phase is the LAST phase where theres just a spark Of light, so WANING CRESCENT appears ALMOST DARK! The Moon is really magical, When its WAXING, WANING, NEW OR FULL. And it COULDNT SHINE at all WITHOUT. THE SUNS..bright light!!
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Preassessing Knowledge about the Moon Patterns and Motions

When did you last see the moon? What did it look like? Draw a picture of its shape. Compare your moon picture to those drawn by your classmates. Does your moon always have the same shape? Is the moon visible only at night? Suppose you observed the moon each day for one month. How does the moon change? Draw a picture that shows how your think the moons shape changes throughout a months time. Make a chart showing what the students know, and what they would like to find out. Keep the chart for discussions.

Assessment 2.D.2.e

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Assessment: Moon Phases I

Keon and Lucinda live in opposite hemispheres. Keon lives in the Southern Hemisphere and Lucinda lives in the Northern Hemisphere. They both gazed at the Moon on the same evening. Keon noticed that there was a full Moon when he looked up at the sky from his location (Southern Hemisphere). What do you predict Lucinda saw when she looked up in the sky from her location (Northern Hemisphere)?

New Moon Crescent Moon Half Moon Gibbous Moon Full Moon Provide an explanation for your answer. How did you decide what the Moon would look like in the opposite hemisphere?
Assessment 2.D.2.e

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Moon Phases I Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about the Earth, Moon, and Sun system. The best response is Full Moon. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick Full Moon. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Assessment: Moon Phases II

Mrs. Timmons asked her class to share their ideas about what causes the different phases of the Moon. This is what some of her students said: Student A B C D E F G Statement The moon lights up in different parts at different times of the month. The phases of the Moon change according to the season of the year. Parts of the Moon reflect light depending on the position of the Earth in relation to the Sun and Moon. The Earth casts a shadow that causes a monthly pattern in how much of the Moon we can see from Earth. Different planets cast a shadow on the Moon as they revolve around the Sun. The clouds cover the parts of the Moon that we cant see. The Moon grows a little bit bigger each day until it is full and then it gets smaller again. It repeats this cycle every month. Which student do you agree with and why? Explain your thinking.
Assessment 2.D.2.e

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Moon Phases II Assessment Teacher Notes

This assessment probes students ideas about the phases of the Moon. The best response is from Student C. However, be sure to listen/read the responses of the other students who did not pick Student C. Their explanations may be correct depending on how they may have interpreted the other statements.

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Writing About Science

The moons appearance changes during the four-week lunar cycle. Think of the last time you saw a full moon. Describe the scene for your readers in detail. Where were you? Was it could out? What did the moon look like? What color was it? How big was it? (If you cant remember the last time you saw a full moon, imagine that you did.) Be sure to use at least two paragraphs to show not just tell about your experience. Use metaphors and similes to paint a picture in the readers mind.

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2.E.2.a
Describe different seasonal weather conditions using data collected from weather instruments, models or drawings.

Resources to Support 2.E.2.a


ScienceSaurus Weather Resource Pages 198-217 The Weather Resource can be found in this guide on pages 192-196. y y y Telling the Weather All About Climate and Seasons Bill Nye: Earths Seasons These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

Safari Montage

The weather station should be delivered to your school by September 2010. One weather station will be shared by the whole team. Please select an appropriate area for students to collect data. Weather Station

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2.E.2.b
Compare average daily temperatures during different seasons.

Resources to Support 2.E.2.b


ScienceSaurus Weather Resource Pages 200-201 The Weather Resource can be found in this guide on pages 192-196. y y y Telling the Weather All About Climate and Seasons Bill Nye: Earths Seasons Weather Resource

Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

The weather station should be delivered to your school by September 2010. One weather station will be shared by the whole team. Please select an appropriate area for students to collect data. Weather Station

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Writing About Science

We can measure weather conditions using things like thermometers and wind vanes. Imagine you have a friend who has never seen a thermometer or a wind vane. Describe both of these things, and tell him/her how they work and what they measure.

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2.E.2.c
Compare average daily wind speed and direction during different seasons.

Resources to Support 2.E.2.c


ScienceSaurus Weather Resource Pages 202-203 The Weather Resource can be found in this guide on pages 192-196. y y y Telling the Weather All About Climate and Seasons Bill Nye: Earths Seasons Weather Resource

Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

The weather station should be delivered to your school by September 2010. One weather station will be shared by the whole team. Please select an appropriate area for students to collect data. Weather Station

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2.E.2.d
Compare average daily precipitation during different seasons.
y Amount y Type

Resources to Support 2.E.2.d


ScienceSaurus Weather Resource Page 205 The Weather Resource can be found in this guide on pages 192-196. y y y Telling the Weather All About Climate and Seasons Bill Nye: Earths Seasons Weather Resource

Safari Montage

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a standalone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

The weather station should be delivered to your school by September 2010. One weather station will be shared by the whole team. Please select an appropriate area for students to collect data. Weather Station

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Writing About Science

We know that weather changes from day to day, but we can predict that it will be cold in some months and hot in others. On a calendar showing the months of the year, draw a sun in the month that is usually very hot and draw a snowman in a month that is usually very cold. Now imagine the snowman wanted to see what it would be like to play in the summer weather. In December, he asked some children to keep him in a freezer until July and then bring him out into the summer sun! Write a story of what happened to the funny, old snowman when the children brought him out in July.

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Writing About Science

The president wants to visit your city in either July or January. Which month do you think would be a better time for a visit? Write a letter to the president explaining what the weather will be like in both of those months, and persuade him to come in the month of your choice. Dont forget to tell him what clothes to pack for his trip.

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Day 1: Weather ~ Making a Plan

Focus Questions: How can we keep a daily record of weather conditions? How can we organize weather data collected for a month to look for change? How can we organize weather data taken over different seasons to look for change? Materials: y Science Notebooks y Chart Paper and Markers Procedure: 1. Tell the students that they will be working as meteorologists in their school. Their job is to monitor the weather for their school. 2. Have the students discuss why they could be used as meteorologists in their school. Students ideas may include but not limited to: y Need to make decisions about outdoor/indoor recess or PE. y Need to make decisions about clothing to wear. 3. Tell the students that the principal wants to keep record of the weather monitored from year to year. Have the students discuss why they believe the principal wants to keep record of the weather from year to year at their school. y Seasonal weather patterns can be tracked from year to year. y Predictions can be made based off of previous years data. 4. Have the students work in small groups to create a plan for recording their weather data. Students should use the focus questions to help the come up with a plan. At this point the students should be discussing the use of tables, calendars, and/or graphs to help them record their data. If students are stuck, they can look at other resources such as the weather channel or WHAG website to see way weather data is collected. They may remember experience from Grade 2 Air and Weather. 5. Have the students share out their plans. It is ok if students begin to discuss the things they plan to keep track of such as temperature, precipitation, etc. Use the chart paper and markers to record the students ideas. 6. Have the students decide on a class plan. This plan will be used to record the data for the classroom. This display may be kept in Calendar Math. Students may continue to use their own plan in their science notebook. Closure: Revisit focus questions. Have the students discuss the classroom plan and/or their individual plan that answers the focus questions. Assessment:The students are able to develop a plan that will help them record weather data. The students are able to describe why it is important to collect, record, and analyze weather data. WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

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Day 2: Weather ~ Planning for Weather Tools

Focus Questions:What types of weather data can we collect? Which tools would we use to collect our weather data? Materials: y Science Notebooks y Chart Paper and Markers Procedure: 1. Have the students review their plans for monitoring and recording weather data daily in order to make comparisons over months/seasons. Review the class plan that will be stationed in the classroom throughout the year. 2. Ask the students to discuss in their groups the types of weather data they believe that they can collect. Again, ask them to think about their experience from Grade 2 Air and Weather. Students should also discuss the tools that help them collect the data. 3. After 5 minutes have the students share out their ideas. Record their ideas on the chart paper. You may choose to use a table to record their ideas. Reporting Weather Tool Used

Student responses may include but not limited to: y Temperature ~ thermometer y Precipitation ~ rain gauge y Wind Speed ~ anemometer y Wind Direction ~ wind vane 4. Have the students help select the types of weather data they believe is important to report. The students should include these in their plan and help you set up your classroom plan. See example included but not limited to:
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Month: ____________________ Season: _____________________ Sunday Date: Temp: Monday Date: Temp: Tuesday Date: Temp: Wednesday Date: Temp: Thursday Date: Temp: Friday Date: Temp: Saturday Date: Temp:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Closure: Revisit focus questions. Have the students discuss the classroom plan and/or their individual plan and weather data/tools that will help them collect their data. Assessment: The students are able to develop a plan that will help them record weather data. The students are able to describe why it is important to collect, report, and analyze weather data. The students are able to identify types of weather data and the tools used collect data.

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Month: ____________________ Season: _____________________ Sunday Date: Temp: Monday Date: Temp: Tuesday Date: Temp: Wednesday Date: Temp: Thursday Date: Temp: Friday Date: Temp: Saturday Date: Temp:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Sunday Date: Temp:

Monday Date: Temp:

Tuesday Date: Temp:

Wednesday Date: Temp:

Thursday Date: Temp:

Friday Date: Temp:

Saturday Date: Temp:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Precip:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

Wind Speed:

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Day 3: Weather ~ Using Weather Tools

Focus Questions: Which tools would we use to collect our weather data? How will these tools help us record and analyze our weather data? Materials: y Science Notebooks y Chart Paper and Markers y Weather Station Procedure: 1. Have the students revisit their class plan and tools the students suggested that the class use. 2. Introduce the weather station to the students. You may have the weather station placed in the area that will be kept for the grade level to have access to. The weather station includes tools for measuring wind direction and speed, temperature, rainfall and time. 3. Allow the students time to become familiar with the weather tools on the weather station. Have them practice reading the tools and recording the data. Students should identify the unit of measure for each of the tools. 4. The teacher should set management expectations. The teacher will need to decide how many students will be meteorologists who visit the weather station daily, how often will the job be rotated, what are the expectations of others when they are not the meteorologist visiting the weather station, etc. Students should help the teacher record these expectations/goals on chart paper. ****Students will continue to monitor the weather and report the data. Data should be displayed on a line graph. This should be done seasonally. The teacher should model displaying the data on a line graph with the fall data, students can help the teacher with the winter data, and students can work in groups/individually with the spring data. The graphs should be analyzed season to season and students should draw conclusions from the data that was collected. Closure: Revisit the focus question. Have the students review the weather station expectations/goalswith a partner.

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Unit Vocabulary
Please note the following:

y These words are suggested vocabulary words. Please continue to make instructional decisions about vocabulary words you feel your students may or may not need. y At the bottom of each vocabulary card is coded. U1I1 stands for Unit 1 Investigation 1. U1SC stands for Unit 1 State Curriculum. y Vocabulary should be reviewed at the end of each investigation and identified in the content/inquiry chart. y Science vocabulary may be added to the Word Wall and kept there during testing as long as the words are used as is or copied onto white cardstock see your SAS if you have questions about your Word Wall display. Have your students help you determine at the end of the module what words should be displayed on the Word Wall. y If you choose not to add the vocabulary words to your Word Wall, be sure these words are displayed where they are visible to all students during the time the unit is being taught.

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Sun

U1I1

compass

U1I1

cardinaldirections
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North South East


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U1I1

U1I1

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West day
U1I1

U1I1

night
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shadow moon
U1AI2

U1I2

cycle
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star

U1I2

Moonphase newMoon
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U1I2

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fullMoon

U1I2

first-quarter Moon

U1I2

third-quarter Moon

U1I2

crescentMoon
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gibbousMoon waxingMoon

U1I2

U1I2

waningMoon
U1I2
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star

U1I3

constellation
U1I3

astronomer
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season

U1SC

pattern

U1SC

revolution
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rotation meteors
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U1SC

solar system
U1SC

U1SC

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asteroid comet
U1SC

U1SC

physical properties
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atmosphere weathering erosion


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U1SC U1SC

U1SC

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Earths surface natural agent fossil


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U1SC U1SC

U1SC

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environment imprint remains


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U1SC

U1SC

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physical structures weather


U1SC

U1SC

conditions
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precipitation temperature wind speed


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U1SC

U1SC

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Celsius absorb
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U1SC

observe
U1SC

U1SC

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debris

U1SC

deforestation deposit
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drought embed
U1SC

U1SC

geologist
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glacier gully
U1SC

U1SC

mouth
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Student Vocabulary for Content Sort


Sun
U1I1

North
U1I1

U1I1

West day

U1I1

compass

South
U1I1

U1I1

U1I1

cardinal directions shadow


U1I2

East

U1I1

night

U1I1

first-quarter Moon U1I2 third-quarter Moon U1I2 crescent Moon U1I2 gibbous Moon U1I2 waxing MoonU1I2 waning Moon U1I2 Earths surface natural agent fossil U1SC
U1SC

constellation U1I3 astronomerU1I3 season


U1SC

moon U1AI2 cycle


U1I2

star U1I2 Moon phaseU1I2 new Moon U1I2 full Moon U1I2 Celsius
U1SC

pattern

U1SC

revolution rotation

U1SC

U1SC

solar system

U1SC

U1SC

precipitation U1SC temperature


U1SC

observe U1SC

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meteors asteroid comet

U1SC

environment imprint remains


U1SC U1SC

U1SC

precipitation U1SC temperature U1SC wind speed U1SC


U1SC

U1SC

U1SC

U1SC

physical properties atmosphere predict


U1I1 U1SC

physical structures weather U1SC conditions U1SC counterclockwise deforestation U1SC embed U1SC gully U1SC

weathering erosion U1SC orbit


U1I3

U1SC

position U1I1 debris U1SC drought U1SC glacier U1SC

U1I1

absorb U1SC deposit U1SC geologist U1SC mouth


U1SC

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Careers in Earth/Space Science

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Atmospheric Scientist
Atmospheric science is the study of the physics and chemistry of gases, clouds, and aerosols that surround the planetary bodies of the solar system. Research in atmospheric science focuses upon such areas as:
y y y y y

Climatology. the study of long-term weather and temperature trends, Dynamic meteorology. the study of the motions of the atmosphere, Cloud Physics: the formation and evolution of clouds and precipitation, Atmospheric chemistry: the study of atmospheric chemical reactions, Oceanography: the study of the Earth's oceans and how they affect the atmosphere.

Some atmospheric scientists study the atmospheres of the planets in our solar system, while others study the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric scientists may work in the following areas: field research, laboratory studies and/or computer analysis and modeling. Good communication skills (oral and written) are necessary as atmospheric scientists attend conferences and workshops, where they share their results with other researchers. They write papers and technical reports detailing the results of their research, give progress reports, and disseminate information on satellite data. The majority of atmospheric scientists in the United States work for the Federal Government. The largest number of civilian atmospheric scientists work for the National Weather Service and other branches of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as well as NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Forest Service, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy. Atmospheric scientists may also be found working for private weather services, television and radio stations, commercial airlines, state governments, colleges and universities, public utilities, consulting firms, and aircraft and instrument manufacturing companies. They often work in groups where their different skills and backgrounds can be combined to study specific scientific questions such as the effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere. These multidisciplinary teams usually include people in other related careers such as aerospace engineers, electronics engineers, computer and communications technicians, photographers, science writers, data systems analysts, astronauts, pilots, astronomers, physicists, geologists, oceanographers, and biologists

Updated: January 22, 2003

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Graphic Designer

One of the most interesting parts of NASA's Earth Science division is the images of deep space that are taken by the Earth Science technology equipment. We're very proud of the images discovered and wish to share them with the world through all types of media such as video, Internet, and print. Graphic designers are able to display these images in amazing ways using computer software and personal talents. NASA graphic designers are some of the most creative people that you will ever meet. They have to be extremely creative because their job revolves around creativity. There are many steps that designers must take before an idea can come to life. The steps in the designing process include creating designs, page layouts, illustrations, and graphics with the aid of computer design tools and other graphic design software packages. Designers are also skilled in the use of graphics equipment such as reproduction cameras and copiers, laser printers, scanners, disk drives, and modems. Creative people are always needed in a field where original designs are required on a daily basis. If you would like a job where you can be creative, and see you're designs come to life on the Internet, then you may want to study graphic designing.

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Geologist Geology is the study of the solid earth, its rocks and minerals. Geologists are the 'field hands' of earth science: without ground-based observation to confirm or expand on space-based tools, we would have an incomplete or even inaccurate picture of our planet. Geologists understand how the dynamic forces which shape our earth work, and use this knowledge to predict their affect on mankind. Earthquakes, volcanoes and soil erosion affect all of us: even if the geological event occurs halfway around the world, we are all touched to a greater or lesser extent. Food grown in Nebraska depends on accurate soil sampling, land erosion monitoring and water drainage information all provided by earth scientists with a geological background. Fishermen who experience a 'drought' of fish look to geologists to explain silting, underwater seismic events or other phenomena in order to react appropriately. More than just naming rocks and digging up fossilized bones, geologists tell us the story of the earth. That story goes back billions of years, and leaves its impression in the very ground we walk on. If that story is one you want to help tell, a career in geology and earth science is for you!

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Forest Ranger

America's forest land is managed largely by the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. In addition to maintaining the man-made objects in the park, like roads and buildings, the Park Service's Forest Rangers oversee the safety of both man and beast in their care. Forest fires, drought and pollution cause a great deal of damage to America's forests each year. NASA's earth science provides valuable data to Forest Rangers, who in turn use this information to establish where it is safest for people to go in our National Parks. Balanced against this is the over-riding concern of conserving our natural resources so that future generations will still have them to see and appreciate. Each year millions of Americans make use, indirectly, of earth science data through the work of Forest Rangers. If conserving our wilderness through better knowledge of our environment appeals to you, maybe you'll have 'Forest Ranger' on your resume someday!

Updated: September 15, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Meteorologist (Weather Man)

Perhaps the most direct way in which people benefit from earth science research is through daily weather prediction. Weather systems thousands of miles away have an effect on you right here at home. Earth science satellites provide up-to-the-minute information about weather patterns across the entire world, allowing meteorologists to forecast what's headed your way. More than just images of clouds, meteorologists compare temperature readings, winds, atmospheric pressure, precipitation patterns, and other variables to form an accurate picture of our climate. From past readings, meteorologists are able to draw conclusions and make predictions about how our climate will translate into local weather every day. They can also develop computer models that predict how climate and weather may vary in the future as a result of human activity. Meteorologists also carry out basic research to help us understand the way the atmosphere works, ranging from why hurricanes and tornadoes form when and where they do, to why the ozone hole formed over the Antarctic in the spring. They use satellites, aircraft, ships, and balloons to take the data needed to help understand, document, and predict weather and climate. If understanding the atmosphere around you, helping to predict how it behaves - both today and in the future - sounds interesting to you, learn more about meteorology!

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Politician/Lobbyist

The environment is an important political issue. Year after year one or more environmental questions come up in virtually every election campaign. Earth scientists know a lot about how the planet's complicated systems work, and how we humans are affecting the planet, but they can't take steps to clean the air or protect against hurricanes -- only politicians and lobbyists who inform politicians can do that. Every good law that gets written to revise building codes, to withstand earthquakes, or stand up to tornadoes is the result of hard work by men and women in politics making use of Earth Science information. Every time people are successfully evacuated from hurricane paths and lives are saved by government-sponsored rescue teams, it can be traced back to forward-thinking and aware politicians or the people they appoint. Disaster relief committees, groups prepared for emergencies, and other community-sponsored programs need people knowledgeable about Earth Science to help plan how best to react to environmental threats. Similarly, government agencies that protect endangered species, keep drinking water clean, and crops healthy rely on educated activists and consultants, who are well versed in Earth Science areas. Politics is about bettering our community and our country; why not put an Earth Science background to use for us all!

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Computer Programmer

The Earth Science Enterprise, like all of NASA, relies heavily on computers for many of their operations. Computers aid in the design and building of spacecraft, as well as in their launching and tracking in orbit. Computers are used to capture the complex data Earth-observing satellites send back, and are used still more in analyzing that data to come up with useful results. All these various applications required dedicated programmers to keep them going. But there is even more: every Earth Scientist is part of a larger community of researchers. They share information over the Internet and via electronic mail -systems designed specifically for their use by computer programmers who understood what they needed. And it's not just scientists; all earth science agencies need computer programmers to design applications to track their budgets, manage personnel records, schedule meetings and even publish scientific findings to the world. The need for programmers, system administrators, designers and network architects is only going to increase. Our global community has ever more information it needs to collect, compile and share. That's where you come in: weather stations, volcano monitoring sites and satellite tracking stations all need specialized equipment and software, which can only be provided by trained professionals. If you like the smell of Java in the morning, there is a career for you in earth science!

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Oceanographer/Marine Biologist
Oceanographers help us gain a better understanding of how our oceans, and living creatures in them, function as an ecosystem. Oceanography contains a wide range of jobs including engineers, marine biologists, and zoologists (people who study animals). People with skills in these and other areas are involved in oceanography because Earth has more oceans than land, and it is a huge task to understand how the oceans work.

One of the better-known careers in oceanography is marine biology. While oceanographers study oceans as a whole, marine biologists focus on the living creatures in different types of water, not just huge oceans. They also study life in seas, bays, and other large bodies of water.
Oceanographers may also be technicians who specialize in working on equipment used to study the oceans. Oceanography needs technicians who are able to work on boats, electronics, and specialty equipment to make sure that their experiments run smoothly. Oceanographers also get to travel quite a bit to do research and experiments. Although some oceanographers write technical reports in a lab, others explore the oceans. If you enjoy the water, or marine animals then you should think about a career in oceanography.

Updated: January 22, 2003

Responsible NASA Official: Ruth Netting

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Besides an Astronaut

Astronauts may get the glory, but there are many other space-related careers that NASA offers. Some of the possibilities include:
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Astronomer Biologist Chemist Nutritionist Oceanographer Physicist Geologist Physician Meteorologist Psychologist Computer scientist Mathematician Biomedical, systems, electrical, nuclear, chemical or civil engineer Writer Artist Editor Education specialist Public relations Audiovisual specialist Photographer Quality control inspector Ground radio operator

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Sorts (Also known as concept attainment)

Students can use sorting mats to categorize pictures and words. Students identify characteristics that match the categories and their discussions about their sorts demonstrate a deeper understanding of the content.

How do you do sorts? Cut out each picture or word. Pose the question from the top of the page. Sort the pictures and/or words into the yes or no column on the sorting mat.

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For Example:

What are foods we can eat?

Yes

No

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Yes

No

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Sun, Moon, & Stars

Investigation 1 Part 1

1. A compass is used to find directions: north, south, east, and west.

2. The Sun rises in the west.

3. Night is the time when the Sun appears in the sky, and it is light outside.

4. The cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west.


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Investigation 1 Part 2

1. A shadow is made outdoors when light from the Sun is blocked by an object.

2. Shadows change shape and direction over a day because the Suns position stays the same in the sky. 3. A shadow is a dark area where an object has blocked the light.

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Investigation 2 Part 1

1. In the night sky you can see the stars and sometimes the Moon.

2. In the day sky you can see the Sun and sometimes the Moon.

3. The Sun is Earths natural satellite.

4. A cycle is a repeating pattern.

5. A star is a point of light in the day sky.


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Investigation 2 Part 2

1. Each month the Moon changes appearance in the predictable cycle from the invisible new Moon, to the full Moon, back to the new Moon.

2. A Moon phase is the shape of the dark part of the moon.

3. A new Moon occurs when the Moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun.

4. The full Moon is invisible.


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5. A full Moon occurs when Earth is positioned between the Sun and the Moon.

6. A crescent Moon is any phase of the Moon that has less than half of its face illuminated.

7. When the face of the Moon looks smaller each day, it is waxing.

8. When the face of the Moon looks smaller each day, it is waning.

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Investigation 3 Part 1
1. Stars are stationary, but appear to move across the night sky because the Earth is rotating.

2. The dark side of Earth always faces the same direction.

3. A star is a ball of burning gases that gives off light and heat.

4. The Sun is not a typical star.

5. A constellation is a group of stars that form a pattern that has a name.

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Investigation 3 Part 2

1. There are too many stars to count one by one.

2. A telescope allows astronomers to see objects in space that are very close.

3. A telescope is a tool used to view distant objects in space.

4. An astronomer is a scientist who studies the stars and other objects in space.
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Literature in the Science Classroom


The use of literature in the science classroom enhances student understanding of scientific concepts. Literature can expose students to lives of real and fictitious people were instrumental in scientific discovery or who have applied scientific ideas to real-life situations. Resource: Fossweb.com

Children should be encouraged to use many different books to learn about science. A book can be the expert to refer to for an answer or clarification, or a book can spark an interest or an investigation. More often, however, books, simply serve to deepen a childs understanding of some familiar topic, helping them to make increasing sense of the world and function more confidently in it. Resource: Science and Language Links, Johanna Scott

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101 Things Everyone Should Know about Science Author: Dia Michels and Nathan Levy Level: 3 Description: 101 Things Everyone Should Know About Science uses a question-and answer format to entice the reader into learning more about key concepts in biology, chemistry, physics, earth, and general science. This book is perfect for anyone interested in gaining a better understanding of how science impacts everyday life. Some questions include Why do you see lightning before you hear thunder? What keeps the planets orbiting around the sun? Why do we put salt on roads when they are icy? Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that asteroids are leftovers form when the planets formed? Or that comets grow new tails every time they get near the Sun? Explore asteroids, comets, and meteorites, and their place in the solar system. Astronomy Author: Robin Kerrod Level: 3-8 Description: An introduction to astronomy, including information about the solar system, stars, and constellations, and projects such as making a sundial. Backyard Stars: A Guide for Home and the Road Author: Klutz Guides Level: 3-6 Description: A weather-proof star guide, full of information. Born with a Bang (Trilogy) Author: Jennifer Morgan - Illustrated by: Dana Lynne Andersen Level: 3-5 Description: In this first of a trilogy, the Universe tells its own life story of chaos and creativity, science and struggle. This story begins in the very beginning, and ends with the formation of Earth. Brightest in the Sky: The Planet Venus Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Not only is Venus the hottest planet in the solar system, it's also one of the brightest, most enchanting objects in the sky. Explore Earth's closest neighbor in this book about Venus.

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Constellations Author: Dana Meachen Rau Level: 3-5 Description: Takes students stargazing. Find out who first noticed patterns in the stars and named them. Read bits of the stories people from around the world told about the animals and people they saw in the stars. Includes a chart of the constellations for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Day Light, Night Light: Where Light Comes From Author: Franklyn M. Branley - Illustrated by: Stacey Schuett Level: K-2 Description: Describes the physical properties of light. A child observes light from a jar of fireflies and candles on a birthday cake as examples of light coming from sources of heat. Done in the Sun: Solar Projects for Children Author: Astrid Hillerman, Anne Hillerman - Illustrated by: Mina Yamashita Level: 4-7 Description: An introduction to the Sun as a renewable energy source, demonstrating through simple experiments and craft projects how the Suns light and heat can be used to help us in our everyday lives. Dont Know Much About the Solar System Author: Kenneth C. Davis - Illustrated by: Pedro Martin Level: 1-4 Description: Find out about asteroids, meteoroids, and craters. Learn how to safely watch a solar eclipse. Discover what makes each planet special and why Earth stands apart from the others. Dwarf Planets: Pluto, Charon, Ceres, and Eris (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: The are like major planets, but not quite. They circle around the sun. They're round. But they haven't cleared everything out of their path. Explore these unusual objects in this book about the dwarf planets. Earth Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Earth is the only planet known to have life? Or that scientists study Earth with spacecraft, just like other planets in the solar system? Look inside to learn more about Earth and its place in the solar system. Earth and Moon Author: Robin Kerrod Level: 2-6 Description: Describes the formation, structure, and atmosphere of Earth and the Moon, with up-to-date color photographs.

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Experiments with the Sun and the Moon Author: Salvatore Tocci Level: 3-5 Description: The book asks students to think about where the Sun and Moon go during certain parts of the day. Gives a short historical overview of some mythology connected with the cycles of the Sun and Moon. Farthest from the Sun: The Planet Neptune (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Don't bother searching the night sky for Neptune without a telescope. It's the only planet that can't be seen with the naked eye. Explore the planet farthest from the sun in this book about neptune. The First Moon Landing (Series) Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that it took three days for the first astronauts to reach the moon? Or that the first men on the moon left experiments that scientists still use today? Explore the first moon landing and what it taught us about our solar system. Floating in Space Author: Franklyn M. Branley - Illustrated by: True Kelley Level: 3-5 Description: Clearly written information examines the environment aboard a space shuttle. Describes how astronauts deal with weightlessness, eating, exercise, and work. Bright cartoonlike illustrations include labeled diagrams that provide further information for young astronauts. Footprints On The Moon Author: Alexandra Siy Level: 3-8 Description: Full-color photographs, archival drawings, and lively text tell the story of the study and exploration of the Moon from ancient times to the 19981999 lunar prospector. NASA photographs highlight the missions of Project Mercury, Gemini, and the Apollo missions. Galileo's Journal Author: Jeanne K. Pettenati - Illustrated by: Paolo Rui Level: 2-4 Description: This picture book provides an introductory glimpse into the life of Galileo, imagining what he might have written in his journal. It focuses on the scientist's improvement of the telescope and his subsequent realization that planets other than the Earth also have moons and rotate around the sun rather than the Earth.

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Jupiter Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Jupiter has at least 63 moons? Or that winds on the planet blow more than 400 miles per hour? Look inside to learn more about this giant planet and its place in the solar system.

Kingdom of the Sun: A Book of the Planets Author: Jacqueline Mitton - Illustrated by: Christina Balit Level: 3-5 Description: A concise introduction to the solar system. The author weaves mythology and astronomy with poetic text and provides a description and scientific background of each planet as well as a connection to its mythological namesake. The Largest Planet: Jupiter (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: From Earth, the spot on Jupiter looks like a small red freckle. In fact, the spot is a huge storm as wide as two Earths! Explore the big spot and more in this book about Jupiter. Looking Through a Telescope Author: Linda Bullock Level: K-2 Description: Introduces young readers to telescopes. Mae Jemison Space Pioneer Author: Robert Kraske Level: 3-5 Description: Mae Jemison was a doctor, an astronaut, and the first African American woman in space. This book describes the scientist's life, her career, and her impact on people. Man on the Moon Author: Anastasia Suen - Illustrated by: Benrei Huang Level: 2-4 Description: Describes in illustrations and simple text the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon, culminating in the first lunar landing.

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Mars Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system? Or that iron in the dirt gives the planet its red color? Look inside to learn more about Mars and its place in the solar system. Mercury Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Mercury has a crater 810 miles wide? Or that the planet's ridges and cliffs formed when its core cooled and shrank millions of years ago? Look inside to learn more about Mercury and its place in the solar system. The Milky Way (Series) Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that the Milky Way is only one of billions of galaxies in the universe? Or that the planets in our solar system aren't the only planets in the Milky Way? Explore the Milky Way and our solar system's place in the galaxy. Moon Author: Dana Meachen Rau Level: 3-5 Description: Describes the formation, orbit, surface features, exploration, and future study of the Moon. The Moon Book Author: Gail Gibbons Level: 3-5 Description: Describes the movement and phases of the Moon, its effect on Earths oceans, and Moon exploration. Discusses how people have observed and explored it through time and in various cultures. Moon Tales: Myths of the Moon from around the World Author: Rina Singh - Illustrated by: Debbie Lush Level: 3-5 Description: Tales from around the world attempt to explain the mysteries of the Moon. Why does the Moon wax and wane? What are those marks on its surface? The answers are found in the myths of a variety of cultures.

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The Moon Author: Ralph Winrich Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that we on earth always see the same side of the Moon? Or that the Moon's rocky, dusty surface is covered with craters? Look inside to learn more about the Moon and its place in the solar system. NASA Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that we use inventions made by NASA scientists every day? Or that NASA's robots have visited every planet in our solar system? Discover NASA and how this agency explores our solar system. Nature and Science of Sunlight Author: Jane Burton, Kim Taylor Level: 3-5 Description: Examines the energy and light produced by the Sun and their importance to life on Earth. Nearest to the Sun: The Planet Mercury (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Mercury is the smallest planet, but it has the biggest craters, the biggest temperature swings, and the biggest sunrises in the solar system. Explore the planet's many wonders in this book about Mercury. Neptune Author: Ralph Winrich Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that poisonous methane gases make Neptune look blue? Or that Neptune may have the fastest winds of any planet? Look inside to learn more about this cold, distant planet and its place in the solar system. On the Day You Were Born Author: Debra Frasier Level: K-8Description: Short descriptions of some of the natural phenomena of Earth are included in this read-aloud book. Includes information on animal migration, Earths rotation, gravity, the Sun, the Moon, stars, tides, rain, photosynthesis, atmosphere, and skin color.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


One Giant Leap: The Story of Neil Armstrong Author: Don Brown Level: 3-5 Description: Relates the childhood dreams and experiences of Neil Armstrong and highlights how he was hooked on aeronautics at an early age.

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Our Home Planet: Earth (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Earth is the only planet known to support life. It has plenty of water, it's the right temperature, and it has a blanket of gases to protect it. Explore your own home planet in this book about Earth. Pluto, A Dwarf Planet Author: Ralph Winrich Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Pluto is now called a dwarf planet? Or that a spacecraft is headed there to explore it? Look inside to learn more about small, icy Pluto and its place in the solar system Ringed Giant: The Planet Saturn (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Even though they look solid, Saturn's rings are actually made of billions of pieces of rock and ice - some as big as a house! Explore the planet's rings, moons, and more in this book about Saturn. Sacred Skies: The facts and the fables Author: Finn Bevan - Illustrated by: Diana Mayo Level: 4-7 Description: Discusses how people throughout the ages explained the Sun, Moon, stars, rainbows, and thunderstorms. Presents several traditional tales from around the world that embody peoples beliefs and observations. Saturn Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that seven main rings circle Saturn? Or that the planet has at least 33 moons? Look inside to learn more about this giant planet and its place in the solar system.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


See the Stars: Your First Guide to the Night Sky Author: Ken Croswell Level: 4-8 Description: Describes the life and death of stars, black holes, why stars are different colors, and more.

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Seeing Red: The Planet Mars (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Named for the god of war because of its blood-red color, Mars is the second-smallest planet in our solar system. Explore its cold canyons, ice caps, and more in this book about Mars. The Sideways Planet Uranus (Series) Author: Nancy Loewen - Illustrated by: Jeff Yesh Level: K-4 Description: Which pole is north? Which pole is south? I's hard to tell on the sideways planet of Uranus. Explore the gas giant's strange position, its rings, moons, and more in this book about Uranus. Solar System Author: Delta Education Level: 3-4 Description: Students take a tour of the Sun and the nine planets. Other space objects such as comets, asteroids, and the meteoroids are explored. Students read about the rotation and revolution of the planets and the causes of night and day, seasonal changes, and the phases of the Moon. Space Encyclopedia Author: Heather Couper, Nigel Henbest Level: 3-8 Description: Covers cosmology, astrophysics, astronomy, and space exploration. Space Probes Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that space probes have been to every planet in our solar system? Or that probes are sent to explore asteroids and comets? Discover space probes and how they help us explore our solar system. Space Stations Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that people have been living and working on space stations for more than 30 years? Or that scientists hope to build a space station on a faraway planet? Explore space stations and how they are helping us prepare to go farther out into our solar system.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


Space Vehicles Author: Jon Richards Level: 3-5 Description: Examines different types of machines used in space exploration, including probes, satellites, space shuttles, and rockets. Spacebusters Author: Philip Wilkinson Level: K-4 Description: Describes the voyage of Apollo 11, its three astronauts, and details of the mission that put the first person on the Moon in 1969. Stars Author: Seymour Simon Level: K-3 Description: Describes many varieties of stars, from red giants to white dwarfs, from the enormous explosions known as supernovas to tiny, extremely dense neutron stars.

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Stars and Galaxies Author: Ellen Fried Level: 2-5 Description: Filled with photographs, this book discusses what galaxies are and where earth's place is in such an infinite space. Discusses how we view and learn about outer space with telescopes. Sun Author: Dana Meachen Rau Level: 3-5 Description: Describes the composition, surface features, and exploration of the Sun, as well as its place in the solar system. Sun Author: Jim Pipe Level: 3-7 Description: The Sun brings light and heat to our world. It gives us days and nights, blue skies, and seasons. Why does the Sun shine so brightly? Sun Author: Paulette Bourgeois - Illustrated by: Bill Slavin Level: 2-6 Description: Looks at the past and future of the Sun, discusses its visible and invisible emissions, seasons, the ozone layer, and the northern lights.

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Office of Elementary Education


Sun Author: Robin Kerrod Level: 3-6 Description: Describes the characteristics of the Sun, including its origins, composition, and surface features, and its importance to life on Earth.

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Sun Author: Steve M. Tomecek - Illustrated by: Carla Golembe Level: K-8 Description: Takes an interactive approach to answering questions about the Sun. Concepts discussed include its distance from Earth, size, composition, temperature, sunspots, and solar flares. The Sun and Moon Author: Robin Kerrod Level: 4-7 Description: Discusses differences and similarities between the Sun and the Moon. Sun Up, Sun Down: The Story of Day and Night Author: Jacqui Bailey - Illustrated by: Matthew Lilly Level: 3-6 Description: Teaches readers about the Sun and the Moon, the Sun and Moons relationship to Earth, and the effect they both have on all our everyday activities. Children will learn that Earth is constantly spinning as it travels around the Sun and that the Moon only shines because the Suns light reflects off it. Sun, Moon, and Stars Author: Mary Hoffman - Illustrated by: Jane Ray Level: 3-5 Description: Legends and myths from around the world about the movements and appearance of the Sun, the Moon, and the stars. The Sun Author: Ralph Winrich Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that the Sun is just an average star, even though all of the eight planets could fit inside it? Or that this ball of hot gases doesn't have a solid surface? Look inside to learn more about the star at the center of the solar system? To Space and Back Author: Sally Ride, Susan Okie Level: 3-8 Description: Describes in text and photographs what it is like to be an astronaut on the space shuttle. Includes a glossary.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


The Universe Author: Seymour Simon Level: 3-8 Description: The full-color photographs show nebulas and galaxies, and support the wide range of topics discussed, including the Big Bang and theories about the future of the universe.

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Uranus Author: Thomas K. Adamson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that the giant planet Uranus spins on its side? Or that the planet has 27 moons and many faint rings? Look inside to learn more about this cold, distant planet and its place in the solar system. Venus Author: Adele Richardson Level: 1-3 Description: Did you know that Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system? Or that the planet has volcanoes that look like pancakes? Look inside to learn more about Venus and its place in the solar system. What Makes Day and Night Author: Franklyn M. Branley - Illustrated by: Arthur Dorros Level: 2-3 Description: A simple explanation of how the rotation of Earth causes night and day. What the Moon Is Like Author: Franklyn M. Branley - Illustrated by: True Kelley Level: K-5 Description: A clear introduction to the Moon. Compares how the Moons composition, terrain, and atmosphere differ from Earths. Why Isn't Pluto a Planet? Author: Steve Kortenkamp Level: 1-3 Description: What is a planet anyway? How come Pluto isn't one? Are there any more planets? Scientists are learning more about these questions every day. Look inside this book to discover more about the mysteries of the planets in our solar system. Wishing on a Star: Constellation Stories and Stargazing Activities for Kids Author: Fran Lee Level: 3-5 Description: Presents some of the stories behind the constellations. The stars come to life with creative and entertaining activities, facts, and myths.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


Zoo in the Sky: A Book of Animal Constellations Author: Jacqueline Mitton - Illustrated by: Christina Ballit Level: 3-8 Description: Animal constellations are introduced by bright portraits depicting the animals for which the constellations are named. Anansi the Spider: A Tale from the Ashanti Author: Gerald McDermott Level: K-3 Description: In trying to determine which of his six sons to reward for saving his life, Anansi the Spider is responsible for placing the Moon in the sky.

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Fifth and Final Sun: An Ancient Aztec Myth of the Suns Origin Author: C. Shana Greger Level: K-6 Description: Back in the earliest memories of the world, the god of the night ruled the skies, but his reign as Sun was ended by the jealousy of the god of the wind. The ancient gods struggle for supremacy raged for ages, until the creation, by sacrifice of the fifth and final Sun. Galileos Treasure Box Author: Catherine Brighton Level: K-5 Description: While Galileo sleeps, his young daughter explores his study and discovers some of the objects he uses in his scientific experiments. Her Seven Brothers Author: Paul Goble Level: 3-5 Description: A retelling of a Cheyenne legend in which a girl and her seven brothers become the stars in the Big Dipper. How the Stars Fell into the Sky: A Navajo Legend Author: Jerrie Oughton - Illustrated by: Lisa Desimini Level: 3-5 Description: In this poetic retelling of a Navajo legend, First Woman is determined to write the laws in the sky for the people to see. The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System Author: Joanna Cole - Illustrated by: Bruce Degen Level: 3-5 Description: The magic school bus travels past the Sun and around the planets.

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Max Goes to Mars: A Science Adventure with Max the Dog Author: Jeffrey Bennett Level: K-8 Description: The sequel to Max Goes to the Moon takes Max the dog on the first human mission to Mars. Max travels in his own specially designed spacesuit and helps the astronauts sniff for signs of microscopic life. While on Mars, Max and Tori, his young owner, consider how beautiful and fragile their own planet, Earth, is. Sidebars include scientific information and data concerning the moons of Mars, the history of Martian fantasies, the length of the trip, and features of Mars like volcanoes and dust storms. An activity is also included that deals with the spatial relationship between Mars and Earth. Max Goes to the Moon: A Science Adventure with Max the Dog Author: Jeffrey Bennett Level: K-8 Description: Max is a dog and a particularly amazing dog at that. Through the fictional account of Maxs lunar adventure, this book introduces students to space and space travel as Max joins his owner and a group of astronauts journey to the Moon. Its a story about astronaut training, space facts, and exploration. Topics include information about Moon phases, the face of the Moon, Apollo missions, rockets, gravity, lunar colonies, telescopes, and more. For example, gravity is explained as Max plays with a plastic flying disk on the Moon. Colorful illustrations as well as sidebars with scientific facts and data and a Moon phase activity make this a valuable addition to FOSS modules and courses, particularly the Sun, Moon, and Stars Module and Planetary Science Course. Moon Rope/Un lazo a la luna Author: Lois Ehlert, Amy Prince Level: K-3 Description: An adaptation of the Peruvian folktale in which Fox and Mole try to climb to the Moon on a rope woven of grass. The Moon Was at a Fiesta Author: Matthew Gollub, Martin L. Guzman - Illustrated by: Leovigildo Martinez Level: 3-5 Description: An original pourquoi story set in Oaxaca, Mexico, explains why the Moon is sometimes still visible in the morning sky. Jealous of the Sun, the Moon creates her own fiesta and celebrates so much that she stays out past dawn. Moonstick: The Seasons of the Sioux Author: Eve Bunting - Illustrated by: John B. Sandford Level: 3-5 Description: A young Native American boy describes the seasonal changes in nature and notches each new Moon of the Sioux year on a moonstick. When the Moon Is Full: A Lunar Year Author: Penny Pollock - Illustrated by: Mary Azarian Level: K-5 Description: Poetry. A years worth of full moons are honored in short poems.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education


Exploring The Sky By Day: The Equinox Guide to Weather and the Atmosphere Author: Terence Dickinson Level: 3-7 Description: Offers fascinating insight into phenomena such as lightning, clouds, storms, solar halos, sun dogs, and sunsets.

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Astronomy for All Ages Author: Philip S. Harrington, Edward Pascuzzi Description: Describes the constellations, planets, and phases of the Moon. Learn how sundials and telescopes work and how to build them. Discover what causes shooting stars, auroras, nebulae, and more. Compact NASA Atlas of the Solar System Author: Ronald Greeley, Raymond Batson Description: An essential reference source for maps of every planet, Moon, or small body investigated by NASA missions, now available in a convenient, portable format. Janice VanCleaves Solar System Author: Janice Pratt VanCleave Description: Provides instructions for a variety of experiments and science-fair projects exploring the solar system, including the Sun, Moon, planets, comets, and meteorites. Out of the Classroom: Observations and Investigations in Astronomy Author: Dennis W. Dawson Description: Gives students the thrill of learning basic astronomy concepts through firsthand experiences. Soaring Through the Universe: Astronomy Through Childrens Literature Author: Joanne C. Letwinch Description: Everything you need to teach students about the Moon, Sun, planets, stars, flight, and aerospace science. Includes reproducible activities, project ideas, and reading and reference lists. Amazing Sun Fun Activities Author: Michael Daley Level: 3-8 Description: Includes solar experiments and projects that use ordinary household "junk" and fast-food containers. Students can build a working solar oven and solar water heater, and design solarpowered homes. Children's Night Sky Atlas Author: Robin Skagell Level: 4-8 Description: This colorful atlas features the latest discoveries and beautiful space photography, including images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Information and illustrations depict constellations, the evolution of stars and galaxies, and the planets in the solar system. Acetate overlays highlight special points of interest to show even more about what we see in the night sky.

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Energy Author: Jack Challoner Level: 5-6 Description: A valuable resource that incorporates beautiful photography, interesting graphics, and fact-filled text in an engaging format. Concepts such as muscle energy, thermodynamics, measuring energy, and energy from the Sun are just a few that are addressed. Fossil Fuel Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 3-5 Description: Introduces the history, uses, production, advantages and disadvantages, and future of fossil fuel energy as a power resource. Geothermal Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 3-5 Description: Introduces the history, uses, production, advantages and disadvantages, and future of geothermal energy as a power resource. Includes bibliography and index. Hurricanes Author: Seymour Simon Level: 2-8 Description: Describes the formation of hurricanes, the effects of heavy winds and rain, and the damage caused by flooding after a hurricane has passed. Satellite images and full-color photographs are included, as well as stories about hurricanes, including Andrew, Camille, and Floyd. Hydroelectric Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 3-5 Description: Introduces the history, uses, production, advantages and disadvantages, and future of hydroelectric energy as a power resource. Includes bibliography and index. Light and shadow (Spanish) Author: Susan Ring Level: Pre-K-3 Description: Introduces different kinds of light, the properties of light, and how light can create shadows of different shapes and sizes. Nuclear Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 3-5 Description: Introduces the history, uses, production, advantages and disadvantages, and future of nuclear energy as a power resource. Includes bibliography and index.

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One Small Square: The Night Sky Author: Donald M. Silver Level: 5-8 Description: In one small square of night sky--using their eyes, binoculars, the position of the moon, and even their fingers as guides--children locate Orion and other constellations, and even stars and planets--while they learn amazing facts about the heavenly bodies. Activities are included for Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Science Project Ideas About The Sun Author: Robert Gardner Level: 5-7 Description: Simple-to-make projects that investigate the Sun, shadows, direction, time, and solar energy. Safety issues are addressed throughout the activities. Shadow Play: Making Pictures With Light And Lenses Author: Bernie Zubrowski Level: 5-7 Description: Inviting inquiry-based projects. Instructions are given for making a box camera and shadow box to use for exploring light. Solar Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 3-5 Description: Introduces the history, uses, production, advantages and disadvantages, and future of solar energy as a power resource. Includes bibliography and index. Sun (Spanish) Author: Susan Ring Level: Pre-K-3 Description: A simple introduction to how the sun and its warmth affect the Earth. The Sun Author: Paulette Bourgeois Level: 5-7 Description: Facts, stories, hands-on experiments, and illustrations combine to explain basic concepts about the Sun, the movement of Earth, the Suns light, and using solar energy. Wind Power Author: Josepha Sherman Level: 2-5 Description: Describes how we use the wind to power our lives, including windmills, electricity, and the future of wind power.

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Arrow To The Sun Author: Gerald McDermott Level: 1-4 Description: This Pueblo Indian tale is a wonderful cultural connection to any study of the Sun. The Lord of the Sun sent a spark to Earth that becomes the Boy. As he grows older, he searches for his father until Arrowmaker makes an arrow of the Boy that sends him to the Sun. The Boy Trap Author: Nancy Matson Level: 3-6 Description: Fifth-grader Emma decides to do a science fair project to prove scientifically that girls are better than boys. In the process, she learns about herself, her friends, and research methods. The Librarian Who Measured The Earth Author: Kathryn Lasky Level: 3-8 Description: Over 2,000 years ago, a boy named Eratosthenes was known for always asking questions. As an adult he became the head of the great library of Alexandria. This story tells how he used the Sun to accurately measure the circumference of Earth. Includes a summary of important discoveries throughout time, many of which use Eratosthenes work as their basis. The Way To Start A Day Author: Byrd Baylor Level: 4-6 Description: A poetic description of how people of ancient cultures around the world have greeted the sunrise, with the ringing of bells, drumbeats, and gifts of gold or flowers Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather Author: Mark Monmonier Description: Traces the scientific debates that try to unravel the enigma of storms and global change. Explains strategies for forecasting severe weather, and efforts to detect and control air pollution. Hot Water And Warm Homes From Sunlight Author: Alan Gould Level: 4-8 Description: In this environmental unit, students build model houses and hot-water heaters to focus on solar power. They determine how windows can affect heat, and conduct controlled experiments. Exploring The Sky By Day: The Equinox Guide to Weather and the Atmosphere Author: Terence Dickinson Level: 3-7 Description: Offers fascinating insight into phenomena such as lightning, clouds, storms, solar halos, sun dogs, and sunsets.

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Soul of the Sky: Exploring the Human Side of Weather Author: Dave Thurlow Level: 5-12 Description: Soul of the Sky is a collection of essays that illustrates how weather can inspire and terrify, connect and urge us to new adventures, and us them to gain a deeper appreciate of how weather and climate affect our everyday lives.

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Websites

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Office of Elementary Education Web Sites Astronomy for Kids (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.kidsastronomy.com/ Description: Powerful and fun resource for kids, exploring astronomy and other space-related information and activities. Includes a Teachers Corner.

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Astronomy with a Stick (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.nsta.org/publications/interactive/aws-din/aws.aspx Description: This site includes ideas for investigating astronomy in the daytime. Students make indirect observations of the Sun on the school playground and with models built in the classroom. The Constellations (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/const.html Description: Constellation myths, pictures and pictures with diagrams superimposed. Google Earth (student and teacher resource) URL: http://earth.google.com/ Description: Download free software that allows you to view satellite images covering the entire globe. You can fly through landscapes, and you can even tilt the Earth's surface so you can see mountains, and even Grand Canyon, in profile. How to StarWatch (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.redshiftnow.ca/starwatch/howto.aspx Description: This site from the Ontario Science Center in Toronto is collecting light pollution data from sites around Canada and beyond. You view the Little Dipper and compare your observations to a Little Dipper star chart. The site provides links to other resources about reducing light pollution. I Know That: Science Lab (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.iknowthat.com/com/L3?Area=Science%20Lab Description: This is a great site for activities, animations, simulations and other resources related to the human body, sounds, matter the solar system, weather and other science topics to supplement sound.

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Office of Elementary Education The Magnetic Earth (student and teacher resource) URL: http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/educator/Earth79.html Description: Here s a website to begin learning about the Earth s magnetic field. This NASA website includes information, movies and pictures about magnetism, the magnetosphere and how Earth s magnetic field shields the planet from solar storms.

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Make a Star Finder (student and teacher resource) URL: http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/st6starfinder/st6starfinder.shtml Description: Make a Star Finder and play the Star Finder game to identify constellations in the night sky. Find out how spacecraft use the patterns of the stars and a gyroscope from NASA's Space Place. NASA's Student Website (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/index.html Description: This NASA website provides a variety of resources for students, including activities, links, and current opportunities for students to interact with scientists. Arranged by grade level. The Nine Planets (student and teacher resource) URL: http://nineplanets.org/ Description: The Nine Planets is a tour of the Solar System. It includes images, movies, and other information about the Sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more. Find out about the history of space exploration, rocketry, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft through a vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. This site includes English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese (and other) versions. Private Universe Project in Science (teacher resource) URL: http://www.learner.org/resources/series29.html# Description: This innovative workshop for teachers explores the reasons why teaching science is so difficult and offers practical advice to help you teach more effectively. Each program focuses on one theme and one content area and uses specific examples to show how students' preconceived ideas can create critical barriers to learning. Education experts also review classroom strategies and results and recommend new ways to involve students and approach difficult topics. Nine different videos cover a variety of topics including astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental education. A Private Universe (teacher resource) URL: http://www.learner.org/resources/series28.html#jump1 Description: This video brings into sharp focus a dilemma facing all educators: Why don't even the brightest students truly grasp basic science concepts? Interviews are held with high school students and Ivy League graduates asking them to explain what causes the seasons and the phases of the moon.

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Office of Elementary Education A Resource List about the Sun (teacher resource) URL: http://www.noao.edu/outreach/resource/sun.html Description: This web page contains links to web sites, and lists books and periodicals where more information on the Sun can be found.

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SOHO Explore! (student and teacher resource) URL: http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/explore/ Description: This is the education and outreach page for SOHO (SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY), a joint NASA/European Space Agency Project. This site includes images, movies, activities using real SOHO data, and lesson plans. Solar Eclipse Page (student and teacher resource) URL: http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/solar.html Description: This site from NASA provides detailed information for eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Solar Eclipses, All About Them (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.mreclipse.com/Special/SEprimer.html Description: This is a very good web page for people who want to know more about solar eclipses. It displays important/basic data and also has pictures. It is very complete. Ulysses Mission (student and teacher resource) URL: http://ulysses.jpl.nasa.gov/kids/index.html Description: The Ulysses space probe was launched by the Space Shuttle Discovery in October, 1990. The probe is flying in polar orbits and exploring the high latitude areas of the Sun. This webpage contains animations and other relevant information regarding the Ulysses mission. Virtual Reality Moon Phase Pictures (student and teacher resource) URL: http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/vphase.html Description: View the phase of the Moon for any date and time (1800-2199 C.E.) Welcome to the Planets! (student and teacher resource) URL: http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/ Description: This NASA/JPL website includes images and vital statistics for all of the planets and other objects in our Solar System. It also includes information about the various space probes and telescopes that have gathered the information.

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Women at NASA URL: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/preparingtravel/women_at_nasa.html Description: As space shuttle mission STS-93 lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center on July 23, 1999, the launch commentator said the mission was reaching new heights for women. Its commander, air force colonel Eileen Collins, was the first woman to command a mission in space. This site has several parts, including Female Frontiers, Women of NASA, and Women's History Celebration. The Cloud Appreciation Society (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.cloudappreciationsociety.org/gallery/ Description: The folks who belong to the Cloud Appreciation Society love clouds and want to help you to love them, too. The society is based in the United Kingdom, and their website includes an abundant amount of information about clouds, as well as an amazing gallery of cloud photographs. Make sure you check the link to "clouds that look like things." Cool Colors, Cool Roof (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/sb/Aug-2004/3_coolroofs.html Description: Roofs, and the rainbow of colors used in roofing materials, are getting cooler and cooler, thanks to research by Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD). The cooler roofs get, the more energy and money they save. A new program in cool materials will soon result in the first cool shingle for residential roofs becoming available on the market. Home Energy Saver (student and teacher resource) URL: http://hes.lbl.gov/ Description: An online energy use and savings calculator from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. How Fire Works (student and teacher resource) URL: http://science.howstuffworks.com/fire.htm Description: Find out where fire comes from and see why it behaves the way it does at this How Stuff Works website. How Solar Cells Work (student and teacher resource) URL: http://science.howstuffworks.com/solar-cell.htm Description: Find out how solar cells convert the suns energy directly into electricity. How to StarWatch (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.redshiftnow.ca/starwatch/howto.aspx Description: This site from the Ontario Science Center in Toronto is collecting light pollution data from sites around Canada and beyond. You view the Little Dipper and compare your observations to a Little Dipper star chart. The site provides links to other resources about reducing light pollution. WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

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I Was Wondering: Women's Adventures in Science (student and teacher resource) URL: http://iwaswondering.org Description: This project of the National Academy of Sciences showcases the accomplishments of contemporary women in science and highlights the varied and intriguing careers of some of today's most prominent scientists. NASA Observatorium: The Sun URL: http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/exhibits/sun/sun_1.html Description: NASA presents information through this Web Exhibit about the Sun, what we know about it, and what people used to think about it. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.noaa.gov/ Description: Find out about the programs administered by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on this website, which includes everything from hurricanes to weather satellites. National Severe Storms Laboratory Photo Album (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/nssl/index.html Description: The National Severe Storms Laboratory is one of NOAAs internationally known research laboratories, leading the way in investigations of all aspects of severe weather. Headquartered in Norman OK, the people of NSSL, in partnership with the National Weather Service, are dedicated to improving severe weather warnings and forecasts in order to save lives and reduce property damage. National Weather Service Homepage (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ Description: The home page for the National Weather Service. National Weather Service: Lightning Safety (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.lightningsafety.noaa.gov/ Description: Check this site for handouts, indoor and outdoor safety tips, medical facts, history, survivor stories, photos, teacher tools and more. NOVA Online: Storm Chasers (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/imax/stormchasers.html Description: This site provides extensions to the NOVA program, Stormchasers.

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Scientific American/Ask The Experts (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.sciam.com/askexpert_directory.cfm Description: This site, maintained by Scientific American magazine, provides visitors with the opportunity to ask questions concerning specific phenomenon in science, mathematics, and technology. Scientific American then passes these queries on to experts in both academia and industry. SOHO Explore! (student and teacher resource) URL: http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/explore/ Description: This is the education and outreach page for SOHO (SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY), a joint NASA/European Space Agency Project. This site includes images, movies, activities using real SOHO data, and lesson plans. Solar Cooking Archive (student and teacher resource) URL: http://solarcooking.org/ Description: This site includes plans for solar cookers, photographs, and other information about using solar energy for cooking food. Solstice (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.crest.org/solar/index.html Description: This site is billed as the site for energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable technology information and connections. It is a good start for further research into alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind and geothermal. The site is sponsored by CREST, the Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology. U.S. Wind Energy Projects (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.awea.org/projects/index.html Description: Click on a shaded state to access information on existing and planned wind energy projects. USA Today Weather (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wresources.htm Description: This USA Today site provides weather forecasts and a variety of information about weather and how it works. Using Solar Energy (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.phillysolar.org/using_solar.htm Description: Find out more about how solar energy can be used. Most of this website is devoted to the two most popular solar technologies: solar thermal water heating and solar photovoltaics.

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Office of Elementary Education Watts On Schools (teacher resource) URL: http://www.wattsonschools.com/index.html Description: A collection of solar energy educational activities created especially for schools participating in the Watts On Schools program. Wind Energy Fact Sheets (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.awea.org/pubs/factsheets.html Description: These fact sheets are presented by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) and a plethora of topics.

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How Wind Works Wind Energy Potential -- Top 20 U.S. States Economics and Cost of Wind Energy Economics of Wind Energy Comparative Costs of Wind and Other Energy Sources Wonderwise: Women in Science Learning Series (student and teacher resource) URL: http://net.unl.edu/wonderwise/index.htm Description: Introduces you to women who have made science their career. You can take several field trips, including space geology, African plant exploration, and urban.

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FOSSweb.com for Sun, Moon, and Stars FOSSweb.com offers the following resources for you to use to enhance your science lessons and to support instruction. The website includes the following: Photo gallery of Moon from Apollo 11, Moon Orbiting the Earth, Solar System, the Sun from Space, and Tracing Shadows Movies ~ Moon Rock Collected by Apollo 17 Astronauts Ask a Scientist ~ Common questions and answers about the sun, moon, and stars Websites with descriptions and links Interactive Games ~ Lunar Calendar, Pacific Coast Sunset, and Star Maps Tips and tricks for preparing and teaching the sun, moon, and stars module

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Science Assessment Collection Windows

 Teachers should determine the most appropriate date to administer the end of the module assessment, keeping in mind the dates they are due to Central Office.  End of the module assessment must be completed, scantrons bubbled, and received at Central Office by the dates listed below.

Unit Assessment Due Dates Unit 1 November 19, 2010 Unit 2 February 25, 2011 Unit 3 Last Day of School

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Grade 4 Unit 1
Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

SCIENCE BENCHMARK

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Teacher Directions PART 1 Distribute the Test Materials

SAY

Today we are going to take the Unit 1 Science test. Do your best to select or write an answer for each question on the test. I am now going to give you the test materials you will need. Please do not open your Test Book until I tell you to do so.

Distribute the Test Books, No. 2 pencils with erasers, and scratch paper.

SAY

The Unit 1 Science consists of Selected Response (SR) questions and Brief Constructed Response (BCR) questions. The SR questions require you to select the correct answer from four choices and darken the appropriate circle in the Test Book. BCR questions require you to write your response in the boxed answer area of the Test Book. Now turn to page 3 in your Test Book. Read the directions to yourself as I read them aloud. Selected Response Instructions Be sure to fill in the circle completely and make your mark heavy and dark. If you want to change an answer, completely erase the mark you made before making a new mark. Remember to read and follow all directions and information in the Test Book. Brief Constructed Response Instructions In addition to Selected Response questions, there will be Brief Constructed Response questions that require a written answer. You may underline, mark, and make calculations and notes in your Test Book; however, be sure to mark and write all your answers in the space provided in your Test Book. Remember, only what you write in the boxed area in your Test Book will be scored. For Constructed Response questions, you do not need to use the entire answer space. Do not write outside the boxed area. Answers written outside the boxed area will not be scored. To answer some of the questions on this test, you will be asked to read a passage or review a diagram. Questions will follow each passage or diagram. If you do not know the answer to a question, do your best but do not spend too much time on any one item. You may return later if time permits during that Test Part. Do you have any questions?

Answer any questions students may have. Repeat any of the instructions, as necessary.
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SAY

You may go back over Part 1 and check your answers, but do not go on to Part 2 or to any other Part. Make sure that you have marked all Selected Response answers clearly and have only responded to Brief Constructed Response questions in the boxes provided. When you have finished with Part 1, sit quietly until everyone else has finished. Do you have any questions? When you are sure that all students understand the directions, continue.

SAY

Please raise your hand during testing if you have a question. You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 1. I will help you keep track of the time by recording the remaining testing time on the board. If you finish early, you may review your answers in Part 1 only.Do you have any questions about what to do, howto mark an answer, or how to write an answer? Answer any questions students may have. Repeatany of the instructions, as necessary.

SAY

Locate Part 1 by turning to page3 of your Test Book.

Pause, and make sure all students have foundpage 3, which says Part 1.

SAY

You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 1. Turn topage 4 for Part 1. You may begin.

Give students 27 minutes to complete Part 1. Record the starting time, the amount of time forPart 1, and the stopping time on the board. When 15 minutes have passed, record the remainingtesting time on the board.

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Items 1 through 13 Items begin on page 4 Record the Starting Time: ___________ Add 27 minutes: + 27 Record the Stopping Time: ___________ Record the Remaining Time: __________

While students are working, the Test Examiner and proctors should circulate to see that students are following directions, that they are attempting to answer each question, that they are marking their answers appropriately in the Test Book, and that they are not going on to Part 2 or to any other part. Do not offer any help on specific test questions. When 27 minutes have passed, read the next direction.

SAY

Please stop working and put down your pencil. This is the end of Part 1. Please close your Test Book. We will take a 10-minute break now.

Students are allowed a short break lasting no longer than 10 minutes. If all students have returned to their seats in less than 10 minutes and are ready to go on, you may continue to Part 2.

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SAY

We will now take Part 2 of the test. Open your TestBook to Part 2 on page 11.Please remember that during testing, you may nottalk to other students or look at another studentsTest Book. You may not share materials or use othermaterials not provided by the Test Examiner.Remember to read all of the directions andinformation for Part 2 in the Test Book. Choose thebest answer for each Selected Response questionand write your best response for each BriefConstructed Response question. If you are not sureabout an answer, do the best you can but do notspend too much time on any one question. As areminder, be sure to answer the BCR questioncompletely and do not write outside the boxed area.When you come to the word STOP at the bottomof the page, you have finished Part 2.

When you are sure that all students understandthe directions, continue.

SAY

Please raise your hand during testing if you have aquestion.Make sure you are on page 11 in your Test Book. You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 2. I will helpyou keep track of the time by recording theremaining testing time on the board. When you arefinished you may go back over Part 2 and check youranswers, but do not return to Part 1. When you have finished, sitquietly until everyone else has finished.Do you have any questions about what to do, howto mark an answer, or how to write an answer?

Pause to answer any questions students may have.Repeat any of the instructions, as necessary.

SAY

You will have 27 minutes to complete Part 2. Turn to page 12 for Part 2. You may begin.

Give students 27 minutes to complete Part 2. Record the starting time, the amount of time for Part 2, and the stopping time on the board. When 15 minutes have passed, record the remaining testing time on the board.

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Items 1 through 14-29 Items begin on page 12 Record the Starting Time: ___________ Add 27 minutes: + 27 Record the Stopping Time: ___________ Record the Remaining Time: __________

While students are working, the Test Examiner and proctors should circulate to see that students are following directions, that they are attempting to answer each question, that they are marking their answers appropriately in the Test Book, and that they are not going back to Part 1. Do not offer any help on specific test questions. When 27 minutes have passed, read the next direction.

SAY

Please stop working and put down your pencil. This is the end of Part 2 and the end of Day 1 of testing. Please close your Test Book. Do not place your scratch paper inside your Test Book. I will now collect your Test Book and scratch paper.

Collect all test materials and scratch paper. Make sure you receive a Test Book from each student taking the test.

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UNIT 1 ANSWERS
PART 1

1. Which are the natural agents that cause erosion? A. sun, moon, and stars B. water, wind, and ice C. temperature, wind speed, and precipitation D. rotation, revolution, and constellations

2.A.2.b

2. Which is an example of weathering? A. mechanical B. erosion C. deposition D. hydration

2.A.2.a

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3. Weathering occurs A. on top of mountains B. under the Earths surface C. on or near the Earths surface D. only near water

2.A.2.a

4. Which activity would help control erosion? A. removing trees from around waterways B. building more factories C. planting trees and building dams D. clearing fields of all plants

6.A.1.a

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5. Which scientist studies the earths surface? A. astronomer B. veterinarian

1.C.1.e
C. nutritionist D. geologist

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A river valley is a land feature that forms between mountains. The valley is V-shaped. At the bottom of the valley is a river.

6. In the space below, describe how a river valley forms. Be sure to include y what caused the valley to form y a description of the processes that formed the valley
Score ~ Please refer to MSA Scoring Rubric on page 297 for further clarification 3 ~ Full and Complete Understanding Student Response

2.A.2.a-b

2 ~ General Understanding 1 ~ Minimal Understanding 0 ~ No Understanding

The student mentions that melting snow flows from the tops of mountains and empties into small streams that flow downhill. These flow into larger streams and rivers at the bottom of the mountain. The moving water in the river erodes the banks of the river, widening the valley. The moving water also carries with it rocks. These rocks come in contact with other rocks, causing them to break up and deepen the land at the bottom of the river. The moving water deepens and widens the valley through weathering and erosion. The student defines weathering and erosion. The student response uses the correct terminology but demonstrates a general understanding about what caused the valley to form and the processes of weathering and erosion. The student response does not use the correct terminology but demonstrates a minimal understanding about what caused the valley to form and the processes of weathering and erosion. The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

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Mrs. Spanglers class selected their favorite fossils to study during their earth science investigations. The table below shows the pictures and names of their favorite fossils.

Spirifer

Wasp

Ammonite

Sharkfish

Saber Tooth Cat Skull

7. Fossils are A. only the bones of animals from long ago B. the remains or traces of plants and animals from long ago C. only found in very large rocks D. only found on land

2.B.2.a

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8. Based on the physical features, which organism was most likely to live on land?

A. Saber Toothed Cat B. Sharkfish C. Ammonite D. Spirifer

2.B.2.c

9. A fossil of the sharkfish was found on top of a mountain. This fossil shows us that the A. fish was lost B. fish was able to walk C. mountain was once covered by water D. mountain was covered with trees

2.B.2.c

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Aleshia collected the data for the average monthly precipitation in Annapolis, Baltimore, Cumberland, and Salisbury. She recorded her data in the table below.

Average Monthly Precipitation (Inches) City Annapolis Baltimore Jan. Feb. 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 2.3 3.5 Mar. Apr. May June July 3.6 3.6 3.1 4.3 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 4.1 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.4 4.3 Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 3.9 4.3 3.3 5.3 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.7 3.3 3.0 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.6 2.8 3.3 3.4 3.8 2.6 3.7 42.1 42.6 36.1 45.6

Cumberland 2.4 Salisbury 3.6

10. Which two cities had the same amount of precipitation in February? A. Annapolis and Cumberland B. Baltimore and Cumberland C. Baltimore and Cumberland D. Annapolis and Baltimore

2.E.2.d

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11. In which month did Baltimore receive the most precipitation? A. March B. July C. August D. May

2.E.2.d

12. Which city received the most precipitation? A. Annapolis B. Baltimore C. Cumberland D. Salisbury

2.E.2.d

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Bailey also collected the data for the city of Cumberland. He recorded is data in the table below.

BAILEY Average Monthly Precipitation (Inches) City Jan. Feb. 0.3 Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.3 1.1 3.8 2.8 2.6 32.1

Cumberland 2.4

Bailey and Aleshia looked at their results together. Below is a copy of Aleshias data.

ALESHIA Average Monthly Precipitation (Inches) City Jan. Feb. 2.3 Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.8 2.8 2.6 36.1

Cumberland 2.4

13. Bailey and Aleshia noticed that their results were different. What could be the possible reasons for the differences in their results? Be sure to include y the differences in their results 1.A.1.f y at least 2 possible reasons for their differences
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2 ~ General Understanding 1 ~ Minimal Understanding 0 ~ No Understanding

The student mentions that the there was a difference in the results for February and September. Baileys data for February was .3 inches and Aleshias data for February was 3.3 inches. Baileys data for September was 1.1 inches and Aleshias data for September was 3.1 inches. The student mentions at least two possible reasons for the differences. The differences may include but not limited to: y incorrect reading of the tool y incorrect recording of the data y weather station set up in different areas within the city y controls used such as time of the reading of the data The student response demonstrates a general understanding about the differences in the results and the reasons for the differences. The student response demonstrates a minimal understandingabout the differences in the results and the reasons for the differences. The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

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Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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PART 2

The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west each day. During the day, the sun is so bright that other objects in space are rarely visible. At night, other objects in space, such as planets and stars, are often visible.

14. Which of these actions is responsible for the sun appearing to rise and set? A. Earth rotating on its axis B. the sun rotating on its axis C. Earth revolving around the sun D. the sun revolving around Earth

2.D.2.b

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Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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15. Which flagpole shows a shadow in the late afternoon?

2.D.2.b

A.

C.

B.

D.

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Office of Elementary Education

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16. When will your shadow be the longest? A. noon in winter B. sunrise in winter C. noon in summer D. sunrise in the summer

2.D.2.b

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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Look at the picture below.

2.D.2.b

17. Draw an outline of the students shadow. Why did you draw the shadow where you did?

Score ~ Please refer to MSA Scoring Rubric on page 297 for further clarification 3 ~ Full and Complete Understanding

Student Response

2 ~ General Understanding 1 ~ Minimal Understanding 0 ~ No Understanding

The student draws a shadow from the toes of the character towards the right corner of the page. The shadow should be medium in length. The student mentions that light travels in a straight line. A shadow is formed when sunlight is blocked by a person or an object. The height of the sun affects the length of the shadow and the direction from which light comes affects the direction a shadow points. The shadow changes as the sun moves across the sky. The student response uses the correct terminology but demonstrates a general understanding about the sun and shadows. The student response does not use the correct terminology but demonstrates a minimal understanding about the sun and shadows. The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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18. About how long does it take for Earth to make one revolution around the sun? A. 1 hour B. 1 day C. 1 month D. 1 year

2.B.2.d

19. About how long does it take for Earth to make one rotation on its axis? A. 1 hour B. 1 day C. 1 month D. 1 year

2.D.2.b

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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20. About how many weeks are between full Moons? A. one week B. two weeks

2.D.2.e
C. four weeks D. eight weeks

21. What instrument makes faraway objects seem closer? A. microscope B. telescope C. periscope D. barometer
WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

1.A.1.b

Office of Elementary Education

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22. Why does the shape of the Moon appear to change each night? A. The Moon revolves around Earth. B. The Earth revolves around the Moon. C. The Earth rotates on its axis. D. The Moon rotates around Earth.

2.D.2.a

23. Why does the moon appear to move across the sky each night? A. The Moon revolves around Earth. B. The Earth revolves around the Moon.

2.D.2.a
C. The Earth rotates on its axis. D. The Moon rotates around Earth.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

P a g e 294

Kaylyn began making observations of the Moon at home. The first observation was a full Moon.

Moon Observations Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

Too Cloudy

24. What is the name of the Moon phase shown on Day 2? A. full Moon B. waxing crescent C. waning gibbous D. third quarter

2.D.2.e

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Office of Elementary Education

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25. Which Moon did Kaylyn probably draw incorrectly? A. Day 2 B. Day 3 C. Day 4 D. Day 5

2.D.2.e

26. What will the Moon look like on Day 8? A. B. C. D.

2.D.2.e

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

P a g e 296

The Little Dipper is a group of stars. During the night, the Little Dipper appears to change positions in the sky.

27. Which of these statements best explains why the Little Dipper appears to change positions in the night sky? A. Earth rotates on its axis. B. Earth revolves around the stars. C. The Little Dipper moves around the sun. D. The stars in the Little Dipper move in the sky.

2.D.1.e

28. The motion of Earth is responsible for several celestial events. Which of the following events is caused by Earth revolving around the sun? A. the days in a year B. the hours in a day C. the changes in the atmosphere of Earth D. the position of the constellations in space
WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

2.D.2.c

Office of Elementary Education

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Look at the table below.

Star Sun Sirius A Alpha Centauri A Rigel Procyon Alpha Centauri B

Apparent Magnitude -26.73 -1.47 -0.01 .012 .34 1.33

Distance from Earth 93 million miles 8.6 light-years 4.4 light-years 770 light-years 11 light-years 4.4 light-years

29. Which star is the closest to the planet Earth? A. Alpha Centauri A B. Sun C. Procyron D. Sirius A

2.D.2.b

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science

Office of Elementary Education

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MSA Science Rubric LEVEL 3


There is evidence in this response that the student has a full and complete understanding of the question or problem.
y y y y

The supporting scientific evidence is complete and demonstrates a full integration of scientific concepts, principles, and/or skills. The response reflects a complete synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology strengthens the response. An effective application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a complete understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 2
There is evidence in this response that the student has a general understanding of the question or problem.
y y y y

The supporting scientific evidence is generally complete with some integration of scientific concepts, principals, and/or skills. The response reflects some synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology is present in the response. An application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a general understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 1
Thereis evidence in this response that the student has minimal understanding of the question or problem.
y y y y

The supporting scientific evidence is minimal. The response provides little or no synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology may not be present in the response. An application , if attempted is minimal*.

LEVEL 0
There is evidence that the student has no understanding of the question or the problem.
y

The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

WCPS 2010-2011

Grade 4 Standard 2: Earth/Space Science