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Philosophical Lexicon


a posteriori knowledge a priori Knowledge based on or derived from sensory experience. (Latin: from the former, from what is already known, from what comes before) 1 a DEDUCTIVE; b relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions compare posteriori; c presumed by experience; 2 a being without examination or analysis, PRESUMPTIVE b formed or conceived beforehand Knowledge acquired by the mind or reasoning alone, without any specific basis in experience for instance, 2+2=4. (Latin: absolutus fr absolvere to set free, absolve) 1 a. free from imperfection, PERFECT; b. free or relatively free from mixture, PURE; c. OUTRIGHT, UNMITIGATED; 2 being, governed by, or characteristic of a ruler or authoruty completely free from constitutional or other restraint; 3 a. standing apart from a normal or usual syntactical relation with other words or sentence elements; b. of an adjective or possessive pronoun: standing alone without a modied substantive; c. of a verb: having no object in the particular construction under consideration though normally transitive; 4 having no restriction, exception, or qualification; 5 POSITIVE, UNQUESTIONABLE; 6 a. independent or arbitrary standards of measurement; b. relating to or derived in the simplest manner from the fundamental units of length, mass, and time; c. relating to the absolute temperature scale; 7 FUNDAMENTAL, ULTIMATE; 8 perfectly embodying the nature of a thing; 9 being self-sufficient and free of external references or relationships; 10 measuring or representing the distance from an aircraft to the ground or water

a priori knowledge absolute

All word definitions are from Websters Collegiate Dictionary, unless otherwise indicated. Further explanation of Latin words is from Amo, Amas, Amat, and More by Eugene Ehrlich. Rules of usage are from Websters, unless otherwise indicated.

Philisophical Leixcon
beneath absolutism The doctrine that there is one explanation of all reality--the absolute--that is unchanging and objectively true. Absolutists (such as G. W. F. Hegel*) hold that this absolute, such as God or mind, is eternal and that in it all seeming differences are reconciled. (Latin: abstractus, fr. abstrahere to draw away from) 1 a. disassociated from any specific instance <~ entity>; b. difficult to understand, ABSTRUSE <~ problems>; c. IDEAL <~ justice>; d. insufficiently factual, FORMAL <possessed only an ~ right>; 2 expressing a quality apart from an object <the word poem is concrete, poetry is ~>; 3 a. dealing with a subject in its abstract aspects, THEORETICAL <~ science>; 4 having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content <~ painting> 1 the act of accusing, the state of being accused; 2 a charge of wrong doing (Latin: accusare to call to account, fr ad + causa lawsuit) 1 to charge with a fault or offense, BLAME; 2 to charge with an offense judicially or by a public process A hidden advantage or resource kept in reserve until needed: The coach was certain that his new trick play would turn out to be his ace in the hole. This term comes from the game of stud poker, in which one or more cards are turned face down, or in the hole, as bets are placed. The ace is the card with the highest value. A point of vulnerability. (See ACHILLES.) An event beyond human control -- e.g., HURRICANE, EARTHQUAKE, volcanic eruption (see VOLCANO), etc. -- for which there is no legal redress. The PHRASE is frequently used by insurance companies and lawyers.


accusation accuse

ace in the hole

Achileles heel act of God

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actus reus (Latin) A wrongful act, as opposed to mens rea, or thoughts and intentions behind the act. For example, in a murder, homicide is the actus reus, and malice aforethought is the mens rea. An argument whereby one seeks to prove ones position by pointing out the absurdity or foolishness of an opponents position. Also, an argument carried to such lengths that it becomes silly or ridiculous. (See REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM.) From LATIN, meaning to absurdity. A PHRASE describing something created especially for a particular occasion: We need an ad hoc committee to handle this new problem immediately. From LATIN, meaning toward this (matter). A LATIN expression meaning to the man. An ad hominem argument is one that relies on personal attacks rather than reason. To go on endlessly; literally, to continue to seasickness: The candidate told us the details of how he overcame his childhood problems ad nauseam. (Latin: adducere, lit. to lead to, fr. ad + ducere to lead) to offer as example, reason, or proof in discussion or analysis (Gr.: aisthetikos of sense perception, from aisthanesthai to perceive) 1 a. of, relating to, or dealing with aesthetics of the beautiful; b. ARTISTIC; 2 appreciative of, responsive to, or zealous about the beautiful 1 a doctrine that the principles of beauty are basic to other and esp. moral principles; 2 devotion to or emphasis on beauty or the cultivation of the arts 1 a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty; 2 a particular theory or conception of beauty or art; 3 a pleasing appearance or effect, BEAUTY

ad absurdum

ad hoc

ad hominem

ad nauseum




aesthetics (esthetics)

Philisophical Leixcon
The philosophical study of art, or of beauty in general. It attempts to systematically answer such questions as, What is beauty? How do we evaluate works of art? Are aesthetic judgments objective or subjective? How does art embody truth and convey knowledge? How does beauty in art relate to beauty in nature? Agnosticism agnosticism The belief that it is not possible to know if there is or is not a God. (Compare Atheism, Deism, and Theism.) A denial of knowledge about whether there is or is not a God. An agnostic insists that it is impossible to prove that there is no God, and impossible to prove that there is one. (Compare ATHEISM.) (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). The belief that it is impossible to know whether God exists, or to have any other theological knowledge. English thinkers T. H. Huxley (1825-95) and Bertrand Russell* were influential agnostics. albatross around (my) neck An annoying burden: That old car is an albatross around my neck. Literally, an albatross is a large sea bird. The PHRASE alludes to Samuel Taylor COLERIDGEs poem The RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER, in which a sailor who shoots a friendly albatross is forced to wear its carcass around his neck as punishment. The ethical theory that morality consists of concern for and the active promotion of the interests of others. Altruists strongly disagree with the doctrine of egoism, which states that individuals act only in their own self-interest. Latin for friend of the court. A person or organization not party to a case who submits information useful to the court in that proceeding. Amicus curiae briefs are generally submitted when the suit involves matters of wide public interest. The teaching that there is no literal 1000 year reign of Christ as referenced in Rev. 20. It sees the 1000 year period spoken of in Revelation 20 as figurative. Instead, it teaches that we are in the millennium


amicus curiae


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now, and that at the return of Christ (1 Thess. 4:165:2) there will be the final judgement and the heavens and the earth will then be destroyed and remade (2 Pet. 3:10). The Amillennial view is as old as the Premillenial view. (Also compare to Postmillennialism). analytic statement analytical philosophy A statement true by definition, such as All triangles have three sides. An influential twentieth-century movement whose major proponents include Bertrand Russell,* Ludwig Wittgenstein,* and such logical positivists as Rudolph Carnap (1891-1970) and Willard Van Orman Quine (1908). This school of thought emphasizes restating philosophical problems in highly structured terms based on modern logic. A political philosophy that advocates the abolition of an organized state as the ruling government. Its advocates believe that individuals should be free to organize themselves in the ways that best enable them to fulfill their needs and ideals. The Russian thinker Mikhail Bakunin (1814-76) was an influential anarchist. Angel means messenger. Angels are created (Ps. 148:2,5; Col. 1:16), non-human, spirit beings (Heb. 1:14). They are immortal (Luke 20:36), innumerable (Heb. 12:22), invisible (Num. 22:22-31), sexless (Matt. 22:30), and do the will of God (Ps. 103:20). These angels have a ministry to believers. They guide (Gen. 24:7, 40), protect (Ps. 34:7), and comfort (Acts 27:2,24). There are good angels (Gen. 28:12; Ps. 91:11; Ez. 9:2) and bad angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6). The only angels mentioned by name are Gabriel (Dan. 8:16; 9:21), Michael (Dan. 10:13,21; 12:1), and Lucifer (Luke 10:18). Michael is always mentioned in the context of battle (Dan. 10:13) and Gabriel as a messenger (Luke 1:26). Of course, Satan is the one who opposes God. Angels were originally created for the purpose of serving and carrying out the will of God. The fallen angels rebelled and became evil angels. Satan is such an angel (Is. 14:12-16; Eze. 28:12-15).



Philisophical Leixcon

angels on the head of a pin

Scornful description of a tedious concern with irrelevant details; an allusion to medieval religious controversies. In fact, the medieval argument was over how many ANGELS could stand on the point of a pen. A German word meaning anxiety, anguish, or dread. The term was used by Heidegger* and other adherents of existentialism to express their belief that anxiety characterizes the human condition and that dread arises from our realization that we are totally responsible for all of our choices. A LATIN expression meaning miraculous year. The term is used to refer to a year in which an unusual number of remarkable things occurred: THE WASTE LAND and ULYSSES both appeared in 1922, the annus mirabilis of modern literature. The philosophy of Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), an Austrian-born thinker who held that cultivating mans spiritual development is humanitys most important task. His followers founded a large number of schools worldwide based on his philosophy. A figure who opposes God. The word is used to describe a spirit of rebellion against God, ...the spirit of the Antichrist... (1 John 4:3) and of a specific future person identified as the man of lawlessness (2 Thess. 2:3). He actively opposes Christ (2 Thess. 2:4) and when he arrives, he will be able to perform miracles (2 Thess. 2:9). Some believe he will be an incarnation of Satan and as such will be able to deceive many. His number is 666 (Rev. 13:18). A further possible description of him might be found in Zech. 11:15-17). The word comes from the Greek anti, against, and nomos, law. It is the unbiblical practice of living without regard to the righteousness of God, using Gods grace as a license to sin, and trusting grace to cleanse of sin. In other words, since grace is infinite and we are saved by grace, then we can sin all we want and still be saved. It is wrong because even though as Christians we are not under the Law (Rom.


Annus Mirabilis




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6:14), we still fulfil the Law in the Law of love (Rom. 13:8,10; Gal. 5:14; 6:2). We are to love God with all our heart, soul, strength, and mind, and our neighber as ourselves (Luke 10:27) and, thereby, avoid the offense of sin which cost God His only begotten Son. Paul speaks against the concept of antinomianism in Romans 6:1-2: Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? May it never be! How shall we who died to sin still live in it?. We are not to use the grace of God as a means of sin. Instead, we are to be controlled by the love of God and in that way bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit (Gal. 5:22-25). aphorism (Grk: aphorismos definition, aphorism, fr aphorizein to define, fr apo + horizein to bound [as in horizon] ca 1528) 1 a concise statement of a principle; 2 a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment, ADAGE to write or speak in or as if in aphorisms The word apologetics is derived from the Greek word apologia, which means to make a defense. It has come to mean defense of the faith. Apologetics covers many areas: who Jesus is, the reliability of the Bible, refuting cults, biblical evidences in the history and archeology, answering objections, etc. In short, it deals with giving reasons for Christianity being the true religion. We are called by God to give an apologia, a defense: but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence (1 Pet. 3:15). Someone sent with a special message or commission. Jesus is called the apostle and high Priest of our confession in Hebrews 3:1. The twelve apostles of Jesus were Simon Peter, Andrew, James the son of Zebedee, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot. Paul was also an apostle (2 Cor. 1:1), along with Barnabas (Acts 14:14) and others. Apostles established churches (Rom. 15:17-20), exposed error (Gal. 1:6-9), and defended the truth of the gospel (Phil. 1:7,17). Some could perform

aphorize Apologetics


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Miracles (Matt. 10:1,8) and they were to preach the gospel (Matt. 28:19,20). apposite (Latin: appositus, from apponere to place near, from ad + ponere to put) highly pertinent or appropriate, APT; syn: see RELEVANT 1 a grammatical construction in which two usually adjacent nouns having the same referent stand in the same syntactical relation to the rest of the sentence (as the poet and Burns in a biography of the poet Burns); b the relation of one of such a pair of nouns or noun equivalents to the other; 2 a an act or instance of apposing, specif the act of deposition of successive layers upon those already present; b the state of being apposed. of, relating to, or standing in grammatical apposition (Latin: apprehendere lit. to seize) 1 ARREST, SEIZE; 2 a. to become aware of, PERCEIVE; b. to anticipate, esp. with anxiety, dread, or fear; 3 to grasp with the understanding, recognize the meaning of An attempt to relate one set of statements, called the premises or the starting point, to another set, called the conclusion or the end point, by valid means. Arguments are either inductive or deductive. See also syllogism. An ancient theological error that appeared around the year 320. It taught that God could not appear on the earth, that Jesus was not eternal and could not be God. Additionally, it taught that there was only one person in the Godhead: the Father. Jesus, then, was a creation. It was condemned by the Council of Nicea in 325. The Jehovahs Witness cult is an equivalent, though not exactly, of this ancient error. The thinking and writings of Aristotle,* influential until the fall of Rome, when all but his writings on logic were lost to Christian civilization in Europe. However, his works were preserved in Syrian and Arabic cultures and were revived at the end of the twelfth century.


appositive apprehend




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One of the greatest ancient Greek PHILOSOPHERS, with a large influence on subsequent Western thought. Aristotle was a student of PLATO and tutor to ALEXANDER THE GREAT. He disagreed with Plato over the existence of ideal Forms (see PLATO); he believed that form and matter are always joined. Aristotles many books include Rhetoric, the Poetics, the Metaphysics, and the Politics. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). There are five main tenets of Arminianism: 1) God elects or reproves on the basis of foreseen faith or unbelief, 2) Christ died for all men and for every man, although only believers are saved, 3) Man is so depraved that divine grace is necessary unto faith or any good deed, 4) This grace may be resisted, 5) Whether all who are truly regenerate will certainly persevere in the faith is a point which needs further investigation.2 (Compare with Calvinism) The view that attention to the bodys needs is evil, an obstacle to moral and spiritual development, and displeasing to God. According to this view, humans are urged to withdraw into an inner spiritual world to reach the good life. (Latin: assertus pp of asserre, fr. ad- + serere to join) 1 to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively; 2 a. to demonstrate the existence of; b. POSIT, POSTULATE ASSERT, DECLARE, AFFIRM, PROTEST, AVOW mean to state positively, usually in anticipation of denial or objection. ASSERT implies stating confidently wihtout need for proof or regard for evidence. DECLARE stresses open or public statement. AFFIRM impies conviction based on evidence, experience, or faith. PROTEST emphasizes affirming in the face of denial or doubt. AVOW stresses frank declaration and acknowledgment of personal responsibility for what is declared




This information was taken from Bakers Dictionary of Theology, ed. E. Harrison, (Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan), 1960. p. 64.

Philisophical Leixcon
assertion association of ideas (laws of association) the act of asserting, also: DECLARATION, AFFIRMATION The principles by which the mind connects ideas. Aristotle* included similarity, contrast, and closeness; David Hume* held the basic laws to be resemblance, closeness in time or place, and causality. Hume and John Stuart Mill* are the two most prominent philosophers who emphasized association as the basic principle of the mind. See also associationism. A philosophical theory of the mind that holds that all mental states can be analyzed as separate component items and that all mental activity can be explained by the combining and recombining of these items, often called ideas. David Hume* and John Stuart Mill* were prominent advocates of this view. See also association of ideas. This word comes from two Greek words, a the negator, and theos, God. Atheism teaches that there is no God of any kind, anywhere, anytime. Logically, an atheist would be an evolutionist. The Bible teaches that all men know there is a God (Rom. 2:14,15). Therefore, they will be without excuse (Rom. 1:20) on the day of judgment. Instead, atheists willingly suppress the knowledge of God by their unrighteousness (Rom. 1:18,19). Denial that there is a God. (Compare AGNOSTICISM.) (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). The rejection of the belief in God. Some atheists have held that there is nothing in the world that requires a God in order to be explained. Atheism is not the same as agnosticism, which holds that we can have knowledge neither of the existence nor of the nonexistence of God. atomism The theory that reality is composed of simple and indivisible units (atoms) that are completely separate from and independent of one another. Philosophers have differed as to the nature of atoms; for instance, the Greek thinkers Leucippus and Democritus* (fifth century B.C.) held that the atoms are differentshaped bits of matter.





Philisophical Leixcon
atonement To atone means to make amends, to repair a wrong done. Biblically, it means to remove sin. The Old Testament atonements offered by the high priest were temporary and a foreshadow of the real and final atonement made by Jesus. Jesus atoned for the sins of the world (1 John 2:2). Man is a sinner (Rom. 5:8) and cannot atone for himself. Therefore, it was the love of the Father that sent Jesus (1 John 4:10) to die in our place (1 Pet. 3:18) for our sins (1 Pet. 2:24). Because of the atonement, our fellowship with God is restored (Rom. 5:10). (See Reconciliation.) the study of the nature, types, and criteria of values and of value judgments, esp. in ethics



Philisophical Leixcon

bad faith Term used by Jean-Paul Sartre* for self-deception and the deception of others caused by denying ones freedom of choice and ones responsibility for making decisions. An immersion or sprinkling of water that signifies ones identification with a belief or cause. In Christianity it is the believers identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (Rom. 6:4-5). It is done in the name and authority (Acts 4:7) of Christ with the baptismal formula of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19). It does not save us (1 Pet. 3:21) in itself, however, it is our obligation, as believers, to receive it. Some maintain that baptism is necessary for salvation. It is not. If you want to read more on this see Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? The belief that baptism is essential to salvation, that it is the means where forgiveness of sins is made real to the believer. This is incorrect. Paul said that he came to preach the gospel, not to baptize (1 Cor. 1:14-17). If baptism were essential to salvation, then Paul would have included it in his standard practice and preaching of the salvation message of Jesus, but he did not. (See also Col. 2:10-11.) For more information on this see Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? barf /barf/ [from mainstream slang meaning vomit] 1. interj. Term of disgust. This is the closest hackish equivalent of the Val\-speak gag me with a spoon. (Like, euwww!) See bletch. 2. vi. To say Barf! or emit some similar expression of disgust. I showed him my latest hack and he barfed means only that he complained about it, not that he literally vomited. 3. vi. To fail to work because of unacceptable input, perhaps with a suitable error message, perhaps not. Examples: The division operation barfs if you try to divide by 0. (That is, the division operation checks for an attempt to divide by zero, and if one is encountered it causes the operation to fail in some


Baptismal Regeneration



Philisophical Leixcon
unspecified, but generally obvious, manner.) The text editor barfs if you try to read in a new file before writing out the old one. See choke, gag. In Commonwealth Hackish, barf is generally replaced by puke or vom. barf is sometimes also used as a metasyntactic variable, like foo (q.v.) or bar (q.v.). barmecide (bar.me.cide fr. Arabian Nights Tales, he pretended to set before the hungry Shacabac food, on which the latter pretended to feast) One who proffers some illusory advantage or benefit. Also used as an adj.: Barmecidal. A Barmecide feast. -Dickens. becoming That which changes from one form to another, or, in Plato,* that which is known only by experience and exists only temporarily. See also being. To assume what has still to be proved: To say that we should help the democratic movement in Ilyria begs the question of whether it really is democratic. Frequently used in metaphysics to contrast with appearance or nonexistence; often synonymous with unchanging substance, ultimate reality, God, infinity, or all that exists. Aristotle held that being is the subject matter of metaphysics. See also becoming. A bete noire is a thing or person one views with particular dislike: The new candidate for governor is the bete noire of all the LIBERALS in the state. From French, meaning black beast. Totally unacceptable: His business practices have always been questionable, but this last takeover was beyond the pale. The Pale in IRELAND was a territorial limit beyond which English rule did not extend. divided into two branches or parts A branch of philosophy that studies ethical issues that arise from conflicts between human rights and medical and biological research and the technology they use. Areas of concern are genetic manipulation,

beg the question


bete noir

beyond the pale

bifurcated bioethics


Philisophical Leixcon
euthanasia, and brain control. Blasphemy Speaking evil of God or denying Him some good which we should attribute to Him. Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is attributing the miracles of Christ as being accomplished by the power of the devil (Matt. 12:22-32) and is an unforgivable sin (Mark 3:28-30). Blasphemy arises out of pride (Ps. 73:9,11), hatred (Ps. 74:18), injustice (Is. 52:5), etc. Christ was mistakingly accused of blasphemy (John 10:30-33). To change ones mind constantly about the value of something: The administration should stop issuing such contradictory statements on taxes; they are alienating the voters by blowing hot and cold on tax reform. The empiricism of Locke,* Berkeley,* and Hume* in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They share the axiom that our knowledge of the world derives from experience or sensation rather than from reason. This view is opposed to rationalism, as well as to the Platonic notion of Forms as the source of knowledge.

blow hot and cold

British empiricism

British idealism The philosophy of Hegel* as revived in England and (neo-Hegelianism) Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century. The most prominent members of this school were T. H. Green (1836-82), Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923), and F. H. Bradley (1846-1924). They were united in their opposition to empiricism and utilitarianism and in their emphasis on mind and spirit as primary. Buridans ass A story, falsely attributed to the fourteenth-century thinker John Buridan, in which an ass, faced with two equally desirable bales of hay, starves to death because he cannot find a good reason for preferring one bale to the other. A vacation during which a person engages in activity that is the same as or similar to his or her usual employment: Our Spanish professor had a busmans holiday this year; she spent her entire vacation doing research in SPAIN.

busmans holiday


Philisophical Leixcon

call the tune To be in control. The PHRASE comes from the PROVERB The one who PAYS THE PIPER CALLS THE TUNE. A system of Christian interpretation initiated by John Calvin. It emphasizes predestination and salvation. The five points of Calvinism were developed in response to the Arminian position (See Arminianism). Calvinism teaches: 1) Total depravity: that man is touched by sin in all parts of his being: body, soul, mind, and emotions, 2) Unmerited favor: that Gods favor to Man is completely by Gods free choice and has nothing to do with Man. It is completely undeserved by Man, 3) Limited atonement: that Christ died not bear the sins of every individual who ever lived, but instead only bore for the sins of those who were elected into salvation (John 10:11,15), 4) Irresistible grace: that Gods call to someone for salvation cannot be resisted, 5) Perseverance of the saints: that it is not possible to lose ones salvation. A group of seventeenth-century English philosophers and theologians who tried to provide Christian theology with a philosophical defense based on Platonic and Neoplatonic theories. Ralph Cudworth (1617-88) was the most prominent member. This is another word for scripture. The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more revelation to become Scripture. (adj. [historically, according to religious law] The usual or standard state or manner of something.) This word has a somewhat more technical meaning in mathematics. Two formulas such as 9 + x and x + 9 are said to be equivalent because they mean the same thing, but the second one is in canonical form because it is written in the usual way, with the highest power of x first. Usually there are fixed rules you can use to decide whether something is in canonical form. The jargon meaning, a relaxation of 15


Cambridge Platonists



Philisophical Leixcon
the technical meaning, acquired its present loading in computer-science culture largely through its prominence in Alonzo Churchs work in computation theory and mathematical logic (see Knights of the Lambda Calculus). Compare vanilla (q.v.). This word has an interesting history. Non-technical academics do not use the adjective canonical in any of the senses defined above with any regularity; they do however use the nouns canon and canonicity (not **canonicalness or **canonicality). The canon of a given author is the complete body of authentic works by that author (this usage is familiar to Sherlock Holmes fans as well as to literary scholars). `*The* canon' is the body of works in a given field (e.g., works of literature, or of art, or of music) deemed worthwhile for students to study and for scholars to investigate. The word `canon' derives ultimately from the Greek `kanon' (akin to the English `cane') referring to a reed. Reeds were used for measurement, and in Latin and later Greek the word `canon' meant a rule or a standard. The establishment of a canon of scriptures within Christianity was meant to define a standard or a rule for the religion. The above nontechspeak academic usages stem from this instance of a defined and accepted body of work. Alongside this usage was the promulgation of canons (rules) for the government of the Catholic Church. The techspeak usages (according to religious law) derive from this use of the Latin canon. Hackers invest this term with a playfulness that makes an ironic contrast with its historical meaning. A true story: One Bob Sjoberg, new at the MIT AI Lab, expressed some annoyance at the incessant use of jargon. Over his loud objections, GLS and RMS made a point of using as much of it as possible in his presence, and eventually it began to sink in. Finally, in one conversation, he used the word canonical in jargon-like fashion without thinking. Steele: Aha! Weve finally got you talking jargon too! Stallman: What did he say? Steele: Bob just used canonical in the canonical way.


Philisophical Leixcon
Of course, canonicality depends on context, but it is implicitly defined as the way *hackers* normally expect things to be. Thus, a hacker may claim with a straight face that according to religious law is *not* the canonical meaning of canonical. captious (Latin: captiosus, fr. captio) 1 marked by an often illnatured inclination to stress faults and raise objections; 2 calculated to confuse, entrap, or entangle in argument; syn: see CRITICAL To do something that is obviously superfluous; Newcastle is a city in ENGLAND where coal is mined: Karen wanted to give Dad a magazine subscription for his birthday, but I said that would be like carrying coals to Newcastle, since he already has fifteen or twenty subscriptions. To be given carte blanche is to receive the power and authority to do as one wishes: The PRIME MINISTER herself did not take any action on the refugee issue but gave her MINISTER of the interior carte blanche to deal with the situation. Carte blanche is French for blank card, meaning one that can be filled in as a person wishes. The views of Descartes* as interpreted by rationalistic, dualistic, and theistic philosophers. Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715) was the most prominent of the group. (from Latin: casus fall, chance) 1 a resolving of specific cases of conscience, duty, or conduct through interpretation of ethical principles or religious doctrine; 2 specific argument, RATIONALIZATION Determining right and wrong by applying general ethical principles, or applying those principles in a false or misleading way. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). categorical (also categoric) (Greek: kategorikos fr. kategoria prediction, category, fr. kategorein to accuse, affirm, predicate) 1 ABSOLUTE, UNQUALIFIED; 2 a. of, relating to, or consituting a category; b. involving, according with,

carry coals to Newcastle

carte blanche




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or considered with respect to specific categories categorical imperative a moral obligation or command that is unconditionally and universally binding Kants <q.v.> term for the binding moral law, which dictates that one should act only according to a maxim that could serve as a universal law, for instance, to treat humanity as an end and never only as a means. cause Whatever is responsible for change, action, or motion. Historically, Aristotles <q.v.> analysis of cause falls into four types: material cause, the substance a thing is made of; formal cause, the design of the thing; efficient cause, the maker of the thing; and final cause, its purpose or function. Hume* argued that all knowledge of cause comes from our actual experience of observed regularities. A cause or issue, generally political, that arouses public opinion: The question of the DRAFT was a cause celebre in the 1960s. From French, meaning celebrated cause. According to Descartes <q.v.>, a condition of knowing that anything is true; various types of statements that are certain, for example, 1+1-2, or all widows are female. An ABBREVIATION meaning compare. It is short for the LATIN word confer and instructs the reader to compare one thing with another. An idea, originating with Plato* and very influential in Western thought into the Renaissance, that all possible things are realized in the world in an ordered chain of diminishing complexity and richness, from God down to the tiniest, humblest bit of matter. The view captures the concept of the universe as an ordered hierarchy. 3 a. BLAME <~es him as the instigator>; b. to make an assetion against esp. by ascribing guilt for an offense, ACCUSE <~s him with armed robbery> <~s them with hypocrisy>; c. to place guilt or blame for

cause celebre



chain of being



Philisophical Leixcon
<~ her failure to negligence>; d. to assert as an accusation <~s that he distorted the data> cheek by jowl Situated side by side or in close contact: The commuters were packed in the subway cheek by jowl. Christ is a title. It is the N.T. equivalent of the O.T. term messiah and means anointed one. It is applied to Jesus as the anointed one who delivers from sin. Jesus alone is the Christ. As the Christ He has three offices: Prophet, Priest, and King. As Prophet He is the mouthpiece of God (Matt. 5:27-28) and represents God to man. As Priest He represents man to God and restores fellowship between them by offering Himself as the sacrifice that removed the sin of those saved. As King He rules over His kingdom. By virtue of Christ creating all things (John 1:3; Col. 1:16-17), He has the right to rule. Christ has come to do the will of the Father (John 6:38), to save sinners (Luke 19:10), to fulfill the O.T. (Matt. 5:17), to destroy the works of Satan (Heb. 2:14; 1 John 3:8), and to give life (John 10:10,28). Christ is holy (Luke 1;35), righteous (Is. 53:11), sinless (2 Cor. 5:21), humble (Phil. 2:8), and forgiving (Luke 5:20: 7:40; 23:34). The word Christian comes from the Greek word Christians which comes from the word Christ which means anointed one. A Christian, then, is someone who is a follower of Christ. The first use of the word Christian in the Bible is found in Acts 11:26, And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch. It is found only twice more in Acts 26:28 and 1 Pet. 4:16. The study of Christ (Jesus) as revealed in the Bible. Some of the issues studied are: 1) His deity, 2) His incarnation, 3) His offices (See Christ), 4) His sacrifice, 5) His resurrection, 6) His teaching, 7) His relation to God and man, and 8) His return to earth. The word is used in two senses: the visible and the invisible church. The visible church consists of all the people that claim to be Christians and go to church. The invisible church is the actual body of Christians;






Philisophical Leixcon
those who are truly saved. The true church of God is not an organization on earth consisting of people and buildings, but is really a supernatural entity comprised of those who are saved by Jesus. It spans the entire time of mans existence on earth as well as all people who are called into it. We become members of the church (body of Christ) by faith (Acts 2:41). We are edified by the Word (Eph. 4:15,16), disciplined by God (Matt. 18:15-17), unified in Christ (Gal. 3:28), and sanctified by the Spirit (Eph. 5:26,27). Circumcision An operation (note the shedding of blood) that entered one into the covenant in O.T. times. It was instituted by God (Gen. 17:10-14) and performed on the eighth day (Luke 1:59). It was a sign of the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 17:12; Rom. 4:11). In the N.T. the physical operation is not practiced. Instead, a circumcision of the heart of the Christian is taught (Rom. 2:29; Col. 2:11-12). This is the true circumcision (Rom. 2:29). Roundabout speech or writing: The driveway was not unlike that military training device known as an obstacle course is a circumlocution for The driveway resembled an obstacle course. Circumlocution comes from LATIN words meaning speaking around. A story that is false: When John came home at 3:30 A.M., he gave his mother some cock-and-bull story about having a flat tire on the way home. Probably connected to fables in which animals talk. A French expression meaning as it should be. It describes an action that is properly or correctly performed according to some code of manners: Everyone agreed that Andreas behavior at the dinner party was not comme il faut. The grace of God given to the creation as a whole. God still allows the sun to shine upon the unsaved. He feeds them, allows them to work, and have joy. It is common grace that restrains the wrath of God until a later time. It is in special grace that salvation is given to the Christians.


cock-and-bull story

comme il faut

Common Grace


Philisophical Leixcon


The Lords Supper (Matt. 26:26-30; Mark 14:22-26; Luke 22:14-20; 1 Cor. 1:23-26). It is the breaking of bread (Acts 2:42,46) and a time to give thanks (Luke 22:17,19). It was originally instituted by Jesus (Matt. 26:26-29) on the night of the Passover meal which was an annual occurrence celebrating the passing over of the angel of death that claimed the firstborn of every house in Egypt (Ex. 12). The Lords Supper, or communion, replaces the Passover meal with the body and blood (Mark 14:22-24) of Jesus. It is to be taken only by believers (1 Cor. 11:23-28). (For further study see John 6:26-58 and 1 Cor. 11:27-34). The theory that general ideas, such as the idea of man or of redness, exist as entities produced by the human mind and that they can exist in the minds of all men. This view is typically contrasted with nominalism and realism. Declaring an evil doer to be guilty; the punishment inflicted. Without Jesus we stand condemned before God not only because of the sin of Adam (Rom. 5:1618) but also because of our own sin (Matt. 12:37). However, There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death (Rom. 8:1-2). Christians have passed out of condemnation because they are forgiven in Christ. The meaning that a word suggests or implies. A connotation includes the emotions or associations that surround a word. 1 a. -- something suggested by a word or thing: implication {the connotations of comfort that surround that old chair}; b. the suggesting of meaning by a word apart from the meaning it explicitly names or describes. 2 the signification of something {that abuse of logic which consists in moving counters about as if they were known entities with a fixed connotation}. 3 an essential property or group of properties of a thing named by a term in logic.






Philisophical Leixcon
connotative connotes 1 connoting or tending to connote; 2 relating to connotation 1 to be associated with or inseparable from as a consequence or concomitant {the remorse so often connoted by guilt}. 2 a. -- to convey in addition to exact explicit meaning {all the misery that poverty connotes}; b. to imply as a logical connotation Turning from evil to God. God converts (Acts 21:19) the unsaved into the saved, from the unregenerate to the regenerate. It is produced through the preaching of the gospel (Rom. 10:14; 1 Cor. 15:1-4) and results in repentance (Acts 26:20) and a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17). The fruits of conversion are listed in Gal. 5:22-23. The work of the Holy Spirit where a person is able to see himself as God sees him: guilty, defiled, and totally unable to save himself (John 16:8). Conviction of the Holy Spirit of an unbeliever reveals sinfulness and guilt and brings fear. Conviction of the Holy Spirit of the believer brings an awareness of sin and results in confession and cleansing. This conviction is produced by the Holy Spirit (John 16:8), the Gospel (Acts 2:37), the conscience (Rom. 2:15), and the Law (James 2:9). Conviction of our sins brings us to the cross. It shows us our need for forgiveness. A theory or story about the origin of the universe, either scientific or mythological. Cosmogonies are also called creation myths. The systematic study of the origin and structure of the universe as a whole. In such philosophers as Plato <q.v.>, Aristotle <q.v.>, and Kant <q.v.>, cosmology was based on metaphysical speculation; today cosmology is a branch of the physical sciences. A specific fact that refutes or negates a generalization; for instance, a black swan is a counterexample to the statement All swans are white. The final blow: He had been getting deeper and deeper in DEBT; the fates delivered the coup de






coup de grace


Philisophical Leixcon
grace when he died. The PHRASE is French for stroke of mercy. It originally referred to the merciful stroke that put a fatally wounded person out of his misery or to the shot delivered to the head of a prisoner after he had faced a firing squad. Covenant An agreement between two parties. The agreement, according to Ancient Near East custom, consists of five parts: 1) Identification of parties, 2) Historical prologue where the deeds establishing the worthiness of the dominant party is established, 3) Conditions of the agreement, 4) Rewards and punishments in regard to keeping the conditions, and 5) Disposition of the documents where each party receives a copy of the agreement (e.g. the two tablets of stone of the 10 Commandments). Ultimately, the covenants God has made with man result in our benefit. We receive eternal blessings from the covenant of grace. (For further study see Gen. 2:16, 17; 9:1-17; 15:18; 26:3-5; Gal. 3:16-18; Luke 1:68-79; Heb. 13:20). A system of theology that views Gods dealings with man in respect of covenants rather than dispensations (periods of time). It represents the whole of scripture as two covenants: the covenant of works in the O.T. made between God and Adam, and the Covenant of Grace in the N.T. between the Father and the Son. Everything that exists except God himself. This includes material as well as immaterial things and time. God is the creator, (Heb. 11:3) we are the creatures. The creator/creature distinction must be maintained to properly remain in humble relationship with God. We are not God, cannot create, nor can we help ourselves do good in order to be saved. Only God is God. Only He can create. And, only He has the ability to save man. An insincere show of sympathy or sadness; crocodiles were once thought to weep large tears before they ate their victims: Dont shed any crocodile tears for Fisher; I know you were responsible for his firing.

Covenant Theology


crocodile tears


Philisophical Leixcon
Croessus, rich as cross the Rubicon Extremely wealthy. Croesus was an ancient Greek king whose wealth was legendary. To make an irrevocable decision; it comes from the name of the river JULIUS CAESAR crossed with his army, thereby starting a civil war in ROME. (See RUBICON.) To cause someone pain for his or her own good. The PHRASE is used by HAMLET after he has berated his mother for her infidelity to the memory of her deceased husband. A religious group that follows a particular theological system. In the context of Christianity it is a group that uses the Bible but distorts the doctrines that affect salvation sufficiently to cause salvation to be unattainable. A few examples of cults are Mormonism, Jehovahs Witnesses, Christian Science, Christadelphians, Unity, Religious Science, The Way International, and the Moonies. (See also Cults) To take care of ones own needs before trying to take care of others: The mayor ought to cultivate his own garden before he starts telling the governor what to do. This is the moral of Candide, by VOLTAIRE: take care of your own and the world will take care of itself. A school of Greek philosophers founded by Diogenes.* According to legend, Diogenes walked around night and day with a lighted lantern seeking an honest man but could not find one. The Cynics held that men should live in a simple state of nature with as few desires and needs as possible. They advocated moderation, self-discipline, and training of the mind as well as the body. A school of philosophy of the fourth century B.C. in Athens founded by Cyrene, a disciple of Socrates. Cyrenaics believed that only momentary feelings of pleasure or pain can be known; they held that the good life is one that maximizes pleasure derived from satisfying ones bodily desires. See also hedonism.

cruel to be kind


cultivate ones own garden




Philisophical Leixcon

de facto Something generally accepted or agreed to without any formal decision in its favor: They never elected him; he became their leader de facto. From LATIN, meaning in fact. (Compare DE JURE.) Determined by law. In the South, racial SEGREGATION was de jure, but in the North, it was DE FACTO. A French term meaning necessary according to convention: Formal dress is de rigueur at weddings. The word death is used in two main ways in the Bible. First, it is used to describe the cessation of life. Second, death is used in reference to the lost. This refers to their eternal separation from God as a result of sin (Is. 59:2), in a conscious state of damnation without hope (1 Thess. 4:13; Rev. 20:10,14,15). Death to humans is unnatural. When God created Adam and Eve, death was not part of the created order. It was not until they sinned that death entered the scene (Rom. 5:12; 6:23). Death will be destroyed when Christ returns and the believers receive their resurrected bodies. In GRAMMAR, the kind of sentence that makes a statement or declares something: He eats yogurt. (Latin: declinatus, declinare to inflect, turn aside) 1 a. a noun, pronoun, or adjective inflection esp. in some prescribed order of the forms; b. a class of nouns or adjectives having the same type of inflectional forms; 2 a. a falling off or away, DETERIORATION; 3 DESCENT, SLOPE (Latin: deducere lit. to lead away, fr. de- + ducere to lead) 1 to determine by deduction, specif. to infer from a general principle; 2 to trace the course of; syn: see INFER 25

de jure

de rigueur


declarative sentence declension


Philisophical Leixcon


(Latin: deductus, p.p. of deducere) 1 to take away (an amount) from a total, SUBTRACT; 2 DEDUCE, INFER 1 a. an act of taking away; b. something that is or may be subtracted; 2 a. the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning, specif. inference in which the conclusion about particulars follows necessarily from general or universal premises compare INDUCTION; b. conclusion reached by logical deduction Reasoning from a general statement to a particular or specific example; for example, All cats are mortal; William is a cat; therefore, William is mortal. See also syllogism. The word the; the ARTICLE that precedes names of specific items: the dog, the boats, the heavy anchor. (Compare INDEFINITE ARTICLE.) The belief that God exists but is not involved in the world. It maintains that God created all things and set the universe in motion and is no longer involved in its operation. (Compare to Atheism, Agnosticism, and Theism.) A philosophical viewpoint appearing in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and in France in the eighteenth century. Deists hold that although God created the universe and its laws, He then removed Himself from any ongoing interaction with the material world. A fallen angel that assists Satan in the opposition of God. Demons are evil (Luke 10:17,18), powerful (Luke 8:29), and under the power of Satan (Matt. 12:24-30). They recognized Christ (Mark. 1:23,24) and can possess non-christians (Matt. 8:29). PRONOUNS that point to specific things: this, that, these, and those, as in This is an apple, Those are boys, or Take these to the clerk. The same words are used as demonstrative ADJECTIVES when they


deductive reasoning

definitive article




demonstrative pronouns


Philisophical Leixcon
modify NOUNS or pronouns: this apple, those boys. denotation The basic dictionary meaning of a word, without its CONNOTATIONS. For example, the denotation of the word modern is belonging to recent times, although the word may have different connotations. 1 an act or process of denoting. 2 meaning, esp. a direct specific meaning as distinct from an implied or associated idea. 3 a. a denoting term: NAME; b. sign, indication {visible denotations of divine wrath}. 4 the totaling of things to which a term is applicable, esp. in logic. 1 denoting or tending to denote; 2 relating to denotation 1 to serve as an indication of; BETOKEN {the swollen bellies that denote starvation}. 2 to serve as an arbitrary mark for {red flares denoting danger}. 3 to make known; ANNOUNCE {his crestfallen look denoted his distress}. 4 a. to serve as a linguistic expression of the notion of: MEAN; b. to stand for, DESIGNATE. theory or study of moral obligation The ethical philosophy that makes duty the basis of all morality. According to deontological theorists, such as Kant,* some acts--such as keeping a promise or telling the truth--are moral obligations regardless of their consequences. desiderate desideration determinism to entertain or express a longing for; a wish to have or attain something desired as essential The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws. Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.


denotative denotes



Philisophical Leixcon
deus ex machina (literal: a god from a machine) 1 a god introduced by means of a crane in ancient Greek or Roman drama to decide the final outcome. 2 a person or thing (as in fiction or drama) that appears or is introduced suddenly and unexpectedly and provides a contrived solution to an apparently insoluble difficulty. Trouble to be faced as a result of ones actions: When the principal hears of Bobbys pranks, there will be the DEVIL to pay. adj. (1857) of, relating to, or dealing with phenomena esp. of language as they occur or change over a period of time. n (ca. 1939) 1 diachronic analysis. 2 change extending through time. dialectic A term with different meanings for different philosophers. It derives from the Greek word meaning to converse and is used to describe Socrates* method of teaching by question-andanswer technique. Plato* used the word to mean the study of the Forms. In Kant,* it refers to a method of criticizing claims of knowledge going beyond experience. Hegel* means by it the necessary pattern of thinking. The philosophy of Karl Marx* and many of his followers. It holds that matter is the primary reality and that it obeys the dynamic laws of change. The most fundamental of these laws is that progress occurs through conflict and struggle between opposing forces, such as between different classes and between capitalism and communism. See also Marxism. The teaching that a human consists of two parts: body and soul. Sometimes the soul is also referred to as spirit. (See Trichotomy) A NOUN, PRONOUN, or group of words serving as the receiving end of an action, such as the ball in John hit the ball. A direct object can be a word, PHRASE, or CLAUSE: Sam chose Rusty to play shortstop; I will never understand why he came home.

devil to pay


dialectical materialism


direct object


Philisophical Leixcon
(Compare INDIRECT OBJECT.) Disciple A pupil or follower of a religion, a person, or a movement. As Christians we are to be disciples of Jesus (Luke 14:26,27). We follow in the teaching and example of what He said and did. A disciple is a convert but not all converts are disciples. As disciples we are to bear our cross daily (Matt. 16:24). This means to live and die for Him if necessary (Matt. 16:25). In the Scofield Reference Bible a dispensation is a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God Dispensationalism says that God uses different means of administering His will and grace to His people. These different means coincide with different periods of time. Scofield says there are seven dispensations: of innocence, of conscience, of civil government, of promise, of law, of grace, and of the kingdom. Dispensationalists interprete the scriptures in light of these (or other perceived) dispensations. Compare to Covenant. (Latin: dissentire, from dis + senitre to feel) verb: 1 to withhold assent; 2 to differ in opinion; noun: difference of opinion: as a. religious nonconformity; b. a justices nonconcurrence with a decision of the majority also called dissenting opinion From the American Heritage Dictionary: verb: 1 To differ in opinion or feeling; disagree; 2 To withhold assent or approval; noun: 1 Difference of opinion or feeling; disagreement; 2 The refusal to conform to the authority or doctrine of an established church; nonconformity Syn. from Rogets: CONFLICT (2): a state of disagreement and disharmony. Clash, contention, difficulty, disaccord, discord, dissension, dissentience, dissidence, dissonance, friction, inharmony, strife, variance Divinity The nature or quality of being God. It belongs to God

Dispensation, dispensationalism



Philisophical Leixcon
alone. Jesus was divine in nature (Col. 2:9) as well as being a man. (See Jesus Two Natures.) dog in the manger A person who spitefully refuses to let someone else benefit from something for which he or she has no personal use: We asked our neighbor for the fence posts he had left over, but, like a dog in the manger, he threw them out rather than give them to us. The PHRASE comes from one of AESOPS FABLES, about a dog lying in a manger full of hay. When an ox tries to eat some hay, the dog bites him, despite the fact that the hay is of no use to the dog. A word or expression that has two different meanings (in French, double-entendre means double meaning), one of which is often bawdy or indelicate. A double-entendre is found in this sentence: A nudist camp is simply a place where men and women meet to air their differences. According to Descartes,* the argument that nothing can be considered true unless it can never be doubted under any conditions. Descartes doubted everything systematically to find out if anything is indubitable; his Cogito, ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) survived his test. (fr Grk: doxa opinion, glory [fr dokein to seem, seem good] + logia <q.v.>) a usual liturgical <q.v.> expression of praise to God. A LATIN expression for cast of CHARACTERS. It means literally the persons of the drama, and is occasionally used at the beginning of scripts for plays as the title of the list of characters. -- In general, the dramatis personae are the participants in an event: CHURCHILL, ROOSEVELT, and STALIN were the dramatis personae at the Yalta Conference. dualism Any philosophical theory holding that the universe consists of, or can only be explained by, two independent and separate forces, such as matter and spirit, the forces of good and evil, or the supernatural and natural. See also mind-body problem.

double entendre



dramatis personae


Philisophical Leixcon


According to many ethical theories, the basis of the virtuous life. The Stoics held that man has a duty to live virtuously and according to reason; and Kant* held that his categorical imperative is the highest law of duty, no matter what the consequences. The substitution of a disagreeable, offensive, or disparaging expression for an agreeable or inoffensive one; also: an expression so substituted. (q.v. euphemism)



Philisophical Leixcon

Edify To build up. In the Christian context it means to strengthen someone, or be strengthened, in relationship to God, the Christian walk, and holiness. As Christians, we are to let all things be done for edification (1 Cor. 14:26). We are edified by the Word of God (Acts 20:32) and by love (1 Cor. 8:1). (See also Rom. 14:19; Eph. 4:29 and 1 Cor. 3:1-4; James 4:1-6). Producing a result. Christs atonement was efficacious; it produced the result of forgiveness of sins for the elect. The atonement is efficacious grace in action. The belief that each of us is limited to, and by, our unique pattern of perceptions. Any knowledge of the world outside our minds would thus be colored by our perceptions. See also solipsism. The ethical theory that each person should forward his or her own self-interest. Egoists sometimes argue that this is not selfishness, but that self-interest is compatible with helping others as well. Some egoists also argue that, psychologically speaking, human beings always in fact seek their own well-being. A school of pre-Socratic philosophers from Elea in southern Italy, of whom Parmenides* and Zeno of Elea* are the best known. The Eleatics denied the reality of what is known to the senses, holding that the ultimate reality is an undifferentiated and unchanging being. The elect are those called by God to salvation. This election occurs before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4) and is according to Gods will not mans (Rom. 8:29-30; 9:6-23) because God is sovereign (Rom. 9:11-16). The view of election is especially held by Calvinists who also hold to the doctrine of predestination.


egocentric predicament



Elect, Election


Philisophical Leixcon
eleemosynary supported by charity (adj. from ML -- eleemosynarius fr LL eleemosyna: alms); originally from eleos: pity; Greek: eleemosyne: pity, alms A punctuation mark (...) used most often within quotations to indicate that something has been left out. For example, if we leave out parts of the above definition, it can read: A punctuation mark (...) used most often ... to indicate... A person who wields power behind the scenes: The kings brother-in-law is his eminence grise; he has enormous influence, though he is rarely in the public eye. A French term meaning GRAY EMINENCE. (Latin: empiricus, f Grk: emperikos doctor relying on experience alone, f empeiria experience) 1 CHARLATAN; 2 one who relies on practical experience 1 relying of experience or practical observation alone often without due regard for system and theory; 2 originating in or based on observation or experience; 3 capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experience Based on experience, observation, or facts--in short, describing any knowledge derived from or validated by sensory experience. empiricism 1 a. a former school of medical practice founded on experience without the aid of science or theory; b. QUACKERY, CHARLATANRY; 2 a. the practice of relying on observation and experiment esp. in the natural sciences; b. a tenet arrived at empirically; 3 a. a theory that all knowledge originates in experience; b. LOGICAL POSITIVISM <q.v.> The view that all knowledge of the world derives solely from sensory experience, using observation and experimentation if needed; empiricism also holds that reason on its own can never provide knowledge of reality unless it also utilizes experience. See also British empiricism.


eminence grise




Philisophical Leixcon
Encyclopedists A group of eighteenth-century French writers who combined to produce an encyclopedia of philosophy, art, and science (1751-65) edited by Diderot* and DAlembert. The work was skeptical about religion and advocated liberal, democratic political views. At the time, it was the largest compendium of human knowledge that had ever been produced. A person who stirs things up in an irresponsible or indiscreet way or has unconventional ideas: Doctor Hill keeps writing articles that criticize his fellow physicians; he is becoming known as the enfant terrible of his profession. From French, meaning terrible child. A period that stretched from the early seventeenth to the early nineteenth century, especially in France, England, and Germany. Its thinkers strove to make reason the ruler of human life; they believed that all men could gain knowledge and liberation. Major Enlightenment figures include Voltaire,* Rousseau,* Diderot,* and Montesquieu* in France; Bacon*, Hobbes,* and Locke* in England; and Leibniz,* Lessing (1729-81), and Herder (1744-1803) in Germany. A school founded by Epicurus* about 306 B.C. that taught that pleasure and happiness should be mans supreme goals. Epicureans sought mental pleasures over bodily ones. Any pithy, witty saying or short poem. An APHORISM can serve as an epigram, if it is brief. -- Several authors are noted for their epigrams, including Mark TWAIN and Oscar WILDE. One of Wildes epigrams is I can resist everything except temptation. epistemic epistemology COGNITIVE; of or relating to knowledge or knowing (from Grk: episteme knowledge) The branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained, how much we can know, and what justification there is for what is known.

enfant terrible

Enlightenment (Age of Reason)




Philisophical Leixcon
epistemology (Grk: epistanai to understand, know) the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge, esp. with reference to its limits and validity. Also, the branch of PHILOSOPHY concerned with the nature and origin of knowledge. Epistemology asks the question How do we know what we know? (from the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch) The study of the teachings in the Bible concerning the end times, or of the period of time dealing with the return of Christ and the events that follow. Eschatological subjects include the Resurrection, the Rapture, the Tribulation, the Millennium, the Binding of Satan, the Three witnesses, the Final Judgment, Armageddon, and The New Heavens and the New Earth. In the New Testament, eschatological chapters include Matt. 24, Mark 13, Luke 17, and 2 Thess. 2. In one form or another most of the books of the Bible deal with end times subjects. But some that are more prominently eschatological are Daniel, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Joel, Zechariah, Matthew, Mark, Luke, 2 Thessalonians, and of course Revelation. (See Amillennialism and Premillennialism for more information on views on the millennium.) In theology, the study of final things, such as death, resurrection, immortality, the second coming of Christ, and the day of judgment. That which makes a specific thing what it is and not something else; its nature. While the Greek philosophers viewed essence and substance as basically the same, St. Thomas Aquinas* and the philosophy of Scholasticism held that even nonexistent things have natures or essences distinguishable from the fact of their existence. An ABBREVIATION of the LATIN et alii, meaning and others. She was accompanied by the vice president, the SECRETARY OF STATE, et al. Life everlasting in the presence of God. This is eternal life, that they may know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou has sent (John 17:3). There are two senses in which this is used. First, as




et al

Eternal life


Philisophical Leixcon
Christians we possess eternal life (1 John 5:13), yet we are not in heaven or in the immediate presence of God. Though we are still in mortal bodies and we still sin, by faith we are saved (Rom. 4:5; Eph. 2:8-9) and poses eternal life as a free gift from God (Rom. 6:23). Second, eternal life will reach its final state at the resurrection of the believers when Christ returns to earth to claim His church. It is then that eternal life will begin in its complete manifestation. We will no longer sin. Eternal Security The doctrine that salvation cannot be lost. Since it is not gained by anything we do, it cannot be lost by anything we do. This does not mean that we can sin all we want (Rom. 6:1-2) because we have been freed from sin and are set apart for holy use (1 Thess. 4:7). (See Antinomianism.) In ETHICS, the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong, and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a particular individual, CULTURE, or historical period. (from the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch) An agreeable word or expression substituted for one that is potentially offensive, often having to do with bodily functions, sex, or death; for example, rest room for toilet, lady of the evening for prostitute. The NAZIS used euphemism in referring to their plan to murder the worlds JEWS as the FINAL SOLUTION. This is similar to Monophycitism. It states that Christs natures were so thoroughly combined -- in a sense scrambled together -- that the result was that Christ was not really truly able to relate to us as humans. The problem is this implies that Jesus was not truly God nor man. Therefore, He would be unable to act as mediator and unable to truly atone for our sins. (See Hypostatic Union, which is the correct view of Christs two natures, and also Nestorianism and Monophycitism which are the incorrect views of Christs two natures.) Moral rebellion against God. It is contrary to the will of God. There is natural evil (floods, storms, famines, etc.) and moral evil (adultery, murder, idolatry, etc.).

ethical relativism





Philisophical Leixcon
Natural evil is a result of moral evil. Adams sin resulted in sin entering the world allowing floods, storms, famines, etc. Evil originated with Satan (Is. 14:12-14) and is carried on by man (Matt. 15:18,19). (See Theodicy.) Evolution Though you might not expect to find the subject of evolution in a dictionary of theology, it is appropriate if you consider that the theory of evolution requires faith. The evidence for evolution is actually quite weak. There are numerous difficulties facing it and, the theory has undergone many changes since its inception in the 1800s. It is the theory that over an incredible duration of time, life developed from random combinations of non-organic materials. This life was improved upon through mutations and the process of natural selection. The Scriptures do not speak about evolution but instead negate the theory by stating that God created all things (Gen. 1). See Evolution for more information. An explanation or regulation concocted after the event, sometimes misleading or unjust: Your ex post facto defense wont stand up in court. (See EX POST FACTO LAW.) From LATIN, meaning after the deed. A movement in twentieth-century literature and PHILOSOPHY, with some forerunners in earlier centuries. Existentialism stresses that people are entirely free and therefore responsible for what they make of themselves. With this responsibility comes a profound anguish or dread. Soren KIERKEGAARD and Feodor DOSTOYEVSKY in the nineteenth century, and Jean-Paul SARTRE, Martin Heidegger, and Albert Camus in the twentieth century, were existentialist writers. A philosophy of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The dogma holds that since there are no universal values, mans essence is not predetermined but is based only on free choice; man is in a state of anxiety because of his realization of free will; and there is no objective truth. Major existentialists were Kierkegaard,* Nietzsche,* Sartre,* Heidegger,* Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), and the religious existentialists Martin Buber* and Gabriel

ex post facto



Philisophical Leixcon
Marcel (1889-1973). Expiation The cancellation of sin. Expiation and propitiation are similar but expiation does not carry the implication of dealing with wrath, of appeasing it through a sacrifice. Generally speaking, propitiation cancels sin and deals with Gods wrath. Expiation is simply the cancellation of sin. Jesus was our propitiation (1 John 2:2; 4:10 -- atoning sacrifice in the NIV). To clean up, remove impurities. An expurgated edition of a book has had offensive words or descriptions changed or removed. not forming part of or belonging to a thing; EXTRANEOUS (existing or coming from the outside; not forming an essential or vital part; ACCIDENTAL; having no relevance); originating from or on the outside, specif. originating outside a part and acting upon the part as a whole; externalto a thing, its essential nature, or its original character. EXTRINSIC applies to what is distinctly outside the thing in question or is not contained in or derived from its essential nature.




Philisophical Leixcon

Fabian tactics To win like Fabius or to win by Fabian tactics is to wear out an opponent by delay and evasion rather than confrontation, in the style of the ancient Roman general Fabius. Something that has already been done: The company president did not discuss the new hiring policy with his board of directors; instead he put it into effect and presented the board with a fait accompli. From French, meaning an accomplished fact. Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen (Heb. 11:1). It is synonymous with trust. It is a divine gift (Rom. 12:3) and comes by hearing the Word of God (Rom. 10:17). It is the means by which the grace of God is accounted to the believer who trusts in the work of Jesus on the cross (Eph. 2:8). Without faith it is impossible to please God (Heb. 11:6). It is by faith that we live our lives, The righteous shall live by faith (Hab. 2:4; Rom. 1:17). The fall is that event in the Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve disobeyed the command of God and ate of The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil (Gen. 2 and 3). Since Adam represented all of mankind, when He sinned, all of mankind fell with Him (Rom. 5:12). A false or mistaken idea based on faulty knowledge or reasoning. For example, kings who have divorced their wives for failing to produce a son have held to the fallacy that a mother determines the sex of a child, when actually the father does. (See SEX CHROMOSOMES.) (Latin: fallacia, fr fallac-, fallax deceitful, fr fallere to deceive) 1 a. (obsolete) GUILE, TRICKERY; b. deceptive appearance, DECEPTION; 2 a. a false or mistaken idea; b. erroneous or fallacious character, ERRONEOUSNESS; 3 an often plausible argument 39

fait accompli


Fall, The



Philisophical Leixcon
using false or invalid inference far from the madding crowd To be far from the madding crowd is to be removed, either literally or figuratively, from the frenzied actions of any large crowd or from the bustle of civilization. (See under Literature in English.) Depriving oneself of food for a period of time for a specific purpose, often spiritual. It is the weakening of the body in order to strengthen the spirit. It is interesting to note that sin entered the world through the disobedience of eating (Gen. 3:6). We are called to fast in the N.T. (Matt. 6:16). (See also 1 Kings 21:27; Ps. 35;13; Acts 13:3; 2 Cor. 6:5). The belief that what will be will be, since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force. In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to heaven or hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds. Faust, in the legend, traded his soul to the DEVIL in exchange for knowledge. To strike a Faustian bargain is to be willing to sacrifice anything to satisfy a limitless desire for knowledge or power. 1 fruitful in offspring or vegetation; prolific. 2 intellectually productive or inventive to a marked degree. syn: fertile There is no specific definition given in the N.T. But we are called into fellowship with one another (1 John 1:3), with Jesus (1 Cor. 1:9), with the Father (1 John 1:3), and with the Holy Spirit (2 Cor. 13:14). Fellowship implies sharing common interests, desires, and motivations. Fellow requires that time be spent with another communicating, caring, etc. It carries with it a hint of intimacy. As Christians we fellowship with one another because of our position in Christ, because we are all redeemed and share an intimate personal knowledge of Jesus. We share a common belief (Acts 2:42), hope (Heb. 11:39,40), and need (2 Cor. 8:1-15).

Fast, Fasting


Faustian bargain




Philisophical Leixcon
The Greek word for fellowship is koinonia. This word is also translated communion in 1 Cor. 10:16 in the KJV. This is where we get the term the communion supper. fideistic Finagles Law relying on faith rather than reason, esp. in metaphysics n. The generalized or folk version of Murphys Law, fully named Finagles Law of Dynamic Negatives and usually rendered Anything that can go wrong, will. One variant favored among hackers is The perversity of the Universe tends towards a maximum (but see also Hanlons Razor). The label Finagles Law was popularized by SF author Larry Niven in several stories depicting a frontier culture of asteroid miners; this Belter culture professed a religion and/or running joke involving the worship of the dread god Finagle and his mad prophet Murphy. fin de sicle (Fr: end of the century) of, relating to, or characteristic of the end of the century, specifically the 19th century, and especially its literary and artistic climate of sophistication, world weariness, and fashionable despair The first of the mothers offspring. It stands figuratively for that which is most excellent. The firstborn male of the family carried certain familial rites and privileges (Gen. 27:1-29; 48:13,14) and was given a double portion of the inheritance (Deut. 21:17). It also refers to Christ being the first raised from the dead (Col. 1:15,18). It does not mean first created as Jehovahs Witnesses believe in ref to Col. 1:15. In fact, the firstborn rites were transferrable. Compare Jer. 31:9 with Gen. 41:50-52. Hater of God. One who is morally weak, who misuses what God has given him for selfish purposes. He is lustful (Prov. 7:22), lazy (Ecc. 10:15), does not fear God (Prov. 14:1), hates knowledge (Prov. 1:22), and is self-righteous (Prov. 12:15). As Christians, we are to avoid foolishness (Eph. 5:4). (See Ecc. 7:25; Prov. 3:35, 10:8.)




Philisophical Leixcon

Foreknow, Foreknowledge

It is the knowledge of God about things that will happen. Past, present, and future are all present in the mind of God. He inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). God has infinite knowledge (Isaiah 41:22,23) and knows all things in advance. In the N.T. it does not always mean to know beforehand but also to cause to be. See 1 Pet. 1:2,20. There are seven words in Scripture which denote the idea of forgiveness: three in Hebrew and four in Greek. No book of religion except Christianity teaches that God completely forgives sins. God remembers our sins no more (Heb. 10:17). God is the initiator of forgiveness (Col. 2:13). There is only one sin for which the Father does not promise forgiveness: blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Mark 3:28; Matt. 12:32). The contexts suggest this to be the sin of attributing to unclean spirits the work of the Holy Spirit. For man to receive forgiveness, repentance is necessary (Luke 17:3-4). For the holy God to extend forgiveness, the shedding of blood is necessary (Heb. 9:22; Lev. 17:11). Forgiveness is based upon the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. According to Plato,* the eternal, unchanging, immaterial, and perfect archetypes of which all existing things are merely imperfect copies; also called Ideas. According to many early Greek philosophers, the four basic constituents of the physical world: earth, air, fire, and water. The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did. Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism. See also indeterminism.



four elements

free will


Philisophical Leixcon

geist ex machina Gifts, Spiritual Gifts (German, literal spirit from a machine) a ghost in the machine Spiritual abilities given by God for the purpose of building up the church. Every Christian has at least one (1 Cor. 7:7). They are listed and discussed in different places in the N.T. (Rom. 12:6-8; 1 Cor. 12:411, 28-30; Eph. 4:7-12). Following is a list of the gifts arranged in two groups. The first are gifts that require supernatural intervention and are possessed only by true Christians. The second are gifts that do not require supernatural intervention. Even nonChristians can have the second group of gifts. A further issue is whether or not the gifts are still in use today. Some believe they ceased with the apostles and the closing of the Canon (the completion of the writings of the Bible) and they are no longer needed for the building up of the body of Christ (Eph. 4:12). Others believe the gifts are still in use but not in the pure apostolic sense. In other words, they are still in use but not in the same way possessed by the apostles. Instead, they are available to the believer if and when God decides it is beneficial to use them. Spiritual Gifts 1 Salvation Rom. 6:23 2 Word of Wisdom 1 Cor. 12:8 3 Word of Knowledge 1 Cor. 12:8 4 Faith 1 Cor. 12:9 5 Healing 1 Cor. 12:9 6 Miracles 1 Cor. 12:10 7 Prophecy Rom. 12:6; 1 Cor. 12:10 8 Distinguishing of Spirits 1 Cor. 12:10 9 Tongues 1 Cor. 12:10 10 Interpretation of Tongues 1 Cor. 12:10 11 Serving Rom. 12:7 12 Teaching Rom. 12:7 13 Exhortation Rom. 12:8 14 Giving Rom. 12:8 15 Leading Rom. 12:8 43

Philisophical Leixcon
16 Showing mercy Rom. 12:8 gild the lilly To adorn unnecessarily something that is already beautiful or perfect: Morty had us all believing his TALL TALE until he couldnt resist gilding the lily. The supreme being of the universe. He is the creator of all things (Is. 44:24). He alone is God (Is. 45:21,22; 46:9; 47:8). There have never been any Gods before Him nor will there be any after Him (Is. 43:10). God is God from all eternity (Ps. 90:2). In Exodus 3:14, God revealed His name to His people. The name commonly known in English is Jehovah. This comes from the four Hebrew consonants that spell the name of God. (See Tetragrammaton.) God is a Trinity, knows all things (1 John 3:20), can do all things (Jer. 32:17,27 - except those things against His nature like lie, break His word, cheat, steal, etc.), and is everywhere all the time (Ps. 139:712). The desirable middle ground between any two extremes, according to the PHILOSOPHY of ARISTOTLE. The ethical doctrine, originating with Aristotle, that virtuous actions fall exactly between too much of some quality, such as impulsive behavior, and too little of it, such as timidity. It is associated with ethics calling for moderation. The fundamental moral rule of most religions, especially Christianity, that states, Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. To solve a notoriously difficult problem in a quick and decisive manner: The president hoped that his bold new anti-INFLATION plan would cut the Gordian knot. According to Greek legend, an oracle declared that the man who could untie the GORDIAN KNOT would become the ruler of all ASIA. ALEXANDER THE GREAT impatiently cut it with a single stroke of his sword and proceeded to conquer Asia. The Gospel is the good news that we have forgiveness of sins though Jesus. Specifically, the


golden mean

golden mean

golden rule

Gordian Knot, to cut the



Philisophical Leixcon
gospel is defined by Paul in 1 Cor. 15:1-4: Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received, in which also you stand, by which also you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in vain. For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures. The gospel comes from God (Gal. 1:10-12), is the power of God for salvation (Rom. 1:16), is a mystery (Eph. 6:19), and is a source of hope (Col. 1:23), faith (Acts 15:7), life (1 Cor. 4:15), and peace (Eph. 6:15). Grace Grace is unmerited favor. It is Gods free action for the benefit of His people. It is distinguished from (see Justice and Mercy). Justice is getting what we deserve. Mercy is not getting what we deserve. Grace is getting what we do not deserve. In grace we get eternal life, something that, quite obviously, we do not deserve. But because of Gods love and kindness manifested in Jesus on the Cross, we receive the great blessing of redemption. Grace is Gods Riches At Christs Expense. Grace rules out all human merit. It is the product of God, that is given by God, because of who He is not because of who we are. It is the means of our salvation (Eph. 2:8-9). We are no longer under the Law, but under grace (Rom. 6:14). (See Acts 15:11; Rom. 5:2,15-20; 2 Cor. 12:9; and 2 Cor. 9:8). To make a final, desperate effort: The candidate made a few last attempts to discredit his opponent, but it was clear he was just grasping at straws.

grasp at straws


Philisophical Leixcon

halcyon days Times of peace and tranquillity; the expression refers to a mythical bird that had the power to calm the waves when it nested on the sea during the winter SOLSTICE. Compared to the utter turmoil of last month, these are certainly halcyon days. A term describing a person who is superficially friendly and is always trying to gain friends. Such a person may also be referred to as a back-slapper or a GLAD-HANDER. Hanlons Razor is a corollary of Finagles Law, similar to Occams Razor, that reads Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity. The derivation of the common title Hanlons Razor is unknown; a similar epigram has been attributed to William James. Quoted here because it seems to be a particular favorite of hackers, often showing up in sig blocks, fortune cookie files and the login banners of BBS systems and commercial networks. This probably reflects the hackers daily experience of environments created by well-intentioned but shortsighted people. Compare Sturgeons Law. Heaven is the dwelling place of God and for those who go there a place of everlasting bliss. Scripture implies three heavens, since the third heaven is revealed to exist (2 Cor. 12:2). It is logical that a third heaven cannot exist without a first and second. Scripture does not describe specifically the first and second heaven. The first, however, apparently refers to the atmospheric heavens of the fowl (Hos. 2:18) and clouds (Dan. 7:13). The second heaven may be the area of the stars and planets (Gen. 1:14-18). It is the abode of all supernatural angelic beings. The third heaven is the abode of the triune God. Its location is unrevealed. (See Matt. 23:34,37; Luke 10:20; and Rev. 21:2, 20-27). A philosophy of ethics holding that pleasure is the highest or the only good in life, and that men should


Hanlons Razor




Philisophical Leixcon
strive for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Among the chief proponents of hedonism were the Epicureans and the utilitarians. Hegelianism (neoHegelianism) A school of thought associated with Hegel* in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially in England, America, France, and Italy. F. G. Bradley (1846-1924), Josiah Royce (1855-1916), and Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) were prominent members; they emphasized the importance of spirit and the belief that ideas and moral ideals are fundamental. Hell is the future place of eternal punishment of the damned including the devil and his fallen angels. There are several words rendered as Hell: Hades - A Greek word. It is the place of the dead comprising the state of the person between death and resurrection. (See Matt. 11:23; 16:18; Acts 11:27; 1 Cor. 15:55; Rev. 1:18, 6:8). Gehenna - A Greek word. It was the place where dead bodies were dumped and burned (2 Kings 23:13,14). Jesus used the word to designate the place of eternal torment (5:22,29,30; Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5). Sheol - A Hebrew word. It is the place of the dead, not necessarily the grave, but the place the dead go to. It is used of both the righteous (Ps. 16:10; 30:3; Is. 38:10) and the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job 24:19; Ps. 9:17). Hell is a place of eternal fire (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 19:20). It was prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt. 25:41) and will be the abode of the wicked (Rev. 21:8) and the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4). A doctrinal view that deviates from the truth, a false teaching. We are warned against it in Acts 20:29-32 and Phil. 3:2. Heresies include teachings that Jesus is not God and that the Holy Spirit is not a person (Jehovahs Witnesses, Christadelphians, The Way International), that men may become gods (Mormonism), that there is more than one God (Mormonism), that Jesus lost His divinity in hell and finished the atonement there), and that good works are necessary for salvation (all cults say this), to name a few.




Philisophical Leixcon
hermeneutical (from Grk: hermeneuein to interpret) the study of the methodological principles of interpretation (as of the Bible) (comb form, fr Grk: heteros) 1 other than usual, other, different; 2 containing atoms of different kinds. (fr Grk: heteroklitos, fr. heter- + klinein to lean, inflect) 1 deviating from common forms or rules; 2 a. one that deviates from common forms or rules; b. a word irregular in inflection, esp. a noun irregular in declension <q.v.> 1 deviating from the usual form; 2 exhibiting diversity of form or forms A seventeenth-century British political PHILOSOPHER; the author of Leviathan. According to Hobbes, human life in a state of nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. He argued that government must be strong, and even repressive, to keep people from lapsing into a savage existence. A choice offered without any real alternative therefore, not really a choice at all. The masses, the ordinary folk; the PHRASE is often used in a derogatory way to refer to a popular preference or incorrect opinion: The hoi polloi may think that Oswald is a great director, but those who know about film realize that his work is commercial and derivative. From Greek, meaning the many. To be caught in ones own trap: The swindler cheated himself out of most of his money, and his victims were satisfied to see him hoist with his own petard. A petard was an explosive device used in MEDIEVAL warfare. To be hoisted, or lifted, by a petard literally means to be blown up. To seem logical and consistent: At first I was persuaded by the politicians speech, but upon reflection, I decided that his arguments didnt hold water.

heter- or hetero-


heteromorphic Hobbes, Thomas

Hobsons choice hoi polloi

hoist with ones own petard

hold water


Philisophical Leixcon
holding the bag To have the blame or responsibility thrust upon you: When his partner skipped town, Harry was left holding the bag. The third person of the Godhead. He is completely God. He is called God (Acts 5:3-4), has a will (1 Cor. 12:11), speaks (Acts 8:29; 31:2), and knows all things (John 14:17). He is not an active force as the Jehovahs Witnesses mistakingly teach. The Holy Spirit is alive and is fully and completely God. He is called the Spirit of God (Gen. 1:2), Holy Spirit (Ps. 51:11), the Helper (John 14:16,26), and Eternal Spirit (Heb. 9:14). He knows all things (1 Cor. 2:10,11), is all powerful (Luke 1:35), and is everywhere (Ps. 139:7-13). (See Trinity and Holy Spirit.) A quality of perfection, sinlessness, and inability to sin that is possessed by God alone. As Christians we are called to be holy (1 Pet. 1:16). But this does not refer to our nature. Instead, it is a command of our practice and thought. We are to be holy in obedience (1 Pet. 1:14). God has made us holy through His Son Jesus (Eph. 1:4; 1 Pet. 2:9). To be divided between two seemingly equal options, and to be undecided as to which option to choose: When Mary was offered two equally attractive jobs, she found herself on the horns of a dilemma. A different matter entirely: You might be able to convince Devins father, but as for his mother, thats a horse of a different color. Any loud clamor or protest intended to incite others to action: In the 1980s, there arose a great hue and cry for educational reform. Any philosophic view that holds that humankinds well-being and happiness in this lifetime are primary and that the good of all humanity is the highest ethical goal. Twentieth-century humanists tend to reject all beliefs in the supernatural, relying instead on scientific methods and reason. The term is also used to refer to Renaissance thinkers, especially in the fifteenth century in Italy, who emphasized knowledge and learning not based on religious

Holy Spirit, The

Holy, Holiness

horns of a dilemma

horse of a different color hue and cry



Philisophical Leixcon
sources. Hume, David A Scottish PHILOSOPHER of the eighteenth century, known for his SKEPTICISM. Hume maintained that all knowledge was based on either the impressions of the senses or the logical relations of ideas. The attitude of the Christian that teaches us not to ...think more highly of himself than he ought to think; but to think so as to have sound judgment... (Rom. 12:3). It teaches us to prefer others over ourselves (Rom. 12:10). It is knowing our true position before God. It is not self-abasement or demeaning ones self. God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble (James 4:6). Humility is necessary to be a disciple of Jesus (Matt. 18:3-4). The humility of Jesus is described in Philippians 2:5-8, Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death even death on a cross! (NIV). An exaggerated, extravagant expression. It is hyperbole to say, Id give my whole fortune for a bowl of bean soup. under, beneath, down, less than normally (from Grk: support, foundation, substance, sediment, fr. hyphistasthai to stand under, support, fr. hypo + histathai to be standing) 2 PERSON; 3 a. the substance or essential nature of an individual; b. something that is hypostatized (Grk: hypostatos substantially existing) to attribute real identity to (a concept)



hypo hypostasis



Philisophical Leixcon

idealism A term applied to any philosophy holding that mind or spiritual values, rather than material things or matter, are primary in the universe. See also British idealism. A traditional way of saying something. Often an idiom, such as under the weather, does not seem to make sense if taken literally. Someone unfamiliar with English idioms would probably not understand that to be under the weather is to be sick. (See examples under Idioms.) 1 (prefix; Latin) not; NON-, UN-; il before l (illogical), im before b, m, or p (immutable), ir before r (irrational) 2 (prefix; Latin) in, within, into, toward, on (e.g., irradiance, imperil) imagery The mental pictures created by a piece of writing: The imagery of THE WASTE LAND -- crumbling towers, dried-up wells, toppled tombstones -conveys the authors sense of a civilization in decay. Latin: Image of God (Latin: immanere to remain in place) 1 remaining or operating within a domain of reality or realm of discourse, INHERENT; 2 confined to consciousness or to the mind; SUBJECTIVE compare TRANSCENDENT any of several theories according to which God or an abstract mind or spirit is immanent in the world The view that the individual soul is eternal, and thus survives the death of the body it resides in. See also transmigration of souls. (fr Latin: immutabalis fr im + mutabalis fr mutalis [mutable <q.v.>] to change) not capable of or susceptible to change A grammatical category describing VERBS that


im- (il- or in- or ir-)

IMAGO DEI immanent

immanentism immortality

immutable imperative


Philisophical Leixcon
command or request: Leave town by tonight; Please hand me the spoon. in loco parentis To assume the duties and responsibilities of a parent: Because Jacks parents were out of town, his sister acted in loco parentis and punished him for drinking. From LATIN, meaning in the place of a parent. In the middle of the action. EPICS often begin in medias res. For example, the Odyssey, which tells the story of the wanderings of the hero ODYSSEUS, begins almost at the end of his wanderings, just before his arrival home. In medias res is a LATIN PHRASE used by the poet HORACE; it means in the middle of things. In the original place or arrangement: The body was left in situ until the police arrived. From LATIN, meaning in position. Totally or completely: We reject your demands in toto. From LATIN, meaning in all. A LATIN PHRASE suggesting that people are more likely to say what they really feel under the influence of alcohol. It means There is truth in wine. The word a or an introducing an unspecified NOUN or the name of a general category: a dog, an apple, an orange. An is used when the next word begins with a VOWEL or a silent (unpronounced) h, as in an egg or an hour. The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause. A NOUN, PRONOUN, or group of words naming something indirectly affected by the action of a VERB: She showed me some carpet samples; The agent handed the Prentice family their tickets. -- Indirect objects can often take or suggest the PREPOSITION to. For example, She showed (to) me

in media res

in situ

in toto in vino veritas

indefinite article


indirect object


Philisophical Leixcon
the book. induce (Latin: inducere, fr. in + ducere to lead) 1 a. to move by persuasion or influence, LEAD ON; b. to call forth or bring about by influence or stimulation; 2 a. EFFECT, CAUSE; b. to cause the formation of; c. to produce (as an electric current) by induction; d. to arouse by indirect stimulation; 3 to determine by induction, specif. to infer from particulars (Latin: inductus, p.p. of inducrere) 1 to put in formal possession (as of a benefice or office), INSTALL; 2 a. to admit as a member; b. INTRODUCE, INITIATE; c. to enroll for military training or service (as under selective service act); 3 LEAD, CONDUCT 1 a. the act or process of inducting (as into office); b. an initial experience, INITIATION; c. the formality by which a civilian is inducted into military service; 2 a. (1) the inference of a generalized conclusion from particular instances compare DEDUCTION 2a; (2) a conclusion arrived at by induction; b. mathematical demonstration of the validity of a law concerning all the physical integers by proving that it holds for the integer 1, and that if it holds for all the preceding integers, it must hold for the next following integer; 3 a preface, prologue, or introductory scene, esp. of an early English play; 4 a. the act of bringing forward or adducing (as facts or particulars); b. the act of causing or bringing on or about; ( c. d. e. ) A process of reasoning that moves from specific instances to predict general principles. The opposite process is called DEDUCTION -- reasoning from general principles to predict specific instances. (from the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch) inductive 1 leading on, INDUCING; 2 of, relating to, or employing mathematical or logical induction; ( 3 4 5 ) Any process of reasoning from something particular to something general, or from a part to a whole. Inductive reasoning can be valid or invalid.



inductive reasoning


Philisophical Leixcon
ineffable (from Latin: in + effabilis capable of being expressed) 1 a. incapable of being expressed in words, INDESCRIBABLE; b. UNSPEAKABLE; 2 not to be uttered, TABOO (Latin: infere to carry or bring into, fr. in + ferre to carry) 1 to derive as a conclusion from facts or premises; 2 GUESS, SURMISE; 3 a. to involve as a normal outcome of thought; b. to point out, INDICATE compare imply; 4 HINT, SUGGEST syn: DEDUCE, CONCLUDE, JUDGE, GATHER. INFER implies arriving at a conclusion by reasoning from evidence; if the evidence is slight, the term comes close to surmise. DEDUCE adds to infer the special implication of drawing a particular inference from a generalization. CONCLUDE implies arriving at a logically necessary inference at the end of the chain of reasoning. JUDGE stresses critical examination of the evidence on which a conclusion is based. GATHER suggests a direct or intuitive forming of a conclusion from hints or implications, usu. In the absence of clear evidence or plain teaching. inference 1 the act or process of inferring, specif the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former; 2 something that is inferred esp. a proposition arrived at by inference; 3 the premises and conclusion of a process of inferring In LOGIC, the deriving of one idea from another. Inference can proceed through either INDUCTION or DEDUCTION. (from The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch) infinitive The simple or dictionary form of a VERB: walk, think, fly, exist. Often the word to marks a verb as an infinitive: to walk, to think, to fly, to exist. A change in the form of a word to reflect different grammatical functions of the word in a SENTENCE. English has lost most of its inflections. Those that remain are chiefly POSSESSIVE (s), as in the boys hat; PLURAL (-s), as in the three girls; and past




Philisophical Leixcon
TENSE (-d or -ed), as in cared. Other inflections are found in PRONOUNS -- as in he, him, his -- and in irregular words such as think/thought, child/children, and mouse/mice. innate ideas Ideas that are inborn and part of the mind at birth, rather than based on specific experiences. Descartes* believed there are clear and distinct ideas that are innate and that form the basis of all knowledge. Plato* believed that knowledge of the Forms derives from innate ideas. A theory that holds that ideas and concepts should be regarded as tools or instruments to be used in specific situations. As such, they cannot be described as true or false, but only as effective or ineffective. This theory was first put forth by John Dewey.* A brief exclamation, often containing only one word: Oh! Gee! Good grief! Ouch! The kind of sentence that asks a question and uses a QUESTION MARK: How can I do that? A VERB that does not need a DIRECT OBJECT to complete its meaning. Run, sleep, travel, wonder, and die are all intransitive verbs. (Compare TRANSITIVE VERB.) -- Some verbs can be intransitive in one SENTENCE and transitive in another. Boiled is intransitive in My blood boiled but transitive in I boiled some water. intuitionism Any philosophy holding that intuition is the basis of knowledge or of philosophy. French philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was a prominent advocate. In particular, intuitionism refers to a British school of thought that maintains that all ethical knowledge rests on moral intuition. (Latin: by that very fact; by the fact itself or absolutely, regardless of all other considerations or right and wrong) by the very nature of the case


interjection interogative sentence intransitive verb

ipso facto


Philisophical Leixcon
irony The use of words to mean something very different from what they appear on the surface to mean. Jonathan SWIFT uses irony in A MODEST PROPOSAL when he suggests the eating of babies as a solution to overpopulation and starvation in IRELAND. A VERB in which the past TENSE is not formed by adding the usual -ed ending. Examples of irregular verbs are sing (past tense sang); feel (felt); and go (went). (Compare REGULAR VERB.) (comb form [prefix]; Grk: isos equal) 1 equal, homogeneous, uniform (isacoustic); 2 isomeric <q.v.> (isocyanate); 3 for or from different individuals of the same species (isoagglutination) of, relating to, or exhibiting isomerism (Grk: isomeres equally divided, from is + meros part) 3 the condition of having been made up of corresponding parts or segments To lead an impractical existence removed from the pressures and troubles of everyday life: Like most college professors, Rasponi lives in an ivory tower.

irregular verb

is- or iso-

isomeric isomerism

ivory tower


Philisophical Leixcon

je ne sais quoi That little something; that quality that eludes description. The MONA LISAs smile has a certain je ne sais quoi. From French, meaning I dont know what. A love of life. From French, meaning joy of living. According to most philosophers, starting with Plato,* the harmonious balance between the rights of the various members of a society. Justice is usually understood as including such social virtues as fairness, equality, and correct and impartial treatment.

joie de vivre justice


Philisophical Leixcon

Kafka, Franz An Austrian author of the early twentieth century. His works, all written in German, have a surreal, dreamlike quality; they frequently concern CHARACTERS who are lonely, tormented, and victimized, and who represent the frustrations of modern life. He is author of The Metamorphosis and The Trial. -- A kafkaesque situation is both bizarre and frustrating. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). Kant, Immanuel An eighteenth-century German PHILOSOPHER; the leading philosopher of modern times. His views are called the Critical PHILOSOPHY, and his three bestknown works are his critiques: Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgment. -- Kant held that we cannot know a THING-IN-ITSELF as it is, but only as our mind constitutes it. m Kant asserted that while no one can understand God, the soul, or the world in the way we understand things in nature, we must believe in God, in immortality, and in FREE WILL. -- Kant led an extremely simple and regulated life. According to one story, the people in his town set their clocks by his afternoon walks (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett and James Trefil). Kierkegaard, Soren A Danish PHILOSOPHER of the nineteenth century. Kierkegaard wrote much about the fear and loneliness that he believed come with true religion; he is considered a forerunner of twentieth-century EXISTENTIALISM (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett and James Trefil).


Philisophical Leixcon

lacuna (pl lacunae; Latin: pool, pit, gap) 1 a blank space or a missing part, GAP; 2 a small cavity, pit, or discontinuity in an anatomical structure A concept introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein,* who drew an analogy between how we use language and how we play games: both have rules and moves that make sense only in the context of a particular game. Wittgenstein and his followers used this concept to point out that philosophers frequently try to make moves in one context that make sense only in another, as when they try to verify religious statements as if they were a part of science. The Law is Gods instructions concerning the moral, social, and spiritual behavior of His people found in the first five books of the Bible. The Law is the very reflection of the nature of God because God speaks out of the abundance of what is in Him. Therefore, since God is pure, the Law is pure. Since God is holy, the Law is holy. The Law consists of the 10 commandments (Ex. 20), rules for social life (Ex. 21:1-23:33), and rules for the worship of God (Ex. 25:1-31:18). It was a covenant of works between God and man and was (and is) unable to deliver us into eternal fellowship with the Lord because of Mans inability to keep it. The Law is a difficult taskmaster because it requires that we maintain a perfect standard of moral behavior. And then when we fail, the Law condemns us to death. We deserve death even if we fail to keep just one point of the law: For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles in one point, he has become guilty of all (James 2:10). The law made nothing perfect (Heb. 7:19). That is why the Law has shown us our need for Jesus and the free gift we receive through Him (Gal. 3:24). A basic principle of LOGIC: that a sentence and the denial of the sentence cannot both be true. (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett and James Trefil).

language game


law of noncontradiction


Philisophical Leixcon
leading question An unfair question that is designed to guide the respondent: You were drunk the night of the accident, werent you, Mr. Norris? A compliment with two meanings, one of which is unflattering to the receiver: The SENATOR said that his opponent was quite competent for someone so inexperienced; you hear nothing but left-handed compliments in these debates. (Fr from Latin laesa majestas injured majesty) 1 a. a crime (as treason) against a sovereign power, b. an offense violating the dignity of a ruler as the representative of a sovereign power. 2. a detraction from or affront to dignity or importance To disclose a secret: The mayors visit was to be kept strictly confidential, but someone must have let the cat out of the bag, because the airport was swarming with reporters. 1 archaic a handbill esp. attacking or defaming someone. 2 a. a written or oral defamatory statement or representation that conveys an unjustly unfavorable impression; b. (1) a statement or representation published without just cause and tending to expose another to public contempt; (2) defamation of a person by written or representational means; (3) the publication of blasphemous, treasonable, seditious, or obscene writings or picture; (4) the act, tort, or crime of publishing such libel verb 1 to make an untrue statement with intent to deceive; 2 to create a false or misleading impression ~vt to affect by telling lies; syn LIE, PREVARICATE, EQUIVOCATE, PALTER, FIB mean to tell an untruth. LIE is the direct term, imputing dishonesty; PREVARICATE softens the bluntness of LIE by implying quibbling or confusing the issue; EQUIVOCATE implies using words having more than one sense so as to seem to say one thing but intend another; PALTER implies making unreliable statements of fact or intention or insincere promises; FIB applies to a telling of an untruth that is trivial in substance or significance.

left handed compliment

lse majest

let the cat out of the bag




Philisophical Leixcon
noun 1a. an assertion of something known or believed by the speaker to be untrue with intent to deceive; b. an untrue or inaccurate statement that may or may not be believed true by the speaker. 2. something that misleads or deceives. 3. a charge of lying life of Riley linguistic philosophy (linguistic analysis) literati A life of luxury: Sheila found herself living the life of Riley after she won the lottery. The twentieth-century school of thought whose key tenet is that philosophical problems are best approached by asking questions about the use of words and by analyzing how language works in specific social contexts. Intellectuals, writers, scholars. All the literati of NEW YORK CITY came out for the book-signing party. From LATIN, meaning the lettered ones -- those who are literate. An English PHILOSOPHER of the seventeenth century. As a philosopher of knowledge, Locke argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain ideas already in their minds. He claimed that, on the contrary, the mind is a TABULA RASA (blank slate) until experience begins to write on it. As a political philosopher, Locke attacked the doctrine of the DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, and argued that governments depend on the consent of the governed. -- Lockes political ideas were taken up by the American FOUNDING FATHERS; his influence is especially apparent in the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition) log-, logologic (comb form; fr Grk: logos) word, thought, reason, speech, discourse The study of the rules and the nature of reasoning and of valid or sound patterns of thought. Aristotle* classified many of the rules of reasoning. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, logic was advanced into a branch of mathematics. Currently,

Locke, John


Philisophical Leixcon
mathematical logic is a growing field independent of philosophy. See also syllogism. logical positivism A twentieth-century school founded in the 1920s in Europe that was extremely influential for American and English philosophers. It advocated the principle of verifiability, according to which all statements that could not be validated empirically were meaningless. Logical positivism held that this principle showed that all of metaphysics, religion, and ethics was incapable of being proved either true or false. See also Vienna Circle. 1 the divine wisdom manifest in the creation, government, and redemption of the world and often identified with the second person of the Trinity -Jesus; 2 reason that in ancient Greek philosophy is the controlling principle in the universe 1 discourse, talk (as in dialog); 2 student, specialist (as in ideologue) Derogatory name for the extreme RADICAL members of a group, especially in politics -- a term coined by Theodore ROOSEVELT: The candidate referred to the JOHN BIRCH SOCIETY as being on the lunatic fringe of CONSERVATISM. (n. /loozr/ A user; esp. one who is also a loser. Luser and loser are pronounced identically.) This word was coined around 1975 at MIT. Under ITS, when you first walked up to a terminal at MIT and typed Control-Z to get the computers attention, it printed out some status information, including how many people were already using the computer; it might print 14 users, for example. Someone thought it would be a great joke to patch the system to print 14 losers instead. There ensued a great controversy, as some of the users didnt particularly want to be called losers to their faces every time they used the computer. For a while several hackers struggled covertly, each changing the message behind the back of the others; any time you logged into the computer it was even money whether it would say users or losers. Finally, someone tried the compromise lusers, and it stuck. Later one of the


-logue or -log lunatic fringe



Philisophical Leixcon
ITS machines supported luser as a request-for-help command. ITS died the death in mid-1990, except as a museum piece; the usage lives on, however, and the term luser is often seen in program comments.


Philisophical Leixcon

make a virtue of necessity To pretend that one is freely and happily doing something one has been forced to do: Once the mayor was forced by the voters to cut his budget, he made a virtue of necessity and loudly denounced government spending. A humorous confusion of words that sound vaguely similar, as in We have just ended our physical year instead of We have just ended our FISCAL YEAR. -- Mrs. MALAPROP, a CHARACTER in an eighteenthcentury British COMEDY, The Rivals, by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, constantly confuses words. Malapropisms are named after her. malfeasance Wrongful conduct by a public official. Misfeasance is the misperforming of a proper act; nonfeasance, the nonperformance of an act that a person has agreed to or is duty-bound to do. Man is the creation of God. It is man alone who reflects God. The first man, Adam, was made in Gods image (Gen. 1:26, 27), and placed in the Garden of Eden for the purpose of enjoying the fellowship of the Lord and fulfilling the purpose of Gods creation. He was told to be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth (Gen. 2:28). When Adam and Eve sinned, all of humanity fell with them (Rom. 5:12-21). Adam represented all humanity: In Adam all die... (1 Cor. 15:22). As a result of Adams disobedience, condemnation resulted to all men (Rom. 5:18). Therefore we are by nature children of wrath (Eph. 2:3). We do not seek God (Rom. 3:11) nor can we understand the spiritual things of God (1 Cor. 2:14). Since this is the condition of man in his natural state, salvation is then impossible for us to achieve (Matt. 19:26). That is why we need the free gift of salvation (Rom. 6:23) given by God to Christians through faith in Jesus sacrifice on the cross.




Philisophical Leixcon


A religious-philosophical doctrine that originated in Persia in the third century and reappeared throughout the next 1300 years. It holds that the entire universe, especially human life, is a struggle between the opposing forces of good and evil (light and darkness). The political, economic, and philosophical theories developed by Karl Marx* and Friedrich Engels* in the second half of the nineteenth century. The philosophical side of Marxism is called dialectical materialism; it emphasizes economic determinism. See also dialectical materialism. The theory that holds that the nature of the world is dependent on matter, or that matter is the only fundamental substance; thus, spirit and mind either do not exist or are manifestations of matter. The best of its kind, the real thing. That homemade pizza was the real McCoy. The source of this expression is the story of a famous prizefighter named McCoy. He had so many imitators that no one was sure which was the real one. The philosophical theory that states that living organisms, including humans, are complex machines, since they are composed of matter. A mediator is someone who intervenes, someone who conveys and conciliates. The word mediator is not found in the O.T., but its principle is. God gave the Law to the people through a mediator, Moses (Gal. 3:19), who was a type of the true mediator, Jesus. The word occurs only a few times in the N.T.: 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24. It is in the N.T. that the true nature of mediation is understood in the person of Jesus Christ. He is the mediator of a better covenant (Heb. 8:6). He was able to become our mediator by becoming man (John 1:1,14) and dying as our substitute (1 Pet. 1:18,19; 2:24). He reconciled us to God (Eph. 2:16). To encounter ones ultimate obstacle, and to be defeated by it: After beating dozens of challengers,



McCoy, the real


Mediation, Mediator

meet ones Waterloo


Philisophical Leixcon
the champion finally met his Waterloo. From the Battle of WATERLOO, where NAPOLEON BONAPARTE was finally defeated. mellontolatry mendacious (from C.S. Lewiss God in the Dock) worship of the future (fr Latin: mendac-, mendax) given to or characterized by deception or falsehood which often is not intended to genuinely mislead or delude. Mercy is the act of not meeting justice when that justice is punitive. Because of our sinfulness we deserve death and eternal separation from God (Rom. 6:23; Is. 59:2), but God provided an atonement for sin and through it shows us mercy. That is, He does not deliver to the Christian the natural consequence of his sin which is damnation. That is why Jesus became sin on our behalf (2 Cor. 5:21) and bore the punishment due to us (Is. 53:4-5). It was to deliver us from damnation. (Compare with justice and grace.) God saved us according to His mercy (Titus 3:5) and we can practice mercy as a gift (Rom. 12:8). Let us therefore draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy and may find grace to help in time of need (Heb. 4:16). Messiah is a Hebrew word. It means anointed one. It is the equivalent of the N.T. word Christ which also means anointed. Jesus, as the messiah, was anointed by God (Matt. 3:16) to carry out His threefold ministry of Prophet, Priest, and King. As the messiah He has delivered the Christian from the bonds of sin and given to him eternal life. In that sense, messiah means deliverer, for He has delivered us. The Messiah was promised in the O.T. in the seed of the woman (Gen. 3:15). (Grk: among, with, after, change) 1 a. occurring later than or in succession to, after (metestrus); b. situated behind or beyond (metencephalon) (metacarpus); c. later or more highly organized or specialized form of (metaxylem); 2 change, transformation; 3 more comprehensive, transcending (metapsychology) used with the



meta- or met-


Philisophical Leixcon
name of a discipline to designate a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one (metamathematics); 4 a. isomeric with or otherwise closely related to (metaldehyde); b. involving substitution at or characterized by two positions in the benzene ring that are separated by one carbon atom; c. derived from by loss of water(metaphosphoric acid) metaethics A branch of philosophy that analyzes ethics. It is concerned with such issues as, How are moral decisions justified? What is the foundation of any ethical view? What language is used to state moral beliefs? The comparison of one thing to another without the use of like or as: A man is but a weak reed; The road was a ribbon of moonlight. Metaphors are common in literature and expansive speech. (Compare SIMILE.) of or relating to transcendent or supersensible; supernatural; highly abstract, abstruse (difficult to comprehend) The branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality and existence as a whole. Metaphysics also includes the study of cosmology and philosophical theology. Aristotle* produced the first system of metaphysics. See transmigration of souls. The pre-Socratics from Miletus in Greece--Thales* and his two best-known pupils, Anaximander* and Anaximenes.* An English PHILOSOPHER and economist of the nineteenth century. Two of his best-known works are Utilitarianism, a classic statement of that approach to ETHICS (see UTILITARIANISM), and On Liberty, a similar statement for LIBERAL thought in politics (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). Literally, this word means 1000 years. In the study of end times doctrines (eschatology) the millennium is




metempsychosis Miletian School

Mill, John Stuart



Philisophical Leixcon
the duration of Christs rule over the earth. The debate has been over when the millennium will take place. The terms that have arisen out of this debate are premillennialism, amillennialism, and postmillennialism. Premillennialism teaches that the millennium is yet future and that upon Christs return He will set up His earthly kingdom. Amillennialism teaches that the millennium is a figurative period and that Christs rule began when He first became man. Postmillennialism teaches that through the preaching of the Word of God, the world will be converted and will then usher in Christ and the kingdom of God. There are good arguments for each position. mind-body problem Miracle A central problem of modern philosophy that originated with Descartes.* It asks how the mind and the body are related. A miracle is an out-of-the-ordinary direct and divine intervention in the world. Examples would be the parting of the Red Sea, Jesus walking on water, the resurrection of Lazarus, etc. Some hold that it is a violation of the natural order of physical laws. Others maintain that there is no such violation upon Gods part but only a natural manifestation of His work. They are also known as powers and signs (Mark 9:39; Acts 2:22, 19:11) and mighty works (John 10:25-38). They are a manifestation of the power of God over nature (Josh. 10:12-14), animals (Num. 22:28), people (Gen. 19:26), and illness (2 Kings 5:10-14). They are produced by Gods power (Acts 15:12), Christs power (Matt. 10:1), and the Holy Spirits power (Matt. 12:28). 1 to give a false or misleading representation of, usu. with intent to deceive of be unfair 2 to serve badly or improperly as a representative of A word or group of words that describes or limits a VERB, NOUN, ADJECTIVE, or ADVERB. Modifiers applied to nouns are adjectives. Modifiers applied to verbs or adjectives are adverbs. Those that are applied to adverbs themselves are also called adverbs.

misrepresent modifier


Philisophical Leixcon
modus operandi The way someone does something; a characteristic method: Her modus operandi in buying a new car always included a month of research. This PHRASE, often abbreviated m.o., is used by police to describe a criminals characteristic way of committing a crime. From LATIN, meaning method of operation. A compromise between adversaries that allows them to get along temporarily: During the separation, my parents adopted a modus vivendi that enabled them to tolerate each other. From LATIN, meaning a method of living. An object kept by a person as a reminder of his or her own mortality. At one time, MONKS kept human skulls for this purpose. From LATIN, meaning Remember that you must die. According to Leibniz,* the ultimate and indivisible units of all existence. Monads are not material, like atoms; each monad is self-activating, a unique center of force. All monads are in a preestablished harmony with each other and with God, the supreme monad. The teaching that God alone is the one who saves. It is opposed to synergism which teaches that God and man work together in salvation. Cults are synergistic. Christianity is monergistic. The theory that everything in the universe is composed of, or can be explained by or reduced to, one fundamental substance, energy, or force. The belief that there is more than one God, but only one is served and worshiped. Mormonism is an excellent example of monolatry. It teaches the existence of many Gods of many worlds, yet worships only the one of this planet. Therefore, monolatry is a division of polytheism, the belief in many gods. It is a false teaching contrary to Scripture. See Isaiah 43:10; 44:6,8; 45:5-6. This is an error regarding the two natures of Jesus (See Hypostatic Union). It states that Jesus two

modus vivendi

momento mori







Philisophical Leixcon
natures are combined into one new one; the problem here is that neither God nor man was represented in Christ but a new third thing. (Other errors regarding the two natures of Christ are Nestorianism and Eutychianism.) Monotheism The belief that there is only one God in all places at all times. There were none before God and there will be none after Him. Monotheism is the teaching of the Bible (Is. 43:10; 44:6,8; 45:5,14,18,21,22; 46:9; 47:8). Expression used of those who, though they may be guilty of wrongdoing, think themselves the victim of a more serious wrong. From SHAKESPEAREs King Lear. The most painful of insults, affronts, or offenses, often so painful because it comes from a trusted friend. In SHAKESPEAREs JULIUS CAESAR, ANTONY describes the wound given to Caesar by his close friend BRUTUS as the most unkindest cut of all. In literature, art, or music, a recurring set of words, shapes, colors, or notes. In the poem THE RAVEN, by Edgar Allan POE, for example, the word nevermore is a motif appearing at the end of each STANZA. Likewise, the first four notes of the Fifth Symphony of Ludwig van BEETHOVEN are a motif that is developed and reshaped throughout the work. cowardliness (contemptible timidity) (proverb) The correct, *original* Murphys Law reads: If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it. This is a principle of defensive design, cited here because it is usually given in mutant forms less descriptive of the challenges of design for lusers. For example, you dont make a two-pin plug symmetrical and then label it THIS WAY UP; if it matters which way it is plugged in, then you make the design asymmetrical. Edward A. Murphy, Jr. was one of the engineers on the rocket-sled experiments that were done by the

more sinned against than sinning most unkindest cut of all


multipusilanimity Murphys Law


Philisophical Leixcon
U.S. Air Force in 1949 to test human acceleration tolerances (USAF project MX981). One experiment involved a set of 16 accelerometers mounted to different parts of the subjects body. There were two ways each sensor could be glued to its mount, and somebody methodically installed all 16 the wrong way around. Murphy then made the original form of his pronouncement, which the test subject (Major John Paul Stapp) quoted at a news conference a few days later. Within months Murphys Law had spread to various technical cultures connected to aerospace engineering. Before too many years had gone by variants had passed into the popular imagination, changing as they went. Most of these are variants on Anything that can go wrong, will; this is sometimes referred to as Finagles Law. The memetic drift apparent in these mutants clearly demonstrates Murphys Law acting on itself! mutable (fr Latin: mutabalis fr mutalis to change) 1 prone to change, INCONSTANT; 2 a. capable of change or being changed in form, quality, or nature; b. capable of or liable to mutation [immutable <q.v.>] adj. (fr. Grk: mystikos, mystos) 1 MYSTICAL 1a; 2 of or relating to mysteries or esoteric <q.v.> rites, OCCULT; 3 of or relating to mysticism or mystics; 4 a. MYSTERIOUS; b. OBSCURE, ENIGMATIC; c. inducing a feeling of awe or wonder; d. having magical properties n 1 a follower of a mystical way of life; 2 an advocate of a theory of mysticism mystical 1 a. having a spiritual meaning or reality that is neither apparent to the senses nor obvious to the intelligence; b. involving or having the nature of an individuals direct subjective communion with God or ultimate reality; 2 MYSTERIOUS, UNINTELLIGIBLE; 3 MYSTIC 2, 3 1 the experience of mystical union or direct communion with ultimate reality reported by mystics; 2 the belief that direct knowledge of God,




Philisophical Leixcon
spiritual truth, or ultimate reality can be attained through subjective experience (as intuition or insight); 3 a. vague speculation, a belief without sound basis; b. a theory postulating the possibility of direct and intuitive acquisition of ineffable <q.v.> knowledge or power Any philosophy whose roots are in mystical experiences, intuitions, or direct experiences of the divine. In such experiences, the mystic believes that his or her soul has temporarily achieved union with God. Mystics believe reality can be known only in this manner, not through reasoning or everyday experience. myth of Er A parable at the end of Platos Republic about the fate of souls after bodily death; according to Plato,* the soul must choose wisdom in the afterlife to guarantee a good life in its next cycle of incarnation.


Philisophical Leixcon

n.b. An ABBREVIATION for the LATIN PHRASE nota bene, meaning note well. It is used to emphasize an important point. The theory that there is a higher law than the manmade laws put forth by specific governments. This law is universal, unchanging, and a fundamental part of human nature. Advocates of this view believe that natural law can be discovered by reason alone. The theory originated with the Stoics and was elaborated on by St. Thomas Aquinas,* among others. The doctrine that human affairs should be governed by ethical principles that are part of the very nature of things and that can be understood by reason. The first two paragraphs of the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE contain a clear statement of the doctrine. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). natural rights Certain freedoms or privileges that are held to be an innate part of the nature of being a human being and that cannot be denied by society. These are different from civil rights, which are granted by a specific nation or government. Philosophers have differed on which rights are natural, but usually included are life, liberty, equality, equal treatment under the law, the pursuit of happiness, and equality of opportunity. Lockes* influential views on natural rights inspired the writers of the American Constitution. A philosophic view stating that all there is in reality is what the physical and human sciences (for example, physics or psychology) study and that there is no need to posit any supernatural forces or being, such as God, mind, or spirit. A belief of many twentieth-century philosophers in England and America that it is invalid to infer any statements of morality (for example, Men ought to act kindly) from factual statements (for example, 73

natural law


naturalistic fallacy

Philisophical Leixcon
Kindness is a natural quality). The notion tries to derive ought from is and was first described by Hume.* necessary and contingent truth Terms used by philosophers to contrast two types of statements, such as All widowers are male, which is necessarily true, and All widowers are over 20 years old, which may be true but is not necessarily true. results follow by invariable sequence from causes A school of philosophy that flourished from the second to the fifth centuries A.D. It was founded by Plotinus* and was influential for the next thousand years. States that the two natures of Christ were so separated from each other that they were not in contact; the problem here is that worship of the human Jesus would then not be allowed. (See also Hypostatic Union, Eutychianism, and Monophycitism.) A German thinker of the nineteenth century. Nietzsche, who asserted that God is dead, was passionately opposed to CHRISTIANITY. He developed the concept of the SUPERMAN, or Overman (Ubermensch), a superior human being, not bound by conventional notions of right and wrong. An ideal of humanity found in Thus Spake Zarathustra. The Superman is the single goal of all human striving, for which people must be willing to sacrifice all. It is doubtful that Nietzsche thought of the Overman as an individual person. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). nihilism An approach to PHILOSOPHY that holds that human life is meaningless, and that all religions, laws, moral codes, and political systems are thoroughly empty and false. The term is from the LATIN nihil, meaning nothing. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). A term first used in Fathers and Sons (1862) by the

necessitarian Neoplatonism


Nietzsche, Friedrich


Philisophical Leixcon
Russian novelist Turgenev. Ethical nihilism is the theory that morality cannot be justified in any way and that all moral values are, therefore, meaningless and irrational. Political nihilism is the social philosophy that society and its institutions are so corrupt that their complete destruction is desirable. Nihilists may, therefore, advocate violence and even terrorism in the name of overthrowing what they believe to be a corrupt social order. noblese oblige The belief that the wealthy and privileged are obliged to help those less fortunate than they. From French, meaning nobility obligates. (Grk: noetikos intellectual) of, relating to, or based on purely intellectual apprehension French for pen name; an invented name under which an author writes. Mark TWAIN was the nom de plume of Samuel L. CLEMENS. Partridge writes: [The phrase] is to be avoided; there is no such term in the best French (nom de guerre being usual). nominalism The view that general terms, such as table, do not refer to essences, concepts, abstract ideas, or anything else; table makes sense only because all tables resemble each other. According to this view, such general terms do not have any independent existence. The grammatical term indicating that a NOUN or PRONOUN is the SUBJECT of a sentence or CLAUSE rather than its OBJECT. (See CASE and OBJECTIVE CASE.) A PHRASE used to describe someone who is out of his or her mind and therefore not legally responsible for his or her actions: It was determined by the court that the killer was non compos mentis. From LATIN, meaning not having control of the mind. A thought that does not logically follow what has just been said: We had been discussing plumbing, so her remark about ASTROLOGY was a real non sequitur.

noetic nom de plume

nominative case

non compos mentis

non sequitur


Philisophical Leixcon
Non sequitur is LATIN for It does not follow. non sequitur A Latin phrase meaning it does not follow; any argument where the conclusion drawn has not even the slightest connection to the premises offered. (Grk: nooumenon that which is apprehended by thought, fr. noein to think, conceive, fr. nous mind) an object or concept which, according to Immanuel Kant, can be known to exist but cannot be experienced and to which no properties can be intelligibly ascribed A pejorative term for one who has recently become rich and who spends money conspicuously. From French, meaning new rich. A fine shade of meaning: I liked the film, but I know I missed some of its nuances. (Latin: nod, divine will, akin to nuere to nod, Grk: neuein) a spiritual force or influence often identified with a natural object, phenomenon, of locality (Latin: numin-, numen numen <q.v.>) 1 SUPERNATURAL, MYSTERIOUS; 2 filled with a sense of the presence of divinity, HOLY; 3 appealing to the higher emotions or to the aesthetic <q.v.> sense, SPIRITUAL


nouveau riche

nuance numen



Philisophical Leixcon

object A PART OF A SENTENCE; a NOUN, PRONOUN, or group of words that receives oris affected by the action of a VERB. (See DIRECT OBJECT, INDIRECT OBJECT, and OBJECTIVE CASE.) A grammatical term indicating that a NOUN or PRONOUN is an OBJECT. (See CASE and NOMINATIVE CASE.) The view that there are moral truths that are valid universally and that it is wrong to knowingly gain pleasure from causing another pain. objective reality (vs. subjective experience or appearance); moral good is objectively real. obligation In ethics, a moral necessity to do a specific deed. Some ethicists, following Kant,* hold that moral obligations are absolute. See also categorical imperative. (from William of Occam, English scientist and philosopher, also Ockham, ca 1285-1349) a scientific and philosophic rule that entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily (entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity), which is interpreted as requiring that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex or that explanation of unknown phenomena be sought first in terms of known quantities. Occult means hidden. It covers practices that are not approved of by God e.g., astrology (Is. 47:13), casting spells (Deut. 18:11), consulting with spirits (Deut. 18:11), magic (Gen. 41:8), sorcery (Exodus 22:8), witchcraft (Deut. 18:10), and spiritism (Deut. 18:11). Occult practices such as ouji boards, tarot cards, astrology charts, contacting the dead, seances, etc. are to be avoided by the Christian.

objective case


Occams Razor



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oleaginous omni-omnifarious omnificent omnipotence Omnipotence resembling or having the properties of oil, oily; unctuous. comb form (Latin: omnis) all, universally (Latin: omni- + -farius [as in multifarius having great diversity) of all varieties, forms, or kinds unlimited in creative power 1 the quality or state of being omnipotent; 2 an agency or force of unlimited power An attribute of God alone. It is the quality of having all power (Ps. 115:3). He can do all things that do not conflict with His holy nature. God has the power to do anything He wants to. (Latin: fr omni- + -potent, potens potent) 1 a. often cap. ALMIGHTY 1 b. having virtually unlimited authority or influence; c. obs ARRANT; 2 a. one who is omnipotent; b. cap GOD 1 the quality or state of being omnipresent, UBIQUITY present in all places at all times (Latin: fr, omni- + scientia knowledge) the quality or state of being omniscient 1 having infinite awareness, understanding, and insight; 2 possessed of universal or complete knowledge (Latin: fr. omnium (gen plural of omnis) + E gather + L -um) a miscellaneous collection (as of things or persons) To be kept on tenterhooks is to be held in a state of nervous apprehension: Weve been on tenterhooks since the election results started coming in. (MF onereus fr Latin onerosus, onus burden akin to Sanskrit anas cart) 1 involving, imposing, or constituting a burden; TROUBLESOME (as in onerous task). 2 having legal obligations that outweigh the advantages (as in onerous contract).


omnipresence omnipresent omniscience omniscient

omnium gatherum on tenterhooks



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ontological ontological argument ontology 1 of or relating to ontology. 2 relating to or based upon being or existence (ca 1877) an argument for the existence of God based upon the meaning of the term God (ca 1721) 1 a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being. 2 a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of existents A branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or reality, as such, as opposed to specific types of existing entities. onus (Latin, fr onerosus, onus burden akin to Sanskrit anas cart) N a BURDEN; b a disagreeable necessity, OBLIGATION; c BLAME; d STIGMA. burden of proof, or lit. the burden of proving. A philosophy of science according to which any scientific concept must be definable in terms of concrete, observable activities or the operations to which it refers. The philosophic attitude that this is the best of all possible worlds, that hope and joy are justified, and that all things are ordered for the best. According to optimists, such as Leibniz,* evil either is an illusion or will be compensated for by an even greater good. The twentieth-century school advocating that we can best understand and resolve philosophic problems by analyzing how people other than philosophers ordinarily use language and the presuppositions underlying such use; the school holds that everyday language is adequate for philosophy. Wittgenstein,* Gilbert Ryle (1900-76), and John L. Austin (1911-60) were the most influential members of this school. (comb form; Grk: orthos straight, right, true) 1 straight, upright, vertical (orthotropic); 2 perpendicular (orthorhombic) 3 correct, corrective (orthodontia) 4 a. hydrated or hydrolated to the highest degree; b. involving substitution at or

onus probandi operationalism (operationism)


Ordinary Language Philosophy

orth- or ortho-


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characterized by or having the relationship of two neighboring positions in the benzene ring <q.v.> orthodox (Grk: ortho + doxa opinion) 1 a. conforming to established doctrine esp. in religion; b. CONVENTIONAL; 2 CAP of, relating to, or constituting any of various conservative religious or political groups as: a. Eastern Orthodox; b. of or relating to Orthodox Judaism (combining ortho with praxis; Grk: doing, action) ACTION, PRACTICE as: a. exercise or practice or an art, science, or skill; b. customary practice or conduct (Latin: ostensus, ostendere to show, fr. obs in front of + tendere to stretch) 1 intended to display, open to view; 2 alleged; syn: see APPARENT 1 OSTENSIBLE 2; 2 of, relating to, or constituting definition be exhibiting the thing or quality being defined, obviously or directly demonstrative (Latin: otiosus from otium leisure) 1 being at leisure, IDLE; 2 producing no useful result, FUTILE; 3 lacking use or effect, FUNCTIONALESS, syn see VAIN A RHETORICAL DEVICE in which two seemingly contradictory words are used together for effect: She is just a poor little rich girl.







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panegyric (from Gk panegyrikos of or for a festival assembly) a eulogistic oration or writing; also, formal or elaborate praise. The belief that God and the universe are identical; among modern philosophers, Spinoza* is considered to be a pantheist. This is an identification of the universe with God. With this view there is a blurring of the distinction between the Creator and the creation as well as an attack upon the personality and nature of God. Pantheism tends to equate God with the process of the universe and states that the universe is God and God is the universe. This is not true because God is the creator of the universe (Is. 44:24) and therefore separate from it. (akin to Grk: pro before) 1 beside, alongside of, beyond, aside from; 2 a. closely related to; b. involving substitution at or characterized by two opposite positions in the benzene ring that are separated by two carbon atoms; 3 a. faulty, abnormal; b. associated in a subsidiary or accessory capacity; closely resembling; almost A statement that seems contradictory or absurd but is actually valid or true. According to one proverbial paradox, we must sometimes be cruel in order to be kind. Another form of paradox is a statement that truly is contradictory and yet follows logically from other statements that do not seem open to objection. If someone says, I am lying, for example, and we assume that his statement is true, it must be false. The paradox is that the statement I am lying is false if it is true. (Latin: paradoxum, fr Grk: paradoxos contrary to expectation, fr para + dokein to seem, seem good, to think) 1 a tenet contrary to received opinion; 2 a. a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true; 81



para- or par-



Philisophical Leixcon
b. a self-contradictory statement that at first seems true; c. an argument that apparently derives selfcontradictory conclusions by valid deduction from acceptable premises; 3 something (as a person, condition, or act) with seemingly contradictory qualities or phases paralogism, paralogical paraphrase (fr Grk: paralogos unreasonable, fr para- + logos speech, reason) a fallacious <q.v.> argument A restatement of speech or writing that retains the basic meaning while changing the words. A paraphrase often clarifies the original statement by putting it into words that are more easily understood. In art, music, or literature, a SATIRE that mimics the style of its object. word of mouth The VERB form that combines with an AUXILIARY VERB to indicate certain TENSES. -- A dangling participle is one that is not clearly connected to the word it modifies: Standing at the corner, two children walked past me. A better version of this example would be, While I was standing at the corner, two children walked past me. particulars parts of a sentence See universals. Classifications of words, PHRASES, and CLAUSES according to the way they figure in sentences. (See AUXILIARY VERB, CONJUNCTION, DEPENDENT CLAUSE, DIRECT OBJECT, INDEPENDENT CLAUSE, INDIRECT OBJECT, MODIFIER, PREDICATE, and SUBJECT.) Classifications of words according to their relations to each other and to the things they represent. Different parts of speech name actions, name the performers of actions, describe the performers or actions, and so on. The common parts of speech are ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, ARTICLES, CONJUNCTIONS, INTERJECTIONS, NOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, PRONOUNS,

parody parol (evidence rule) participle

parts of speech


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and VERBS. Pascal, Blaise A French mathematician, scientist, and religious thinker of the seventeenth century. Pascal came to believe that reason alone could not satisfy peoples hopes and aspirations, and that religious faith was therefore necessary. His religious thoughts are collected in Pensees (Thoughts). An argument made by Blaise Pascal* for believing in God. Pascal said that either the tenets of Roman Catholicism are true or they are not. If they are true, and we wager that they are true, then we have won an eternity of bliss; if they are false, and death is final, what has the bettor lost? On the other hand, if one wagers against Gods existence and turns out to be wrong, there is eternal damnation. -- Pascals wager refers to Pascals idea that it is prudent to believe in Gods existence, since little can be lost if there is no God, and eternal happiness can be gained if there is one. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). passim A word used in footnotes and similar material to indicate that a word or subject occurs frequently. For example, an entry in an INDEX reading coal: 78-86 passim means that coal is mentioned throughout pages 78 to 86. Passim is LATIN for throughout or here and there. One of the two voices of VERBS (see also ACTIVE VOICE). A verb is in the passive voice when the SUBJECT of the sentence is acted on by the verb. For example, in The ball was thrown by the pitcher, the ball (the subject) receives the action of the verb, and was thrown is in the passive voice. The same sentence cast in the active voice would be, The pitcher threw the ball. To pay the consequences for self-indulgent behavior: If you drink heavily all night, in the morning you will have to pay the piper. To pay unreasonably high prices: If you visit any major city these days, you had better be prepared to

Pascals wager

passive voice

pay the piper

pay through the nose


Philisophical Leixcon
pay through the nose for a hotel room. Pelagianism The teaching of a monk named Pelagius in the fifth Century. He taught that mans will has and still is free to choose good or evil and there is no inherited sin (through Adam). Every infant born into the world is in the same condition as Adam before the fall and becomes a sinner because he sins. This is opposed to the Biblical teaching that we are by nature children of wrath (Eph. 3:2) and that we sin because we are sinners. Pelagius said we are able to keep the commandments of God out of our own abilities because God has given us the ability. Therefore, there is no need of redemption and the crucifixion of Jesus is merely a supreme example of love, humility, obedience, and sacrifice. This heresy has its relatives in the form of the cults that deny the total dependance upon God and maintain that salvation is obtainable through our own efforts. (Compare to Arminianism and Calvinism.) In a confused, disorderly manner: After the assembly, the students ran pell-mell from the auditorium. This word is from the Greek penta, five and teuchos, a tool. It refers to the first five books of the Bible known as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. All five were authored by Moses and are also known as the Law. The word comes from the Greek which means fifty. So, Pentecost was a celebration on the fiftieth day after Passover. It was a culmination of the feast of weeks (Ex. 34:22,23). Pentecost in the N.T. is the arrival of the Holy Spirit for the church (Acts 2). At Pentecost the disciples of Jesus were gathered and upon the filling of the Holy Spirit, they heard a great wind and spoke in tongues as tongues of fire that settled upon them. The significance of the fire can be found in recognizing it as a symbol of the dwelling of the Spirit of God (Ex. 19:18; 1 Pet. 4:14). TREACHERY; being faithless (from per fidem: to deceive by trust)






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person An inflectional form (see INFLECTION) of PRONOUNS and VERBS that distinguishes between the person who speaks (first person), the person who is spoken to (second person), and the person who is spoken about (third person). The pronoun or verb may be SINGULAR or PLURAL. For example: first person singular: I walk. second person singular: you walk. third person singular: he/she/it walks. first person plural: we walk. second person plural: you walk. third person plural: they walk. persona non grata A person who is no longer favored or welcome: After my angry words with the manager, I am persona non grata at the record store. From LATIN, meaning an unacceptable person. A PRONOUN that represents a person in a sentence. Personal pronouns have different forms depending on their CASE, GENDER, and NUMBER, as follows: A term applied to any philosophy that makes personality (whether of people, God, or spirit) the supreme value or the source of reality. Personalism as a movement flourished in England and America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Personalists are usually idealists. transparent; clear in statement or expression The philosophic attitude holding that hope is unreasonable, that man is born to sorrow, and that this is the worst of all possible worlds. Schopenhauers* philosophy is an example of extreme pessimism. 1 a theory that limits knowledge to phenomena only; 2 a theory that all knowledge and all existence is phenomenal The doctrine that the only knowledge we can ever have is of appearances, and thus that we can never know the nature of ultimate reality. Major adherents of the philosophy were John Stuart Mill* and some

personal pronoun


perspicuous pessimism



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members of the Vienna Circle. phenomenologic al phenomenology 1 of or relating to phenomenology; 2 PHENOMENAL; 3 of or relating to phenomenalism 1 the study of the development of the human consciousness and self-awareness as a preface to philosophy or a part of philosophy; 2 a. 1) The description of the formal structure of objects of awareness and of awareness itself in abstraction <q.v.> from any claims concerning existence; 2) the typological classification of a class of phenomena; b. an analysis produced by phenomenological investigation CAP: A school founded by Edmund Husserl,* and an important influence on existentialism. This school developed its own philosophical method of using intuition for describing consciousness and experience. Phenomenologists claim that this method can be used to study the inherent qualities of phenomena as they appear to the mind. phenomenon (Grk: phainomenon fr. roots meaning to appear, to show) 1 pl phenomena, an observable fact or event; 2 a. an object or aspect known through the senses rather than by thought or nonsensuous intuition; b. a temporal or spaciotemporal <q.v.> object of sensual experience as distinguished from a noumenon <q.v.>; c. a fact or event of scientific interest susceptible of scientific description and explanation; 3 a. a rare or significant fact or event; b. pl phenomenons an exceptional, unusual, or abnormal person, thing, or occurrence usage: The plural phenomena is occasionally used as a singular. This singular use appears to be somewhat less frequent than the similar use of criteria, and while it may one day establish itself, it has not done so yet and will generally be considered an error. philosopher king In Platos* Republic, a philosopher trained by formal study in disciplines including mathematics and philosophy. Plato emphasized that philosopher kings leadership would be shown by their ability to see the


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Forms, or universal ideals. See also Forms. philosophes Term applied to eighteenth-century French Enlightenment thinkers such as Rousseau,* Diderot,* and Voltaire.* The area of philosophic study whose subject matter is the nature and workings of language. Detailed discussions of such topics as meaning, reference, grammar, and symbols infuse this branch of philosophy. A branch of philosophy that studies such questions as, What are mathematical statements about? Why is mathematics true? How do we come to have mathematical knowledge? Why is mathematics so useful in studying reality? The area of philosophy that studies the mind, consciousness, and mental functions such as thinking, intention, imagination, and emotion. It is not one specific branch of philosophy, but rather an aspect of most traditional branches, such as metaphysics, epistemology, and aesthetics. A branch of philosophy concerned with such questions as, What is religion? What is God? Can Gods existence be proved? Is there immortality? What is the relationship between faith, reason, and revelation? Is there a divine purpose in the world? The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of science. It is particularly concerned with the methods, concepts, and assumptions of science, as well as with analyzing scientific concepts such as space, time, cause, scientific law, and verification. A group of grammatically connected words within a sentence: One council member left in a huff; She got much satisfaction from planting daffodil bulbs. Unlike CLAUSES, phrases do not have both a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE. A theory about knowledge that originated within the Vienna Circle. It holds that all factual statements can be reduced to observations of physical objects and

philosophy of language

philosophy of mathematics

philosophy of mind

philosophy of religion

philosophy of science




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events. See also operationalism. pig in a poke To buy something sight unseen (a poke is a bag): The mail-order offer sounded like a bargain, but I didnt want to buy a pig in a poke. Literary theft. Plagiarism occurs when a writer duplicates another writers language or ideas and then calls the work his or her own. COPYRIGHT laws protect writers words as their legal property. To avoid the charge of plagiarism, writers take care to credit those from whom they borrow and quote. -- Similar theft in music or other arts is also called plagiarism. Plato An ancient Greek PHILOSOPHER, often considered the most important figure in Western PHILOSOPHY. Plato was a student of SOCRATES, and later became the teacher of ARISTOTLE. He founded a school in ATHENS called the ACADEMY. Most of his writings are dialogues. He is best known for his THEORY that ideal Forms or Ideas, such as Truth or the Good, exist in a realm beyond the material world. In fact, however, his chief subjects are ETHICS and politics. His bestknown dialogues are the Republic, which concerns the just state, and the Symposium, which concerns the nature of love. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). 1 cap of, relating to, or characteristic of Plato or Platonism; 2 a relating to or based on platonic love; b NOMINAL, THEORETICAL 1 love conceived by Plato as ascending from passion for the individual to contemplation of the universal and ideal; 2 a close relationship between two persons in which sexual desire has been suppressed or sublimated 1 a the philosophy of Plato stressing esp. that actual things are copies of transcendental ideas and that these ideas are the objects of true knowledge apprehended by reminiscence; b NEOPLATONISM; 2 PLATONIC LOVE



platonic love



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Thoughts and writings developed in the fifth century B.C. in Athens by Plato,* the greatest student of Socrates.* Platonisms chief tenet is that the ultimate reality consists of unchanging, absolute, eternal entities called Ideas or Forms; all earthly objects are not truly real but merely partake in the Forms. Platos cave An analogy in Platos* Republic between reality and illusion. The main image is of men who see on the walls of a cave only the shadows of the real objects moving around outside the cave. When these men leave the cave and see the real objects, they cannot, upon returning to the cave, convince those who have never left of the reality of the objects. To behave dishonorably; to make a promise and fail to deliver on it: I hope this car salesman isnt just playing fast and loose with me. To direct a performance toward less sophisticated tastes; by extension, to attempt to gain approval by crude or obvious means: The cast of the play was a decidedly mixed bag of youthful method actors and old hams who played to the gallery. The view that there are more than two kinds of fundamental, irreducible realities in the universe, or that there are many separate and independent levels of reality. The study of the Holy Spirit, His person, works, relation to the Father and Son, relation to man, ministry in salvation and sanctification, conviction, and indwelling. The branch of philosophy that studies man as a political animal. It is concerned with such questions as, What obligations do I have to my government? How is political power justified? Under what conditions is war justified? It also studies the nature of property, justice, freedom, liberty, and political rights. The teaching that there are many gods. In the Ancient Near East the nation of Israel was faced with the problem of the gods of other nations creeping

play fast and loose play to the gallery



political philosophy



Philisophical Leixcon
into the theology of Judaism and corrupting the true revelation of God. Baal was the god of rain and exercised a powerful influence over the religion of many pagan cultures and even into the Jewish community. This is so because rain was essential to survival. Rain meant the crops would grow, the animals would have water, and the people would be able to eat. If there was no rain, death prevailed. Such visible realities often carried the spiritual character of the nation of Israel into spiritual adultery, that is, worshiping other gods. The Bible does recognize the existence of other gods, but only as false gods (1 Cor. 8:5; Gal. 4:8) and clearly teaches that there is only one true God (Is. 43:10; 44:6, 8; 45:5, 18, 21, 22; 46:9). (See Monotheism.) pooh-bah A self-important person of high position and great influence. Pooh-Bah is a CHARACTER in GILBERT AND SULLIVANs OPERETTA THE MIKADO; his title is LordHigh-Everything-Else. theory that holds that theology and metaphysics are earlier and imperfect modes of knowledge; positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations as verified by the empirical sciences (relying on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system or theory) A theory originated by French philosopher Auguste Comte.* It holds that all knowledge is defined by the limits of scientific investigation; thus, philosophy must abandon any quest for knowledge of an ultimate reality or any knowledge beyond that offered by science. See also logical positivism. possessive The CASE of a NOUN or PRONOUN that shows possession. Nouns are usually made possessive by adding an APOSTROPHE and s: The bicycle is Sues, not Marks. Possessive pronouns can take the place of possessive nouns: The bicycle is hers, not his. (See NOMINATIVE CASE and OBJECTIVE CASE.) The belief that through the preaching of the word of God, the entire world will be converted to Christianity and this will usher in the kingdom of Christ. This is when Christ will return.




Philisophical Leixcon

pound of flesh

Creditors who insist on having their pound of flesh are those who cruelly demand the repayment of a debt, no matter how much suffering it will cost the debtor: The bank will have its pound of flesh; it is going to foreclose on our MORTGAGE and force us to sell our home. From THE MERCHANT OF VENICE, by SHAKESPEARE, in which SHYLOCK demands a pound of flesh from his debtors body as the agreed compensation for a loan the debtor is unable to repay. An American philosophy developed in the nineteenth century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) and William James,* and elaborated on in the twentieth century by John Dewey.* Its central precepts are that thinking is primarily a guide to action and that the truth of any idea lies in its practical consequences. A privilege and an obligation of the Christian where we communicate with God. It is how we convey our confession (1 John 1:9), requests (1 Tim. 2:1-3), intercessions (James 5:15), thanksgiving (Phil. 4:6), etc., to our holy God. We are commanded to pray (1 Thess. 5:17). Some personal requirements of prayer are a pure heart (Ps. 66:18), belief in Christ (John 14:13), and according to Gods will (1 John 5:14). We can pray standing (Neh. 9:5), kneeling (Ezra 9:5), sitting (1 Chr. 17:16-27), bowing (Ex. 34:8), and with lifted hands (1 Tim. 2:8). The doctrine that God has foreordained all things which will come to pass yet He is not the author of sin. He does, however, use sinful things for His glory and purpose. For example, the crucifixion was brought about by sinful men who unrighteously put Jesus to death (Acts 4:27); yet, in that death, we are reconciled to God (Rom. 5:10). Predestination maintains that God is the one who wills who will be saved (Rom. 9:16) and that it is not up to the desire of the person (John 1:13). God is the one who ordains the Christian into forgiveness, ...and as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed (Acts 13:48). Also, For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the



Predestine, Predestination


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image of His Son, that He might be the first-born among many brethren; and whom He predestined, these he also called; and who He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified (Rom. 8:29-30). Further verses to examine are Eph. 1:4,11; Rom. 9. (See also Election and Sovereignty.) predicate The part of a sentence that shows what is being said about the SUBJECT. The predicate includes the main VERB and all its MODIFIERS. In the following sentence, the italicized portion is the subject, and everything that follows forms the predicate: Olgas dog was the ugliest creature on four legs. This is a teaching concerning the end times (eschatology). It says that there is a future millennium (1000 years) where Christ will rule and reign over the earth. At the beginning of the millennium Satan and his angels will be bound and peace will exist on the entire earth. At the end of the 1000 years Satan will be released in order to raise an army against Jesus. Jesus will destroy them and then the final judgment will take place with the new heavens and the new earth being made. A PART OF SPEECH that indicates the relationship, often spatial, of one word to another. For example, She paused at the gate; This tomato is ripe for picking; and They talked the matter over head to head. Some common prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, into, on, to, and with. Name given to all Greek theorists of nature or philosophers who lived before Socrates. Among the pre-Socratics are Anaximander,* Pythagoras,* and Thales.* Dating back to Aristotle, this universally accepted law of thought has two parts: A statement cannot be both true and false; nothing can both have a quality, like red, and not have it, at the same time. The philosophical doctrine of Leibniz* that asserts that for every fact there is a reason for its being the way it is rather than another way, even though we




principle (or law) of noncontradiction principle of sufficient reason


Philisophical Leixcon
may not know that reason. principle of utility (greatest happiness principle) pro forma The basic tenet of utilitarianism. It states that the highest ethical good provides the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Doing something pro forma means satisfying only the minimum requirements of a task and doing it in a perfunctory way: Her welcoming address was strictly pro forma: you could tell that her mind was a million miles away. From LATIN, meaning by form. Temporarily: While the president of the company is ill, the vice president will act as the leader pro tem. From LATIN, meaning for the time being. marked by arbitrary and often ruthless disregard of individual differences or special circumstances. From Procrustes, a villainous son of Poseidon, the sea god, who forces travelers to fit into his bed by stretching their bodies if they are too short or by cutting off their legs if they are too tall. Procrustean Bed prolepsis a scheme or pattern into which someone or something is arbitrarily forced. (Gk. prolambanein to take beforehand) ANTICIPATION; a. the representation or assumption of a future act or development as if presently existing or accomplished; b. the application of an adjective to a noun in anticipation of the result of the action of the verb (as in while yon slow oxen turn the furrowed plain) A word that takes the place of a NOUN. She, herself, it, and this are examples of pronouns. If we substituted pronouns for the nouns in the sentence Please give the present to Karen, it would read Please give it to her. A word that takes the place of a NOUN. She, herself, it, and this are examples of pronouns. If we substituted pronouns for the nouns in the sentence Please give the present

pro tempore





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to Karen, it would read Please give it to her. Prophet Someone who is the mouthpiece of God. He stands between God and man to communicate to man the word of God. When the prophet spoke as the mouthpiece he was inspired and without error. The prophet, though, is not a puppet or a mindless repeater of what he hears. Instead, he retains his own will, mind, and thoughts as he speaks for God. God would put His words in their mouths (Deut. 18:18; Jer. 1:9). A prophet was Gods servant (Zech. 1:6) and messenger (2 Chr. 36:15). The prophecies fell into three categories: concerning the destiny of Israel, the messianic prophecies, and eschatological prophecies. The term Law and Prophets refers to the writings of the O.T. divided into two categories. The Law is the Pentateuch, or Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Prophets are all the rest of the O.T. books. This means the turning away of wrath by an offering. It is similar to expiation but expiation does not carry the nuances involving wrath. For the Christian the propitiation was the shed blood of Jesus on the cross. It turned away the wrath of God so that He could pass over the sins previously committed (Rom. 3:25). It was the Father who sent the Son to be the propitiation (1 John 4:10) for all (1 John 2:2). of or resembling Proteus in having a varied nature or ability to assume different forms; displaying great diversity or variety; versatile. Proteus was a Greek sea god capable of assuming different forms. A view of philosophy holding that all philosophic concepts and problems are explainable based on psychological principles and that they should be treated by some form of psychological analysis. Advocates of this view may disagree on the type of psychological approach that is appropriate. a squat, grotesque person An incorrect doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. Purgatory is the belief that there exists a place after death where some of the sins of people are purged




punchinello Purgatory


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through suffering. After a period of time corresponding to the suffering necessary for the sins committed, the person is then set free and enters heaven. Gifts or services rendered to the church, prayers by the priests, and masses provided by relatives or friends in behalf of the deceased can shorten, alleviate or eliminate the sojourn of the soul in purgatory. This is an unbiblical doctrine rejected by the Protestant church. It reflects the misunderstanding of the atonement of Christ as well as adding insult to the finished work of the cross. The error of purgatory is the teaching that we might perfect ourselves and remove sin through our sufferings. If that were possible, then why did Christ need to die? Gal. 2:21 says, I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing! (NIV) Additionally, on the cross Jesus said, It is finished (John 19:30). In the Greek, this was an accounting term which meant a debt was paid in full. If the payment for our sins was paid in full on the cross, then how could purgatory be a reality -- especially when the scriptures dont mention it and even contradict it: Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment (Heb. 9:27). putative (Latin: putatus, putare to think) 1 commonly accepted or supposed, reputed; 2 assumed to exist or to have existed, INFERRED A victory that is accompanied by enormous losses and leaves the winners in as desperate shape as if they had lost. Pyrrhus was an ancient general who, after defeating the Romans, told those who wished to congratulate him, One more such victory and Pyrrhus is undone. Followers of Pythagoras.* The group flourished until about 400 B.C. and were influential in philosophy, religion, mathematics, and science. They strongly influenced the thinking of Plato* and Neoplatonists.

pyrrhic victory



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QED (Latin, abbr for quod erat demonstrandum that which was to be demonstrated). A PHRASE used to signal that a proof has just been completed. This abbreviation is often used right before or after stating a conclusion, as a synonym for therefore, thus, or as was to be shown. Mercy is something that has to be freely given; no one can force someone else to be merciful. (Strained is an old form of constrained, meaning forced.) From The Merchant of Venice by SHAKESPEARE. A fair exchange; the PHRASE is most frequently used in diplomacy: The Chinese may make some concessions on trade, but they will no doubt demand a quid pro quo, so we must be prepared to make concessions too. From LATIN, meaning something for something.

quality of mercy is not strained

quid pro quo


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raison detre A basic, essential purpose; a reason to exist: Professor Naylor argues that in the NUCLEAR age, infantry forces have lost their raison detre. From French, meaning reason for being. The rapture is an eschatological (end times) event where upon the return of Christ the true believers who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them [those who already died as Christians] in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air... (1 Thess. 4:17). This is the time of the resurrection where the Christian receives his resurrected body. First to receive their new bodies are those who have died as Christians, and then those who are alive and remain. There is much debate over the time of the rapture. Does it occur at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the tribulation period? (See Tribulation.) (Latin; used by Thomas Aquinas), the note of goodness, the formality under which we do any action, on the one hand, and, on the other, the particular deed done in which we take that formality to be realized. 1 reliance on reason <q.v.> as the basis for establishment of religious truth; 2 a. a theory that reason is in itself a source of knowledge superior to and independent of sense perceptions; b. a view that reason and experience rather than the nonrational are the fundamental criteria in the solution of problems; 3 FUNCTIONALISM The philosophic approach that holds that reality is knowable by the use of reason or thinking alone, without recourse to observation or experience. See also seventeenth-century rationalists. realism An attempt to make art and literature resemble life. Realist painters and writers take their subjects from the world around them (instead of from idealized subjects such as figures in MYTHOLOGY or 97


ratio boni


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FOLKLORE), and try to represent them in a lifelike manner. realism The major medieval and modern view on the problem of universals other than nominalism. Extreme realism, which is close to Platos* theory of Forms, holds that universals exist independently of both particular things and the human mind; moderate realism holds that they exist as ideas in Gods mind, through which He creates things. (OF: raison, f. Latin: ration-, ratio reason, computation, akin to Grk: arariskein to fit) 1 a. a statement offered in explanation or justification; b. a rational ground or motive; c. a sufficient ground of explanation or of logical defense; esp. something (as a principle or law) that supports a conclusion or explains a fact; d. the thing that makes some fact intelligible, CAUSE; 2 a. 1) the power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking esp. in orderly rational ways, INTELLIGENCE; 2) proper exercise of the mind; 3) sanity; b. the sum of intellectual powers; 3 archaic: treatment that affords satisfaction verb transitive (French reboter from re + boter to butt) 1 to drive or beat back, REPEL; 2 a to contradict or oppose by formal legal argument, plea, or countervailing proof; b to expose the falsity of, REFUTE verb intransitive: to make or furnish an answer or counter proof rebuttal Reconcile, Reconciliation the act of rebutting, esp. in a legal suit; also, an argument that rebuts Reconciliation is changing for the better a relationship between two or more persons. Theologically it refers to the change of relationship between God and man. We are naturally children of wrath (Eph. 2:3), and are at enmity with God (Eph. 2:11-15); but, ...we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son... (Rom. 5:10). Because of the death of Jesus, the Christians relationship with God is changed for the better. We are now able to have




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fellowship with Him (1 John 1:3) whereas before we could not. So, we are reconciled to Him (Rom. 5:1011). The problem of sin that separates us from God (Isaiah 59:2) has been addressed and removed in the cross. It was accomplished by God in Christ (2 Cor. 5:18). red herring In argument, something designed to divert an opponents attention from the central issue. If a herring is dragged across a trail that hounds are following, it throws them off the scent. Redemption means to free someone from bondage. It often involves the paying of a ransom, a price that makes redemption possible. The Israelites were redeemed from Egypt. We were redeemed from the power of sin and the curse of the Law (Gal. 3:13) through Jesus (Rom. 3:24; Col. 1:14). We were bought with a price (1 Cor. 6:20; 7:23). To carry an idea or an argument to the point of absurdity: The electric teaspoon is a reductio ad absurdum of convenient household appliances. From LATIN, meaning reduction to absurdity. Unnecessary repetition in speech or writing. The expression freedom and liberty is redundant. an act or the privilege of going or coming back; withdrawal; re-entry; the act of reasoning backward A VERB that follows standard patterns in its INFLECTION. The past TENSE of a regular verb is formed by adding an -ed ending: walk, walked; shout, shouted. (Compare IRREGULAR VERB.) The doctrine that no ideas or beliefs are universally true, but that all are instead relative -- that is, their validity depends on the circumstances in which they are applied. (Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). The precept that peoples ideas of right and wrong vary considerably from place to place and time to time; therefore, there are no universally valid ethical standards.


reductio ad absurdum

redundancy regress regular verb



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To repent means to turn. In the N.T. repentance means to turn from sin. We were called by God to turn from sin. In fact, all men everywhere are commanded by God to repent of their sins (Acts 17:30). Gods longsuffering leads us to repentance (2 Pet. 3:9) as does His kindness (Rom. 2:4). There is true and false repentance, For the sorrow that is according to the will of God produces a repentance without regret, leading to salvation; but the sorrow of the world produces death (2 Cor. 7:10). Resurrection means to be raised from the dead (John 5:28,29). The word is used in different contexts in the Bible. Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11:43). This is a resurrection, but it is not part of the resurrection that occurs when we receive our new bodies when Christ returns (1 Thess. 4:13-18), on the last day (John 6:39-44) when the last trumpet is blown (1 Cor. 15:51-55). Lazarus died again. The resurrection of Jesus is promissory in that as we know He was raised, so we will be raised also. In that context, Jesus is the only one who has received a resurrected body. That is why He is called the firstfruit from the dead (1 Cor. 15:20-23). We will receive our bodies either at the rapture or when Jesus returns to earth. The resurrected body is not subject to death or sin. We know very little about it except what was was manifested by Jesus after His resurrection; namely, that He was able to move about as He desired -- in and out of rooms without the use of doors. Other than that, the rest is conjecture. (See 1 Cor. 15). This means the disclosure of something that was unknown. There are two types of revelation: natural and special. Natural revelation is that which is revealed about God through what we can see in creation (Rom. 1:20). Through creation we may learn that there is a God, that He is in control, that He has an order, and that He is concerned for our welfare. However, through natural revelation, we are not able to discover the plan of salvation. That comes from special revelation.

Resurrection, resurrection bodies



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Special revelation is that which is given to us through Prophets, the Bible, and even visions and dreams (Num. 12:6-8). The ultimate in revelation is the incarnation of Jesus because He came to reveal the Father to us (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; Heb. 1:1-3) and to communicate to us the gospel (1 Cor. 15:1-4) by which comes salvation. rhetorical question A question posed without expectation of an answer but merely as a way of making a point: You dont expect me to go along with that crazy scheme, do you? A NOVEL in which actual people and places are disguised as fictional CHARACTERS. Roman a clef is French for novel with a key. A movement that shaped all the arts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Romanticism generally stressed the essential goodness of human beings (see JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU), celebrated nature rather than civilization, and valued emotion and imagination over reason. (Compare CLASSICISM.) A grammatically faulty sentence in which two or more main or INDEPENDENT CLAUSES are joined without a word to connect them or a punctuation mark to separate them: The fog was thick he could not find his way home. The error can be corrected by adding a CONJUNCTION (The fog was thick and he could not find his way home) or by separating the two clauses with a SEMICOLON (The fog was thick; he could not find his way home).

roman a clef


run on sentence


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Sacrament A visible manifestation of the word. The bread and wine in the Lords Supper are considered sacraments in that they are visible manifestations of the covenant promise of our Lord: In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you. (Luke 22:20). God, in the O.T. used visible signs along with His spoken word. These visible signs, then, were considered to have significance. Among the O.T. sacraments the rites of circumcision and the Passover were stressed as being the O.T. counterparts of baptism (Col. 2:22-12) and the Lords Supper (1 Cor. 5:7). To behave deceptively; the colors of a ship are its identifying flags: It turned out that the door-to-door salesman was sailing under false colors and was actually a swindler. An expression from SHAKESPEAREs ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA that refers to the time of youth when one is inexperienced or green (like salad). Salvation is the deliverance from sin. When someone appeals to God and seeks forgiveness in Jesus, his sins are removed. He is cleansed. His relationship with God is restored, and he is made a new creature (2 Cor. 5:17). All of this is the work of God, not man. Salvation is a free gift (Rom. 6:23). We are saved from damnation. When anyone sins, and we all have (Rom. 3:23; 6:23), he deserves eternal separation from God (Is. 59:2). Yet, because of His love and mercy, God became a man (John 1:1,14) and bore the sins of the world in His body on the cross (1 Pet. 2:24; 1 John 2:2). We are forgiven when we realize there is nothing we can do to merit the favor of God and put our trust in what Jesus did for us on the cross (Eph. 2:8-9; 1 Cor. 15:1-4). Only God saves. The only thing we bring to the cross is our sin. Both God the Father (Is. 14:21) and Jesus (John 4:42)

sail under false colors

salad days



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are called Savior; that is, deliverer from sin. Remember, it was the Father who sent the Son (1 John 4:10) to be the Savior. Sanctify, Sanctification To sanctify means to be set apart for a holy use. God has set us apart for the purpose of sanctification not impurity (1 Thess. 4:7) and being such we are called to do good works (Eph. 2:10). Christians are to sanctify Christ as Lord in their hearts (1 Pet. 3:15). God sanctified Israel as His own special nation (Ez. 37:28). People can be sanctified (Ex. 19:10,14) and so can a mountain (Ex. 19:23), the Sabbath day (Gen. 2:3), the tabernacle (Ex. 20:39), and every created thing is sanctified through the word of God and prayer (1 Tim. 4:4).1 Sanctification follows (See Justification). In justification our sins are completely forgiven in Christ. Sanctification is the process by which the Holy Spirit makes us more like Christ in all that we do, think, and desire. True sanctification is impossible apart from the atoning work of Christ on the cross because only after our sins are forgiven can we begin to lead a holy life. LATIN for holy of holies. The place in the Jewish temple in JERUSALEM where the Ark of the Covenant was kept. By extension, a sacred and private place. Composure in the face of difficulty or danger: We would all be dead today if our bus driver hadnt kept his sangfroid when the bus began to skid on the ice. From French, meaning cold blood. A form of IRONY in which apparent praise conceals another, scornful meaning. For example, a sarcastic remark directed at a person who consistently arrives fifteen minutes late for appointments might be, Oh, youve arrived exactly on time! 1 disdainfully or skeptically humorous. 2 derisively mocking. cf. Sarcastic A work of literature that mocks social conventions, another work of art, or anything its author thinks ridiculous. GULLIVERS TRAVELS, by Jonathan SWIFT, is a satire directed at eighteenth-century British

sanctum sanctorum sangfroid


sardonic satire


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society. saturnine 1 cold and steady mood. 2 slow to act or change. 3 of a gloomy or surly disposition. 4 having a sardonic aspect (disdainfully or skeptically humorous) Ease and dexterity in social and practical affairs: Pierre is a friendly person, but he lacks the savoirfaire required for a successful career in the foreign service. From French, meaning to know how to act. A general term referring to the Christian philosophy of the Middle Ages, especially at the medieval universities. The Scholastics basically followed Aristotles* empiricism, using highly analytical logical and linguistic methods of argumentation, especially with respect to the problem of universals. The scriptures are, quite simply, the Bible which consists of 39 books in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament. Each one is inspired, without error, and is completely accurate in all things it addresses. The entire Bible, though written by many people over thousands of years is totally in harmony in all its teachings. This is because each book of the Bible is inspired. The Second Coming is a term applied to the return of Christ. If there is a second coming, it follows that there must have been a first. The first coming of Christ was His incarnation when He was born. At the second coming of Christ every eye will see Him (Rev. 1:7) as He descends from heavens in t he clouds (Matt. 24:30; Mark 14:62). The scientific or philosophical study of the relations of words and their meanings. -- Semantics is commonly used to refer to a trivial point or distinction that revolves around mere words rather than significant issues: To argue whether the medication killed the patient or contributed to her death is to argue over semantics. Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition).




Second Coming, The



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senescence sensationalism state of being old, the process of becoming old An empiricist theory of knowledge that holds that sensations are both the source of all knowledge and the ultimate verification of any statements. Hobbes* originated the view; Etienne Condillac (1715-1880) and Ernst Mach (1838-1916) developed it. The sensory qualities or feelings we experience directly, such as shapes, colors, and smells, without any interpretation of the material objects that may be causing them. Some empiricists and sensationalist philosophers make sense data the foundation of all factual knowledge. The Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Old Testament. The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew. It was during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.) That the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, were translated into Greek. Shortly afterwards the rest of the Old Testament was also translated. This translation was done by approximately 70 translators. Hence, the Septuagint is known by the letters LXX, the Roman numerals for seventy. A broad term referring to the rationalism shared by Descartes,* Leibniz,* and Spinoza.* It held that reason and deduction could provide knowledge of the world independent of experience. A LATIN word for thus, used to indicate that an apparent error is part of quoted material and not an editorial mistake: The learned geographer asserts that the capital of the United States is Washingtown [sic]. A common figure of speech that explicitly compares two things usually considered different. Most similes are introduced by like or as: The realization hit me like a bucket of cold water. (Compare METAPHOR.) -- Some similes, such as sleeping like a log, have become CLICHEs.

sense data

Septuagint, The

Seventeenthcentury rationalists sic



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simple sentences A sentence containing only one INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and no DEPENDENT CLAUSES: He went home after class. (Compare COMPLEX SENTENCE, COMPOUND SENTENCE, and COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE.) Sin is anything that is contrary to the law or will of God. For example: if you lie, you have sinned. Why? Because God has said not to lie (Ex. 20:16). If you do what God has forbidden, then you have sinned. In addition, if you do not do what God has commanded, you sin (James 4:17). Either way, the result is eternal separation from God (Is. 59:2). Sin is lawlessness (1 John 1:3) and unrighteousness (1 John 5:17). Sin leads to blindness (John 9:41) and death (Rom. 6:23). Paul, in the book of Romans, discusses sin. He shows that everyone, both Jew and Greek, is under sin (Rom. 3:9). He shows that sin is not simply something that is done, but a condition of the heart (Rom. 3:3:10-12). In Ephesians Paul says that we are by nature children of wrath (Rom. 2:3). Yet, while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly (Rom. 5:6). The essential, crucial, or indispensable ingredient without which something would be impossible: Her leadership was the sine qua non of the organizations success. From LATIN, meaning without which nothing. (Latin) an indispensable condition or without which not; anything that may be described accurately as sine qua non is absolutely necessary In a state of confusion or disorder: Trying to cram for this math test has me all at sixes and sevens. The philosophic theory that no certain knowledge can be attained by man. Broadly speaking, skepticism states that all knowledge should be questioned and tested, for instance, by the scientific method. (fr. Latin scandalum stumbling block, offense) 1. the utterance of false charges or misrepresentations which defame and damage anothers reputation. 2. a false and defamatory oral statement about a


sine qua non

sine qua non

sixes and sevens, at skepticism



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person compare LIBEL social contract That concept of an agreement between people, or between people and government or ruler, in which it is agreed that some personal liberties will be given up in exchange for the security of stable political rule. The term is used in the political philosophy of Hobbes,* Locke,* and Rousseau* to justify a form of political authority. the self can know nothing but its own modifications and the self is the only existent thing Also, the belief that all reality is just ones own imagining of reality, and that ones self is the only thing that exists (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). The theory that one cannot know anything other than his or her own thoughts, feelings, or perceptions; therefore, other people and the real world must be projections of ones own mind with no existence in and of themselves. See also egocentric predicament. soma (2) somat-, somatosomatology pl somata (Grk: body) 1 the body of an organism; 2 all of an organism except the germ cells; 3 cell body comb form body (e.g., somatology) a branch of anthropology primarily concerned with the comparative study of human evolution, variation, and classification esp. through measurement and observation This is a title of Jesus. It implies His deity (John 5:18) because the title is one of equality with God. In the O.T. it was figuratively applied to Israel (Ex. 4:22). In the N.T. it is applied to Christ (Luke 1:35). It has many facets, for example: It shows that He is to be honored equally with the Father (John 5:22-23). That He is to be worshiped (Matt. 2:2,11;14:33;28;9; John 9:35-38; Heb. 1:6); called God (John 20:28; Heb. 1:8); prayed to (Acts 7:55-60; 1 Cor. 1:1-2). 1 an argument apparently correct in form but


Son of God



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actually invalid, esp. such an argument used to deceive; 2 SOPHISTRY 1 sophist (Grk: sophistes lit. expert, wise man, fr. sophizesthai to become wise, deceive, fr. sophos clever, wise) 1 (cap) any of a class of ancient Greek teachers of rhetoric, philosophy, and the art of successful living prominent about the middle of the 5th century BC for their adroit, subtle, and often specious reasoning; 2 PHILOSOPHER, THINKER; 3 a captious or fallacious reasoner 1 of or relating to sophists, sophistry, or the ancient Sophists; 2 plausible but fallacious 1 subtly deceptive reasoning or argumentation; 2 SOPHISM 1 Wandering teachers in the fourth and fifth centuries in ancient Greece who taught any subjects that their paying students wished to learn, from grammar to public speaking. They were strongly ridiculed by Plato,* who held that they were less interested in truth than in pleasing their students for a fee. The study of the doctrine of salvation. It is derived from the Greek word soterious which means salvation. Some of the subjects of soteriology are the atonement, imputation, and regeneration. The teaching that when a person dies his soul ceases to exist. On the final judgment day he is brought back to life and judged. This is not a heresy, only an error of interpretation. The Bible is not specific on the condition of the person after death and between the resurrection, however, there are scriptures that strongly suggest mans continued self-awareness and continued existence after death (Luke 16:19-31; 2 Cor. 5:1-10; Phil. 1:21-23). The right of God to do as He wishes (Ps. 50:1; Is. 40:15; 1 Tim. 6:15) with His creation. This implies that there is no external influence upon Him and that He also has the ability to exercise His right according to His will.

sophistic sophistry Sophists


Soul Sleep



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space (Latin: spatium area, room, interval of space of time) 1 a period of time, also its duration; 2 a. a limited extent in one, two, or three dimensions, DISTANCE, AREA, VOLUME; b. an extent set apart or available; 4 a. a boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction; b. physical space independent of what occupies it called absolute space; 7 a set of mathematical elements and esp. of abstractions of all the points on a line, in a plane, or in physical space, esp. a set of mathematical entities with a set of axioms or geometric character A term referring to the belief that spirits of the dead communicate with the living, for instance, at seances or through a medium. Spiritual gifts are gifts given by Jesus to His church. Spiritual gifts are discussed in 1 Cor. 12-14 and Rom. 12. They vary in degree and nature. There are some that are obviously supernatural in the usage: speaking in tongues, discerning of spirits, healing, etc. There are others that are not so supernatural: administrations, help, admonition, etc. There is debate over the continuance of the gifts. Some say that the gifts have ceased because we now have the Bible. They argue that the gifts were used for the building of the body of Christ during the beginning of the Christian church when the Bible was not complete. Since the Bible is complete there is no further need for the revelatory gifts, that is, gifts that give revelatory like speaking in tongues and the interpretation of tongues. Others maintain that the gifts are all for today though to a lesser degree. There are good arguments on both sides. The view that the ultimate reality in the universe is the spirit. Advocates of this view may disagree about the nature of the spirit. An INFINITIVE is the to form of a VERB, as in to play. A split infinitive is a PHRASE in which to is separated from the verb. The sentence I decided to quickly and directly go home contains a split infinitive. Some people consider it poor style, or even


Spiritual Gifts


split infinitive


Philisophical Leixcon
incorrect style, to split an infinitive. spoonerism A reversal of sounds in two words, with humorous effect. Spoonerisms were named after William Spooner, an English clergyman and scholar of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In one spoonerism attributed to him, he meant May I show you to another seat? but said, May I sew you to another sheet? literal (or original) a horse or other shape that a hunter uses to hide behind while he stalks his quarry. Current, contemporary usage: something (a statement, an accusation, an argument, even a person as in a political candidate) that hides the real agenda Lovers whose relationship is doomed to fail are said to be STAR-crossed (frustrated by the stars), because those who believe in ASTROLOGY claim that the stars control human destiny. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE created the PHRASE to describe the lovers in ROMEO AND JULIET. A term used by seventeenth- and eighteenth-century social philosophers such as Hobbes,* Locke,* and Rousseau.* It referred to the condition of man without political organization, or before government. The existing order of things; present customs, practices, and power relations: People with money are often content with the status quo. From LATIN, meaning the state in which. (Latin: stet let it stand, from stare stand) to direct retention of (a word or passage previously ordered to be deleted or omitted from a manuscript or printers proof) by annotating usually with the word stet A Greek school founded by Zeno* in the third century B.C. Stoics held that men should submit to natural law and that a mans chief duty is to conform to his destiny. They also believed the soul to be another form of matter, and thus not immortal.

stalking horse

star crossed

state of nature

status quo




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straw man A made-up version of an opponents argument that can easily be defeated. To accuse people of attacking a straw man is to suggest that they are avoiding more worthy opponents and more valid criticisms of their own position: His speech had emotional appeal, but it wasnt really convincing because he attacked a straw man rather than addressing the real issues. ca. 1900 1 a weak or imaginary opposition (as an argument or adversary) set up only to be easily refuted. 2 a person set up to serve as a cover for a usually questionable transaction. [Latin stultificare to make foolish, fr. L stultus foolish; akin to L stolidus stolid = dull or stupid] 1 to allege or prove to be of unsound mind and hence not responsible. 2 to cause to appear or be stupid, foolish, or absurdly illogical. 3 a. to impair, invalidate, or make ineffective: NEGATE; b. to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on Sturgeons Law states that Ninety percent of everything is crap. Derived from a quote by science fiction author Theodore Sturgeon, who once said, Sure, 90% of science fiction is crud. Thats because 90% of everything is crud. Oddly, when Sturgeons Law is cited, the final word is almost invariably changed to crap. Compare Hanlons Razor, Ninety-Ninety Rule. Though this maxim originated in SF fandom, most hackers recognize it and are all too aware of its truth. subject A part of every sentence. The subject tells what the sentence is about; it contains the main NOUN or noun PHRASE: The car crashed into the railing; Judy and two of her friends were elected to the National Honor Society. In some cases the subject is implied: you is the implied subject in Get me some orange juice. (Compare PREDICATE.) The theory that all moral values are completely dependent on the personal tastes, feelings, or inclinations of the individual and have no source of validity outside of such human subjective states of

straw man


Sturgeons Law



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mind. subjunctive A grammatical form of VERBS implying hypothetical action or condition. Subjunctives are italicized in these sentences: If Mr. Stafford were [not was] fluent in French, he could communicate with his employees more effectively; If Sheila had been here, she would have helped us with our math. In a sentence, a CLAUSE that depends on another clause for its meaning. (See SUBORDINATION.) The use of expressions that make one element of a sentence dependent on another. In the following sentence, the first (italicized) CLAUSE is subordinate to the second clause: Despite all efforts toward a peaceful settlement of the dispute, war finally broke out. (Compare COORDINATION, DEPENDENT CLAUSE, and INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.) A changeless, self-subsistent entity, not dependent on anything else, that underlies being in all its forms. It has been identified with God, mind, matter, and self-contained ultimate realities. See also monad. A person who does not suffer fools gladly is one who does not tolerate stupidity in others. A letter or a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. For example, adding the suffix -ter to the ADJECTIVE hot turns it into the COMPARATIVE adjective hotter, and adding the suffix -ly to the adjective quick turns it into the ADVERB quickly. Other examples of words with suffixes are: willing, management, serviceable, harmonize, and joyful. (Compare PREFIX.) A person or thing that is unique, in a class by itself: She is an original artist; each of her paintings is sui generis. From LATIN, meaning of its own kind. (Latin: one of a kind or of its own kind) constituting a class alone, UNIQUE, PECULIAR (Latin: of ones own right) having full legal rights or capacity

subordinate clause subordination


suffer fools gladly suffix

sui generis

sui generis sui juris


Philisophical Leixcon


The form of an ADJECTIVE indicating the greatest degree of the quality that the adjective describes. Best is the superlative form of good; fastest is the superlative form of fast; most charming is the superlative form of charming. The usual superlative takes the ending -est. (Compare COMPARATIVE.) The belief that there are forces, energies, or beings beyond the material world--such as God, spirit, or occult forces--that affect events in our world. coming or occurring as something additional, extraneous, or unexpected A basic unit of speech generally containing only one VOWEL sound. The word basic contains two syllables (ba-sic). The word generally contains four (gen-er-ally). (See HYPHEN.) A kind of deductive reasoning or argument. As defined by Aristotle, it was considered the basis of reasoning for over two thousand years. In every syllogism, there are two statements (premises) from which a conclusion follows necessarily. Syllogisms are of three basic logical types, as illustrated by these examples: 1. If a broom is new, it sweeps clean; the broom is new; therefore, it sweeps clean. 2. Either the horse is male or female; the horse is not female; therefore, it is male. 3. All philosophers are men; all men are mortal; therefore, all philosophers are mortal. An object or name that stands for something else, especially a material thing that stands for something that is not material. The bald eagle is a symbol of the United States of America. The cross is a symbol of Christianity. (Grk: syn with, together with) 1 with, along with, together; 2 at the same time (as in synesthesia) A Jewish house of worship. Traditionally the first synagogues were established during the Babylonian


supervenient syllable



syn- (or sym-) Synagogue


Philisophical Leixcon
exile. The early synagogues had a place in the center of the room where the sacred scrolls were kept and from where they were read. It is from the worship order established in synagogues that our modern church patterns of reading and expounding upon scripture from the pulpit are derived. synchronic adj. (1833) 1 SYNCHRONOUS. 2 a. DESCRIPTIVE 4 (~ linguistics); b. concerned with the complex of events existing in a limited time period and ignoring historical antecedents. 1 happening, exiting, or arising at precisely the same time. 2 recurring or operating at exactly the same periods. 3 involving or indicating synchronism. 4 a. having the same period; also having the same period and phase; b. GEOSTATIONARY characterized or brought about by syncretism, SYNCRETISTIC (Grk: synkretismos foundation of Cretan cities, from syn- + Kret- Cretan) 1 the combination of different forms of belief or practice; 2 the fusion of two or more original different inflectional forms to attempt to unite and harmonize, esp. without critical examination or logical unity The teaching that we cooperate with God in our efforts of salvation. This is opposed to monergism which is the teaching that God is the sole agent involved in salvation. Cults are synergistic in that they teach that Gods grace combined with our efforts are what makes forgiveness of sins possible. Words that mean roughly the same thing. Container and receptacle are synonyms. The sequence in which words are put together to form sentences. In English, the usual sequence is SUBJECT, VERB, and OBJECT. -- Syntactic languages, such as English, use word order to indicate word relationships. Inflected languages (see INFLECTION), such as Greek and LATIN, use word endings and other inflections to indicate relationships.


syncretic syncretism

syncretize Synergism

synonym syntax


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synthetic statement

A factual statement describing a state of affairs, such as Triangles are used in architectural studios.


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Tabernacle The tablernacle was the structure ordered built by God so that He might dwell among His people (Ex. 25:8). It was to be mobile and constructed to exacting specifications. It is referred to in Ex. 25-27, 30-31, 35-40; Num. 3:25ff.; 4:4 ff.; 7:1ff. In all of scripture more space is devoted to the tabernacle than any other topic. Many books have been written on the spiritual significance of the tabernacle, how it represented Christ, and how it foretold the gospel. The tabernacle consisted of the outer court and the tabernacle. The outer court was entered from the East in which were the altar of burnt offering (Ex. 27:1-8) and the bronze laver (Ex. 30:17-21). The tabernacle stood within the court (Ex. 26:1 ff.). It was divided into two main divisions: the holy place and the holy of holies which were separated by a veil (Ex. 26:31 ff.), the same veil that was torn from top to bottom at the crucifixion of Jesus (Matt. 27:51). Where the veil had represented the barrier separating sinful man from a holy God (Heb. 9:8), its destruction represented the free access sinners have to God through the blood of Christ (Heb. 10:19 ff.). The tabernacle was a place of sacrifice. The holy place contained three things: first, a table on which was placed the shewbread, the bread of the presence (Ex. 25:23-30), second, a golden lampstand (Ex. 25:31-40) and third, an altar of incense (Ex. 30:1-7). In the holy of holies was the ark of the covenant which contained the Ten Commandents (Ex. 25:16). The holy of holies was entered only once a year by the high priest who offered sacrifice for the nation of Israel. A Latin phrase meaning blank slate, used by Locke* to describe the state of the human mind at birth. Locke believed there are no innate ideas and that the mind gets all of its ideas from experience. comb form (Grk: tauto the same, contr. Of to auto) same (fr. Grk: taut + legein to say) 1 involving or containing rhetorical tautology, REDUNDANT; 2 true

tabula rasa

taut- or tautotautologous


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by its logical form alone tautology 1 a a needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word; b an instance of tautology; 2 a tautologous statement Any statement that is necessarily true merely because of its meaning, such as Bachelors are unmarried males, or Every green object is colored. See also necessary and contingent truth. teleoligical ethics In contrast with deontological ethics, this moral theory holds that whether an action is morally right depends solely on its expected consequences. See also utilitarianism. exhibiting or relating to design or purpose esp. in nature [fr Greek tele-, telos end, purpose + -logia -logy] (ca 1740) 1 a. the study of evidences of design in nature; b. a doctrine (as in vitalism) that ends are immanent in nature; c. a doctrine explaining phenomena by final causes. 2 the fact or character attributed to nature or natural processes of being directed toward an end or shaped by a purpose. 3 the use of design or purpose as an explanation of natural phenomena (Greek) an ultimate end (Latin: temporalis, fr. tempor-, tempus time) 1 a. of or relating to time as opposed to eternity; b. of or relating to earthly life; c. lay or secular rather than clerical or sacred; 2 of or relating to grammatical tense or a distinction of time; 3 a. of or relating to time as distinguished from space; b. of or relating to the sequence of time or to a particular time, CHRONOLOGICAL That which moves us to sin. God cannot be tempted (James 1:13). But we can be tempted by our lusts (James 1:13-15), money (1 Tim. 6:9), lack of self examination (Gal. 6:1), and the boastful pride of life (1 John 2:16), to name a few. We are commanded to pray to be delivered from temptation (Matt. 6:13) for

teleological teleology

telos temporal



Philisophical Leixcon
the Lord is capable of delivering us from it (2 Pet. 2:9). tense An inflectional (see INFLECTION) form of VERBS; it expresses the time at which the action described by the verb takes place. The major tenses are past, present, and future. The verb in I sing is in the present tense; in I sang, past tense; in I will sing, future tense. Other tenses are the present perfect (I have sung), the past perfect (I had sung), and the future perfect (I will have sung). (Latin: lit. third something, fr. its failing to fit into a dichotomy) 1 a middle course or an intermediate component; 2 a third party of ambiguous status The word testament is a derivation of the Latin word testamentum, which was used in Jeromes Vulgate to translate the Hebrew word brith, covenant. The Greek equivalent is diatheke, which also means covenant. The word has come to be used in describing the two main divisions of the Bible: The Old Testament and The New Testament. It should be understood then, that the Bible is generally to be looked at as a covenant between God and man. An intimate meeting or conversation between two individuals. From French, meaning head to head. This is a term applied to the four Hebrew letters that make up the name of God. In English the letters are basically equivalent to YHWH. It is from these four letters that the name of God is derived and has been rendered as Yahweh and Jehovah. The true pronunciation of Gods name has been lost through lack of use, because the Jews, who were first given the name of God, would not pronounce it out of their awe and respect for God. The teaching that there is a God and that He is actively involved in the affairs of the world. This does not necessitate the Christian concept of God, but includes it. (Compare to Deism) A central idea in a piece of writing or other work of art: The theme of desperation is found throughout

tertium quid


tete-a-tete Tetragrammaton




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his NOVELS. Also a short composition assigned to a student as a writing exercise. theodicy (from Latin: Theo God and Grk: dike judgment, sight) defense of Gods goodness and omnipotence in view of the existence of evil The study of the problem of evil in the world. The issue is raised in light of the sovereignty of God. How could a holy and loving God who is in control of all things allow evil to exist? The answer has been debated for as long as the church has existed. We still do not have a definitive answer and the Bible does not seek to justify Gods actions. It is clear that God is sovereign, and that He has willed the existence of both good and evil, and that all of this is for His own glory. Proverbs 16:4 says, The LORD works out everything for his own ends -even the wicked for a day of disaster; Isaiah 45:7 says, I form the light and create darkness, I bring prosperity and create disaster; I, the LORD, do all these things. The study of God, His nature, attributes, character, abilities, revelation, etc. True theology is found in the Bible which is the self-revelation of God. A theophany is a visible manifestation of God usually restricted to the Old Testament. God has appeared in dreams (Gen. 20:3-7; 28:12-17), visions (Gen. 15:121; Is. 6:1-13), as an angel (Gen. 16:7-13; 18:1-33). There is a manifestation known as the Angel of the Lord (Judges 6:20 f.) and seems to have characteristics of God Himself (Gen. 16:7-9; 18:1-2; Ex. 3:2-6; Josh. 5:14; Judges 2:1-5; 6:11). Such characteristics as having the name of God, being worshiped, and recognized as God has led many scholars to conclude that the angel of the Lord is really Jesus manifested in the Old Testament. This does not mean that Jesus is an angel. The word angel means messenger. Other scriptures that describe more vivid manifestations of God are Gen. 17:1; 18:1; Ex. 6:2-3; 24:9-11; Num. 12:6-8. For further information on theophanies see the Plurality Study.





Philisophical Leixcon
Theophany A visible and sometimes physical manifestation of God in the Old Testament. Some examples of theophanies are found in Gen.17:1; 18:1; Ex. 6:2-3; 24:9-11; Num. 12:6-8. (See also Appearances of God in the Plurality Study.) I believe all physical appearances of God in the O.T. were really of the pre-incarnate Christ because no one has ever seen the Father (John 6:46). An expression, taken from As You Like It, by WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, that means roughly Theres a real story behind this. It is commonly used by someone who is about to give the background of an interesting object, incident, or idea: The colonel remarked, See that umbrella over the mantelpiece? It saved my life during the war, and thereby hangs a tale. A notion in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant <q.v.>. A thing-in-itself is an object as it would appear to us if we did not have to approach it under the conditions of space and time (from Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Second Edition). The philosophical and theological system developed by St. Thomas Aquinas* in the thirteenth century. One of its chief principles is that philosophy seeks truth through reason while theology seeks it through revelation from God; therefore, the two are compatible. (fr Latin: neut of tortus twisted, fr. pp of torquere) a wrongful act for which a civil action will lie except involving a breach of contract The doctrine that fallen man is completely touched by sin and that he is completely a sinner. He is not as bad as he could be, but in all areas of his being, body, soul, spirit, mind, emotions, etc., he is touched by sin. In that sense he is totally depraved. Because man is depraved, nothing good can come out of him (Rom. 3:10-12) and God must account the righteousness of Christ to him. This righteousness is obtainable only through faith in Christ and what He did on the cross. Total depravity is generally believed by the Calvinist groups and rejected by the Arminian groups.

thereby hangs a tale




Total Depravity


Philisophical Leixcon


A theological term referring to the relation of God to creation. God is other, different from His creation. He is independent and different from His creatures (Isaiah 55:8-9). He transcends His creation. He is beyond it and not limited by it or to it. Beyond the realm of sense experience. In many religious views, God is held to be transcendent. A nineteenth-century movement developed in New England and expounded by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82) and Henry David Thoreau (1817-62). It maintains that beyond our material world of experience is an ideal spiritual reality that can be grasped intuitively. This refers to the mysterious change that occured to Jesus on the mount: Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter and James and his brother John and led them up a high mountain, by themselves. And he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white. (Matt. 17:1-2). The transfiguration preceded Jesus time on the cross and may have been the Fathers preparatory provision to strengthen Jesus as He prepared to bare the sins of the world. A VERB that needs a DIRECT OBJECT to complete its meaning. Bring, enjoy, and prefer are transitive verbs. (Compare INTRANSITIVE VERB.) -- Some verbs can be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another: turned is transitive in Brenda turned the wheel sharply but intransitive in Fred turned when I called.

transcendent transcendentalis m


transitive verb

transmigration of souls (metempsychosis ; reincarnation)

The belief that the same soul can, in different lifetimes (incarnations), reside in different bodies, human or animal. While typically a part of most Eastern religions, the doctrine came into Western philosophy from Pythagoras* and his contemporaries in the sixth century B.C. and especially through Plato. According to premillennialism, this is a 7 year period

Tribulation, The


Philisophical Leixcon
that immediately precedes the return of Christ and the millennial kingdom of His rule which lasts for 1000 years. It will be a time of great peace (the first 3 years) and great war (the second 3 years) when the Antichrist rules over many nations. At the mid point of the tribulation (at the end of the first 3 years) the Antichrist will proclaim himself worthy of worship. Many will bow down and worship the Antichrist and many will refuse. Those who refuse to worship the Antichrist will be killed. The second half of the tribulation is called the Great Tribulation. It will involve the whole world (Rev. 3:10). There will be catastrophes all over the world. (See Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 17.) Trichotomy Trinity The teaching that the human consists of three parts: body, soul, and spirit. (Compare with Dichotomy.) The word trinity is not found in the Bible. Nevertheless, it is a word used to describe one fact the Bible teaches about God: Our God is a Trinity. This means there are three persons in one God, not three Gods. The persons are known as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit and they have all always existed as three separate persons. The person of the Father is not the same person as the Son. The person of the Son is not the same person as the Holy Spirit. The person of the Holy Spirit is not the same person as the Father. If you take away any one, there is no God. God has always been a trinity from all eternity: From everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God (Ps. 90:2). God is not one person who took three forms, i.e., the Father who became the Son, who then became the Holy Spirit. This belief is known today as the Jesus Only Movement. It is taught by the United Apostolic and United Pentecostal churches, and is an incorrect teaching. Nor is God only one person as the Jehovahs Witnesses, the Way International, and the Christadelphians teach (These groups are classified as non-Christian cults). For proof that there is more than one person in the Godhead, see the Plurality Study. The Bible says there is only one God. Yet, it says Jesus is God (John 1:1,14); it says the Father is God


Philisophical Leixcon
(Phil. 1:2); and it says the Holy Spirit is God (Acts 5:34). Since the Son speaks to the Father, they are separate persons. Since the Holy Spirit speaks also (Acts 13:2), He is a separate person. There is one God who exists in three persons. The followng chart should help you understand how the Trinity doctrine is derived. T H E T R I N I T Y Father Son Holy Spirit Called God Phil. 1:2; John 1:1,14; Col. 2:9; Acts 5:3-4 Creator Is. 64:8; 44:24; John 1:3; Col. 1:15-17; Job 33:4,26:13 Resurrects 1 Thess. 1:10; John 2:19, 10:17; Rom. 8:11 Indwells 2 Cor. 6:16; Col. 1:27; John 14:17 Everywhere 1 Kings 8:27; Matt. 28:20; Ps. 139:7-10 All knowing 1 John 3:20; John 16:30; 21:17; 1 Cor. 2:10-11 Sanctifies 1 Thess.; 5:23Heb. 2:11; 1 Pet. 1:2 Life giver Gen. 2:7; John 5;21; John 1:3; 5:21 2; Cor. 3:6,8 Fellowship 1 John 1:3 1; Cor. 1:9 2; Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1 Eternal Ps. 90:2; Micah 5:1-2; Rom. 8:11; Heb. 9:14 A Will Luke 22:42; Luke 22:42; 1 Cor. 12:11 Speaks Matt. 3:17; Luke 9:25; Luke 5:20; 7:48; Acts 8:29; 11:12; 13:2 Love John 3:16; Eph. 5: 25; Rom. 15:30 Searches the heart Jer. 17:10; Rev. 2:23; 1 Cor. 2:10 We belong to John 17:9; John 17:6 Savior 1 Tim. 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; 2 Tim. 1:10; Tit. 1:4; 3:6 We serve Matt. 4:10; Col. 3:24 Believe in John 14:1; John 14:1 Gives joy John 15:11; Rom. 14:7 Judges John 8:50; John 5:21,30 Type, Typology A type is a representation by one thing of another. Adam was a type of Christ (Rom. 5:14) and so was Isaac (Heb. 11:19). The passover was a type of Christ (1 Cor. 5:7). There are many types in the Bible and most of them are too extensive and deep to be


Philisophical Leixcon
listed. Isaac as a type of Christ: ISAAC JESUS: Only begotten Son (Genesis 22:2, John 3:16); Offered on a mountain, hill (22:2, Matt 21:10); Took donkey to place of sacrifice (22:3, Matt. 21:2-11); Two men went with him. (22:3, Mark 15:27; Luke 23:33); Three day journey: Jesus, three days in the grave (22:4, Luke 24:13-21); Son carried wood on his back up hill (22:6, John 19:17); God will provide for Himself the lamb (22:8, John 1:29); Son was offered on the wood (22:9, Luke 23:33); Ram in thicket of thorns (22:13, John 19:2); The seed will be multiplied (22:17, John 1:12; Is. 53:10); Abraham went down, Son didnt, not mentioned. (22:19, Luke 23:46); Servant gets bride for son (24:1-4, Eph. 5:22-32; Rev. 21:2,9; 22:17); The bride was a beautiful virgin (24:16, 2 Cor. 11:2); Servant offered ten gifts to bride (*24:10, Rom. 6:23; Rom. 12; 1 Cor. 12)


Philisophical Leixcon

unctuous 1 a -- fatty, oily; b -- smooth or greasy in texture or appearance. 2 rich in organic matter and easily workable {unctuous soil}. 3 full of unction; esp. revealing or marked by a smug, ingratiating, and false earnestness or spirituality A form of IRONY in which something is intentionally represented as less than it is: Babe Ruth was a pretty good ball player. The properties, or the abstract or general words, that apply to many individual things, called particulars. Redness, for instance, is a universal that applies to all red things. A theory of morality holding that all actions should be judged for rightness or wrongness in terms of their consequences; thus, the amount of pleasure people derive from those consequences becomes the measure of moral goodness. Jeremy Bentham* and John Stuart Mill,* in the nineteenth century, were the chief proponents of this view. See also principle of utility. The belief in the possibility or desirability of not just a better but a perfect society. The term derives from Sir Thomas Mores* Utopia (1516), which depicts an ideal state. Utopian states also appear in the writings of Plato* and Bacon.*






Philisophical Leixcon

vanilla (adj. [from the default flavor of ice cream in the U.S.] Ordinary flavor, standard.) When used of food, very often does not mean that the food is flavored with vanilla extract! For example, vanilla wonton soup means ordinary wonton soup, as opposed to hot-andsour wonton soup. Applied to hardware and software, as in Vanilla Version 7 UNIX cant run on a vanilla 11/34. Also used to orthogonalize chip nomenclature; for instance, a 74V00 means what TI calls a 7400, as distinct from a 74LS00, etc. This word differs from canonical in that the latter means default, whereas vanilla simply means ordinary. For example, when hackers go on a great-wall, hotand-sour soup is the canonical soup to get (because that is what most of them usually order) even though it isnt the vanilla (wonton) soup. A major school of logical positivism founded by Moritz Schlick (1882-1936) in the 1920s. It was known for its hostility to metaphysics and theology and for its belief that physics is the model for all knowledge of the world. Other leading members of the school were Rudolph Carnap (1891-1970) and Otto Neurath (1882-1945). Relative to; compared with: She performed well visa-vis the rest of the competitors. The theory that living organisms are inherently different from inanimate bodies; thus, life cannot be explained fully by materialistic theories as it is based on a vital force that is unlike other physical forces. Aristotle,* Hans Driesch (1867-1941), and Henri Bergson (1859-1941) were prominent vitalists. In Bergsons view, the elan vital is the evolutionary force in organisms that propels life to achieve higher levels of structure. grant or furnish often in a condescending manner; choose to give by way of a reply

Vienna Circle

vs-a-vs vitalism



Philisophical Leixcon

warp and whoof The essential foundation or base of any structure or organization; from weaving, in which the warp -- the threads that run lengthwise -- and the woof -- the threads that run across -- make up the fabric: The CONSTITUTION and the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE are the warp and woof of the American nation. A phrase made famous by William James.* He held that in the absence of decisive evidence, the mind may create belief in order to act, often resulting in discovery. He also maintained that believing in such situations is a human right that should not be backed away from. The view, expounded by Nietzsche,* that power is the chief motivating force in human nature. The view was influential in twentieth-century psychology and social science. In greek the word for word is logos. It is used in many places, but of special interest is how it is used of Jesus. In John 1:1 it says, In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was God. The Word is divine and the word became flesh and dwelt among us (John 1:14). In other words, Jesus is the Word of God who represents God to us and us to God. The term is also used to describe the Scriptures (Rom. 9:6; Heb. 4:12), Christs teaching (Luke 5:1), and the gospel message (Acts 4:31). The Word of God: is inspired: All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16). is truth: The sum of Thy word is truth (Psalms 119:160). makes free: ...If you abide in My word, then you are truly disciples of mine; and you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free (John 8:32). produces faith: So faith comes from hearing, and 127

will to believe

will to power

Word, The

Philisophical Leixcon
hearing by the word of Christ (Rom. 10:17, NASB). judges: For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart (Heb. 4:12). Worship The obligation of Gods creation to give to Him all honor, praise, adoration, and glory due Him because He is the holy and divine creator. Worship is to be given to God only (Ex. 20:3; Matt. 4:10). Jesus, being God in flesh (John 1:1,14; Col. 2:9), was worshipped (Matt. 2:2,11; John 9:35-40; Heb. 1:6). Worth ones salary (a word that comes from the Latin for salt) or WAGES. From the Roman custom of paying soldiers money to buy salt. Biblically, it is the divine judgment upon sin and sinners. It does not merely mean that it is a casual response by God to ungodliness, but carries the meaning of hatred, revulsion, and indignation. God is by nature love (1 John 4:16), however, in His justice He must punish sin. The punishment is called the wrath of God. It will occur on the final Day of Judgment when those who are unsaved will incur the wrath of God. It is, though, presently being released upon the ungodly (Rom. 1:18-32) in the hardening of their hearts. Wrath is described as Gods anger (Num. 32:10-13), as stored up (Rom. 2:5-8), and as great (Zech 7:12). The believers deliverance from Gods wrath is through the atonement (Rom. 5:8-10). For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ (1 Thess. 5:9).

worth ones salt



Philisophical Leixcon

X, Y, Z


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LATIN PHRASES ab absurdo

DEFINITION AND USAGE3 (from the absurd) In argument, one who argues ab absurdo seeks to establish the validity of his position by pointing out the absurdity of his opponents position. Naturally, success in this does not necessarily validate ones own argument. the consequences of abuse do not apply to general use (implication: a right should not be withheld because some people abuse it) (Lit: wool from an ass) blood from a stone (Lit: from one learn all) from one example learn about all; found in Virgils Aeneid no offense intended misuse does not nullify proper use About tastes there is no disputing. Or, theres no accounting for tastes. it hangs by a hair while the crime is blazing When someone has been caught in the act of commiting a crime, he has been caught in flagrante delicto, or red-handed. Latin: anger is brief madness (from Horaces Epistles telling us that anger is a momentary departure from rationality) There is nothing new under the sun. Solomon, Book of Ecclesiates Interpretation that departs from the letter of the text is not interpretation but divination. Francis Bacon

ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia ab asino lanam ab uno disce omnes absit invidia abusus non tollit usum de gustibus non est disputandum de pilo pendet in flagrante delicto

ira furor brevis est Nihil novum sub sol. Non est interpretatio, sed divinatio, quae recedit a litera.

All defintions from Amo, Amas, Amat, and More by Eugene Ehrlich, unless otherwise indicated. 130

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Opat supremo collocare sisyphus in monte saxum. post hoc, ergo propter hoc Sisyphus tries to place the boulder atop the mountain In other words, I am going to attempt an impossible task. Latin: after this, therefore because of this (Logical fallacy) the logical fallacy that because one event follows another, the former caused the latter. A followed by B does not mean that B was caused by A. Sometimes even good Homer sleeps from Horaces Ars Poetica In other words, even good writers are not always at their best, you win some and you lose some. Latin: let my will stand as a reason (case closed, were doing it my way because I said so) I fear the man of one book. Thomas Aquinas Cnfronting someone for whom the knowledge, opinions, and dogma of a single book are sufficient and who recognizes no truths but the literal statements of his own book. More traditionally, a person steeped in a sngle source is a formidable opponent in debate.

Quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus.

stet pro ratione voluntas Timeo hominem unius libri.