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Basic Phrases / les expressions de base Bonjour /bu/ Hello / Good day / Good morning Salut /saly/ Hi / Bye Merci (beaucoup) /msi boku/ Thank you (very much) Bienvenu(e) /bj vny/ Welcome (also You're welcome in Quebec) A plus tard /a ply ta/ See you later Je suis dsol(e) /dezle/ I'm sorry Comment allez-vous ? /km tale vu/ How are you? (formal) a va ? /sa va/ How are you? (informal) Comment vous appelez-vous ? /km vu zaple vu/ What's your name? (formal) Enchant(e) /te/ Nice to meet you. Vous tes d'o ? / Vous venez d'o ? /vu zt du/ /vu vne du/ Where are you from? (formal) O habitez-vous ? /u abite vu/ Where do you live? (formal) Quel ge avez-vous ? /kl ave vu/ How old are you? (formal) Parlez-vous franais ? / Tu parles anglais ? /pale vu frs / /ty pal gl / Do you speak French? / English? Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends? /k ne vu/ /ty k / p p Do you understand? (formal / informal) Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu peux m'aider ? /puve vu mede/ /ty p mede/ Can you help me? (formal / informal) Bonsoir /b swa / Good evening Au revoir /()vwa/ Goodbye De rien. /d j / You're welcome. Allons-y! /al zi/ Let's go! A bientt /a bj to/ See you soon Pardon ! /pad / Excuse me! (pushing through a crowd) / Sorry! (stepped on someone's foot) Je vais bien / ve bj / I'm fine. a va. /sa va/ I'm fine. (inf. response to a va?) Tu t'appelles comment ? /ty tapl km/ What's your name? (informal) Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle /msj/ /madam/ /madwazl/ Mister, Misses, Miss Tu es d'o ? / Tu viens d'o ? /ty du/ /ty vjdu/ Where are you from? (informal) Tu habites o ? /ty abit u/ Where do you live? (informal) Tu as quel ge ? /ty kl / How old are you? (informal) Je parle allemand. / pal alm/ I speak German. Bonne nuit /bn ni/ Good night (only said when going to bed) S'il vous plat / S'il te plat /sil vu pl/ Please (formal / informal) Je vous en prie. /vu z pri/ You're welcome. (formal) / Go ahead. A tout l'heure /a tu ta l/ See you in a little while A demain /a dm / See you tomorrow Excusez-moi ! /ekskyze mwa/ Excuse me! (getting someone's attention) / I'm sorry! (more formal apology) Trs bien / mal / pas mal /t bj /mal/ /pa mal/ / Very good / bad / not bad Oui / non /wi/ /n / Yes / no Je m'appelle... / mapl/ My name is... Mesdames et Messieurs /medam/ /mesj/ Ladies and gentlemen Je suis de... / Je viens de... / si d/ / vjd/ I am from... J'habite ... /abit a/ I live in... J'ai ____ ans. /e __ / I am ____ years old. Je ne parle pas espagnol. / n pal pa spal/ I don't speak Spanish.

Je comprends / k / p I understand

Je ne comprends pas / n k pa/ p I don't understand

Bien sr. /bjsy / Of course.

Comment ? /km/ What? Pardon?

Tenez / Tiens /tne/ /tj / Hey / Here (formal / informal) O est ... / O sont ... ? /u / /u s / Where is ... / Where are ... ? Comment dit-on ____ en franais ? /km di t __ f s / How do you say ____ in French? a ne fait rien. /sa n f j / It doesn't matter. Je suis fatigu(e) / Je suis malade. / si fatie/ / si malad/ I'm tired / I'm sick. Je m'ennuie. / mn i/ I'm bored. Ce n'est pas grave. /s n pa gav/ It's no problem. / It's alright. A vos souhaits ! / A tes souhaits ! /a vo sw/ /a te sw/ Bless you! (formal / informal) C'est vous ! / C'est toi ! /s ta vu/ /s ta tw/ It's your turn! (formal / informal) Tu me manques. /ty m mk/ I miss you. (informal)

Je sais / s/ I know Voici / Voil /vwasi/ /vwala/ Here is/are... / There it is. Qu'est-ce que c'est que a ? /ks k s k sa/ What is that? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? /ks ki s pas/ What's happening? J'ai faim / J'ai soif. /e f / e swaf/ / I'm hungry / I'm thirsty. a m'est gal. / Je m'en fiche. /sa m teal/ / m fi / It's the same to me / I don't care. (inf) J'ai oubli. /e ublije/ I forgot. Flicitations ! /felisitasj / Congratulations! Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! /tze vu/ /t tw/ Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Quoi de neuf ? /kw d nf/ What's new?

Je ne sais pas /n s pa/ I don't know Il y a ... / Il y avait... /il i a/ /il i av/ There is / are... / There was / were... Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? /ks kil i a/ What's the matter? Je n'ai aucune ide. / ne okyn ide/ I have no idea. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid. /e o/ /e fw/ I'm hot / I'm cold. Ne vous en faites pas. / Ne t'en fais pas. /n vu f t pa/ /n t f pa/ Don't worry (formal / informal) Je dois y aller. / dwa i ale/ I must go. Bonne chance ! /bn s/ Good luck! Je vous aime / Je t'aime / vu zm/ / tm/ I love you (formal & plural / informal) Pas grand-chose. /pa g oz/ Not a whole lot.

Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a plural you, used when speaking to more than one person. Also notice that some words take an extra e, shown in parentheses. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman, then the e is added in spelling; but in most cases, it does not change the pronunciation. To make verbs negative, French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. However, the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French, although it must appear in written French. 2. Pronunciation / la prononciation French Vowels IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spellings [i] ee vie, midi, lit, riz i, y [y] ee rounded rue, jus, tissu, usine u [e] ay bl, nez, cahier, pied , et, final er and ez [] ay rounded jeu, yeux, queue, bleu eu [] eh lait, aile, balai, reine e, , , ai, ei, ais [] eh rounded sur, uf, fleur, beurre u, eu [a] ah chat, ami, papa, salade a, , [] ah longer bas, ne, grce, chteau a, [u] oo loup, cou, caillou, outil ou [o] oh eau, dos, escargot, htel o, [] aw sol, pomme, cloche, horloge o [] uh fentre, genou, cheval, cerise e [] is disappearing in modern French, being replaced by [a]. Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue. French semi-vowels IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spelling

[w] [] [j]

w ew-ee yuh

fois, oui, Louis lui, suisse oreille, Mireille

oi, ou ui ill, y

IPA [a] []

Phonetic spelling awn ahn

Sample words General spelling gant, banc, dent pain, vin, linge en, em, an, am, aon, aen in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim, un, um, en, eng, oin, oing, oint, ien, yen, en un on, om

brun, lundi, parfum French nasal vowels rond, ongle, [o] ohn front [] is being replaced with [] in modern French [] uhn

In words beginning with in-, a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. Otherwise, the in- prefix is pronounce een before a vowel. ex + vowel ex + consonant ch (Latin origin) ch (Greek origin) ti + vowel (except ) c + e, i, y; or c + a, o, u g + e, i, y g + a, o, u th j qu, final q h vowel + s + vowel x + vowel final x French Consonants egz examen, exercice eks exceptionnel, expression sh architecte, archives k orchestre, archologie see dmocratie, nation s cent, ceinture, maon k caillou, car, cube zh genou, gingembre g gomme, ganglion t maths, thme, thym zh jambe, jus, jeune k que, quoi, grecque silent haricot, herbe, hasard z rose, falaise, casino z six ans, beaux arts six, dix, soixante (these 3 only!) s

There are a lot of silent letters in French, and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant, unless that final consonant is C, R, F or L (except verbs that end in -r). Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence, so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h, slur the two together as if it were one word. S and x are pronounced as z; d as t; and f as v in these liaisons. Liaison is always made in the following cases:

after a determiner: un ami, des amis before or after a pronoun: vous avez, je les ai after a preceding adjective: bon ami, petits enfants after one syllable prepositions: en avion, dans un livre after some one-syllable adverbs (trs, plus, bien) after est

It is optional after pas, trop fort, and the forms of tre, but it is never made after et. Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases, shortening the syllables and slurring more words.

rapid(e)ment, lent(e)ment, sauv(e)tage /apidm/ / tm / /sovta / sous l(e) bureau, chez l(e) docteur /sul byo/ /el dkto/ il y a d(e)... , pas d(e)... , plus d(e)... /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/ je n(e), de n(e) /n/ /dn/ j(e) te, c(e) que /t/ /sk/ (note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well)

Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions, and all other times, it goes down at the end of the sentence. 3. Alphabet / l'alphabet a/a/ o/o/ b/be/ p/pe/ c/se/ q/ky/ d/de/ r// e// s/s/ f/f/ t/te/ g// u/y/ h/a/ v/ve/ i/i/ j/i/ w/dublve/ k/ka/ x/iks/ l/l/ m/m/ n/n/ y/igrk/ z/zd/

4. Nouns, Articles & Demonstratives / les noms, les articles & les demonstratifs All nouns in French have a gender, either masculine or feminine. For the most part, you must memorize the gender, but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine, as are nouns ending with a consonant. Nouns ending in -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -ance, -t, and -ette are usually feminine. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English; and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. Definite Articles (The) Masculine le lit /l li/ the bed Masculine un lit / li/ a bed Masc. ce lit /s li/ this/that bed Feminine la pomme /la pm/ the apple Feminine une pomme / yn pm/ an apple Masc, Before Vowel cet oiseau /s twazo/ this/that bird Fem. cette pomme /st pm/ this/that apple Before Vowel l'oiseau /lwazo/ the bird Plural des gants /de / some gloves Plural ces gants /se / these/those gloves Plural les gants /le / the gloves

Indefinite Articles (A, An, Some)

Demonstrative Adjectives (This, That, These, Those)

If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those, you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these, and -l to the end of the noun for that and those. For example, ce lit-ci is this bed, while ce lit-l is that bed. 5. Useful Words / les mots utiles It's / That's c'est /s/ There is/are il y a /il i a/ There is/are voil /vwala/ Here is/are voici /vwasi/ and et /e/ always toujours /tuu/ but mais /m/ often souvent /suv/ now maintenant /m / tn sometimes quelquefois /klkfwa/ especially surtout /sytu/ usually d'habitude /dabityd/ except sauf /sof/ also, too aussi /osi/ of course bien sr /bjsy / again encore /k / so so comme ci, comme a /km si, km sa/ late en retard /ta/ not bad pas mal /pa mal/ almost presque /psk/ book le livre /l liv/ friend (fem) une amie /y nami/ pencil le crayon /l kj / friend (masc) un ami / nami/ pen le stylo /l stilo/ woman une femme /yn fam/ paper le papier /l papje/ man un homme / nm/ dog le chien /l j / girl une fille /yn fij/ cat le chat /l a/ boy un garon / gas / money l'argent (m) /la/ job / work le travail /l tavaj/ The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech. When il y a is followed by a number, it means ago. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. Some common slang words for money include: le fric, le pze, le pognon, des sous and for job/work: le boulot. 6. Subject Pronouns / les pronoms sujets Subject Pronouns je tu // /ty/ I You (informal) nous vous /nu/ /vu/ We You (formal and plural)

il /il/ He ils /il/ They (masc.) elle /l/ She elles /l/ They (fem.) on / / One Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns, and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. Notice there are two ways to say you. Tu is used when speaking to children, animals, or close friends and relatives. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person, or to someone you don't know or who is older. On can be translated into English as one, the people, we, they, or you. Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct translation into English. Tutoyer means to use tu or be informal with someone, while vouvoyer means to use vous or be formal with someone.

7. To Be & To Have / Etre & avoir Present tense of tre /t/ - to be I am You are He is She is One is I was You were je suis tu es il est elle est on est j'tais tu tais / si/ /ty / /il / /l / / n / We are You are They are They are nous sommes vous tes ils sont elles sont nous tions vous tiez /nu sm/ /vu zt/ /il s / /l s / /nu zetj / /vu zetje/

Past tense of tre - to be /et/ We were /tu et/ You were

He was il tait /il et/ They were ils taient /il zet/ She was elle tait /l et/ They were elles taient /l zet/ One was on tait / net / Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. I will be You will be He will be She will be One will be I have You have He has She has One has I had You had He had She had One had I will have You will have je serai tu seras il sera elle sera on sera j'ai tu as il a elle a on a j'avais tu avais il avait elle avait on avait j'aurai tu auras Future Tense of tre - to be / se/ We will be nous serons /ty sa/ You will be vous serez /il sa/ They will be ils seront /l sa/ They will be elles seront / s a/ Present tense of avoir /avwa/ - to have /e/ /ty / /il / /l / / n / We have You have They have They have nous avons vous avez ils ont elles ont nous avions vous aviez /nu s / /vu se/ /il s / /l s / /nu zav / /vu zave/ /il z / /l z / /nu zavj / /vu zavje/ /il zav/ /l zav/ /nu zo / /vu zoe/

Past tense of avoir - to have /av/ We had /ty av/ You had

/il av/ ils avaient /l av/ They had elles avaient / nav / Future tense of avoir - to have /oe/ We will have nous aurons /ty o/ You will have vous aurez

He will have il aura /il oa/ They will have ils auront /il zo / She will have elle aura /l oa/ They will have elles auront /l zo / One will have on aura / no a/ In spoken French, the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es /t/, tu as = t'as /t/, etc. In addition, it is very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous. Common Expressions with avoir and Etre Avoir and tre are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud avoir froid avoir peur avoir raison avoir tort avoir faim avoir soif avoir sommeil avoir honte avoir besoin de avoir l'air de avoir l'intention de avoir envie de avoir de la chance /avwa o/ /avwa fwa/ /avwa p/ /avwa z / /avwa t/ /avwa f / /avwa swaf/ /avwa smj/ /avwa t/ /avwa bzwd/ /avwa d/ /avwa sj t / /avwa vi d/ /avwa d la s/ to be hot to be cold to be afraid to be right to be wrong to be hungry to be thirsty to be sleepy to be ashamed to need to look like, seem to intend to to feel like to be lucky tre de retour tre en retard tre en avance tre d'accord tre sur le point de tre en train de tre enrhume nous + tre (un jour) /t d tu/ /t ta/ /t nav s/ /t dak/ /t sy l pwd/ /t t d/ /t yme/ /t u/ to be back to be late to be early to be in agreement to be about to to be in the act of to have a cold to be (a day)

J'ai froid. I'm cold. Tu avais raison. You were right. Il aura sommeil ce soir. He will be tired tonight. Elle a de la chance ! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. We will be hungry later. Vous aviez tort. You were wrong. Ils ont chaud. They are hot. Elles avaient peur hier. They were afraid yesterday. 8. Question Words / les interrogatifs Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what 9. cardinal Numbers / Les nombres cardinaux Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy (Belgium & Switzerland) Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty (Belgium & Switzerland) Eighty-one

Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu tais en avance. You were early. Elle sera d'accord. She will agree. Nous sommes lundi. It is Monday. Vous tiez enrhum. You had a cold. Ils seront en train d'tudier. They will be (in the act of) studying. Elles taient sur le point de partir. They were about to leave. On est de retour. We/you/they/the people are back. Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand O Comment Combien Quel(le) /ki/ /kwa/ /pukwa/ /k/ /u/ /km/ /k bj / /kl/ /zeo/ // /d/ /tw/ /kat/ /s k/ /sis/ /st/ /it/ /nf/ /dis/ / z/ /duz/ /tz/ /katz/ /k z/ /sz/ /dist/ /dizit/ /diznf/ /v / /v e / t /vd/ /vt w/ /tt/ /tt e // /tt d/ /kat/ /s t/ k /swast/ /swastdis/ /sptt/ /swast e z/ /swast duz/ /katv / /ktt/ /katvt/

Zro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-dix Septante Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Octante Quatre-vingt-un

Eighty-two Ninety (Belgium & Switzerland) Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred One Hundred One Two Hundred Two Hundred One Thousand Two Thousand Million Billion

Quatre-vingt-deux Quatre-vingt-dix Nonante Quatre-vingt-onze Quatre-vingt-douze Cent Cent un Deux cents Deux cent un Mille Deux mille Un million Un milliard

/katvd/ /katvdis/ /nnt/ /katv z/ /katvduz/ /s/ /s t/ /d s/ /d s t/ /mil/ /d mil/ /o milj / /o milja/

French switches the use of commas and periods. 1,00 would be 1.00 in English. Belgian and Swiss French use septante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70 and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland use huitante for 80 and octante is barely used anymore). Also, when the numbers 5, 6, 8, and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant, their final consonants are not pronounced. Phone numbers in France are ten digits, beginning with 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 depending on the geographical region, or 06 and 07 for cell phones. They are written two digits at a time, and pronounced thus: 01 36 55 89 28 = zro un, trente-six, cinquante-cinq, quatre-vingt-neuf, vingt-huit. Ordinal Numbers / Les nombres ordinaux first premier / premire second deuxime / second third troisime fourth quatrime fifth cinquime sixth sixime seventh septime eighth huitime ninth neuvime tenth dixime eleventh onzime twelfth douzime twentieth vingtime twenty-first vingt et unime thirtieth trentime The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ime. But if a number ends in an e, you must drop it before adding the -ime. After a q, you must add a u before the -ime. And an f becomes a v before the -ime. 10. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow next last day before yesterday day after tomorrow the following day the day before lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain prochain / prochaine dernier / dernire avant-hier aprs-demain le lendemain la veille /ldi/ /madi/ /mkdi/ /di/ /vd di/ /samdi/ /dim/ /l u/ /la s()mn/ /oudi/ /j/ /dm / /p /p n/ / /dnje/ /dnj/ /avtj / /apdm / /l ldm / /la vj/

Articles are not used before days, except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day, such as le lundi = on Mondays. Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. 11. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'annee January janvier /vje/ February fvrier /fevije/ March mars /mas/ April avril /avil/ May mai /m/ June juin / / July juillet /ij/ August aot /u(t)/ September septembre /sptb / October octobre /ktb/ November novembre /nvb / December dcembre /desb / month le mois /l mwa/ year l'an / l'anne /l/ /lane/ decade la dcennie /deseni/ century le sicle /l sjkl/ millennium le millnaire /milen/ To express in a certain month, such as in May, use en before the month as in "en mai." With dates, the ordinal numbers are not used, except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Also note that months are all masculine and not capitalized in French (same as days of the week). 12. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l't Fall l'automne Winter l'hiver Spring le printemps 13. Directions / Les directions on the left on the right straight ahead North South East West le nord le sud l'est l'ouest /l n/ /l syd/ /lst/ /lwst/ /lete/ /lotn/ /liv/ /l p / t in the summer in the fall in the winter in the spring gauche droite tout droit Northeast Northwest Southeast Southwest en t en automne en hiver au printemps /a go/ /a dwt/ /tu dw/ le nord-est le nord-ouest le sud-est le sud-ouest /l n(d)st/ /l n(d)wst/ /sydst/ /sydwst/ / nete/ / not n/ / niv / /o pr / t

14. Colors & Shapes / Les couleurs & les formes Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray rouge orange jaune vert / verte bleu / bleue violet / violette blanc / blanche brun / brune marron noir / noire rose dor / dore argent / argente gris / grise /u/ // /on/ /v/ /vt/ /bl/ /vjl/ /vjlt/ /bl/ /bl / /bo/ /byn/ /ma / /nwa/ /oz/ /de/ /ate/ /gi/ /giz/ square circle triangle rectangle oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box light dark le carr le cercle le triangle le rectangle l'ovale le cube la sphre le cylindre le cne l'octogone la bote clair / claire fonc / fonce /kae/ /skl/ /tijgl/ /ktgl/ /val/ /kyb/ /sf/ /sil / d /kon/ /ktogn/ /bwat/ /kl/ /f se/

Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with gender or number, such as adjectives that also exist as nouns: orange, marron, rose; and compound adjectives: bleu clair, noir fonc remain masculine even if they describe a feminine noun. Remember to place the color adjective after the noun. 15. Weather / Le temps qu'il fai What's the weather like? Quel temps fait-il ? /kl t f til/ It's nice Il fait bon /il f b / bad Il fait mauvais /il f mve/ cool Il fait frais /il f f/ cold Il fait froid /il f fw/ warm, hot Il fait chaud /il f o/ cloudy Il fait nuageux /il f nya/ beautiful Il fait beau /il f bo/ mild Il fait doux /il f du/ stormy Il fait orageux /il f a/ sunny Il fait soleil /il f slj/ humid Il fait humide /il f ymid/ muggy Il fait lourd /il f lu/ windy Il fait du vent /il f dy v/ foggy Il fait du brouillard /il f dy buja/ snowing Il neige /il n/ raining Il pleut /il pl/ freezing Il gle /il l/ hailing Il grle /il gl/ It is ____ degrees. Il fait ____ degrs. /il f __ dge/ Il pleut des cordes /il pl de kod/ is a common expression meaning it's pouring. Il caille /il kaj/ or a caille /sa kaj/ is slang for it's freezing. And remember that France uses Celcius degrees. 16. Time / Le temps qui passe What time is it? It is... one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight a quarter after three one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty ten fifty in the morning/AM in the afternoon/PM in the evening/PM Quelle heure est-il ? Il est... une heure deux heures midi minuit trois heures et quart une heure prcise quatre heures prcises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie sept heures moins le quart cinq heures vingt onze heures moins dix du matin de l'aprs-midi du soir /kl til/ /il / /yn / /d z/ /midi/ /mini/ /tw z e ka/ /yn pesiz/ /kat pesiz/ /midi (mini) e dmi/ /si z e dmi/ /st mwl ka / /s v k / / mwdis/ z /dy mat / /d lapmidi/ /dy swa/

Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock.) You can only use regular numbers, and not demi, quart, etc. when reporting time with the 24 hour system. For example, if it is 18h30, you must say dix-huit heures trente. The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of saying prcise (exactly, sharp). 17. Family & Animals / La famille & les animaux Family Relatives Parents Grandparents Mom Stepmother/Mother-in-Law la famille des parents les parents les grands-parents la mre / maman la belle-mre /famij/ /pa/ /pa/ /gpa / /m/ /mm/ /blm/ Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Godfather la nice le neveu les petits-enfants la petite-fille le petit-fils le parrain /njs/ /n()v/ /p()tizf / /p()tit fij/ /p()tifis/ /pa /

Dad Stepfather/Father-in-Law Daughter Son Sister Half/Step Sister Sister-in-Law Stepdaughter/Daughter-in-Law Brother Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Child (m) / (f) Girl Boy

le pre / papa /p/ /papa/ Godmother la marraine le beau-pre /bop/ Godson le filleul la fille /fij/ Goddaughter la filleule le fils /fis/ Distant Relatives des parents loigns la sur /s/ Single clibataire la demi-sur /dmi s/ Married mari(e) la belle-sur /bls/ Separated spar(e) la belle-fille /bl fij/ Divorced divorc(e) le frre /f/ Widower veuf le demi-frre /dmi f/ Widow veuve le beau-frre /bo f/ le beau-fils /bo fis/ Dog le chien / la chienne les jumeaux /ymo/ Cat le chat / la chatte les jumelles /yml/ Puppy le chiot l'oncle / kl/ Kitten le chaton la tante /tt/ Pig le cochon la grand-mre /gm / Rooster le coq le grand-pre /gp / Rabbit le lapin la cousine /kuzin/ Cow la vache le cousin /kuz / Horse le cheval la femme /fam/ Duck le canard le mari /mai/ Goat la chvre la femme /fam/ Goose l'oie l'homme /m/ Sheep le mouton un enfant / une /f / Lamb l'agneau enfant la fille /fij/ Donkey l'ne le garon /gas / Mouse la souris Le gendre /d / is another word for son-in-law. Slang words for people and pets: /fin/ /f /

/man/ /fijl/ /fijl/ /pa elwa e/ /selibat/ /maje/ /sepae/ /divse/ /vf/ /vv/ /j / jn/ / /a/ /at/ /jo/ /at / /k / /kk/ /lap / /va/ /()val/ /kana/ /v/ /wa/ /mut / /ao/ /n/ /sui/

The entire family Grandma Grandpa Children Kid Woman Man

toute la smala mm / mamie pp / papi des gosses un gamin / une gamine une nana un mec / type / gars

/tut la smala/ /meme/ /mami/ /pepe/ /papi/ /gs/ /gam /gamin/ / /nana/ /mk/ /tip/ /ga/

Sister Brother Son Aunt Uncle Dog Cat

la frangine le frangin le fiston tata / tatie tonton le cabot / clbard le minou

/fist / /tata/ /tati/ /t t / /kabo/ /kleba/ /minu/

18. To Know People & Places / connaitre & savoir connatre-to know people /knt/ connais connais /kn/ /kn/ connaissons connaissez /kns / /knse/ sais sais savoir-to know facts /savwa/ /s/ /s/ savons savez /sav / /save/

connat /kn/ connaissent /kns/ sait /s/ savent /sav/ Connatre is used when you know (are familiar with) people, places, food, movies, books, etc. and savoir is used when you know facts. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. There is another form of savoir commonly used in the expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je sache not that I know (of). Je connais ton frre. I know your brother. Je sais que ton frre s'appelle Jean. I know that your brother is named John. Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble? Oui, nous connaissons Grenoble. Yes, we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. / Yes, we've been to Grenoble. Tu sais o Grenoble se trouve. You know where Grenoble is located. Ils savent nager. They know how to swim. Connatre can be translated several ways into English: Tu connais le film, Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film, Les Enfants? Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon? Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette?

19. Formation of Plural Nouns / la formation des noms pluriels To make a noun plural, you usually add an -s (which is not pronounced). But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s, add nothing. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau, add an x. If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail, change it to -aux. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. bus(es) boat(s) horse(s) knee(s) Sing. le bus le bateau le cheval le genou Plural les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux

Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau, dtail, chandail all add -s. There are only seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou, genou, pou, joujou, hibou. There are, of course, some irregular exceptions: un il (eye) - des yeux (eyes); le ciel (sky) - les cieux (skies); and un jeune homme (a young man) - des jeunes gens (young men). Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -aux and for the irregular forms. All other nouns are pronounced the same in the singular and the plural - it is only the article that changes pronunciation (le, la, l' to les). 20. Possessive Adjectives / les adjectifs possessifs Masc. My Your His/Her/Its Our Your Their mon /m / ton /t / son /s / notre /nt/ votre /vt/ leur /l/ Fem. ma /ma/ ta /ta/ sa /sa/ notre /nt/ votre /vt/ leur /l/ Plural mes /m/ tes /t/ ses /s/ nos /no/ vos /vo/ leurs /l/

Possessive pronouns go before the noun. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel, you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie, even though amie is feminine. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number, not the possessor! Sa mre can mean his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine form, because it agrees with mre and not the possessor (his or her). C'est ma mre et mon pre. This is my mother and my father. Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcs. My parents are divorced. Sa grand-mre est veuve. His grandmother is a widow. Notre frre est mari, mais notre sur est clibataire. Our brother is married, but our sister is single. Ton oncle est architecte, n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an architect, isn't he? Leurs cousines sont nerlandaises. Their cousins are Dutch.