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UNIT I CONCEPT OF MEASUREMENTS

y Metrology is the science of precision measurement. y The science of measurement of lengths and angles and all related quantities like width, depth, diameter and straightness with high accuracy. y Measurement is defined as the process of numerical evaluation of a dimension or the process of comparison with standard measuring instruments. y The elements of measuring system include the instrumentation, calibration standards, environmental influence, human operator limitations and features of the work-piece.

Methods of Measurements:
Direct method of measurement:

y This is a simple method of measurement, in which the value of the quantity to be measured isobtained directly without any calculations. y For example, measurements by using scales, vernier callipers, micrometers, bevel protector etc.

Indirect method of measurement:

y In indirect method the value of quantity to be measured is obtained by measuring other quantitieswhich are functionally related to the required value. y e.g. angle measurement by sine bar, measurement of screw pitch diameter bythree wire method etc.
Absolute or Fundamental method:

y It is based on the measurement used to define the quantity.

of the base quantities

y For example,measuring a quantity directly in accordance with the definition of that quantity, or measuring a quantity indirectly by direct measurement ofthe quantities linked with the definition of the quantity to be measured.

Comparative method:

y In this method the value of the quantity to be measured is compared with known value of the same quantity or other quantity practically related to it. y So, in this method only the deviations from a master gauge are determined,e.g., dial indicators, or other comparators.
Transposition method:

y It is a method of measurement by direct comparison in which the value of the quantity measured is firstbalanced by an initial known valueA of the same quantity, then thevalue of the quantity

measured is put in place of this known value andis balanced again by another known valueB. y If the position of theelement indicating equilibrium is the same in both cases, the value of the quantity to be measured is AB

y For example, determination of a mass by means of a balance and known weights, using the Gauss double weighing
Coincidence method:

y It is a differential method of measurement in which a very small difference between the value of the quantity to be measured and the reference is determined by the observation of the coincidence of certain lines or signals. y For example, measurement by vernier calliper micrometer.
Deflection method:

y In this method the value of the quantity to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of a pointer on a calibrated scale.

Complementary method:

y In this method the value of the quantity to be measured is combined with a known value of the same quantity. y For example, determination of the volume of a solid by liquid displacement.

Generalized Measurement System and Standards:

y The following is the generalization of echelons of standards in the national measurement system. 1. Calibration standards 2. Metrology standards 3. National standards y Calibration standards: Working standards of industrial or governmental laboratories. y 2. Metrology standards: Reference standards of industrial or Governmental laboratories. y Nationalstandards: It includes prototype and natural phenomenon of Sl (Systems International), the world wide system of weight and measures standards.

Line standard:

y The measurement of distance may be made between two parallellines or two surfaces y Yard or meter is the linestandard. y Yard or meter is defined as the distance between scribed lines on a bar of metal under certain environmental condition. These are the legal standards.
Meter:

y It is the distance between the center portions of two lines etchedon a polished surface of a bar of pure platinum alloy (90%) or irridumalloy (10%).It has overall width and depth of 16 mm each and is kept at0C and under normal atmospheric pressure. y The bar has a wing-like section, with a web whose surface lines arc on the neutral axis. The relationship between meter and yard is given by, 1 meter = 1.09361 yard

Yard:

y Yard is a bronze bar with square cross-section and 38 inches long. y A bar of 38 inches long has a round recess of 0.5 inches diameter and 0.5inches deep. y A round recess is 1 inch away from the two ends. y A gold plug of 0.1 inch diameter, having three lines is etched transversely andtwo lines engraved longitudinally arc inserted into these holes. y The yard is then distance between two central transverse lines on the plugs whenthe temperature of bar is at 62F. 1 yard = 0.9144 meter

Characteristics of Line Standards:

y It is easier and quicker to use a scale over a wide range. y The scale markings are not subject to wear although significant wear on leading end leads to under sizing.

y Scales are subjected to the parallax effect, a source of bothpositive and negative reading errors. y For close tolerance length measurement (except in conjunction with microscopes) scales are not convenient to be used
End Standard:

y End standards, in the form of the bars and slip gauges, are ingeneral use in precision engineering as well as in standard laboratoriessuch as the N.P.L (National Physical Laboratory).
Characteristics

of End Standards:

1. Highly accurate and well suited to close tolerance measurements. 2. Time-consuming in use. 3. Dimensional tolerance as small as 0.0005 mm can be obtained. 4. Subjected to wear on their measuring faces. 5. To provide a given size, the groups of blocks are"wr ung" together. Faulty wringing leads to damage.
Accuracy of Measurements:

y The purpose of measurement is to determine the true dimensionsof a part. y But no measurement can be made absolutely accurate. There is always some error. The amount of error depends upon the following factors: y The accuracy and design of the measuring instrument y The skill of the operator

y Method adopted for measurement y Temperature variations y Elastic deformation of the part or instrument etc.
Accuracy:

y Accuracy is the degree to which the measured value of the quality characteristic agrees with the true value. y The difference between the true value and the measured value is known as error of measurement.
Precision:

y The terms precision and accuracy are used inconnection with the performance of the instrument. y Precision is the repeatability of the measuring process. y It refers to the group of measurements for the same characteristics taken under identical conditions.
Distinction between Precision and Accuracy:

y Accuracy is very often confused with precision though much different. y The distinction between the precision and accuracy will become clear by the following example

Factors affecting the accuracy of the measuring system:

y The basic components of an accuracy evaluation are the five elements of a measuring system such as: y Factors affecting the calibration standards. y Factors affecting the work piece. y Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of the instrument. y Factors affecting the person, who carries out the measurements, y Factors affecting the environment. . Factors affecting the Standard: It may be affected by: -coefficient of thermal expansion, - calibration interval, -stability with time, - elastic properties, - geometric compatibility 2. Factors affecting the Work piece: These are: -cleanliness, surface finish, waviness, scratch, surface defects etc. ,

- hidden geometry, - elastic properties, -adequate datum on the work piece, -arrangement of supporting work piece, -thermal equalization etc. Sensitivity: y Sensitivity may be defined as the rate of displacement of the indicating device of an instrument, with respect to the measured quantity. y In other words, sensitivity of an instrument is the ratio of the scale spacing to the scale division value. y For example, if on a dial indicator,the scale spacing is 1.0 mm and the scale division value is 0.01 mm, thensensitivity is 100.

with respect to measured quantities as shown in Figure the sensitivity at any value of y =dx dy wheredx anddy are increments of x and y, taken over the full instrument scale, the sensitivity is the slope of the curve at any value of y.
Readability:

y In rescent days digital instruments are very popular and used in almost all types of instruments. y Analog instruments are extensively used in some types of measurements such as weighing scale,thermometer. y Readability is a word which is frequentely used in analog instruments.
Calibration: y Calibration is the process of determining and adjusting an instruments accuracy to make sure its accuracy is within the manufacturer specifications.

Correction: y Correction is as a value which is added algebraically to the corrected result of measurement to compensate for an assumed systematic error. y If a numerical value is multiplied with uncorrected results to compensate for assumed systematic error. Repeatability: y Repeatability may be defined as the clossness of agreement among the number of consective measurements of the output for same for the same value of input under the same operating conditions. y It may specified in terms of unit for given period of time. Reproducibility:

y Reproducibility may be defined as the clossness of agreement among the repeated measurements of the output for same for the same value of input under the same operating conditions over a period of time. y Perfect reproducibility that the instruments calibration does not gradually shifted over a long period of time. Errors in Measurements:

y The error in measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value of the measured dimension. y Error in measurement = Measured value - True value Absolute Error: True absolute error: It is the algebraic difference between the result of measurement and the conventional true value of the quantity measured.

Apparent absolute error: If the series of measurement are made then the algebraic difference between one of the results of measurement and the arithmetical mean is known as apparent absolute error. Relative Error: y It is the quotient of the absolute error and the value of comparisonuse or calculation of that absolute error. y This value of comparison may be the true value, the conventional true value or the arithmetic mean forseries of measurement. Types of Errors: Systematic Error: y These error include calibration errors, error due to variation in the atmospheric condition Variation in contact pressure etc y If properly analyzed, these errors can be determined and reduced or even eliminated hence also called controllable errors. y All other systematic errors can be controlled in magnitude and sense except personal error. Random Error: y These errors are caused due to variation in position of setting standard and work-piece errors. y Due to displacement of level joints of instruments, due to backlash and friction, these error areinduced. Environmental Error: y These errors are caused due to effect of surrounding temperature, pressure and humidity on the measuringinstrument. y External factors like nuclear radiation, vibrations andmagnetic field also leads to error.

Elastic Deformation or Support Error: y Long bars due to improve support or due to self weight may undergo deflection or may bend. y Asshown in Figure, due to less or high distance between the support, y A longbar tends to deform.Such errors can be reduced if the distance between the support point is kept as 0.577 of the total distance of bar as shown in Figure. Dirt Error: y Sometimes, dirt particles can enter in the inspection room through the door and the windows. y These particles can create small dirt errors at the time of measurement. y These errors can be reduced by making dust proof, laboratories. Contact Error: y The rings as show in Figure whose thickness is to be measured. y Number of times, the contact of jaws with work piece plays an important role while measure in laboratory or work shops. y The following example shows the contact error. y If the jaws of the instrument are placed as shown in Figure the error 'e' is developed, which is because of poor contact only.

Parallax Error (Reading Error): y The position of the observer at the time of taking a reading (on scale) can create errors in measurement. y For this two positions of the observers are shown (X and Y), which will bethe defect generating positions. y Position Z shows the correct position ofthe observer i.e. he should take readings by viewing eye position exactlyperpendicular to the scale.
Interchangeability:

A parts can be substituted for the component manufactured to the same shape and dimension is known as interchangeable parts. The operation for substituting parts for similar manufactured components of same shape and dimension is known as interchangeability. The advantagesof interchangeability arc as follows: y The assembly of mating parts is easier. Since any componentpicked up from its lot will assemble with any other mating partfrom an another lot without additional fitting and machining. y It enhances the production rate. y The standardization of machine parts and manufacturing methods is decided. y y It brings down the assembling cost drastically. Repairing of existing machines or products is simplified because component parts can be easily replaced. Replacement of worn out parts is easy.

stability: y The ability of measuring instruments to retain its calibration over a long period of time is called stability. y Stability determines an instruments consistency over time

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS: y In a deflection type instrument the measurements generates the effects which can be ultimately related by the deflection of the pointer displayed as a number to its magnitude.