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Environmental Technology and Management Conference 2006 September 7-8, 2006 Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN REVISITED 1

Some brief notes of ecological notions in creating liveable city

Widjaja Martokusumo

Department of Architecture, School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG Email: wmart@home.ar.itb.ac.id

ABSTRACT City will continue to change, grow or shrink, expand or contract, in order to adapt to changing socio-economic conditions. Decreasing urban life quality in terms of ecological disasters, lack of urban infrastructures, fraying social cohesion and institutional weakness have been recognised as the common urban phenomena in Indonesia. During the last decades urbanisation and urban development have been very impressive. The rapid pace of urbanisation, driven mostly by socio-economic development, has brought massive consequences. Urban design aims to produce good quality and liveable (responsive) urban environment. Nowadays, the consideration of ecological issues in urban design is world wide becoming a common requirement than before. Together with the aspect of gestalt and socio-culture, ecological dimensions play a significant role in implementing sustainable urban design Observation in Bandung highlights the nexus between the socio-cultural context and the production vibrant urban environment. To what extent the dynamic of urban development influences the formulation of urban development policy? The case study reveals that for the formulation of urban development policy socio-cultural aspects should also be taken into account. Thus, sustainable development must be more than merely “protecting” the environment; it must improve the human condition through capacity building, as this paper argues.

Keywords: urban development, sustainable urban design, liveable city, capacity building

1.0 THE COMMON AGENDA: PROBLEM AND CHALLENGE

We don’t know nearly enough to manage the ecosystems on our own. If we think that we can eliminate those natural ecosystems and substitute prosthetic devices, like creating clean air or water with fusion energy or sustaining the stability of cropland --in fact, (if we think we can) keep the planet in that delicately balanced, highly peculiar state on which humanity depends for its continued existence-- then we are kidding ourselves (E.O. Wilson, Ecologist) 2

One of the legends told by the Italian writer Italo Calvino in his seminal poetic novel, titled “Invisible Cities” in 1972, shortly trying to say that the people of Ersilia produce the impossibility of life in their cities, which finally they escaped as a consequence. In essence, it is that our understanding and respect to our environment that will ensure and guarantee the quality of our life. Unlike some of the other dimensions of sustainable urbanism (i.e. work and wealth, social coherence and social solidarity, decent affordable housing for people, stable ecosystem, resource-conserving mobility), quality of life is quintessentially subjective (Hall/Pfeiffer, 2000, p.16-31). The quality our urban life, as elsewhere expressed is one of the important sustainable development dimensions. Sustainable development and urban design are indeed closely linked (C. Mougthin, 2005). Some current concerns in urban design, such as the form of urban space (gestalt), vitality and identity of urban areas, quality of urbanity, respect for tradition and the preferences for developments of human scale, can all be encompassed within the scheme of sustainable development. Thus, any discussion of urban design and city planning without adequate consideration of environmental issues has little meaning at a time of widespread ecological destructions.

1 Paper presented for the Environmental Technology and Management Conference (ETMC) 2006, September 7-8 2006, Department of

Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung.

2 David Suzuki/Holly Dressel. Naked ape to superspecies, a personal perspective on humanity and the global ecocrisis, Sydney 1999.

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Nonetheless, ecological problems which have been generated by the growing cities tend to simply be forgotten and global concepts including profound ecological considerations are not even submitted. 3 In term of urban development sustainability deals with a sort of development which is non-damaging to the environment and which contributes to the city’s ability to sustain its social and economic structures. The pursuit of sustainable city structure presupposes also the development of a built environment of quality, i.e. the delight. Environmental quality in the city is also partially determined by aesthetic values (C. Mougthin, 2005). Correspondingly a related problem is efforts on preservation and/or conservation of built heritage. With the shift in global power, the vision of architecture and urbanism was progressively influenced and in some ways distorted. The “standard approach” to architectural design in form of large-scale urban development projects often ignores the environmental context, is disinterested in climatic condition, and has no cultural references. (W.S. Lim/T.H. Beng, 1998) Besides the natural environment, buildings and urban fabrics are also part of our (built-up) environment assets, and in course of ecological dimension they play a central role in the production of more vibrant urban environment. Thus, the city as representation of cultural environment will have to meet the needs of global economic requirements, socio-cultural dimension and ecological requirements as well. Meanwhile, decreasing urban life quality in terms of ecological disasters, lack of urban infrastructures, fraying social cohesion and institutional weakness and the increasing number of urban poor has been then recognised as the common urban phenomena faced by most urban areas in Indonesia. Urbanisation 4 and urban development in Indonesia have been very impressive during the last three and half decades. The rapid pace of urbanisation, which was mostly driven by socio-economic development, has been inevitable and has brought massive consequences. With an observation of the area Dago in Bandung, which is currently experiencing some economic pressures and the thread of physical dilapidation, this paper will address the nexus between the socio-cultural context and the production of vibrant urban environment, i.e. the making process of liveable city. Regarding the current urban realities question can be raised as follows: to what extent the dynamic of urban development influence the formulation of urban development policy in relationship with ecological and social aspects? These, however, from the ecological concerns are all problem and challenge for further discourse on urban design and sustainability.

2.0 RE-THINKING OF SUSTAINABILITY IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT In order to have a deeper understanding on sustainability, it is worthwhile to refer the general definition, theoretical framework, of sustainable development, which is taken from the Burndlandt Report 5 “Sustainable Development is development that needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). This definition consists of three important key ideas as follows (C. Mougthin, 2005):

Firstly, in course of the term of development, according to Blowers (1993), it should not be confused with growth. Growth is a physical or quantitative expansion of the economic system, while development is a qualitative concept: it is concerned with cultural, social and economic progress. Secondly, the term needs introduces the ideas of distribution of resources: “meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for better life” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). There is one argument concerning the term needs, meeting needs is therefore political, moral and ethical issue, since the meaning of needs for everyone will not the same. Sometimes there is some misleading understanding of what actually needs are in term of different social and economic status. Therefore, it is more wisely to appreciate the relation of needs with the idea of redistribution of resources. Sustainable development means a movement greater social equity both for moral and practical reasons. The third idea of future generations

3 For long time cities were not deemed worthy of ecological research. They were considered to be hostile to life. Only for about 25 years have cities been a subject of more intensive ecological studies. The results are amazing: a surprising diversity of locations, organisms and bioeoenoses as well as interesting interactions between the urban ecosystem and those of the near and far peri-urban and surroundings areas have been discovered (Christina Meinhardt, Report from Ecological Research Urban Ecology, Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, undated, and cf. also Gerd-Schmidt Eichstaedt, Stadtökologie, “Lebensraum Groβstadt”, 1996

4 For the last 100 years the growth of world population has been very enormous in the history of humankind. In 1900 the number of urban population globally was recorded ca. only 14%, this was equal to 200 Mio. Population. In the beginning of the 21 st century, the number of urban population is increasing to 50%. World Bank forecasts that in 2025 the population in the developing countries will reach 80% (Dominique Gauzin-Müller, 2002, pp. 34)

5 The first important warning that changes are essential to safeguard resources for future generations was given by the Brundtland Report (WCED, 1987). Soon, it was followed by the “Green Paper on the Urban Environment” published by the European Commission in Brussels (CEC, 1990), which highlights functional, social, economic and environmental problems of today’s cities and puts forward objectives and directives towards a more sustainable urban environment (cf. C. Moughtin, 2005, pp. 9-13)

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introduces the idea of intra-generational equity. Mankind is viewed as the custodian of the Earth of the future generations. An American Indian has a best understanding toward the nature, in which they express it as follows:

“We have not inherited the Earth from our parents, but we have borrowed from our children”. Other important principles of sustainable development are offered by Elkin (1991) as follows: futurity, environment, equity and participation. The first principle futurity is seen as maintaining a minimum of environmental capital including the planet’s foremost environmental support systems, together with the conservation of more conventional renewable resources. In terms of Brundlandt’s requirements, this means that human activity should allow for its effect that may have on the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations. The second principle environment is based on the argument that sustainability constraints are difficult to define with any precision. It is possible, however, to identify the direction of changes in consumption patterns that are necessary to avoid breaching environmental threshold. By applying this principle, it should be possible to outline the type of development that is more sustainable. The last two principles equity and participation support the first two main principles of sustainable development. At a time where increasing issues of democratization in planning process participation has nowadays become a common feature of development procedures, with groups of ‘stakeholder’ involved in consultations. Sustainable development, or sustainability 6 for short, is easily understood at its most basic level. It means simply that in a global context any economic or social development should improve, not harm, the environment. From the definition of sustainability, it could be understood that the goal of sustainable development is mainly to sustain human communities by development that does not destroy the fundamental environmental life supports systems. Applying this definition to the subject matter of sustainable city, the city would have to be able to reproduce its population, be self-sufficient in terms of own employment, service requirements, be able to deal with its own waste products, and to do all this while enhancing environmental quality without damaging its precious life supports functions. Urban design issues look beyond concerns with the external appearance of development to consider aspects of relationship of buildings one to another, and particularly to the spaces between buildings, i.e. between the public and private realms. That is not just with the way things look and the aesthetic experiences they provide, but with all aspects of human needs in the external built environment. This includes needs for creativity, safety and security, shelter and a healthy living environment. The environmental or ecological dimensions to urban and regional design emerged steadily through the 1980s 7 . In the following years the proliferation of writing on concepts of sustainable development has shifted the urban design agenda towards broader environmental concerns. Of greatest significance in sustainability terms were the problems of depletion of scarce natural resources, escalating pollution and the destruction of biodiversity. According to J. Punter/M. Carmona, (1997, pp. 79-81). Recent research has focused sustainability concerns upon the environmental stock in terms of global ecology (air quality, climate, biodiversity, water, land, mineral, and energy resources), regional resources (air, water, land, mineral, and energy resources), and the human environment (buildings, infrastructure, open space, aesthetic, cultural heritage) Thus, urban design will play a role as a tool in designing our environment.

6 According to Frey (1999, pp. 23-25) the basis of the sustainable city debate is the general agreement that the city we know and inhabit today causes unsustainable environmental stress, is socially stratified and functionally suboptimal and is expensive to run. The notion of sustainability is thus inherently multi-dimensional; in particular, economic growth often comes at a price, and that price has to be factored in. Further, a stronger and more limiting principle, that price will not be worth paying if it actually entails a loss of total resource base of the world – a base that includes not merely the physical environment, important as that is, but social and cultural dimensions as well. (cf. C. Moughtin, pp. 12)

7 Globally, in course of urban development the 1980s signals a pivotal change in environmental management, especially in conservation. In this period conservation, as part of urban development policy, has already been a major tool to influence the environment at a time of increasing ecological destructions, of broader depletion of un-renewable resources and destructions in biodiversity. Nowadays, the idea of conservation to some degrees has respectively changed. Conservation concerns with both physical and natural environment. It does not merely worship shrines to the past, but more than ever, the idea tries currently to make it more relevant to the community needs. (cf. W. Martokusumo, 2003) Conservation, as elsewhere expressed, is ruled more by than a sense of history; it is now ruled by a sense of (functional) use -including the community need and even ecological concerns. The most essential development in the heritage conservation movements is that it has expanded its area of interests into dimensions where environmental concerns are more dominant than the historical associations of a place, i.e. natural or cultural landscape, topography, social and cultural traditions, and other environmental objects. With such an expanded concept of heritage conservation, more and more potential objects for heritage conservation are recently being explored (cf. W. Martokusumo,

2006).

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In response to the issues of sustainability environmental management and urban design undergo a paradigm shift. Different starting points in understanding the environmental management can be shown with the following figure:

Traditional emphases

Non-progressive emphases

External appearance the looked at Aesthetic needs Elitist taste Intuition Rationalism Professionalism Product Individual design Built environment Client interest Urbanity The project

Environmental quality The lived-in Human needs User values Problem solving Empiricism Inter-professional Process Collaborative design Built and natural environment Public interest Sustainability Hierarchy of scales

Figure 1: The shifting bases of urban environmental design Source: J. Punter/Matthew Carmona, 1997, pp. 89

3.0 RULES FOR DESIGN: SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN URBAN DESIGN In this part will be discussed some characteristics which will be significant for the planning and design activities. Based on the contention that a good quality of life can be achieved by providing urban environment that will responses to the dynamic of socio-cultural, ecological and the physical requirements, then the role of urban design is to find ways of producing good quality and liveable urban environments that people will be attracted to and will also enjoy living in. In course of creating responsive environment 8 , some suggested qualities of such places as rules for design (Jacobs/Appleyard, 1987, pp. 115-116):

1. places should be liveable, where everyone can live in relative comfort and security

2. places should have identity and control, in that people feel that they have some ownership and want to be involved (place attachment),

3. places should offer access to opportunity, imagination and excitement,

4. places should give people a sense of authenticity and meaning but not in too obvious a way, they should

encourage as possible, and they should offer a good level of environment to all To meet the demands of such urban environment, there are at least five physical characteristics as follows

(Hall/Pfeiffer, 2000, pp. 298-299):

1. Liveable streets and neighbourhoods with adequate sunshine, clean air, trees and vegetation and gardens and open spaces, pleasantly scaled and designed buildings, without offensive noise and with cleanliness

and physical safety.

2. a certain minimum density

3. Integration of activities -living, working, shopping, public and spiritual and recreational activities- reasonably near by each other.

4. buildings and other objects that people place in the environment should be arranged in such a way as to define and even enclose public space, rather that sit individually in space

5. many different buildings and spaces with complex arrangements and relationships are required

To sum it up: within the broad field of urban and environmental design three kind of influential aspects can be

identified as follows:

8 Responsive environment as Bentley et al (1985) proposes can be identified by the following design criteria as follows: Legibility, permeability, robustness, visual appropriateness, richness, personalization, and variety. Later in 1990 to widen the scope of ecological concerns he adds the following criteria, i.e. energy efficiency, cleanliness and wildlife supports to embrace the environmental concerns (J. Punter/M. Carmona, 1997, pp. 79).

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1. Gestalt 9 aspect: this includes a concern with the visual qualities of the buildings in a settlement (townscape 10 ), the spaces they create, the relationship with natural features and how these can be manipulated to best aesthetic effect. Furthermore, consideration of the gestalt aspect will include the notions of public perception: a concern with the perception of settlements, spaces and buildings, the ‘image’ of the place, its relationship to orientation (legibility), accessibility, evaluation, public attachment and behaviour, and its implications for the design of the townscape and the public realm

2. Social aspect: this embraces notions on public realm 11 ; a concern with the social use of the public and semi-public spaces and streets within a settlement, and how such areas can be designed to promote an attractive and safe environment, efficient circulation and a full range of pleasant social experience

3. Ecological aspect: Ecological dimension: a concern with the natural environment of settlements, both visible and invisible (e.g. incorporating air quality, noise etc.)

4.0 BANDUNG: AN ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY CITY?

The Pemerintah Kota (municipal government) of Bandung established recently a strategic vision for the city as a result of input from several stakeholders, labeled as ‘Greater Bandung 2020: Friendly and Smart’. Friendly refers to being ‘well-organized, safe, quiet, religious, clean, healthy, fresh, agro-based, interesting, natural, humanized, harmonic and prosperous’, while smart refers to being ‘dynamic, efficient, productive, creative and innovative’ (Kurniady, 1999). The city of Bandung has also been planned by the local government as a ‘Service City’. Apart of the unclear meaning of such value-laden terminologies, at least this vision was developed to optimize the potential of Bandung in meeting changing needs and challenges of economic globalization in terms of socio-cultural, political, economical and sustainability aspects. According to Kurniady (1999, pp. 2) several policies have been established to achieve this vision. Restructuring the economic sector to be more competitive is a proposed goal from the economical viewpoint, while managing land and water use as well as air quality will be set up as an environmental goal. Besides, empowering the society and promoting good governance in Bandung have been also the strategic social and institutional goal in term of capacity building. Soon after the completion of new Toll Road Cipularang (connecting Jakarta and Bandung via Cikampek, Purwakarta and Padalarang) the problem of time and distance has partially been solved. Consequently, this leads to the increase the flux of travellers and tourists from Jakarta and other small cities in the surroundings of Bandung. It is obviously no wonder, that every weekends Bandung is becoming a favourite place to visit not only for domestic tourists and travellers, but also for commuters, especially from Jakarta. The city of Bandung, well-known as Parijs van Java, is nowadays experiencing the process of transformation and physical changes. Besides new development, many of Bandung’s heritage structures are now being transformed to accommodate new emerging business and economic activities, such as factory outlets, cafés, bistros, restaurants, distribution outlets (distros) to mention a few. This phenomenon of commercialisation of important urban areas, which are infrastructurally relative well-planned, can be observed on most prominent streets such as Jl. Ir. H. Juanda, Jl. Cihampelas, Jl. RE. Martadinata, Jl. Braga or even Jl. Setiabudi. Undoubtedly, the emerging new activities of economy has respectively contributed unimagined externalities, such as traffic jams/congestions, escalating noise and air pollution, and the change of physical urban fabrics -even the lost of valuable heritage buildings- and of visual/aesthetic qualities as well, which are later followed by the degradation the quality of urban spaces. This has led also to a circumstance, in which contributions to ‘public oriented development’ in course of built environment have slowly faded away. The consideration of ecological issues in urban design is now becoming more and more as a common requirement than before. Land provision and utilization, transport and energy, ground water and waste management, community development are important keys for the formulation of urban development policy. Based on a student work conducted in the beginning of 2006 with the students of Urban Design Programme ITB, this part of paper will highlight some common urban phenomena in course of creating liveable city, as a result of

9 Clearly, the gestalt of the city has been a leading subject in future urban design and development. The discourse on challenges of design and change with regard to spatial and architecture of urban quarters has a close correlation with the maintenance of the genius loci, since the spirit of place is an historic urban quarter’s most important aesthetic attribute. Therefore the continuity and development of the quarter’s genius loci becomes one of the most important design considerations in an urban historic quarter. All such issue, however, is not simply related with the economic potentials, but it is based upon another predominant issue i.e. the identity making (cf. W. Martokusumo, 2003, Abel, 1994 and Böhme et al., 1998).

10 Townscape is a visual relationships between groups of buildings or urban fabrics that make up the urban scheme

11 Public realm is here understood as the streets and spaces and their character.

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the rapid pace of current development in Bandung. Observation of some common problems of urban realities in the area of Dago, Bandung can be shown as follows:

4.1 Land Use and Intensity

According to the RDTRK (Detail Plan of Urban Spatial Regulation) Cibeunying 2005, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda has officially been dedicated as mix-use area of commercials, offices, services, residential uses. The change of land use along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda has resulted in transformation of the existing residential into commercial uses. In general the change of land use has several great consequences in all elements of urban design, such as open space, supporting activities (street hawker etc.), movement and circulation, intensity, building mass and form and preservation/conservation. Besides the lack of regulation and appropriate design guidelines (controlling building mass, setback, building height, intensity, material, appearance and visual clues), weakness in control mechanism in its implementation, is regarded as one of the problems in managing the changing environment of Dago. Due to intrusion of economic activities the land subdivision is also inevitable along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda/Dago, in which the existing use of residential is still kept in first part of the land while on the other part of subdivided site accommodate the new economic activities. Obviously, this often leads to a critical impact on the supporting capacity of the site/neighbourhood. Nonetheless, the debate on appropriate land use and questions raised on how the impact of physical changes caused by the land use, are still in progress.

changes caused by the land use, are still in progress. Figure 2: Land use composition along
changes caused by the land use, are still in progress. Figure 2: Land use composition along

Figure 2: Land use composition along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda, Bandung (left); land use of Dago area (right) Source: Perilaku Manusia Modern Terhadap Lingkungan, Studi kasus: Kawasan Dago, Bandung, Student Research Study RK 6211, Urban Design Program ITB, 2006

4.2 Open Space and Vegetation

The landscape and vegetation of Jl. Ir. H. Juanda is one of the most significant in Bandung. The reminiscent of the past in term of tropical landscape design can still nowadays be recognised in this area. Certain trees, like Damar, Angsana and Mahogany etc. were plant along this memorable street of Bandung. Situated in the northern hilly part of Bandung, the character of “garden city” is still to be recognised too. Trees and open green spaces are still relative dominant comparing to other parts of Bandung. Due to the change of residential use into commercial and the need of parking area, many of the trees along the street and green open space are sacrificed. The change of functional use of Jl. Ir. H. Juanda into commercial uses has not been accompanied with the adequate concept of public transport in the city-scale. The remaining green open space in Bandung is nowadays less than 2 % (including cemetery) of the whole urban area of Bandung (16.000 ha). Apart of the vulnerable condition of the trees comprehensive action in maintaining the landscape is hardly on the schedule. The need of protection of the existing tress will be relevant for the supply of clean air and the creation

of shade. In the tropical climate vegetation/trees and shade will have a special contribution on designing public spaces. In term of controlling the micro climate they are part of design elements for achieving thermal comfort.

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Student Res Figure 3: Urban Development Policy at macro level according to RTRW 2013. erilaku
Student Res Figure 3: Urban Development Policy at macro level according to RTRW 2013. erilaku

Student Res

Figure 3: Urban Development Policy at macro level according to RTRW 2013. erilaku Manusia Modern Terhadap Lingkungan, Studi kasus: Kawasan Dago, B

earch Study RK 6211, Urban Design Program ITB, 2006 (left), Draft Sosialisasi RTBL, Departemen

Source: P

andung,

PU, 2006

4 .3 Movement and Circulation Movement in term of sustainable city

environmentally friendly transport, recover road space for public use, minimise car parking, encourage connectivity and permeability and tame traffic flow as well. The image of Jl. Ir. H. Juanda has attracted not only the emerging economic activities, but the long history of this well-known street in Bandung has significantly contributed to current urban development of this prominent area. It is also significant to observe that Jl. Ir. H. Juanda has become one of favourites meeting places in Bandung, especially on weekends and holidays. The design of public realm, including the public open space pedestrian ways, as one can observe along Jl . Ir. H. Juanda, is still without charm, without quality, and in many degrees does not meet the needs/requirements of accessibility (universal design). The condition of pedestrian ways along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda is neither technically nor environmental-friendly designed. Providing public facility which could successfully response the needs of user with different abilities is one of the requirements in creating more vibrant environmental-friendly urban space.

includes reducing the need for travel, design for pedestrian,

reducing the need for travel, design for pedestrian, Figure 4: Traffic congestion (left) and new emerging
reducing the need for travel, design for pedestrian, Figure 4: Traffic congestion (left) and new emerging

Figure 4: Traffic congestion (left) and new emerging activaties (s hopping, gathering, recreation) on Jl. Ir. H. Juanda (right) Source: Perilaku Manusia Modern Terhadap Lingkungan, Studi kasus: Kawasan Dago, Bandung, Student Research Study RK 6211, Urban Design Program ITB, 2006

4 .4. Reuse of Existing Buildings Reuse of building as one of environ mental assets in term of recycling is actually one of the essences of sustainability at a time of increasing ecological destruction. The need to re-use is a common praxis in historic preservation and conservation. Adaptation existing structure for new uses is now very much welcomed in course

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of recycling the environmental assets (building and sites). The need of adapting old buildings for new uses and infill development are also here along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda inevitable. 12 As previously explained, the change of uses into commercial along some important street in Bandung has not only generated traffic and influx of people, but also noise, air pollution and waste. In certain time, factory outlets (FOs), 13 banks, offices, specialty restaurants and boutique-shops along Jl. Ir. H. Juanda have generally generated traffic congestions, and some of the vacant gardens in front of the houses along the street have been misplaced as parking area. Many of the o ld residential buildings situated along Jl. Ir H. Juanda are considered as valuable historic urban fabric in term heritage preservation. Most of the existing residential belongs to the villa typology (detached housing) with spacious gardens; meanwhile the new buildings have generally been built in closed system, in which no space between adjacent buildings is provided. Besides, the new structures/buildings have mostly been built without a proper scale and character within the neighbourhood. Apart of the externalities caused by the change of the functional use, the new appearance (the new look) of the physical modified old buildings in many ways on the contrary has discarded the cultural significance of the building, which were mostly designed under the influences of Art Deco, Nieuwe Bouwen and Indisch styles. Thus, explicit regulation (performance and prescriptive guidelines) concerning visual appearance, signage and building code (intensity, scale, height, volume, mass etc.) is still to be explored for the Dago area, especially for new structures/buildings (infill development). Furthermore, in course of heritage conservation identification of existing buildings is still necessary. Even the praxis of urban conservation and heritage preservation in Bandung has already commenced in the midst of 1980s, a generally accepted concept on how conservation and preservation should be implemented within the framework of urban development policy is still on debate.

framework of urban development policy is still on debate. Figure 5: Reuse of existing historic house

Figure 5: Reuse of existing historic house with extrem e physical modification (left); Physical alterations of existing buildings to accommodate new economic activities (right) Source: Docu mentation by Laksmi T. Darmoyono, 2006 (left), and Perilaku Manusia Modern Terhadap Lingkungan, Studi kasus: Kawasan Dago, Bandung, Student Research Study RK 6211, Urban Design Program ITB, 2006 (right)

12 The further discussion on such theme relates to the discourse of conservation praxis, which is now becoming a relevant in current urban development. Along with the discussion on sustainable urban forms, which especially concerns with the re-use of valuable urban resources, including buildings and sites, conservation has also been influenced by the growing debate of the global perspective of ecology. The energy crisis has also urged the recycling of old buildings. Thus, the renaissance of (urban) history has been accompanied by the increasing thoughts on social sensitiveness and ecology, which both define the quality of built environment (cf. W. Martokusumo, 2003 and cf. Böhme et al.,

1998)

13 Factory Outlets of known as FOs, which are very a unique phenomenon in Bandung, are places where people can buy clothing and other related products at wholesale (i.e. factory) prices. FOs usually carry branded products that do not qualify for export standards. These places attract people from other cities and regions to come to Bandung and purchase branded goods at affordable prices, and this can be seen from the influx of out-of-state cars on weekends, causing traffic congestion. Bandung has become well known for its factory outlets, whose numbers today have reached more than sixty. The phenomenon commenced in the late 1990s when several factory outlets were built in order to able to access the local market by providing branded products. Nowadays, Factory outlets are not only place for shopping but rather becoming place for “seen and to be seen”. Another type of FOs is Distro (Distribution Outlet), which are now a common phenomenon in Bandung and also used as meeting point for the urban youth.

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4.5

Community Participation

The current land use alterations along Jl. I r. H. Juanda should be controlled in order to minimise the negative impact of the whole neighbourhood, and to handle the conflicting interests among the stakeholders. From the stakeholder analysis two key stakeholders regarding the dynamic transformations in the area of Jl. Ir. H. Juanda,

are identified, first stakeholder that possess considerable influences on current economic activities (local key persons and landlords); secondly, stakeholders that have significance influences in term of financial (business society and private investors) and institutional/administrative authority, i.e. the municipality of Bandung. The need of more public-oriented urban development scheme for the neighbourhood physical improvem ents of Jl. Ir. Juanda is inevitable, and that in many degrees depends largely on the commitment of stakeholders. Together with a clearly-defined vision on sustainable urban development, partnership/alliance building and strategic management are also necessary for the success of the implementation of control mechanism. In order to achieve that community must actively be involved with the process of the making of their living and working space, that needs their requirements. Community participation is definitely considered as a fruitful means to enhance the sense of belonging and the responsibility the community to their living space, the environment. Ultimately, the understanding of our Lebensraum is determined by the active participation of the community.

5 .0 CONCLUDING REMARKS

From the

always meant urban expansion, conversion and maintenance all at once, albeit to differing degrees. Often the

production of a city is without quality, without charm and without memory. All too often ecology is not taken into considerations on urban development, and the problem of environmental deficit is related with the depletion of non-renewable resources in broader sense in term of urban ecosystem.

obscene inequalities and extraordinary

opportunities, and are also the resource of innovation and economic growth. As we experience today, cities are more than ever shaped by the economic forces. Competition in local, regional market leads to an inevitability of surrendering urban development control to economic forces. Such circumstances have been revealed by the case of Dago, Bandung. Thirdly, the idea of r esponsive urban development must be defined as human efforts concerning management of organism or ecosystem, so that the utilisation of potential resource can sustain. The quintessence of sustainable urban development policy should not only deal with maintenance and development of urban fabrics, but, furthermore, it must accommodate inevitably new functions and vitality -uncertainties- (cf. D. Ipsen, 1999),

which based upon the needs of the all stakeholders on urban development through active participation of the community. Fourthly, sust ainable urban development deals not only with the architectural prerequisites (physical design), but also how contributions can be made for social and ecological improvement. It means that in sustainable urban design socio-cultural and ecological aspects must go hand in hand. Economical, social, ecological aspects must be put together and then integrated into a sensitive urban development scheme.

of life of human beings while

Fifthly, sustainable development is also concerned with improving quality

protecting the biosphere by living the carrying capacity of the global ecosystem. For those concerned with urban design, it is the meaning and application of this definition for the city ad its region which is important. In recent

years ecological dimension has begun to be added to urban design in recognition of concerns about the broad environmental impact of development and concerns about sustainability. Ultimately, the observation of the case Jl. Ir. H. Juanda, Bandung re veals that current urban development approach does not proportionally consider the human activity yet. Thus, a search for more careful approach and understanding of the ‘big picture’ is legitimate. That indicates a need of substantial and procedural improvement in terms of urban development. New models of appreciation have begun to emerge particularly in the organisational development field that can allow us to re-evaluate the ‘problem-solving’ approach with an ‘appreciate inquiry’ approach (cf. A. Badshah, 1996). Appreciate inquiry focuses on building capacity, valuing the strongest features of community under consideration, envisioning what ‘might be,' discussing what ‘should be’ and achieving innovative solutions for the urban development policy. In this sense, sustainable development must be more than merely “protecting” the environment: it must be development that strongly improves the human condition, i.e. the capacity building, while reducing the need for environmental protection (M. Roseland in D. Aberley, 1994, pp. 70-78). Referring back to the story of Ersilia, it is argued that understanding and respect to our environment will ensure and guarantee the quality of our Lebensraum. This, in return, will significantly determine the quality of our life.

Secondly, cities are essentially places that offer opportunities and risks,

discussion above some remark

s can be suggested as follows: First, generally urban development has

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to express his gratitude and sincere appreciation to the Urban Design Students (2005) of ITB. Some materials and d ata of this paper are taken from the study on Dampak Perilaku Manusia Modern Terhadap Lingkungan, Studi kasus: Kawasan Dago, Bandung, done by the students of Urban Design ITB, and supervised by the author and his colleague Budi Faisal, PhD.

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