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Dental materials are considered to comprise material employed in restorative dentistry. These include:

Impression materials to copy contours of gums Bases ,liners, and varnishes for cavities Filling and restoration material to correct defects in natural material Appliances and denture to replace grinding surfaces.

There are four main groups of materials used in dentistry Composites Metals and alloys Polymer Ceramic materials

All teeth are made of two portion, the crown and the root, demarcated by the gingival (gums).the root is placed in a socket called alveolus in the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) bones. The enamel is hardest substances found in body and consists of calcium apatite crystal and covers the crown. Dentin is other mineralized tissue found in teeth.

Composite materials offer a variety of advantages in comparison with homogeneous materials. Composites materials are those that contain two or more distinct constituent materials or phases which are insoluble in each other & different in form or chemical composition, on microscopic or macroscopic size scale. It mainly consist of two components

Reinforcing fibers: these are principal load carrying members Matrix: it act as the medium by which the load is transfer through the fiber by means of shear stress. Protects fiber from the environmental damages i.e. increase in temp. & humidity

In addition it also consists of coupling agents and coating material to improve the wetting property of fibers with matrix and also provides bonding across the fiber material. Filler Material are also used act as load carrying material & is used to achieve better dimensional properties. Composites are widely used for filling and sealing the teeth. The composite resins consist of a polymer matrix and stiff inorganic inclusion of various sizes also called fillers.

Resin or matrix The matrix consists of BIS-GMA, an addition reaction product of bis(4-hydroxyphenol), dimethylmethane, and glycidyl methacrylate. Since the material is mixed, then placed in the prepared cavity to polymerize. The viscosity must be sufficiently low and the polymerization controllable. Low-viscosity liquids such astriethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are used to lower the viscosity, and inhibitors such as BHT (butylated trioxytoluene, or 2, 4, 6-tritert-butylphenol) are used to prevent premature polymerization. To fill a cavity, the dentist mixes several constituents & then places them in the prepared cavity to polymerize. Polymerization can be initiated by a thermo chemical initiator such as benzoyl peroxide, or by a photochemical initiator (benzoin alkyl ether), which generates free radicals when subjected to ultraviolet light from a lamp used by the dentist. There are 6 basic resin based composite used for dental application 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fillers The inorganic inclusions confer a relatively high stiffness and high wear resistance to the material. Moreover, by virtue of their translucence and index of refraction similar to that of dental enamel, they are cosmetically acceptable. The inorganic inclusions are typically barium glass or silica [quartz, SiO2]. Inclusions, also called fillers, have a particle size from 0.04 to 13 m, and concentrations from 33 to 78% by weight. Fillers are placed in dental composites to reduce shrinkage upon curing. Physical properties of composite are improved by fillers, however, composite characteristics change based on filler material, surface, size, load, shape, surface modifiers, optical index, filler load and size distribution. Materials such as strontium Microfilled resin based composite Sealend based composite Flowable resin based composite Packable resin based composite Superficial sealing microfilled composite Hybrid based composite

glass, barium glass, quartz, borosilicate glass, ceramic, silica, prepolymerized resin, or the like are used. Classification of fillers:
Fillers are classified by material, shape and size. Fillers are irregular or spherical in shape

depending on the mode of manufacture. Spherical particles are easier to incorporate into a resin mix and to fill more space leaving less resin. One size spherical particle occupies a certain space. Adding smaller particles fills the space between the larger particles to take up more space. There is less resin remaining and therefore, less shrinkage on curing the more size particles used in proper distribution Classification According to Size:MACROFILLERS ---- 10 MIDIFILLERS MINIFILLERS ----- 1 ----- 0.1 TO 100 um TO 10 um TO 1 um

MICROFILLERS ----- 0.01 TO 0.1 um NANOFILLERS ----- 0.005 TO 0.01 um

The compositions and stiffnesses of several representative commercial dental composite resins are given below:

Composites are used for dental applications bcoz

A blending of properties of the separate components. high strength stiffness of the fiber with the low weight resistance to fracture of the polymeric matrix

Composite selection: Artistically dentists select composites based on their level of appreciation, artistic ability and knowledge of specific materials. Factors which influence composite selection include A- Restoration Strength, B- Wear C- Restoration Color D- Placement characteristics. E- Ability to use and combine opaquers and tints. F- Ease of shaping. G- Polishing characteristics.

H- Polish and colour stability Physical Characteristics of Dental Composites 1) Linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) 2) Water Absorption 3) Wear resistance 4) Surface texture 5) Porosity 6) Modulus of elasticity 7) Solubility


Metals are used in dentistry for direct fillings in teeth (dental amalgams), fabricating crowns and bridges (noble metal and base metal alloys), partial denture frameworks (base metal alloys),
orthodontic wires and brackets (stainless steel, Ti alloys and Ni-Ti alloys) and Dental implants (CP Ti and Ti6Al4V).

The major advantage of metal for these dental applications is the high intrinsic strength and fracture resistance of this class of materials Dental amalgam: Dental amalgams are formed by adding Hg to dental amalgam alloys (alloys containing Ag, Cu and Sn plus some other minor elemental additions) (amalgamation process). Dental amalgam alloys are either low (Cu <6wt%) or high Cu containing (Cu >6wt%), the latter being favored because it avoids the formation of an undesirable Sn-Hg phase (2) that is susceptible to corrosion and results in lower strength properties of amalgams. Dental amalgam alloys are formed as powders either by lathe cutting Ag-Cu-Sn alloy billets (resulting in irregular particles i.e., machining chips) or by atomization (to give spherical powders). Subsequent mixing of these alloy powders with liquid mercury results in their partial dissolution, complete consumption of the liquid Hg and the subsequent formation of a number of intermetallic

compounds (Ag3Sn, Ag2Hg3, Sn78Hg, Cu3Sn, Cu6Sn5) due to the Hg-dental amalgam alloy reactions and the condensation of the initial plastic mass to form a load-bearing filling. It is used as tooth filling material because mercury is liquid at room temperature and can react with other metal such as silver and tin to form plastic mass that can be packed in cavity which hardens and sets with time.
Dental Casting Alloys (Au-based, Co- and Ni-based, Ti-based

Dental casting alloys are used for making dental bridges, crowns (with porcelain fused to a metal substrate), inlays, on lays, and endodontic posts. Both noble and non-noble (base) metal alloys are used to form these often complex shapes. The noble metal alloy compositions are primarily Au- or Pd-based with alloying additions of Ag, Cu, Pt, Zn and some other trace elements. These can be divided into high noble alloys (noble metal content 60 wt %) and noble alloys (noble metal content 25 wt %). The base (non-noble) metal alloys contain 25 wt% noble metal elements and are either CoCr or NiCr alloys. To satisfy esthetic requirements for dental crowns, porcelain fused- to-metal (PFM) restorations are made with the silicate-based porcelains being bonded to a cast metal substrate. Attainment of good bonding of porcelain to the dental alloy substrate is achieved through micromechanical interlock and interfacial chemical reactions. Requirements include sufficient strength, toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

Wrought Dental Alloys wrought stainless steel, CoCrNi (Elgiloy), -Ti and Nitinol alloys are used for making orthodontic wires where high yield strength and preferably low elastic modulus provide high working range characteristics. The requirement of low elastic modulus favors the selection of -Ti and Ni-Ti alloys for orthodontic wires although all four alloys are used at present. CP Ti and ( + ) Ti alloys (Ti6Al4V) are used for making endosseous dental implants. These components are prepared by machining shapes from bar stock by appropriate surface finish operations followed In addition to geometric or topographic surface modifications, surface chemical modifications (addition of calcium phosphate surface layers using one of a number of possible

methods) are used to promote increased osteoconductivity resulting in faster rates of osteointegration. In order to achieve more rapid osseointegration, implant surfaces are modified using plasma spray coating, acid etching, grit blasting, laser ablation or addition of metal powder sintered surface layers.

Ceramics are used for making dental crown and bridges. Ceramics used are known as dental porcelains and are borosilicate or feldspathic glass with dispersed crystalline components. These are used for their high hardness and excellent wear resistance, as well as the ability to tailor the color and translucency of natural teeth. To satisfy esthetic requirements for dental crowns, porcelain fused- to-metal (PFM) restorations are made with the silicate-based porcelains being bonded to a cast metal substrate

The use of collagen for various dental applications has been the subject of many recent

investigations. It is beginning to find dental application including Prevention of oral bleeding Support of regeneration of periodontal tissues Promotion of healing of mucosal lining and prevention of migration of epithelial cells it has also been used as a carrier substance for immobilization of various active substances used in dentistry. Dressing material, containing collagen have been employed effectively to promote heating effect of defects in oral mucos membranes.

These fall in two categories: 1. Artificial teeth and dental appliances which support and anchor artificial teeth. Two common dental implants used for this category are subperiosteal and endosseous devices. 2. Totally implanted: they include devices for repairing damaged or diseased mandibles, to support for rebuilding. The alveolar ridge and packing for stimulating the growth of bone to correct lesion associated with periodontal diseases. Endosseous dental implant: The endosseous is inserted into site of missing or extracted teeth to restore original function. It is also called as the root form dental implant as in this type of dental implant the part which is placed inside the bone acts as the root of the natural tooth. There are many different types of design for endosseous type implants. The main idea behind the various root portions of implants is to achieve immediate stabilization, as well as long term viable fixation. The post is covered with an appropriate crown after implant fixed firmly for about 1-4 months. Implants are made of stainless steel, co-cr alloys, Ti and Ti-6%Al4%V alloy, tantalum these post are also covered with ceramics or polymers so to have outer porous surface to alloy body ingrowth from the surrounding tissues. Porous polyethylene is also used as endosseal dental implant. This approach employs the use of porous high density polyethylene (PHDF) on the root surface.

These come in various shapes and sizes:

Subperiosteal and transosteal implants: These implants have been successfully used to provide a support for dentures on the endentulous alveolar ridges. Subperiosteal dental devices may be used for partially and completely edentulous jaws and are the implants of choice for those regions that contain insufficient bone to accommodate endosteal implants of either the blade- or root-form varieties. They consist of a mesh-type infrastructure cast of a surgical-grade cobaltchromiummolybdenum alloy to which are attached from four to six permucosal abutments. Atop these protrusions into the oral cavity may be prosthetic butments to serve as retainers for fixed bridge prostheses or retentive bars, which connect the abutments together into a single structure. Subperiosteal implants are cast to models of maxillae or mandibles made either by direct bone impressions using polysulfide or poly (vinyl siloxane) elastomeric impression materials or by CAD/CAM-generated models. They are designed to rest on the cortical bone and are entrapped and fixed by a reattachment of periosteal fibers through the numerous interstices incorporated into their infrastructural designs.

Mandibular reconstruction: Urethane elastomers coated cloth mesh has been used as a substitute to metallic devices for reconstruction of mandibles. This material is easy to use at room temperature and requires no special equipment for adaption to surgical requirement to specific area. The urethane stiffens the cloth so that the complex forms can be fabricated and the mesh work of the material provides ample porosity for vascular ingrowth. General Complications with dental Implants: Adverse foreign-body reaction : LOOSENING Biocorrosion : FORIEGN BODY REACTION Electrochemical galvanic coupling : CORROSION Fatigue : Particulate Formation Fixation Failure : LOOSENING Fracture : LOSS Infection : LOSS Interface Separation : WEAR Loss of mechanical force transfer : LOOSENING

http://dentalimplants.uchc.edu/about/types.html PARK, J. B. (1990). Biomaterial science and engineering. New York, Plenum Press. RATNER, B. D. (2004). Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. Amsterdam, Elsevier Academic Press. NARAYAN, R. (2009). Biomedical materials. New York, Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-84872-3. BHAT, S. (2007). Biomaterials. India, Narosa publishing house pvt ltd.