Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 : CHEMICAL BONDS


A Formation of compounds 1. All Noble gases are very stable, inert and chemically unreactive. Why?
...

2. Atoms of other elements tend to achive the stable duplet / octet electron arrangement through
the formation of chemical bonds. Chemical bonds can be formed by :

(i) (ii)

transfering (donating and receiving) of electrons sharing of electrons

3. Complete the diagram below : CHEMICAL BONDS


formed by

Ionic Bond

Type of Bond

Covalent Bond

Ionic Bond

Ionic Bond
Formed through

Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Formation of ions
1. An atom donates electron forms a .... ion (cation)

donates one electron

2.1 Lithium atom

2
lithium ion

Duplet electron arrangement

2. An atom receives / accepts electron forms a .... ion (anion)

accepts one electron

2.7 Fluorine atom

2.8 Fluoride ion

Octet electron arrangement

3.

+
Cation

Donates electron

Accepts electron

_
Anion

Neutral atom

Cation is a Anion is a

Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Example 1 : Aluminium atom, Al [ Proton number = 13 ; Nucleon number = 27 ] Electron arrangement : 2.8.3

An aluminium atom donate 3 valence electrons to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement [ 2.8 ]

Becomes an aluminium ion, Al3+

Draw the formation of an aluminium ion, Al3+

Write the equation to represent the formation of an aluminium ion Al3+

Al

Al3+ + 3e

What are the differences between aluminium atom, Al


Al
Type of subatomic particle Proton Number of subatomic particles Atom (neutral particle)

and aluminium ion, Al3+ ?

Al3+
Ion (Positively-charged particle)

13 13 14

13 10 14

Electron
Neutron

Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Example 2 : Oxygen atom, O [ Proton number = 8 ; Nucleon number = 16 ] Electron arrangement : 2.6

The oxygen atom receive/accept 2 electrons to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement [ 2.8 ]

Becomes an oxide ion, O2-

Draw the formation of an oxide ion, O2-

Write the equation to represent the formation of an oxide ion, O2-

O + 2e

O2-

What are the differences between oxygen atom, O


O
Type of subatomic particle Proton Number of subatomic particles Atom

and oxide ion, O2- ?

O2Ion

8 8 8

8 10 8

Electron
Neutron

Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Forming of Ionic Bonds

1. Ionic compounds are formed when a metal react with a metal /non-metal*. 2. During the formation of ionic bonds :
electrons are transfered from the . atom to the . atom. the . atom donates its valence electrons to form a . ion while the . atom receives electrons to form a . ion.

3. The positive and negative ion are held together by strong electrostatic force between the
oppositely-charged ions. The attractive force between ions is called ionic bond or electrovalent bond.

Example : sodium chloride, NaCl

[ Proton number : Na = 11 ; Cl = 17 ]

NaCl
Na
Electron arrangement to achieve the stable

Cl

octet electron arrangement

The equations to represent the formation of ions :

Na Cl + e

The diagram of sodium chloride compound, NaCl formed :

+
N

C l

Formula of sodium chloride is .


Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Write the formulae two ions that are attracted to form a solid sodium chloride, NaCl compound.

Name the attractive force between the ions.

Activity 1:Forming of Aluminium oxide [ Proton number of O = 8 ; Al = 13 ]

Aluminium oxide Al
Electron arrangement to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement The equations to represent the formation of ions :

Al O
`

2O
A l

3 +
O

2A l

3 +
O

2-

Formula of aluminium oxide is


Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Activity 2:-

1. Formation of sodium chloride


Element Na Cl Proton number 11 17 Electron arrangement

Electron arrangement of sodium atom is . Sodium atom has . valence electron. By releasing/receiving* this electron, sodium atom forms sodium. to achieve a stable . electron arrangement i.e. ..

Na
2.8.1

Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is .. Chlorine atom has . valence electrons. By releasing/receiving* . electron, chlorine atom forms . with an . . electron arrangement i.e. ..

Cl +
2.8.7

Na+ ions attract Cl- ions with strong electrostatic forces. The bond formed is called ionic bond. Electronic diagram of sodium chloride is :

+
N

C l

Formula of sodium chloride is .

Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

2. Formation of magnesium chloride


Element Mg Cl Proton number 12 17 Electron arrangement

Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is . Magnesium atom has . valence electrons. By releasing/receiving* these electrons, magnesium atom forms magnesium to achieve a stable . electron arrangement i.e. ..

Mg
2.8.2

Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is Chlorine atom has . valence electrons. By releasing/receiving* . electron, chlorine atom forms . with an . electron arrangement i.e. ..

Cl +
2.8.1

Mg2+ ions attract Cl- ions with strong electrostatic forces. The bond formed is called ionic bond. Electronic diagram of magnesium chloride is :

C l
M g

2+
C l

Formula of sodium chloride is .

3. Describe the formation of :


[Proton number : Li = 3; O = 6 ; Cl = 17 ; K = 19; Ca = 20] (i)
Chapter 5

Lithium chloride

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Calcium oxide (iii) Potassium oxide Predict/Deduce the formula of an ionic compound Metal atom M from Group 1 Group 1 Group 1 Group 2 Group 2 Group 2 Group 13 Group 13 Group 13 Non-metal atom X from Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Formula of ionic compound Example

(ii)

M3X Na2O NaCl MgO MgCl2 Al2O3 AlCl3

MX2

MX3

Activity 3 :-

Atom of element M has 13 protons and 14 neutrons. The atom forms an ion, M3+.

(a) What is the proton number and nucleon number of atom M?


Proton number : Nucleon number : ..

(b) What is the number of electrons in an ion M3+?


....

(c) Write the electron arrangement of ion M3+?


....

Figure below shows the electronic arrangement for particles S, T, U and V.

2p 2n

11p 12n

10p 10n

9p 10n

(a) Which are the neutral particles? Explain why.


....
Chapter 5

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

....

(b) (i) State the particles which are ions.


.. (ii) What are the charges of the particles in (b) (i)? ..

(c) What is the electron arrangement of particles U?


....

(d) (i) Which two particles can react to produce a compound?


.. (ii) What is the formula of the compound formed? .. (iii) Name the type of bond present in the compound. .. (iv) Draw the electronic arrangement for the compound formed.

Chapter 5

10

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Covalent Bonds 1. This bond is formed when two or more similar or different atoms share valence electrons
between them, so that each atom achives the . electron arrangement that is a stable electron arrangement for noble gases.

2. Normally, covalent bonds are formed when non-metal atoms share its valence electrons to
achieve stable . electron arrangement. [atoms from element in Group 14, 15, 16 and 17]

3. The number of electrons shared can be one pair, two pairs or three pairs. 4. The product formed from the sharing of electrons between atoms is called a neutral
..

5. The force that exist between molecules is called ...


This force is .. between small molecules and becomes stronger when the size of molecules ...

Covalent Bond
Formed through

. of electrons

To achieve the stable octet / duplet electron arrangement

State the meaning of covalent bonds?

Chapter 5

11

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Covalent Bond

Type of covalent bonds

Single bond
Example :

Double bond
Example :

Triple bond
Example :

Single Water, covalent bond

Carbon dioxide,

Nitrogen gas,

H2O

CO2

N2

Chapter 5

12

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Forming of Covalent Bonds Example : Methane [ Proton number of H = 1, C = 6 ]

Methane
C
Electron arrangement

Need electrons

to achieve the octet / duplet electron arrangement

Need electron

. carbon atom sharing its valence electrons with . hydrogen atoms, formed covalent bond. Each carbon atom sharing pair of electrons with each hydrogen atom, formed .. covalent bond. The formula of methane is ..

Chapter 5

13

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Activity 4 :Forming of carbon dioxide [ Proton number of C = 6 ; O = 8 ]

Carbon dioxide

C
Electron arrangement

Need electrons

to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement

Need electrons

. carbon atom sharing its valence electrons with . oxygen atoms, formed a covalent bond. Each carbon atom sharing pairs of electrons with each oxygen atom, formed .... covalent bond. The formula of carbon dioxide is

Chapter 5

14

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Activity 5 :-

H2 N2
(a)

CH4 CCl4

O2 H2O

Cl2 CO2

NH3 C2H4

Draw diagrams showing the electron arrangements in the formation of the molecules above. Examples :
Single bond
C l

H
2

Hydrogen molecule, H Triple bond

C l

C l

N
C l

Tetrachlorometane molecule, CCl


4

Nitrogen molecule, N

(b) Draw the Lewis structure for the above mentioned molecules. Examples :

H H N Cl Cl C Cl Cl
Chapter 5

H N Cl Cl C Cl
15

H N

Cl

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FORMATION OF IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS

Ionic Bond
Type of element Between metal [Group : 1, 2 and 13] and

Covalent Bond
Between non-metals [Group : 14, 15, 16 and 17] Pairs of electrons are shared by the same or different non-metal atoms.

non-metal [Group : 15, 16 and 17]


Electron is released/donated by metal atoms and received by non-metal atoms (electron transfer)

Electron

Type of particle produced How to predict the formula of the compound

Metal atom positive ion [Cation] Non-metal atom negative ion [Anion] charge and cross

Neutral molecules

need and cross Refer to Clinic Module 1

+
P Q

_
Y

Example of diagram With brackets and charges.

Intersection at the outermost shells.

Chapter 5

16

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Comparison of Ionic and Covalent bonding :

Atoms achieved the stable electronic configuration/electron arrangement with an octet or duplet after the formation of bonds.

Similarity

Ionic bonding

Covalent bonding

Differences

Involves the transfering of electrons from metal atom to non-metal atom. Positively charge ions and negatively charged ions are formed. Strong electrostatic attraction forces holds oppositely charged ions together.

Involves the sharing of electrons between non-metals atoms.

Molecules are formed. Weak Van der Waals force of


attraction exist between the molecules.

Chapter 5

17

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

The properties of Ionic Compounds 1. Ionic compounds are composed of arranged in a giant crystal lattice. 2. The oppositely-charged ions are held together by strong force. 3. Ionic compounds have melting and boiling points. 4. Ionic compounds are non-volatile solids at room conditions. 5. In the state, the ions are locked in their positions and cannot move freely. 6. In the and .. state, the ions are free to move to conduct an electrical current. 7. Ionic compounds are in water but in organic solvents. The properties of Covalent Compounds 1. Covalent compounds are composed of molecules. 2. The molecules are held together by weak . force. 3. Covalent compounds have melting and boiling points. 4. Covalent compounds exists as volatile liquids or gases at room conditions. 5. Covalent compounds are in water but in organic solvents. 6. Covalent compounds do not have , therefore cannot conduct electricity in any physical states.

Chapter 5

18

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Types of compound

Ionic

Covalent

Types of chemical bond Types of particles that are present

Melting and boiling points

Solubility in water

Solubility in organic solvents

Electrical conductivity

Physical state at room temperature

State the uses of covalent compounds as solvents : .. .. ..

Activity 6 :Chapter 5

19

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Table 1 shows the melting and boiling points of some substances. Substance Ethanol Copper Calcium oxide Formula Melting point ( oC ) -117 1080 2580 TABLE 1 (a) Which of substances above is : (i) an ionic compound .. (ii) a covalent compound .. (iii) an element .. (b) What is the physical state of the substances at room temperature ( 25 oC)? Substance Ethanol Calcium oxide Copper (c) Which of the substances cannot conduct electricity in solid, molten and aqueous states? Explain why. (d) Why does ethanol have low melting and boiling points? Physical state Boiling point ( oC ) 78 2600 2850

C2H5OH Cu CaO

Table 2 shows the proton number of elements P, Q, R, S and T.

Chapter 5

20

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Element P Q R S T (a)

Proton Number 3 6 9 11 17 TABLE 2

In which Group is element S located in the Periodic Table of Elements? .....

(b)

State two elements in Table 2 that shows the same chemical properties. .....

(c)

(i)

Between elements P and S, which one is more reactive? ....

(ii)

Explain your answer. .... ....

(d)

Arrange the elements P, Q and R in order of decreasing atomic size. .

(e)

Elements P and R reacts to formed compound X. (i) What type of chemical bond is found in compound X? .... (ii) Draw the electron arrangement of compound X.

(f)
Chapter 5

Element Q and T also reacts to formed compound Y. State two physical properties of compound Y.

21

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

. .

Table 3 shows the proton number and electron arragement of elements T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z. Element T U V W X Y Z TABLE 3 Proton number 11 12 13 16 17 18 20

(a) What element is placed in the same group with element U in the Periodic Table of
Elements? .........................................................................................................................................

(b) What element is exists as monoatomic gas at room conditions?


.........................................................................................................................................

(c) Write the formula of ion that is formed by atom V


.........................................................................................................................................

(d) (i)

Determine the element that can react with water to form hydrogen gas. ............................................................................................................................

(ii)

Write the chemical equation for the reaction in (d) (i). ............................................................................................................................

(e)
Chapter 5

Determine an element that can form acidic oxide.

22

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

......................................................................................................................................... (f) Why is Y not reacts with any elements? ......................................................................................................................................... (g) U can react with X to form a compound.

(i)

Draw the diagram of electron arrangement for the compound.

(ii)

State a physical property of the compound. ............................................................................................................................

(a)

Table 4 shows the electron arrangements of atom P, Q and R.

Chapter 5

23

Chemical Bonds

4541 CHEMISTRY

Chapter 5

Atom P Q R

Electron Arrangement 2.2 2.4 2.7 TABLE 4

(i) P and Q can make chemical bond with R. State the type of bond formed.
Describe how the chemical bonds are formed. (ii) State three physical properties for the compound that are formed from P and R.

END OF CHAPTER

Chapter 5

24

Chemical Bonds