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History and General Informatfion-Natural Yellow Sapphire Gemstone -Pukhraj

The word Sapphire is derived from Sapphirus, which is Latin for blue. When the word sapphire is used it actually means the beautiful blue sapphire. However, in India the yellow sapphire is the most popular gemstone after diamond, due to its significance in Indian astrology. The yellow sapphire is commonly known as Pukhraj or Pushparaga in the Indian market. Yellow sapphire is one of the Navagraha stones (stones that represent the nine planets that have a cosmic influence on all earthlings) representing the planet Jupiter (Guru) and is related to the spiritual teacher. It has a special significance in Indian astrology and in ancient Indian vedic literature. It is said to have many healing powers and it also has an important place in the study of star signs. Yellow Sapphires are said to bring prosperity to anyone who wears it, thus making it one of the most popular gemstones in India. It is believed to improve the financial status of the wearer as well as bestow him or her with wealth, good health, fame, name, honour and success. The yellow sapphire is also believed to promote the general well bring and spiritual knowledge of the wearer. It is used to aid in holistic healing of the Mars affliction people and also as a holistic aid in pregnancy and in childbirth. For therapeutic or holistic purposes, the yellow sapphire ring must be made in gold and worn in the index finger.

Composition of Yellow Sapphire


The yellow sapphire gemstone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). Its specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. Its the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Varieties
The sapphire gems belongs to the gemstone family of corundum. The most pure form of corundum is colourless, but presence of trace elements adds colour to a corundum gem. The cause of colour in sapphire is iron. While the word Sapphire is derived from the Latin word Sapphirus, the word corundum is derived from Hindu words Kurand or Kuruvinda.

Physical Properties
Yellow Sapphire Colour Yellow sapphires are found in a range of hues between greenish yellow and orangish yellow. Sometimes the yellow colour of the stone can be so pale that it can fall into the category of white sapphire. Deep pure golden yellow without any tinge of orange is considered the best colour for a yellow sapphire. Cut Yellow sapphire is most commonly found in oval cut to retain maximum weight while cutting and getting the most out of the gem. But it is also cut and faceted into various common and fancy shapes like cushion cut, round, octagonal, square etc . Carat Yellow sapphires are commonly found in all sizes up to 8-10cts. But clean large size gems with good bright golden yellow colour are rare and highly priced. Clarity

Prominently visible or even faint natural inclusions like feathers, colour zoning, crystals etc are commonly found in pukhraj or yellow sapphires. This gem contains black inclusions, feathers, natural fissures which makes the price of the gem to around US$50 per carat.

Price and Buying Guide of Pukhraj - Yellow Sapphires


The price of the genuine fine quality natural yellow sapphire depends mainly on its colour and clarity. The deeper the yellow colour of the gem, higher is the price. Additionally, the better the clarity of the stone the higher the price. Enhanced, heated or treated yellow sapphires, which are commonly found in the market today, are far less priced than the natural untreated stones. Untreated and unheated eye clean Ceylon sapphires (Sri Lankan) come in the range of $100 per carat to $400 per carat, but depending on the quality of the stone, it can far exceed this price range.

Markets and Producers of Yellow Sapphires


The finest bright yellow sapphire roughs usually come from Sri Lanka. Indian market is very famous for selling ceylon sapphires of good clarity grade. As of 2007, Madagascar was leading the world production of sapphires. Sapphires are also mined in Thailand, Australia, USA (Montana), Burma, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Tanzania and Kenya.

Treatments on Pukhraj-Yellow sapphire


Treatments on yellow sapphire crystals of natural origin are done to either lighten or darken the colour or to improve the clarity and transparency, in a bid to fetch a better price for the gem. However, it is ethically important for a dealer, to disclose the treatment done on the gemstones while trading. Even on close inspection of the gem many treatments are difficult to identify. Almost a 60%-70% of the yellow sapphires sold in the market today are heat treated. Heat treatment is the treatment commonly done on yellow sapphires, to enhance their colour. The type of heat treatment done depends on the quality and location of the gemstones. Heat treatment involves the heating of a gemstone at a temperature ranging from 450 C to 1900 C for a certain period of time (1 hour to 14 days) after which the stone goes through a cooling process, in order to improve its colour.

Simulants of Pukhraj-Yellow Sapphires


The gemstones that closely resemble yellow sapphires are citrine quartz, topaz gemstone, zircon, synthetic cubic zirconia, and synthetic sapphire. Synthetic yellow sapphires are commonly available in the market today.

Intersting Trivia and other Facts of Pukhraj- Yellow sapphire


The natural yellow sapphire and the beautiful red coloured ruby belong to the same family of gemstones, corundum, and have the same chemical composition - aluminum oxide. The cause of colour in ruby is chromium, while that in sapphire is iron or titanium. This article contains very important information if you are interested in buying yellow sapphire or pukhraj in Mumbai or India. For any further information please free to contact us at contact@gehnabazaar.com. For details see our contact page.

Yellow Sapphire - Topaz/Pushkaraj (for Jupiter): This is one of the most widely used gems to help achieve better financial status. The wearer may expect wealth, good health, name, honour and fame if the Gem suits him or her. It is also believed that if there are obstructions in finding a suitable match for a girl, she gets married early by wearing a Yellow Sapphire. This is normally light yellow in colour. Topaz or Pushkaraj is a cold gem. It improves vision, gives life security, protects ones from poverty, removes adversity, misfortune and melancholy. In diseases, Topaz cures diarrhea, gastritis, ulcer, rheumatism, jaundice, insomnia, heart troubles, impotency, gout, arthritis, pain in knee joints, etc. Topaz should be worn in gold, on 1st finger of right hand on Thursday. The weight should be of 7 or 13 grams. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Sapphires are simply crystallized alumina (Al2O3) and in their pure form are devoid of colour. Sapphires are found in various colours which include pink, blue, green, yellow, orange and white. In India, Yellow Sapphire is known as Pukhraj and Blue Sapphire is known as Neelam. It has a specific gravity of 3.99, mean refractive index (RI) 1.765 and Hardness of 9 on the Moh's scale. OCCURRENCE Sapphires are found in India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Russia, Thailand, Australia, U.S.A, U.K., Nepal, Mexico, Zambia and Nigeria. In India, Sapphires are found in Jammu. These are considered to be the best in the world. Few Sapphires are also found in Orissa but they are not of very high quality. IDENTIFICATION Natural Sapphires carry within them clear signs of slow crystallization. Some of the external elements sometimes remains preserved in the Gem which helps its identification. Like all other precious gems it should have inclusions which should be visible to the naked eye or under magnification. Otherwise, it is a piece of glass or a synthetic substance. The inclusions are generally like 'feathers' or are like finger print impressions. Liquid inclusions looking like lace are also sometimes visible. Synthetic Sapphires are very common in the market and many traders in order to earn fast money sell them as originals. These are very clear and under magnification show bubble like inclusions. Sometimes feather like inclusions have also seen but they shine abnormally under light.