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2849

Mark Scheme

January 2008

2849
Mark Scheme Pages 1 of 5 Question 1 (a) (b)

Chemistry of Materials
Unit Code 2849 Expected answers Will not hydrolyse when in contact with aqueous solutions AW/ Tough, will not break inside bodies AW (1).
O O

Session Jan

Year 2008

FINAL

Marks 1 1

O O O

(c) (i) (ii)

(1). (Moderately) concentrated hydrochloric acid/moderately concentrated sulphuric acid (1); (Heat under) reflux (1).
OH

2 2

HO OH

O O

OH

1 mark for each structure (iii)


Any five from: Dissolve solid in minimum amount of (1); hot ethanol (1); leave to cool/evaporate (1); filter off crystals (1); wash with cold ethanol (1); dry (1); QWC (1). Cis structures will make chains less regular/chains in Cis-Trans further apart ORA AW (1); so packing will be less regular, hence less crystalline ORA AW (1); intermolecular forces will be weaker (1); so m.pt. is lower in cis-trans mixture ORA (1). Hydroxyl/alcohol; peak at about 3300 (any suitable range) cm /wavenumber indicates OH bond (1). Add other monomers to the chain/copolymerisation AW; add plasticisers (1); allow introduce some cis bonds to lower m.pt if polymers show geometrical isomerism.
-1

(d)

(e) (i) (ii) (f)

1 1 1

Total mark

19

2849

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Unit Code Mark Scheme 2849 Pages 2 of 5 Question Expected answers 2 (a) (b) (i) (ii)

Session Jan

Year 2008

FINAL

Marks 3
2

Phenol [allow hydroxy(l)] (1); amine (amino) (1); carboxylic acid (carboxyl) (1). Phenylalanine: yellow/orange colour (remains) allow yellow-brown or yellow-orange (1); tyrosine: purple (solution) (1).
NH2
NH2

2
Na+ -O
CH2 CH C O-Na+ O

CH2

CH C O-Na+ O

(1); DO NOT PENALISE if Na+ ions are missing. (iii) (c)


NH2 HO CH2 CH C NH HO CH2 CH C OH O O

(1). 2 2

Contains a basic/amine group and acidic/carboxylic acid group (1); and can transfer a proton from the acidic/carboxylic acid group to the basic/amine group allow transfer via water (1).

amide/ peptide link

(d) (i) (ii) (iii)

(iv)

(e) (i) (ii)

Correct amide link (1); correct structure (1). Has asymmetric carbon atom AW / chiral centre allow chiral carbon (1) The two isomers can not be superimposed/have different properties e.g. rotation of plane polarised light (1). Active sites in enzymes have specific shapes (1); only one isomer has the correct shape to fit AW(1); allow 1 mark foractive sites are specific for one isomer. Change of pH changes the nature of the amine and acid groups in amino acids/proteins / changes hydrogen bonding in enzymes AW (1); So changes interactions/hydrogen bonding between enzyme and substrate/alters tertiary structure/destroys or changes shape of active site/ substrate can no longer bind AW (1). Molecules with similar shapes can fit in active sites/ Metyrosine has a similar shape to the substrate AW/methyl group replaces hydrogen so wrong shape to fit exactly / Metyrosine can fit into the active site (1); site becomes blocked (because of no reaction/held in strongly)/substrate cannot bind to active site (1). Rate = k (1) x [tyrosine][enzyme] (1). Mol-1 dm3 s-1 ecf (1). Total mark

2 2 2

2 1 22

2849

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme Page 3 of 5 Question 3 (a) 3 (b)

Unit Code 2849 Expected answers


0.78 V (1).

Session Jan

Year 2008

FINAL

Marks 1 2

3 (c)

EITHER: People using the ancient iron-copper cell did not do their experiments under standard conditions including an example AW (1); Electrode potentials/E cell will be different under different conditions AW (1). OR Solution is acid not metal ions / solution contains acid AW (1); Different reactions take place at the electrodes/ hence electrode potentials will be different AW (1); Copper is the negative electrode = FALSE ; Copper atoms are oxidised in the reaction = FALSE; Electrons move through the wire from the copper electrode = FALSE; Electrons do not move through the solution = TRUE; all four correct (2); any two correct (1).

3 (d)

3 (e)

3 (f)

Hydrogen electrode (gas, acid, Pt) (1); voltmeter connected to electrodes (1); salt bridge dipping in both solutions (include Cu2+half-cell) and labelled (1); standard conditions, two from: 1 mol dm-3, 298 K, 1 atmosphere (1). 2H+(aq) + Cu(s) H2 (g) + Cu2+(aq) Species correct (1); balanced and direction correct ignore electrons not cancelled (1); state symbols correct (1). Yes, Cu is a stronger reducing agent than Fe2+ ions since Cu has more negative electrode potential (2) AW ORA 1 mark only if either redox property (in terms of redox words or electron transfer) or electrode potential data is given in the answer.

3 (g) (i)
H

H C H

H C H O

2
H H C H C O O H

1 mark each DO NOT ALLOW OH. Acidity is caused by loss of protons/ H+ /dissociation of molecule (1); (strength of acid/equilibrium position) depends on stability of anion AW COMPARISON MARK (1); anion from ethanoic acid can delocalise the negative charge and is more stable (1); C2H5O is not stabilised/charge not delocalised AW (1). 4

3 (g) (ii)

Total mark

20

2849

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme Page 4of 5 Question 4 (a) (b) (i)

Unit Code 2849 Expected answers

Session Jan

Year 2008

FINAL

Marks 2 4

(ii)

Pentyl (1) ethanoate (1) Kc = [P].[water]/[acid].[alcohol] (1); At equilibrium [P] = [water] may be inferred from [P] = number (1); [P]2= 4.15 x (1.06) x (1.06) (1) ecf if incorrect Kc expression written; [P] = 2.16 mol dm-3 answer must be to 3 sfs ecf (1). If water is missed out in equation 4.66 gets 2 marks. Product/ester lost (1); concentrations of reactants will be less / concentration of water increases (1); Kc is unchanged (1); Kc does not change with concentration/only changes with temperature/ ratio of concentrations remain the same AW (1); allow 1 mark for loss of volatile component causing an increase in temperature. Conc. sulphuric acid/H2SO4 (1) Accept conc. hydrochloric acid. Peak at 0.9 shows it has 6 methyl Hs attached to C so it is Q (2). OR

(iii) (c)

1 2

Q because it alone can give a chemical shift at 1.5 (1) corresponding to the one proton AW (1).
(d)
1.4
CH2 CH2 compound P O compound Q O

3.7
CH2 O CH3 CH2

3.7
CH2 O CH3

1.4 2.2 1.4 2.2 2 appropriate groups of protons with correct chemical shifts (2); 1 mark each. Allow 3.6 instead of 3.7; include 1 mark for CH3 at a chemical shift of 0.9/(0.8-1.2) for data given in 4(c). Total Mark

15

2849

Mark Scheme

January 2008

Mark Scheme Page 5 of 5 Question 5 (a) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (c) (i)

Unit Code 2849

Session Jan

Year 2008

FINAL

Expected answers Corrosion resistance/stainless/hard/lustrous AW / high strength / hard AW (1). Magnesium sulphide/MgS (1). Coolant (oxygen blow is very exothermic)/resists, reduces or prevents thermal/heat shock (1). Any 2 from: carbon, phosphorus, manganese, silicon (1).

Marks 1 1 1 1 2

3d Ni Ni2+

4s

(ii)

(d) (i)

Correct number of electrons in Ni (1); correct arrangement for Ni2+ (1). 3Ni2+ + 2NO + 4H2O 3Ni + 2NO3 + 8H+ correct reactants and products (1); balanced (1). Ligands cause energy levels to split (1); colour depends on difference between energy levels AW (1). [Ni(H2O)6]2+ = 6 (1); [Ni(dimethylglyoxime)2]2+= 4 (1). [Ni(H2O)6]2+ = octahedral (1); [Ni(dimethylglyoxime)2]2+= tetrahedral / (square) planar (1). Total mark

(ii) (iii)

2 2

14

10