USER GUIDE
November 2004
RM2004 UserGuide
Disclaimer
Much time and effort have gone into the development and documentation of RM2004 and GP2004. The programs have been thoroughly tested and used. The user accepts and understands that no warranty is expressed or implied by the developers or the distributors on the accuracy or the reliability of the program. The user must understand the assumptions of the program and must apply engineering knowledge and skill to independently verify the results.
Copyright
The computer programs RM2004, GP2004 and all the associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Ownership of the program and the documentation remain with TDV Austria. Use of the program and the documentation is restricted to the licensed users. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from TDV is explicitly prohibited. RM2004 and GP2004 Copyright and support in Central Europe Tcl Copyright 19871994 The Regents of the University of California Tcl Copyright 19921995 Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans. Tcl Copyright 19931997 Bell Labs Innovations for Lucent Technologies Tcl Copyright 19941998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Microsoft Windows Copyright Microsoft Corporation
RM2004 UserGuide I
Contents
1 General Comments ................................................................................................11 1.1 General...........................................................................................................11 About RM2004 ......................................................................................11 About this Manual .................................................................................11 File Structure..................................................................................................11 RM2004 Software Components.............................................................11 Project Data............................................................................................12 Backups and Data Transfer....................................................................13 The Graphical User Interface (GUI) ..............................................................13 General...................................................................................................13 The Main Toolbar ..................................................................................14 The Menu Bar ........................................................................................15 Input Pads with Tables...........................................................................16 3DViews ...............................................................................................17 Splitting and Merging Windows, Fullscreen Function.........................18 Functions for Zoom and Eyeposition ...................................................18 Help System .................................................................................................110 Hardware Requirements ..............................................................................110 Units...............................................................................................................21 Coordinate Systems .......................................................................................21 General...................................................................................................21 Global Coordinate System .....................................................................21 Local Coordinate System for Beam Elements .......................................22 Local Coordinate System for Spring Elements......................................23 CrossSection Coordinate System .........................................................23 CrossSection Plane .......................................................................................25 Element Library .............................................................................................25 General...................................................................................................25
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1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.3.7 1.4 1.5 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4.1
General Conventions..............................................................................................21
RM2004 UserGuide 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7 2.4.8 2.4.9 2.4.10 2.4.11 2.4.12 2.4.13 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.3 3.3.1 II Beam Elements ......................................................................................26 Prestressing Tendons .............................................................................27 Cable Elements ......................................................................................27 Linear Spring Elements .........................................................................27 Friction Elements ...................................................................................28 Contact Elements ...................................................................................28 CompressionOnly Springs Elements ....................................................28 TensionOnly Spring Elements..............................................................28 Bilinear Spring Elements .......................................................................28 User Defined Stiffness Matrix ...............................................................29 User Defined Flexibility Matrices .........................................................29 Damping Elements.................................................................................29
Eccentric Connections .................................................................................211 Loading State, Sign Conventions.................................................................211 External Impacts on the Structure........................................................211 Internal State Deformations, Forces, Moments and Stresses............212 Sign Conventions.................................................................................214 Design Codes ...............................................................................................216 Project Administration...................................................................................31 !Change Work Directory .....................................................................31 !Initialise Current Project ....................................................................31 !RM2004 Project History ....................................................................31 General...................................................................................................32 !Import TCL Project Data....................................................................32 !Run TCL File .....................................................................................32 !Open TCL...........................................................................................32 !Export TCL Project Data....................................................................33 !Load Default Properties .....................................................................33
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File Menu...............................................................................................................31
Defaults ..........................................................................................................33
RM2004 UserGuide 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4 3.4.1 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.2.9 5.2.10 5.2.11 5.2.12 III !Load Template....................................................................................33 !Reload Default Database....................................................................34 !Reload CS Catalog .............................................................................34 TDF Reports ..................................................................................................34 !Tdv Document Format (TDF) ............................................................34 !Demo examples ..........................................................................................35 !Dynamic Data Exchange ............................................................................35 !Optimisation Settings .................................................................................35 !Exit RM2004 ..............................................................................................36 General...........................................................................................................41 Colour Settings ..............................................................................................41 Drawing of Objects and Numbering..............................................................41 Standard Eye Positions ..................................................................................41 Perspective View ...........................................................................................42 Save view to file ............................................................................................42 General...........................................................................................................51 ! Material Data.............................................................................................51 Material Table........................................................................................51 Basic Mechanical Properties..................................................................52 Material Types .......................................................................................53 Mechanical Properties of Concrete Material Types ..............................53 Mechanical Properties of Reinforcement Steel Material Types ............54 Mechanical Properties of Prestressingsteel Material Types .................54 Mechanical Properties of Steel ..............................................................54 Mechanical Properties of Aluminium....................................................54 Mechanical Properties of Timber ..........................................................54 Mechanical Properties of User Defined Materials.................................54 Timedependent Material Properties .....................................................55 Material Safety Factors ..........................................................................55
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Properties Menu.....................................................................................................51
RM2004 UserGuide 5.2.13 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.7 5.9 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.3 IV StressStrain Diagrams ..........................................................................56
!Attribute Sets (Reinforcement Properties) .................................................56 !CrossSections............................................................................................57 General...................................................................................................57 Graphical Presentation of the Crosssection..........................................58 ! CrossSections "Parts.......................................................................58 ! CrossSections "RefSet....................................................................59 ! CrossSections "CSCat Crosssection Catalogue......................513 ! CrossSections "NodElem Finite Element Mesh........................514 Translating and Rotating CrossSections.............................................514 "Aeroclasses..............................................................................................515 !Variables...................................................................................................517 General.................................................................................................517 Operators and Available Mathematical Functions...............................517 Internal Variables.................................................................................518 Userdefined variables .........................................................................519 !Units .........................................................................................................521 !RM Sets ....................................................................................................523 General.................................................................................................523 Input of RM Sets..................................................................................523 Application of RM Sets .......................................................................523
5.8 ............................................................................................................................522
Structure Menu ......................................................................................................61 General...........................................................................................................61 !Node Data and Properties...........................................................................61 General...................................................................................................61 !Node Data and Properties "Node......................................................61 !Node Data and Properties "Supp ......................................................62 !Node Data and Properties "Beta .......................................................62 !Node Data and Properties "Ecc ........................................................62 !Element Data and Properties ......................................................................63
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RM2004 UserGuide 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7 6.3.8 6.3.9 6.3.10 6.3.11 6.3.12 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7 6.5.8 6.5.9 6.5.10 6.6 V General...................................................................................................63 !Element Data and Properties "Elem .................................................63 !Element Data and Properties "Mat ...................................................64 !Element Data and Properties "CS.....................................................64 !Element Data and Properties "CS Plane ...........................................67 !Element Data and Properties "Comp ................................................67 !Element Data and Properties "Beta ..................................................67 !Element Data and Properties "Ecc....................................................68 !Element Data and Properties "Hinge ................................................69 !Element Data and Properties "Time .................................................69 !Element Data and Properties "Shape ..............................................610 !Element Data and Properties "Checks ............................................610 General.................................................................................................611 Physical and Material Properties of Tendon profiles...........................611 !Tendon Data and Properties "Assign..............................................614 !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry.........................................615 !Tendon Data and Properties "3DValues........................................618 Graphic input facilities.........................................................................619 !Special commands....................................................................................621 !Special commands "Node compare ................................................621 !Special commands "Element compare ...........................................621 "Beam subdivision (new beam elements) ..........................................622 "Cable subdivision (new cable elements) ..........................................622 "Macro for Live Load (BS 5400 Part 2, 1978)...................................622 "Macro for Live Load (BD 37/01, 2001) ...........................................624 "Macro for Live Load (HK Standard, 1997)......................................624 "Preprocessor for Moving Load .........................................................624 "Preprocessor for Cable Stayed Bridge..............................................627 "Compensation of new element length ..............................................629 !ILM (Incremental launching method) ......................................................631
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RM2004 UserGuide 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 7 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.3.7 7.3.8 7.3.9 7.3.10 7.3.11 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 VI General.................................................................................................631 !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "Segments ........................631 !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "Launch ............................632 !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "Recalc .............................634 !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "New project ....................634
Construction Schedule Menu.................................................................................71 General...........................................................................................................71 The Project Time Axis...........................................................................71 Required Definitions..............................................................................72 !Construction Schedule Variants .................................................................73 !Load Definition ..........................................................................................73 General...................................................................................................73 Load Types ............................................................................................74 Principles for Load Case Superposition.................................................74 The Load Case Pool ...............................................................................75 Load Case Envelopes.............................................................................76 Combination Tables "Comb...............................................................710 Load Manager "LManage ..................................................................710 Load definition "LSet, "LCase .........................................................712 Traffic load calculations, "Lane, "LTrain.........................................713 Earthquake Events "Seismic ..............................................................721 Dynamic Loading "Wind ...................................................................722 General.................................................................................................724 Input Sequence.....................................................................................725 Application of the AddCon Function...................................................727 !Stage Activation and Actions...................................................................728 General.................................................................................................728 "Activation .........................................................................................728 "Actions..............................................................................................729 "Tendon ..............................................................................................761
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!Additional Constraints..............................................................................724
RM2004 UserGuide 7.6 7.7 7.7.1 7.7.2 7.7.3 7.7.4 7.7.5 7.7.6 7.7.7 8 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 9 9.1 VII !Simulated calculation ...............................................................................763 !Recalc .......................................................................................................764 Calculation options ..............................................................................764 Iteration Parameters .............................................................................769 Parameters for Dynamic Analyses.......................................................769 Parameters for the Creep and Shrinkage Calculation ..........................770 Output Parameters................................................................................770 Parameters for the Calculation of Crosssection Values .....................770 Summation Load Case .........................................................................770
Results Menu .........................................................................................................81 General...........................................................................................................81 Result Logs ....................................................................................................81 Input Database Logs ..............................................................................81 Calculation Action Logs and Results.....................................................82 !Load Case Results ..............................................................................82 !Envelope Results ................................................................................83 #Graphical Result Presentation ....................................................................83 General...................................................................................................83 !Graphical Result Presentation (!PlSys)............................................84 Plot Editor ..............................................................................................87 Time dependencies !Creep, Shrinkage, Relaxation Presentation ......813 !Influence Line Presentation..............................................................814 Alphanumeric Result Presentation in the GUI .............................................82
Modelling Structures and Construction Stages......................................................91 General Approach to Analysing a Structure ..................................................91 Define the Structure ...............................................................................91 Define the Loads ....................................................................................92 Define the Construction Schedule .........................................................92 Performing the Analysis and Viewing the Results ................................93 The Structural Model .....................................................................................93 General Modelling Rules .......................................................................93
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RM2004 UserGuide 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.2.5 9.2.6 9.2.7 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.5 10 10.1 10.2 VIII Nodal Points...........................................................................................94 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) ................................................................94 Elements.................................................................................................95 Boundary Conditions .............................................................................95 Eccentric Connections ...........................................................................97 Element End Releases Jointed Connections .......................................97 Modelling the Construction Schedule....................................................99 Long Time Behaviour Creep, Shrinkage, Relaxation.........................99 Recommended Numbering and Labelling Scheme .......................................99 Node and Element Numbering ..............................................................99 Recommended labelling scheme for load cases ....................................99 Additional Constraints .................................................................................911 Modelling Bridge Structures............................................................................101 General.........................................................................................................101 Superstructure Modelling ............................................................................101 Bridges with one Single Main Girder ..................................................101 Bridges with more than one Main Girder ............................................102 Load Carrying Behaviour in Transverse Direction..............................103 The Time Domain  Construction Schedule ..................................................99
Connection between Superstructure and Substructure ...............................104 Substructure Modelling................................................................................106 PreCamber ................................................................................................1010 General...............................................................................................1010 Camber Line ......................................................................................1010 Control of Intermediate States ...........................................................1014 Brought Forward Activation of new Segments .................................1014 Considering Precamber in Nonlinear Analyses................................1015 General...............................................................................................1016 Calculation and Evaluation of Influence Lines..................................1017 Nonlinear Calculation of Traffic Load Cases (LiveSet)...................1018
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RM2004 UserGuide 10.6.4 10.6.5 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 IX Taraffic lanes .....................................................................................1019 Load Trains ........................................................................................1020
Prestressed Bridges ..........................................................................................111 General.........................................................................................................111 Material and Physical Properties .................................................................111 Tendon Geometry Internal Tendons .........................................................112 External Prestressing....................................................................................113 General.................................................................................................113 Geometry Definition via Tangent Intersection Points (Type 1) ..........115 Geometry Definition by Specification of Straight Segments (Type 2)116 Approximate Geometry in the Region of the Deviator Block .............117 Tendon Point Types .............................................................................118 Computing the Friction Losses ............................................................119 Scheduled Stressing Sequence.............................................................119 The Prestressing Load Case...............................................................1110 Calculation of the Prestressing Load Case and Results.....................1111 Grouting Prestressed Tendons ...........................................................1112 Treatment of Tension Force Losses...................................................1113 Calculation of Concrete Stresses .......................................................1115
11.4.1 11.4.2 11.4.3 11.4.4 11.4.5 11.5 11.5.1 11.5.2 11.5.3 11.5.4 11.5.5 11.5.6 11.5.7 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5
Composite Structures.......................................................................................121 Composite Crosssections............................................................................121 Nodes and Elements of the Structural System.............................................121 Construction Stages and System Activation................................................122 Loading on Composite and Partial Elements...............................................122 Calculation of Internal Forces......................................................................123 Option Normal..................................................................................123 Option Split ......................................................................................124 Option Joined ...................................................................................124
RM2004 UserGuide 12.8 13 13.1 X Prestressing of Composite Girders ..............................................................127 Special Bridge Types .......................................................................................131 Cable Stayed Bridges...................................................................................131 General.................................................................................................131 AddCon Function for Calculating the Stressing Forces ......................132 Load Types for Modelling the Stressing Process ................................132 Consideration of Cable Sagging ..........................................................133 Influence of Structural Nonlinearity...................................................134 Compensation of Deformations Fabrication Shape ..........................136 Proposed Procedure for Nonlinear SCB Analyses ..............................136 13.1.1 13.1.2 13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.5 13.1.6 13.1.7 13.2 13.3
Suspension Structures ................................................................................1310 Incrementally Launched Bridges (ILM) ....................................................1310 General...............................................................................................1310 Required Additional Structural System Definitions ..........................1311 Construction Schedule Definitions ....................................................1312
Dynamics .........................................................................................................141 Structural requirements, Mass matrix and Damping matrix........................141 Structural model requirements.............................................................141 Specification of Masses .......................................................................141 Load Case Specification ......................................................................142 Definition of the Damping Behaviour .................................................143 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 14.1.4 14.2 14.3
Calculation of Natural Frequencies .............................................................143 Earthquake Analysis (Response Spectrum Method) ...................................144 General.................................................................................................144 Response Spectrum Diagram...............................................................144 Performing the Response Spectrum Analysis......................................146 General.................................................................................................147 Time Interval and Time Steps..............................................................147 Loads and Masses as a Function of Time ............................................147 Initial State and LoadCase Definition..................................................149
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RM2004 UserGuide 15 15.1 XI Design Code Checks ........................................................................................151 Fibre Stress Check .......................................................................................151 General.................................................................................................151 Standard Fibre Stress Check (Uncracked)..........................................151 Demerging of Fibre Stress Quota .......................................................152 Fibre Stress Check for Cracked Concrete Sections .............................152 General.................................................................................................153 Shear Stresses ......................................................................................154 Principal Stresses .................................................................................154 Equivalent Stresses ..............................................................................154 15.1.1 15.1.2 15.1.3 15.1.4 15.2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 15.2.4 15.3 15.4 15.5
Ultimate Load Capacity Check....................................................................155 Bending Reinforcement Design...................................................................156 Shear Capacity Check..................................................................................157 Basics of the Shear Capacity Check ....................................................157 Design Forces ......................................................................................158 Design Values of the Shear Resistance..............................................1510 Required Geometric Data ..................................................................1513 Required Material Parameters ...........................................................1516 Shear Reinforcement..........................................................................1520 Results of the Shear Capacity Check.................................................1521
RM2004 UserGuide
General Comments
1.1 General
1.1.1 About RM2004 RM2004 is the latest version of the renowned RM software suite. The software has been continuously development over the past 30 years and much programming and bridge engineering experience has been packed into this product. The basic analysis procedure following the wellknown deformation method was widely extended because of experience gained in user support and inhouse project design work. TDV is proud to present their product to the bridge engineering community and will do its best to ensure that the high customer expectations are met. 1.1.2 About this Manual Structure This manual is split into three parts. The first part documents the assumptions on which the software is based, and gives some general explanations. The second part explains the individual input procedures for RM  prepared in the same logical order as the main input screen. The third part gives application examples of the software for typical bridge engineering projects. A referencing system provides logical links between these three parts. Crossreferences between the three parts should ensure that related information could be tracked. Conventions Navigation within the program functions is described using the following symbols: Functions in the main menu are referenced using the symbol #. Navigation within the pulldown menus is described using !. References to function buttons within the input pads are made using". The menu options are written in italics within given navigation paths (eg. #Structure!Element Data and Properties"CS). Reference to various input functions is made using the following symbols: General function buttons are printed in < > brackets (eg. <insert>).
RM2004 UserGuide
directory. Additional authorisation files that act together with a specific hardlock security device are necessary for using the program. The installation procedure and the authorization procedure for RM2004 are described in detail in the Installation Guide. 1.2.2 Project Data Data for each individual project is collected in a project directory. The user defines the name and the path of this project directory. A separate project directory must be established for each new project. Project variants can be managed as subdirectories within one project directory. A central binary database consists of files with the *.RM9 extension. Input data is stored in dbdbindbcatin##.rm9 files and cross section catalogues in dbcat##.rm9 files of the project directory, all available result data is stored in dbout###.rm9 of the variant subdirectory. Data of the dedboutfault variant are stored in the subdirectory (DefaultSchedule). Input into this database can be made via the Graphical User Interface (GUI), via script language (*.TCL) and via interface functions to other software (e.g. *.XLS, *.DXF, *.CSV). If a structural analysis is performed then the results of this analysis are stored in the binary database as described above. These results can be further processed and output into alphanumeric text files (*.lst) and graphic files (*.pl) and also for further processing in other software products. The inclusion of calculation results into reports can be automated to a high degree using the TDV Document Format (*.TDF). Input RM2004 GUI Input GP2004 GUI Interface to other software (*.XLS, *.CSV, *.DXF, etc.)
Structural analysis
Backups for saving model data of the binary database or using them for transferring the to other databases are usually performed by using TCL files (see 3.2, TCL Operations).
menu bar
detailed 3DView
main 3DView
Name and path of the current project and the version number of RM2004 are displayed in the title bar as shown in Figure 13.
RM2004 UserGuide
The status bar at the bottom of the main window contains three lines with information on the right hand side and an action log on the left, as shown in Figure 14. The three information lines contain descriptive texts of objects when viewed in inputpads, the set of units currently used and licenceinformation. All actions performed by RM2004 are logged and shown in the status bar. The history of logging information may be viewed by clicking the <log>button in the main toolbar. action log information
Figure 14 Status bar with action log and information lines
View history of program logs. Open the current project folder in windowsexplorer. View warnings and errors of the recent calculation. Open windows calculator. Open and edit text files from the current project.
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RM2004 UserGuide
.......<Crt> .......<freehand symbols> .......<TDVsetup> .......<print> .......<help> .......<manuals> .......<Tdf> .......<Tdfedit> 1.3.3 The Menu Bar
Open and view plot files from the current project. Show freehand symbols for view settings. Change GUI presentation parameters. Print plot files. View online help. View user guides online. View tdfreport files. Edit tdfreport files.
All the program functions are contained in the command structure of the menu bar. All first menu hierarchy items in this manual are identified by #, and items of the second and subsequent hierarchy by !. Functions that are accessed from within input pads are identified by". An example of the path to a function is given in Figure 15. #Properties !Cross Sections
The menus are structured in groups of functions. The first level of the menubar is given in Table 11 (16).
RM2004 UserGuide
Table 11 The menu structure of RM2004
General functions #File #View general settings and file operations view settings (see 3 File Menu) (see 4 View Menu) (see 5 Properties Menu)
Structural modelling functions #Properties view and edit structural properties #Structure view and edit structural geometry and objects (see 6 Structure Menu)
#Construction schedule view and edit loads and construction schedule, perform calculations (see 7 Construction Schedule Menu) Postprocessing functions #Results view, filter and print results (see 8 Results Menu )
1.3.4 Input Pads with Tables Most structural modelling functions (see Table 11) are used for viewing and editing objects and object parameters in tabular form. Tables in RM2004 are used in hierarchical order. Tables can be independent, have dual dependency or even tridependency. Independent tables contain objects and object data. Tables with dual dependency have a second interdependent table placed below where object selected in the upper table can be viewed and edited in the lower table. Tridependent tables have three interdependent tables. Examples are given in Figure 16. a) b) c)
Figure 16 Input Pads with tables in a) one b) two c) three levels
RM2004 UserGuide Standard TDV functions (icons) are used to edit and insert data in tables:
.......<insert before> .... Insert a line before the selected line. .......<modify> ............. Modify the selected line. .......<insert after> ...... Insert a line after the selected line. .......<copy> ................ Copy the selected line to the end of the table. .......<renumber> ........ Reorder lines of the table. .......<delete> .............. Delete one or more lines. .......<info>.................. Graphical view of selected item (if available). .......<variables> ..........Opens a list of internal variables (in #Properties !Variables, see 5.6), or a list of user defined plot variables (in #Results !Graphical result presentation, see 8.4). Input pads are usually available for modifying existing table entries. Groups of objects can be identified in these tables using a From/To/Step syntax. 1.3.5 3DViews The graphic screen is, by default, split into three views two graphic views and one window showing the eyeposition of the active view (as shown in Figure 12). All views show orthogonal or perspective projections of the threedimensional structural model. The zoomfactor, eyeposition and the type of projection and other view settings may be changed for each of the visible views individually. The active view is marked by a small square in its lower left corner (Figure 17). All View settings (#View) apply to this active view, as well as a special freehand zoom function (see 1.3.7).
RM2004 UserGuide
1.3.6
Splitting and Merging Windows, Fullscreen Function Views may be split in two and merged again by closing one of the views. The context menu, for this feature is opened with the right mousebutton. A full screen view is opened by clicking on the viewmarker square in the lower left corner of the view. Click the square again to return to the previous split views.
1.3.7
Functions for Zoom and Eyeposition The Eye Position The eye position of the current view is shown in the lower right hand window. The sphere in the centre represents the coordinated centre of the structural model and a cone represents the eye position and direction. The cone peak indicates the eyeposition and the cone shape shows the view rays. The compass points are shown in plan (global XGZG Axis with XG pointing east and ZG pointing north) the eyecone is projected onto this plane. All views are designated by their eyeposition (View south means that the eye position is south, looking north).
RM2004 UserGuide The 3Dview Toolbar .......Zoom to fit all. ... Scroll in one of the four directions. ......................... Zoom in and out. ......................... Resize the text characters.
......................... Rotate perpendicular to viewplane about the horizontal axis. ......................... Rotate about the global vertical axis. .......Default view. Zoom Changes in magnification can be made either using the 3Dview toolbar as described above or by using freehand symbols. Freehand symbols are drawn directly onto the screen view while pressing the CTRL key and the left mouse key. Zoom and pan functions are available to be used. The following freehand symbol is provided for examining a detail in any place in the active view (marked by a small square):
Zoom view
Viewsettings A range of options for the active (current) view may be set in the view settings. For example the types of objects to be shown depending on their activation state, drawing of cross sections and element bodies and further settings can be activated. View settings are made in the
RM2004 UserGuide
#View menu or reached via the context menu that is opened by clicking the right mouse button in any view. Save View to File The context menu has a function Save as to save the contents of the view to a file in Bitmapformat (.BMP). N.B. The best results for reports are obtained with the background colour set to white (#View !Colour Settings ! White background).
RM2004 UserGuide
General Conventions
2.1 Units
The user can freely choose the units for data input and output. Any combination of unit systems is possible. The unit system used internally in RM2004 for the calculation and data storage in the binary database is a modified SI system (SI = Systme International dUnits). All input values entered into the program are transformed internally into this system and all output values are transformed from this system into the output units before completing the output action. The internal unit system is as follows: Metres [m] for the lengths KiloNewton [kN] for forces Degrees centigrade [C] for the temperature definitions Seconds [s] for the time definitions Directly derived (consistent) other units (e.g. m/s2 for accelerations or kN/m2 for stresses) Although the user is free to work in an arbitrary unit system, it is recommended that a consistent system of units (Table 21) should be used to ensure a clear understanding of the calculation results. Account must be taken of any inconsistent unit system used when interpreting the results!
Table 21 Typical consistent input/output units. Force kN MN kips kips Length m m feet inches Moments kNm MNm kip ft kip ins Stresses kN/m2 = kPa MN/m2 = MPa kips/ft2 kips/in2
RM2004 UserGuide YG
yL yL
K
zL xL
ZG
2 XG
2.2.3 Local Coordinate System for Beam Elements A local coordinate system for each element, as shown in Figure 21, is defined as follows: The local Xaxis XL is oriented in the direction from element begin to element end. The angle 2 (angle in plan) is defined as the angle between the global XGaxis and the normal projection of the element on the XGZGplane (plan). The angle 1 (angle of elevation) is defined as the angle between the XGZGplane and the element axis XL. 1 is positive if the local Xaxis XL has a positive YGcomponent (lefthand turning), 2 is positive when measured from XGtowards ZG (righthand turning). A 3rd angle, denoted , describes the deviation of the principal inertia planes from the default. The local coordinate system may be derived from the global system by applying three rotations in the correct order (a2, 1 and ). The default orientations (YL, ZL) of the local axes YL and ZL are calculated in accordance with the following rules: For deck elements (predominantly horizontal) the axis YL is allocated to a plane parallel to the global YG axis and the local XL axis. For pier elements (predominantly vertical) the axis ZL is allocated to a plane parallel to the global ZG axis and the local XL axis. the input. The orientations of the local axes YL and ZL (forming the 1st and 2nd principal inertia planes with XL respectively) are defined by the angle . The input for the angle must be given by the user if the default axes YL, ZL are not suitable. Figure 22a and Figure 22b show the definition of the angle for deck elements and pier elements respectively. The angle is positive if turning to the left around the xL axis.
Note: The angle is an element parameter describing the principal inertia planes being constant over the whole element length. An average value must be entered whenever the principal inertia planes of the element crosssections differ from one end to the other. Refer to 6.3.7, !Element Data and Properties "Beta for further details.
1 and 2 are automatically derived from the location of the element begin and end defined in
YL
ZL
XG +
Figure 22 Definition of angle for girders and piers (viewed in the negative XL direction!)
2.2.4 Local Coordinate System for Spring Elements Support constructions are often modelled by spring elements connecting a structural node to the rigid ground modelled by referencing the node 0. Elements connected to node 0 have by default a zero length. Their local coordinate systems cannot be derived from the element axis and are therefore established with global directions. This also applies to all other spring elements connecting 2 structural points with identical coordinates (e.g. for modelling bridge bearings). In order to get a local coordinate system with other than global directions, it must be defined by directly specifying the appropriate angles 1, 2 and . The default local system for =0 is created in accordance with the above described deck element convention. The lengths of these elements must also be specified by the user (for plotting purposes). 2.2.5 CrossSection Coordinate System A separate coordinate system is used for defining crosssections. The automatic crosssection property calculation is performed about the axes of this system after moving it without any rotation to the centre of gravity of the crosssection. In cases, where the directions of the principal axes differ from the chosen crosssection coordinate axes, the second moments of inertia Iz ad Iy are, by default, also computed about the crosssection system axes (Figure 23). The respective offdiagonal terms of the inertia tensor are neglected. IY Y Z IZ
RM2004 UserGuide
In the standard case (symmetric crosssection, no eccentricities, crosssection normal to the element axis) the crosssection coordinate system translated to the gravity centre will be identical to the local coordinate system of the beam element.
Note: If the crosssection consists of more than one crosssection part (see 5.4.3), the crosssection coordinate system is translated into the gravity centre of the respective crosssection part for calculating the moments of inertia.
With respect to the axis directions, the crosssection values describing the shear resistance are also related to the crosssection coordinate system. With respect to the origin of the calculation coordinate system, they are however related to the shear centre, and not to the centre of gravity. In accordance with the basic assumptions of the statics of beams, the program assumes without any further checks, that the shear centre and the centre of gravity coincide (one unique element axis being the reference axis for all internal force components). I.e. the offdiagonal terms of the inertia tensor arising due to any offset between gravity and shear centre are neglected like those arising from deviations of the principal inertia planes. Crosssections can also be rotated in order to match the crosssection axes with the principal axes (see 5.4.7,Translating and Rotating CrossSections). The crosssection properties are recalculated for the modified system after the rotation/translation. Depending on the actually used subfunction, the angles of the elements with this crosssection can be updated by the user or are automatically updated, so that the orientation of the crosssection in the global system remains the same (Figure 24). cs
=0 =45
RM2004 UserGuide
XoY
XoZ
ZL
XL
YL
XL
The crosssection plane is, by default, perpendicular to the element axis connecting the centres of gravity at the element begin and element end. In some cases, it might be advantageous to define the crosssection in a different plane. RM2004 allows for defining the crosssection in any plane. However, the crosssection properties are calculated in this plane and used in the stiffness calculations without any transformation. However, the plane specification influences the position of stress points and tendon points in the tendon geometry calculation process and in the design checks.
RM2004 UserGuide
As a general convention, a node with number 0 may always be referred to as a rigid node as described in 9.2.5. 2.4.2 Beam Elements Beam elements are described by their geometry, their material properties and their crosssection. The stiffness of each beam element is automatically computed taking into account this information. The basic assumptions of beam theory must be considered when modelling a structural system using beam elements. General modelling issues resulting from these requirements are addressed in Section 9.2. Geometry The exact 3D geometry of a beam element is derived from its length, direction, eccentric connections (2.5) and angle of twist (2.2.3). This information is either automatically generated in GP2004 or can be entered and/or modified in RM2004. As a minimum, the structural nodes at the beginning and at the end of the element must be defined (the nodes at the begin and end of a beam element must not be identical in coordinates). Material Properties A library with predefined material properties according to various code specifications is provided as part of the software. This library can be managed and extended by the user. Either, materials from this library can be assigned to the elements, or alternatively, the material properties can be entered directly by the user. CrossSections Crosssection properties must be assigned to the start and end of each beam element, the average of these two values is used in the stiffness calculation. A library of predefined crosssections is provided as part of the software package. This library can be managed and extended using GP2004. Crosssection properties are automatically computed using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The method implemented in RM2004 is a general algorithm that ensures that no distinction between thinwalled and thickwalled or closed and open crosssections needs to be made by the user. A consistent FEmesh is a prerequisite for the calculation of crosssection properties. It is best to generate complicated crosssection geometries using GP2004. Twodimensional 9node isoparametric elements (Lagrange elements) are used for the FEcalculation of the crosssection values. The quadratic shape function used for these elements guarantees good behaviour even with rather coarse meshes. It may be generally stated that one element over the thickness of the different crosssection parts is sufficient for hollowsections whereas three elements over the thickness should be used for the solid crosssections to obtain accurate results for the shear flow in the crosssection (see also 5.4.6 and GP2004 Manual). Alternatively, crosssection properties can be entered directly without having to define the actual geometry of the crosssection. This approach is sufficient for section forces and displacements results but precludes the use of automated design checks, calculation of stresses and many other procedures.
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Tendon elements are used to simulate prestressing and posttensioning. Internal and external tendons can be defined. Tendons are defined with their geometry, their crosssection area, the material properties and additional tendonspecific parameters. These tendon elements are implemented to allow the simulation of internal and external prestressing including the calculation of stressing losses, elastic shortening and steel relaxation. Tendons can be defined in their exact 3D geometry. Friction losses due to stressing, wedge slip or releasing are computed accurately taking into account the given specifications for friction coefficient (and wobble factor for internal tendons). Once an internal tendon is defined as grouted, the crosssection properties of the referenced beam elements are updated accordingly. 2.4.4 Cable Elements Cable elements need the same pieces of information as beam elements geometry, material properties and crosssections. These cable elements are used for external cable components in suspended structures. They should not be mistaken with prestressing tendons, which are modelled differently in RM2004 (see section 2.4.3). Cable elements only take into account normal forces. Shear forces or bending moments cannot occur in elements of this type. Therefore, only the crosssection area is needed as crosssection property. Other values need not be specified. In the case of aeroelastic analysis, the cable crosssection is also used for the aeroelastic section properties. In this case, it is often advisable to model the cable as a ring of the same crosssection area to account for the larger diameter needed in the aeroelastic part of the analysis. In the case of linear analysis, results for cable elements will be computed for a straight connection between the two nodes. If nonlinear cable behaviour is requested, the cable sagging is modelled by using a subsystem for the cable with intermediate nodes. For this subsystem, cablesagging etc. is modelled using large displacement theory. 2.4.5 Linear Spring Elements The stiffness of linear spring elements is described by six spring constants. These constant define a linear relationship between displacement or rotation differences on one and forces or moments respectively. No material needs to be assigned to spring elements. The spring constants implicitly contain the element length, thus the element length stored in the element table is only used for graphical representation and not for the stiffness calculation. Spring elements should only connect nodes with the same coordinates since the lever distance between two nodes is not considered. For spring elements with a zero element length the orientation of the local axes cannot be automatically determined. This orientation must be specified by the user. As a default the local axes are assumed to coincide with the global axes. Spring elements connecting two nodes with different locations require the exact specification of the connection points, i.e. the position where the displacement difference actually occurs. Eccentric connections (section 2.5) from this point to the start and end nodes respectively have to be specified. These rigid lever arms transmit the resulting moments, and the elastic element length again becomes zero if defined correctly.
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Friction elements resemble linear springs with the exception that the absolute values of the shear components (Fy, Fz) of the spring forces are limited to a proportion equivalent to the friction coefficient of the characteristic component Fx. The stiffness for the XLdirection and for the rotations about XL, YL, ZL is described by the spring constants Cx, CMx, CMy, CMz. The shear forces in the local YL and ZL directions are limited for negative Fx, and set to zero for positive Fx. The limits for negative Fx are Fy y * Fx and Fz z * Fx. The friction coefficients y and z are additional input values besides Cx, CMx, CMy, CMz. 2.4.7 Contact Elements The stiffness of these elements is described by userdefined diagrams, relating the forces or moments to the displacement or rotation components respectively. These diagrams must be specified as variables (5.6, !Variables) given as tables. The assigned diagrams are evaluated in the course of the analysis considering the actual deformation values for computing the actual spring constants or stiffness matrix coefficients respectively. (The displacement values are defined in column A and the corresponding force values in column B of the table. A table may be defined and given for each degree of freedom. Units are always [m] and [rad] for displacements and [kN] and [kNm] for forces independent of user defined unit settings). 2.4.8 CompressionOnly Springs Elements These elements are linear springs, where the specified spring constants Cy, Cz, Rx, Ry, Rz are universally valid, and the effective spring constant in the XLdirection is Cx for negative forces Fx (spring in compression), and zero for positive Fx. 2.4.9 TensionOnly Spring Elements These elements are linear springs, where the specified spring constants Cy, Cz, Rx, Ry, Rz are universally valid, and the effective spring constant in the XLdirection is Cx for positive forces Fx (spring in tension), and zero for negative Fx. 2.4.10 Bilinear Spring Elements Differently to the common usage, the term bilinear is used in this context for denoting, that two different linear laws may be valid. Which one is currently valid depends on the current value of a characteristic parameter. This governing parameter is the spring force Fx in XLdirection. This force is described by a standard pure linear law (spring constant Cx), but two different sets of spring constants, valid in different states, exist for the other components. A given limit force F governs the distinction between the two states of this element (Figure 26). For both states (A for Fx < F) and (B for Fx > F) in Figure 26 different sets of spring constants Cy, Cz, Rx, Ry, Rz are given. Additionally, limit forces can be prescribed for all translational directions.
RM2004 UserGuide
force
governing component
2.4.11 User Defined Stiffness Matrix In some cases, it is advantageous to define a stiffness matrix directly to couple the degrees of freedom of two nodes. A complete stiffness matrix consists of 12x12 interacting members. Since the stiffness matrix is always symmetric, the number of members that need to be defined by the user is reduced. 2.4.12 User Defined Flexibility Matrices Flexibility matrices are the inverse matrices of the stiffness matrices. In some cases, it is simpler to determine and input a flexibility matrix to couple the degrees of freedom of two nodes. Again, the upper half of the symmetric flexibility matrix can be defined by the user. 2.4.13 Damping Elements Damping elements are used in dynamic analyses and therefore not considered in static analysis procedures. Viscous damper elements and damper springs can be specified for this purpose. Viscous Damper Elements A viscous behaviour is characterised by a constitutive law which relates the internal forces to the displacement velocity rather than to the displacement itself and may be described by a power law F=Cv v. The exponent in this case must be greater than zero. In RM2004, viscous damping elements are implemented as a set of six damper elements for the six velocity components. A separate damping constant may be defined for every component, but the exponent is assumed the same for all components.
Damper Springs are onedimensional elements and therefore stiffness and damping only acts in the local XLdirection. Damping elements consist of a standard viscous damper and a spring element arranged in parallel. The effective spring constant is a function of the dynamic movement direction with respect to the static displacement direction. Therefore, both, the effective spring element and the damping characteristic must are modelled in one element to ensure consistency. This is done by definition of two damping models (following a power law F=Cv v) for case 1 with velocity and displacement in the same direction and case 2 with velocity and displacement in opposite direction).
RM2004 UserGuide
The crosssection eccentricity, which is automatically calculated, is a vector from the centre of gravity of the crosssection to a defined reference point. A typical example for this eccentric connection is the eccentricity from the centre of gravity CG of the girder to the bridge deck top surface. The geometric alignment of the top surface of the deck is known and consequently the element nodes are often defined along this surface. The element axes are connected eccentrically to these nodes by the vertical crosssection eccentricity. System eccentricities in a structural model are user defined vectors which are measured positive from the element begin or end (or any eccentric reference point in the crosssection) to the start or end node respectively. The components are defined in global coordinates with the sign convention given in Figure 27. The definition in the local element coordinate system is not possible, because it requires an iteration process due to the orientation of the local axes being dependent from the eccentricity values.
YG
K
ZG +eY
K I
+eY +eZ eX +eX YL ZL XL
+eZ
XG
RM2004 UserGuide
stressing, where an internal stress state is produced, which is in equilibrium without boundary reactions. However, due to the constraint deformations, support reactions will arise, creating a secondary stress state (like temperature loading) in the structural system. In the case of geometrically nonlinear calculations, we differentiate between conservative forces, which do not change their direction and size with the deformations of the structural system, and nonconservative forces, which change their direction and maybe size. In fully nonlinear calculations (option Large displacements) RM2004 assumes, that external loads defined in terms of global coordinate directions are conservative, whereas loads defined in terms of local coordinate directions change their direction of action with the rotating local element system. 2.6.2 Internal State Deformations, Forces, Moments and Stresses General In continuum mechanics, the internal stress state is described by the stress tensor at any point inside the structure. Beam theory however assumes crosssections remaining plane, resulting in a linear strain distribution over the sections. The integrals of the stresses over the crosssections are called internal forces and moments. These values are, besides the nodal displacements and rotations, the primary result values of RM2004. With respect to the result values describing the strain state of the structure, we differentiate between nodal results and element results. Nodal results are usually only deformation values defined in the global coordinate system. Nodes with node supports will additionally yield support forces as internal force results. Deformations The deformation vector contains the following components: vx displacement in global X direction displacement in global Y direction vy vz displacement in global Z direction rotation around the global X direction rx ry rotation around the global Y direction rz rotation around the global Z direction Element results are deformations and internal forces at the element ends and any subdivision points. The deformation vector contains the same components than the nodal deformation vector, but the values are related to the start and end points on the element axis rather, than to the maybe eccentrically connected nodes. The internal force vectors are primarily related to the local coordinate system. Internal forces and moments The internal force vector contains the following components: N normal force (force in local x direction) Qy shear force in local y direction Qz shear force in local z direction
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RM2004 UserGuide Mx My Mz
General Conventions 213 torsion moment (moment around the local x axis) lateral bending moment (moment around the local y axis) bending moment around the local z direction (main bearing moment)
The above notation is widely used for the internal force components in beam elements. However, in RM2004 it is equally used for internal forces of spring elements or node supports, although the direction of the local xaxis is in this case arbitrarily defined by the user, and does not indicate a physically longitudinal axis of the element. This notation is also used for internal forces being transformed into the global coordinate directions. I.e. N characterises in all cases a force in x direction, and Qy, Qz forces in y and z directions respectively. As already mentioned (see 2.6.1), impacts may exist, which do not cause support reactions if the system is arbitrarily free deformable. The resulting internal forces may in this case be split into 2 parts, the Primary forces, describing the arising internal forces under the assumption of free deformability, and the Secondary forces, describing the internal force state due to the support reactions constraining the free deformation of the system. Splitting into a primary and a secondary part is in RM2004 performed for the following load cases (load types). Prestressing, where the primary part is also called V*estate Creep and shrinkage, where the primary part defines the strain constraint due to the grouted prestressing steel, and Nonlinear temperature distribution; the primary part describes the differential state between the actual temperature distribution, and the equivalent linear distribution inducing structural deformations. The function for result presentations allow for presenting the different parts separately or in total (options Total, Primary and Secondary, see 8.3.1). Stresses In RM2004, stresses are not calculated in the primary calculation functions, but if necessary in later postprocessing or output functions. The calculation is done with using the internal forces or strains respectively. Stresses are not stored in the database and therefore not presented in the GUI result value tables. The calculation of longitudinal stresses is only performed for stress points, which are related to the crosssections and gathered in socalled reference sets (see 5.4.4). Lists and graphical presentations of longitudinal stresses in the different stress points are created via RMSets (see 5.8), or in the respective checking actions (Fib..., see 7.5.3, Checking actions and 15.1, Fibre Stress Check). Graphical presentations may also be created in the other functions for graphical result presentation (see 8.4).
Princ The calculation of shear stresses is performed in the checking functions PrincLc or PrincSup respectively (see 7.5.3, Checking actions and 15.2.2, Shear Stresses). It is also done for the stress points specified in the appropriate reference sets. Apart from the evaluation of shear stresses in the directions of the crosssection axes, the functions PrincLc and PrincSup can PrincSup also be used for calculating and listing principal stresses and equivalent stresses in the stress
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RM2004 UserGuide
points. The graphical presentation of the distribution of anyone of these stress values can be performed with using the functions for graphical result presentation (see 8.4). 2.6.3 Sign Conventions The sign conventions for the element orientation and eccentric connections are given in 2.2.3 and 2.5 respectively. The below description of the sign conventions of deformations, internal and external forces uses the term clockwise for describing rotations turning to the right, i.e. clockwise when viewing in the positive axis direction. Displacements are positive in the positive axis directions and rotations are positive in the clockwise direction. External node forces and moments given in the global coordinate system follow the same sign conventions viewed from the origin of the system. Local element forces and moments follow the same sign conventions in the sense of the local coordinate system. Internal forces and moments are related to the local element coordinate system. The sign conventions are shown graphically in Figure 28 and Figure 29. These conventions define tensile stresses as being positive and compressive stresses as being negative. Shear stresses are positive, if the positive element edge (element end) is moved into the positive transverse direction.
+Qy
+Qz YL
+N
ZL
XL
end
begin
+Qz +Qy Figure 28 Sign conventions for internal forces.
+N
Moments are defined as positive if the socalled tension fibre in the crosssection is tensioned. The tension fibre for the transverse My moments is on the positive zside and the tension fibre for the Mz moments is situated on the negative yside thus ensuring compatibility with common engineering assumptions where a moment causing tension on the bottom side is defined to be positive, and a moment causing tension on the top side is negative. The torsion moment is defined as positive when it acts in the clockwise direction at the element end. Table 22 lists the sign conventions again for the element begin and end.
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RM2004 UserGuide
YL
ZL
XL
+Mx
end
+Mz +Mz +My
+Mx
begin
+tensile fibre Mz
Figure 29 Sign conventions for internal moments. Table 22 Sign conventions for internal forces and moments. +N (normal force) +Qy (shear force in ydir.) +Qz (shear force in zdir.) +MT (Mx) +My +Mz Element begin xL yL zL lefthanded (anticlockwise) righthanded (clockwise) righthanded (clockwise) Element end +xL +yL +zL righthanded (clockwise) lefthanded (anticlockwise) lefthanded (anticlockwise)
RM2004 UserGuide
RM2004 UserGuide
File Menu
As given above, data for each individual project is collected in a project directory, which is defined by the user and may be accessed via the project history or by direct directory selection (see 3.1). Import and export of complete project data is possible for backup or other purposes at any stage (see 3.2.2 and 3.2.5). RM2004 includes a comprehensive scripting interface in TCL script language. The complete binary RM2004 input database has a text equivalent in TCL commands. TCLscripts are very concise and readable ASCIItext files containing optimally sized RM2004 project data. Furthermore, TCLScripts may be used to access the result database of RM2004 for user defined output and further processing (see 3.2.3 and 3.2.4). Structural properties, such as definitions of creep, shrinkage and relaxation models may be imported from a default RM2004 database. Predefined project templates are available for the convenience of the user to replace frequent input sequences such as load manager definitions and more (see 3.3). Reports in a new TDFreport are layout and generated using simple script sequences (see 3.4 and the Appendix). Furthermore demo examples may be started (3.5), dynamic data exchange is provided as interface to common office software (3.6) and optimisation settings for the database may be given (3.7).
RM2004 UserGuide
of previously registered procedures. The principles of 3.2.3 apply to these scripts, but they are managed in the TCLlibrary. The TCLLibrary In RM2004, the TCLLibrary may be split into four levels as given in Table 31. The library is loaded whenever OpenTCL is called, either using #File !OpenTCL or the OpenTCLaction in the construction schedule.
Table 31 TCLlibraries
RM2004 UserGuide
Each of the library files consists of a number of procedures that have to be registered as given in Table 32.
Table 32 Structure of an OpenTCLfile
TCLProcedures :
proc myProcedure {} { ...commands... }
Example :
RegCmd LST Tendons myProcedure "S" MW 3.03.04 List tendons, INPUT: List of tendons"
3.2.5 !Export TCL Project Data The export to a TCL file may either be done for the complete project or only for parts of the project. The parts to be exported can be selected in the related input pad. All parts are per default selected.Defaults 3.3.1 !Load Default Properties This function has been provided for allowing for copying materials, crosssections and variables from a source database into the current project database. The source database is per default the defaultdatabase automatically created in the program directory after the very first start of RM2004 after the installation. This database contains the proprietary material tables for all implemented design codes as well as the variable sets describing the related creep and shrinkage models. Any other existing database can be allocated as source database. Crosssections can be transferred if any exist in the source database. To import predefined properties from the default database, one of the design codes may be selected from the list as filter criterion. The objects to be transferred are then marked in total by using the <mark all>button (all prefiltered objects are copied), or individually by using the space key. The marked objects are then copied to the current project database by using the <copy>button. 3.3.2 !Load Template Project templates are frequently used standard input sequences of project data. Templates to be used are chosen from the list (multiple selection is possible) and applied.
The default database is originally stored in the script file rm9.rmd and translated to a binary database the first time RM2004 is run. Generally the binary default database keeps unchanged. Nevertheless, it may be necessary to reload in some cases the binary data from the script file (e.g. if it has been overwritten or deleted). 3.3.4 !Reload CS Catalog RM2004 uses the definitions of the GP2004 crosssection catalogue (files gpcata#.gp9). This catalogue is transferred to the RM2004 project directory (dbcat##.rm9) when the project is initialised. If the GP2004 has been changed, the catalogue has to be reloaded in order to update the crosssection catalogue of the current RM project. Please be aware of changes. Catalogue crosssections are always considered as references to the catalogue, with settings of crosssection sizes only. Therefore the project data (also the TCL export file) depends on the cross section catalogue (dbcat##.rm9) and is sensitive to changes of the catalogue.
RM2004 UserGuide However, the default TDVTemplate will serve sufficiently in most cases. $Assemble TDF Report
When the TDFreport is assembled, the reportTCLscript is processed collecting all structural input and results from the database and plotfiles from project directories to create a layout report. The report (*.tdf) is viewed with the TDFviewer directly after successful report assembly (<yes>button). If the TDFViewer is opened once with the desired report file, it is not necessary to open it again.
RM2004 UserGuide
RM2004 UserGuide
View Menu
4.1 General
All functions in this menu apply to the active view in the RM2004 window. The view is activated by a left mouse click and marked by a small square in the lower left corner (as described in 1.3.5). View options are either accessed via the menu bar #View or alternatively by the context menu to any of the views with the right mouse button %Context $View options.
RM2004 UserGuide
RM2004 UserGuide
Properties Menu
5.1 General
The definition of structural properties is performed by the functions of this menu. Subsequently these structural properties can be associated with structural members. Structural properties in the context of RM2004 are: Material properties Attribute sets Crosssections Aeroclasses Variables Predefined material data and variables are stored in the default database. Properties may be either imported from this database into the active project (#File !Import Default Properties), imported from existing TCLfiles (#File !Import TCL Project Data), or defined individually using the functions of RM2004 or GP2004. Properties are always defined within logical property groups each property group representing data related to a specific national design code or other common origin (Figure 51). The predefined property groups can be extended by any number of userdefined property groups.
Property groups DIN 10541 Materials Attribute Sets Variables CrossSections Aeroclasses ONB4700 Materials Attribute Sets Variables CrossSections Aeroclasses GroupC Materials Attribute Sets Variables CrossSections Aeroclasses
RM2004 UserGuide
The group affiliation cannot be modified; the material must be deleted in the current property group, and again created in the new group. The lower tables contain parameters of the material selected in the upper table. The left row contains basic parameters required for the static analysis. The 2nd and 3rd row contain design parameters related to the different design codes. The particular meaning is dependent on the selected design code. Primarily these are parameters describing the creep and shrinkage behaviour of concrete materials. The notations of material properties in RM2004 are used in reference to national codes as selected in the materialpad. If TCL is used as reference, abbreviations of TCLScript terms (full terms are shown as quick help) are given for easy identification of the TCLScript syntax. Material values are changed by pressing the <modify> button. Changes are stored only if the <modify> button is pressed again. A graphic window is displayed in the right upper corner, presenting the nonlinear stressstrain diagram of the material. Different diagrams are provided and may be presented by selecting the appropriate option: on the one hand the standard nonlinear behaviour (option Nonlinear), on the other hand for the ultimate load check (option Ultimate) and further for the fatigue check (Whler). The diagram values are presented in the lower right table when the option Values is selected. For details see 7.7.1. 2 tables presenting safety factors and stress limits for different design checks are displayed in the lower right corner if the option Values is not selected. These values may be entered and Values modified with using the appropriate buttons. The stress limits definition has been provided for materials, where a fibre stress check shall be performed for different stress points in the crosssection. Up to 6 pairs of limit stresses (Sigmin, Sigmax) can be defined. The number of the SigSigrequired stress limit pair is referenced in the checking actions (FibLc, FibSup, FibIILc, ..., see 7.5.3, Checking actions) performing a fibre stress check. Limit stresses may also be presented in the graphic result presentation plots and diagrams (see 8.4). 5.2.2 Basic Mechanical Properties Some values for selected material properties can be entered directly as part of the element definitions. These specifications are sufficient for a linearelastic structural analysis. For an extended use of material definitions e.g. for the calculation of creep and shrinkage effects, relaxation losses or performance of codechecks  the definition of material properties as described in this section is required. In Table 51 the basic mechanical properties are listed with their standard notation in the GUI and their TCLSyntax. The definition of the listed values is mandatory. The shearmodulus and Poissons ratio depend on each other and one value is calculated automatically, if the other value is modified. As a general rule the definition of Poissons ratio overrules data for the shear modulus. If the field for Poissons ratio is empty, then the value for shear modulus is given and Poissons ratio is calculated. In TCLexports only GMOD is stored.
RM2004 UserGuide
Table 51 Basic mechanical properties. TCLScript GUI EMOD GMOD GAMMA ALPHAT Emod Poiss E Modulus (Youngs Modulus) Description
Poissons ratio (used to calculate GModulus from E Modulus. The value is not stored in TCLfiles)
Gmod Shear Modulus Gamma Specific Weight AlphaT Coefficient of thermal expansion
5.2.3 Material Types Each particular type of material behaves differently. The material type needs to be specified so the specific properties of this particular material can be accounted for. Codespecific constants are given individually for each design code for which checking operations are implemented. Currently the following material types are implemented: Concrete LWconcrete (lightweight concrete) Reinforcement steel Prestressing steel Steel Aluminium Timber Userdefined 5.2.4 Mechanical Properties of Concrete Material Types Mechanical properties for materials of type concrete are given in Table 52. The TCLScript notation and typical notation are given together with a description of used values. The notation in the GUI is adapted to the (locally) selected national code.
Table 52 Mechanical Properties of Concrete
TCLScript typical Description Coefficient of Concrete Consistency Coefficient for Hardening DIN ON BS 5400, HS BS 5400, HS Source
Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete at 28 days Mean value of concrete cylinder compressive strength Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete Splitting tensile strength of the concrete Tensile strength in bending
prEN 19921:200101 DIN 10451:200107 prEN 19921:200101 prEN 19921:200101 DIN 10451:200107 Australian Standards
RM2004 UserGuide
5.2.5 Mechanical Properties of Reinforcement Steel Material Types For the reinforcement materialtype the yield strength and its design value are defined for reinforcement calculation and checks as given in Table 53.
Table 53 Mechanical Properties of Reinforcement Steel
TCLScript YLD_STRENGTH YLD_STRENGTH_DESIGN typical fy fyd Description Yield strength (of reinforcement) Design yield strength (of reinforcement) Source prEN 19921:200101 prEN 19921:200101
5.2.6 Mechanical Properties of Prestressingsteel Material Types For prestressing steel, all values given in Table 54 can be defined. SIGP is used as stress limit for the design of the tendon tensioning process (see 7.5.4). This parameter XI is used for the crack propagation check according to Austrian design codes only. The value 1.0 indicates full adhesion, and 0.0 no adhesion (for details see the Appendix). RELCL is used to define the relaxation class of steel, and prestressing steel in particular. 1 is for wires with normal relaxation, 2 for wires with low relaxation and 3 for hot rolled steel sections. The stress loss depending on the stresslevel is calculated according to this relaxation class. Not every national code takes all three classes into (for details see the Appendix).
Table 54 Mechanical Properties of Prestressing Steel
TCLScript YLD_STRENGTH YLD_STRENGTH_DESIGN EMOD_PRESTRESSING SIGMA_PRESTRESSING COMPOSITE_FACTOR RELAXATION_CLASS typical fpk fpd Ep SIGP XI RELCL Description Tensile strength of prestressing steel Design tensile strength of prestressing steel Modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel Stressing Limit Coefficient for the surfacetype of prestressingsteel Relaxation Class of Steel used Source prEN 19921:200101 ON B4750:200101 prEN 19921:200101 ON B4750:200101 ON B4750:200101 all codes
5.2.7 Mechanical Properties of Steel The material properties of steel are defined according to 5.2.5. 5.2.8 Mechanical Properties of Aluminium The material properties of aluminium are defined according to 5.2.5. 5.2.9 Mechanical Properties of Timber The material properties of timber are defined according to 5.2.5. 5.2.10 Mechanical Properties of User Defined Materials The material properties of userdefined materials are defined according to 5.2.6.
Time dependency of certain materialproperties for example creep and shrinkage in concrete or steel relaxation can be taken into account in the analysis. In RM2004, these timedependencies are defined by sets of variables. In the RM2004 default database, sets of variables for creep, shrinkage and relaxationdefinitions are prepared for each property group. Each property group (e.g. ONB4700) therefore contains one set of timedependent functions. See the Appendix for the default database definitions. All variable associated with the various designcode specific timedependent material models are described in detail in the appendix.
PHI(t) is the variable representing the creepcoefficient. This variable describes the ratio be
tween the creep strain and the corresponding elastic strain. All parameters used in this function have to be specified for accurate results (for details see 9.3.2, Appendix und Technical manual).
EPS(t) is the variable representing the shrinkagestrain. This variable is used to describe the
development of the shrinkage (or swelling) strain within a certain time interval. All parameters used in the functions have to be specified for accurate results (for details see 9.3.2, Appendix und Technical manual).
EMOD(t) describes the variation of the youngs modulus over time. All parameters used in the functions have to be specified for accurate results (see 7.5.3 on UpdEmodaction). REL(t) governs relaxation losses of steel stresses depending on the stress level and time.
Directly coded creep, shrinkage and relaxation calculation All creep & shrinkage models as given in the Appendix are also directly implemented in the RM2004 code. These internally coded routines can alternatively be used, bypassing the variable definition and thus increasing the processing speed of these functions. This option can be activated by using #File !Optimisation "CS (see 3.7 !Optimisation Settings). Then, when using a variable name existing in the default database, the corresponding internal function will be used instead of the variable. The usage of userdefined variables is not influenced. The user must be careful if default variable sets have been changed by the user: these changes will not be taken into account, if the internally coded routines are used. 5.2.12 Material Safety Factors The safety factors defined in the material table are not necessarily directly related to material strength values, but often to strength and resistance values used in a certain context (e.g. in the shear capacity check, see 15.5.5). They are not used in the ultimate load check for scaling the stress strain diagrams, but the final design values must be entered (see 5.2.13). The safety factors, which may be specified as material parameters, are: Shear Safety factor for the shear and torsion Service Safety factor for serviceability states (prepared) Temp Safety factor for extraordinary states (prepared) Ultimate Safety factor for the bending and normal force Fatigue Safety factor for any fatigue checks (prepared)
Three different stress strain diagrams can be defined on the right side of the GUI. These are: Nonlinear Characteristic stressstrain diagram for considering nonlinear material Ultimate Design stressstrain diagram for the ultimate load check Whler Design stressstrain diagram for fatigue checks
RM2004 UserGuide
Properties Menu 57 ated in the reinforcement design module, but only if a reinforcement is at all required.
Note:
Minimum reinforcement due to design code or designengineering requirements shall always be elementwise specified as predefined reinforcement (in #Structure !Element data and properties "Checks).
5.4 !CrossSections
5.4.1 General The definition of crosssection properties is essential for any structural model. Three different possibilities of defining crosssections are provided in the GP2004 and RM2004 package: The general approach is to describe the geometry of the crosssection in GP2004 by interactive graphic input, and transferring it to RM2004 as database object into the crosssection table. Any crosssection may consist of several crosssection parts. The cross section geometry is then used to calculate all crosssection values (if the calculation option cross section calculation is set in #Construction Schedule !Recalc). These crosssections respectively crosssection parts are later assigned to structural elements (#Structure !Element Data and Properties "CS) by referencing their names and part numbers. This method of crosssection modelling is useful for automatic calculation of crosssection related data and is essentially required for the calculation of stresses and automated design checks. A crosssection library is available in RM2004. Templates from this library can be loaded and the default settings for the parameters describing these crosssections can be modified. The crosssection values can also be directly entered (in #Structure !Element Data and Properties "CS) in order to being subsequently used for the stiffness calculation. This method is sufficient when only internal forces and displacements are required as results. The GUI function !CrossSections is provided for defining and managing geometrically fully described sections in accordance with the first 2 definition possibilities mentioned above. The required crosssection properties (area, second moments of inertia, centre of gravity, shear areas in Y and Zdirections, torsion moment of inertia, shear centre) are in this case automatically calculated in RM2004. Note that the program uses a consistent approach based on the Finite Element Method for this calculation, allowing for using the same algorithm for all different crosssection types (see 2.4.2 Beam Elements). The input pad for #Properties !CrossSections shows an upper table (crosssection table) containing the cross sections. Each cross section is part of a property group as mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. The name of the cross section is used as reference. The name of the catalogueorigin (in case of a takeover from the crosssection library), the number of parts and a descriptive text are also given in this table. New crosssections may be created be taking the over from the crosssection library and appropriately modifying the parameters (see 5.4.6). Crosssections, which have been created in GP2004, and crosssections taken over from other projects, are entered with the standard import functions (3.2.2 !Import TCL Project Data and 3.3 Defaults).
RM2004 UserGuide
The <modify> button on top of the crosssection table can be used for changing the descriptive text of the respective section. A detailed list of the finite element mesh elements and nodes is displayed on selecting the <info> button. Using this button allows in the same manner than with using the function !Crosssections "NodElem (see 5.4.6) for modifying the element mesh. The icon < Crosssection manipulation> (icon with 2 crosssections sketches) is used for translating or rotating the crosssection with respect to the crosssection coordinate system (see 5.4.7). 5.4.2 Graphical Presentation of the Crosssection All crosssection data of the selected crosssection is displayed graphically (viewing direction in negative element direction, i.e. the zaxis is oriented to the right edge, the yaxis to the top edge) in the right upper part of the GUI pad. The crosssection coordinate system is presented with green dashdotted lines. The principal inertia planes are presented in white dashdotted lines if they do not coincide with the crosssection coordinate system. The settings of the graphic view may be changed according to the users demands. Depending on the active contents of the crosssection window the settings made in GraphSet apply to Graphthe whole view and the setting in PartSet to the view of the active crosssection part. In these Partsettings the visibility of different crosssection parts may be set on or off and the textsize may be changed. In the graphic view, all freehand functions (see 1.3) are available for navigation. The selection field ShStress allows for the presentation of the shear stress distribution due to shear forces or torsion (unit values). The purple lines indicate the direction of the principal shear forces, the length characterises the absolute size of the stresses. The stress scale may be changed with the factor StrFact. The maximum value of shear stresses is shown in the field Max. A detailed list of these unit shear stresses can be created with using the list action ListSh (see List/plot actions). 5.4.3 ! CrossSections "Parts Crosssections may consist of one or more parts. A crosssection part consists either of crosssection elements (e.g. classical beam crosssection, partial crosssections forming the beam crosssections of plate structures modelled as grillage, parts of a composite crosssection), or up to 8 basic crosssection parts (e.g. composite part = steel part + concrete part). A crosssection part is assigned to every start and end of the structural (beam) elements. The crosssection itself is referenced, if it is not subdivided into parts (classical beam crosssection). Otherwise, the assigned crosssection part is referenced with the part number. A separate crosssection part number must also be created for the total crosssection, if this is assigned to structural elements as a composite crosssection. This is also the case for all intermediate composite state containing some but not all individual parts and being active in any stage of the construction schedule. The function !Crosssections "Part is used for handling the definitions of the parts of the crosssections. All existing parts of the active crosssection are listed in the left lower table (table of crosssection parts). Depending on the Type of each part (Static or Weight) active crosssection parts may be indicated as being used for the stiffness calculation or only for applying the self weight.
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For special applications, three reduction factors may be defined, reducing the shear related crosssection values (RMx, RQy, RQz). The torsion moment of inertia Ix, and the shear areas Ay and Az are multiplied by these reduction factors in the calculation function for the crosssection values, and the reduced values are stored and displayed in the table of crosssection values. The different crosssection parts may have different reference points (columns x, y of the table of crosssection parts), which are used for calculating the crosssection internal eccentricities when the eccentricity type YlZl has been selected (see 6.3.4). These reference points are specified in the geometric preprocessor GP2004 when the crosssection geometry is defined. Different reference points are required, if the different crosssection parts are allocated to different element sequences not being directly compound (e.g. the different longitudinal girders of a girder grid model). If the different parts form a composite crosssection, they will usually be allocated to the same reference point. In this case, the geometric relations (positions of the different crosssection parts in space) are automatically preserved, because the structural elements representing the different composite states are usually assigned to the same system line (same allocated nodal points). The InfoText is used as description for each crosssection part. InfoThe right lower table (table of crosssection values) displays the crosssection values for the active crosssection part. Besides the basic values Ax, Ay, Az, Ix, Iy, Iz presented on selecting the option Bending, the option Shear allows for presenting the reduced bending inertia terms Iy*sy, Iz*sz calculated with taking into account the shear lag effects, and the warping resistance Iw. The option Eccentricity allows for presenting the position of the centre of gravity Eccentric and the shear centre as well as the angles of principal inertia axes and principal shear stress directions in the crosssection coordinate system. The option Geometry is finally used for displaying the perimeter lengths (inside and outside) and the relevant distances for calculating the section modulus of the crosssection part (see also 6.3.4). The crosssection values of composite or multipart crosssections must be related to the material properties of the composite element for allowing a correct stiffness calculation. RM2004 automatically searches in the element table for the appropriate material and generates the related crosssection values. Variants of the cross sections parts are automatically created if the same part is assigned to elements with different allocated materials. The crosssection value sets of the different variants may be displayed by selecting the appropriate variant in the selection field above the presentation table. Naturally, crosssection properties will differ in variants only for composite sections, because only values of inhomogeneous cross sections depend on the material values of their single parts. 5.4.4 ! CrossSections "RefSet Reference sets are collectives of (crosssection) reference points (formerly called additional points) and lines for describing special crosssection properties or geometric entities, such as: Groups of points, where longitudinal stresses shall be calculated Diagrams for describing nonlinear temperature distributions over the crosssection Geometric data of different reinforcement groups (bending reinforcement, shear reinforcement, etc.)
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The particular purpose is defined with the type of the reference set. Points being used for several different purposes must be multiply specified in different reference sets, even if they have the same position in the crosssection. Table 55 lists the types of reference sets available in RM2004 together with their specific purpose. Both, the position and the number of reference points of a reference set may be different in different crosssections. This allows for instance for defining a reinforcement profile, which follows the curved soffit of a structure, or a profile, which is horizontal. In a structure with variable crosssection it is also possible to e.g. define a reference set Lower bending reinf., which contains 4 points in the midspan region, and only 2 points in the border area. This is however not possible in the case of a constant crosssection over the whole span, except if different (geometrically identical) crosssection types are used. Definition and modification of reference sets in RM2004 Reference sets are mostly already defined in the preprocessor GP2004. The function !Crosssections "RefSet may be used for viewing and if necessary modifying the reference sets of the active crosssection part. The reference sets of the selected crosssection part are displayed in the left lower table. Each reference set contains one ore more points, which are listed in the right lower table for the active reference set, together with the point type and the position in the crosssection. The <modify> button is used for changing the position of existent reference points, the <insert> buttons may be used for inserting new reference points in the active reference set. The definition of the point type is only relevant for points describing a reinforcement profile. The point type describes the possible geometry. The type POINT is a standard point describing individual points in the crosssection or start points of reference lines. The type LINETO defines the end of a straight line, the type CURVTO the end of a curved line. Longitudinal reinforcements containing only points of the type POINT are called point reinforcements. The reinforcement design procedure assumes that the total reinforcement area is equally distributed to all points of the reference set. Longitudinal reinforcements being uniformly distributed along a line, a polygon or a curve, are called line reinforcements. They are described by assigning the type POINT to the first reference point, and the types LINETO or CURVTO to all subsequent points. Mixing the two reinforcement types (more than one point with type POINT before or after a point with the type LINETO or CURVTO) is not allowed. Unlike the longitudinal reinforcement types, where the position of the reinforcement is directly defined with the reference points, shear reinforcements require additional geometry data being not directly related to the position of the reinforcement itself. These are in principal for the torsion the definition of a closed polygon characterising the relevant perimeter line, for the reinforcement due to shear force the definition of the centre line of each web with 2 reference points, for the longitudinal reinforcement due to shear force the definition of the web region with 2 border lines and for the shear transfer into the flanges the definition of the respective flange area with 2 border lines, the first line being the investigated section line.
RM2004 UserGuide
Table 55 Types of reference sets Reference Set Type Connection points Stress check point
Description Points, used for the connectivity to Piers, used in GP2004 only Stress calculation in RM2004. The points are named. They are directly referenced by this name (no assignment of an attribute set required). The calculation of stresses is always performed for the material of the allocated structural element (the material definition of any assigned attribute set is ignored!) Geometry definitions of tendons in RM2004. No attribute set assignment required. Nonlinear temperature distribution in RM2004. No attribute set assignment required. The temperature values are directly assigned to the reference points. Only a 2Dcurve depending on the local ycoordinate can be specified. The point must be entered in the right order from top to bottom. Definition of different reinforcement types and groups for the reinforcement design in RM2004. By assigning an attribute set describing the relevant properties (material, etc.) the reinforcement actually becomes a part of the crosssection.
Bending reinforcement Cracking reinforcement Robustness reinforcement Torsion reinforcement Shear longitudinal reinforcement Shear reinforcement for web Shear reinforcement for flange (Qy) Shear reinforcement for flange (Qz)
Details on the required geometry definitions in the reference sets for describing for shear reinforcements (torsion and shear force stirrups, longitudinal reinforcement for shear) are given in chapter 15, Design Code Checks (15.5, Shear Capacity Check). The symbols on top of the table of reference sets may be used for inserting new reference sets or modifying the type and the attribute set assignment (details on attribute sets see 5.2.13). In order to ease the interpretation of the reinforcement results, which are printed in the appropriate list files and stored as element results under the related attribute set name, it is recommended to use in the same or a similar name for the reference sets and assigned attribute sets. Definition of reference points in GP2004 Reference sets are defined in GP2004 within the crosssection window. A list of reference sets is opened and new reference sets may be inserted. The type of reference is chosen from known types given in Table 55. For any selected reference set, geometry is defined as points or combination of points for lines and curves. To assign reference sets to common attribute sets, it is selected from the list of existing attribute sets or a new attribute set is generated automatically if a new name is entered. GP2004 will not transfer unused attribute sets to RM2004. Material data may be defined for attribute sets by choosing from the RM2004 material catalogue. Further data of the attribute set is defined in RM2004 (see 5.3, !Attribute Sets (Reinforcement Properties).
For better understanding, the proceeding is show on behalf of a composite crosssection. Figure 52 shows the cross section, which consists of two concrete parts. Longitudinal stresses shall be evaluated for 2 points, the top and bottom edges of the section. Further on, a load case nonlinear temperature distribution must be investigated. Finally, the required bending reinforcement on the bottom of the web part must be determined. The reference sets Fib1, Fib2, containing 2 reference points (type Stress point) each, are defined for evaluating the required longitudinal stresses. These reference sets are defined on the 2 crosssection parts, because the stress evaluation shall be performed for the partial elements. The reference set Tmp1 is created for describing the temperature distribution over the composite crosssection. It contains the necessary points (type Temperature point) and the related temperature values. It is assigned to the composite crosssection, because the load case is acting on the final system.
Cross Section Parts Part 2
Part 1
"Tmp1"
"TMP"
The reference set Rei1 (type Bending reinforcement) is defined in order to allow for performing the reinforcement design. It contains 2 points (point type POINT and point type LINETO LINETO) describing a reinforcement being uniformly distributed along the connection line. This reference set is allocated to both, the crosssection part 1 and the part 3 (total crosssection), because the reinforcement design shall be performed for the construction stage (only part 1 active) and the final stage (composite crosssection active). The attribute set RBOT is assigned to the reference set for describing the reinforcement properties. The individual reference sets are as mentioned above usually defined with the same name in different crosssections, if they characterise the same entity. Our example has one crosssection, which is constant over the whole structural system. The reference sets Rei1, Fib1, Fib2 und Temp are therefore defined in all points of the girder. Consequently, the attribute set RBOT assigned to the reference set Rei1 is also valid for all crosssections of the structural system, as shown in Figure 53.
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Attribute Sets
"RBOT"
5.4.5 ! CrossSections "CSCat Crosssection Catalogue This function is related to crosssections, which have been taken over from the intrinsic crosssection library with using the <insert>button. The basic geometric parameters (default values) for automatically creating the finite element mesh are displayed in the lower table. These values may be modified with using the <modify> button. When calculating the crosssection values, the program automatically creates a finiteelement mesh with taking into account the updated dimensions. This mesh is used in the calculation process. Most catalogue crosssection types also contain reference sets describing the most common reinforcement groups (e.g. top and bottom bending reinforcement) or geometric entities for performing design code checks (e.g. the perimeter line for calculating the torsion reinforcement). The relevant dimensions for describing these reference sets (e.g. edge distances) are parameters of these catalogue types and may be modified as the other relevant values describing the crosssection geometry. A detailed description of the different catalogue types and the respectively required parameters is given in the Appendix of this user manual. Note that attribute sets describing the physical properties of the reinforcement cannot be directly assigned to reference sets of catalogue crosssections described by a few geometric parameters. Therefore, RM2004 offers the possibility to create a true RM2004 crosssection
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with the finite element mesh stored in the database. This is performed with using the icon <Catalogue & Internal CS> in the crosssection modification pad. However, this transformation should only be adopted after the crosssection geometry has been definitely defined, because the original geometric parameters for creating the mesh will get lost. After this transformation, catalogue crosssections can be used for all checking and reinforcement design actions without any restriction. 5.4.6 ! CrossSections "NodElem Finite Element Mesh This function has been provided for viewing, checking and modifying the Finite Element mesh, being used for calculating the section values of the current crosssection part. The current element mesh is graphically presented in the graphics window, if specified with element and node numbers. The crosssection element table is displayed below the graphics window, showing the 9 nodal points of each element and further element parameters. The crosssection node table with the node coordinates in the crosssection coordinate system is shown on the right side. A modification of the values is in principal possible, and performed with using the respective icons on top of these tables. However, it is tedious and seldom meaningful. Preferably, changes are made in GP2004 and afterwards again transferred to RM2004. Note that crosssections from the crosssection library can only be changed via modifying the geometric parameters of the respective template. Direct changes in the FEmesh are overwritten in the crosssection value calculation function, because the template is again evaluated for creating the related FE mesh (see 5.4.5). 5.4.7 Translating and Rotating CrossSections General The functions !Crosssections "CSCat and !Crosssections "NodElem offer a special icon <Crosssection manipulation> (icon with 2 crosssections above the crosssection table) in addition to the standard table manipulation icons. This icon has been provided for moving or rotating a crosssection in the crosssection coordinate system. Crosssection modification in !Crosssections "NodElem The symbol <Crosssection manipulation> used in !Crosssections "NodElem allows for moving or rotating a single crosssection by a certain userdefined amount. Multiple actions are possible, i.e. the crosssection may be first translated and afterwards rotated. Attention is to be paid to the fact, that the sequence influences the final position. If any crosssection variants exist (see 5.4.3) then the variant to be manipulated has to be selected, i.e. every variant has to be manipulated separately. However, when modifying a composite crosssection the individual parts will also be modified. The main application of this function is adapting the local axes of the beams to the directions of the principal inertia axes of the crosssections. As given in 2.2.5, the moments of inertia used for the calculation of the stiffness matrices are in RM2004 always calculated around parallels to the axes of the crosssection coordinate system. It is therefore necessary to define unsymmetric crosssections in a coordinate system with axes parallel to the principal inertia
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axes, if the direction deviation is not restrained and must not be neglected. This is however tedious, because the principal axis directions are usually not known a priori (except in the case of inclined symmetric crosssections, where an inclined crosssection coordinate system with a zaxis parallel to the slabs may have advantages in the crosssection geometry definition process). The following process is therefore often appropriate: the crosssection geometry is defined in a coordinate system, whose axis directions correspond to the default axes of the elements (YQS=yL for Deck elements). A first partial analysis gives the crosssection values together with the directions of the principal inertia planes (angles). The above function is then used to rotate the crosssection in the opposite direction, such that the principal inertia axes are parallel to the crosssection coordinate system. This modified crosssection is used to calculate the new moments of inertia, which are now the principal values. The original angle is introduced as elementangle in the element table, in order to reestablish the right orientation of the crosssection in space. The sign convention for the rotation angle to be entered, is related to the graphic presentation on the screen clockwise, i.e. related to the element axis lefthand rotating like the element angle. The first calculated principal inertia angle (taken from cross.lst) has therefore to be entered with the inverse sign. The input of the angles in the element table has to be done with the calculated sign. The entry of the angles in the element table is performed automatically when the option Update element beta is selected. Crosssection modification in !Crosssections "CSCat The abovedescribed procedure for adapting the principal inertia directions may be a laboured process especially if many different crosssections must be manipulated because the angles have to be calculated for all crosssections, before the rotations may be performed individually for the different crosssections. The symbol <Crosssection manipulation> has been provided also in ! Crosssections "CSCat in order to ease this process. Using this symbol performs the procedure described above in closed sequence for all previously marked crosssections in the crosssection table. The principal inertia planes are automatically calculated and entered in the element table as angles, and the principal moments of inertia are entered as relevant crosssection values in the element table.
5.5 "Aeroclasses
This pad is used to define aerodynamic cross section classes. In the upper table, the aerodynamic crosssection classes are listed. Aeroclasses are identified by their number. They contain multiplication factors for effects due to wind from any of the three directions relative to the crosssection plane. The dependency of each of the effects on width (b) or height (h) is selected and a factor is given for each wind direction. The second table is used to define drag, lift and moment coefficients. A coefficient in the local Z and Y direction is required for Drag, Lift and Moment. The angle alpha is zero in direction of the actual wind vector, positive in anticlockwise and negative in clockwise direction. The function !Aeroclasses is used for describing the aerodynamic behaviour of different crosssections due to wind flow against them. The individual aeroclasses occurring in the
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structural model are identified by their names. The contain as parameters the shape coefficients being used for multiplying the dynamic pressure in order to get the actual forces acting on the structure. The loading parameters themselves (wind velocity, wind direction) are entered in #Construction schedule !Load definition "Wind (see 7.3.11). The dynamic pressure is calculated with using the velocity data. This pressure is decomposed into components in the local axis directions, and these components are multiplied with the herein specified coefficients yielding the distributed forces actually acting on the system. Only one shape factor (DragX) exists for the wind component in longitudinal direction. This value cannot be interpreted as a classical drag factor of the crosssection, but subsumes different longitudinal resistances, such as effects due to inclined soffits, wind on cross girders, bracings or vehicles on the bridge. The eccentric position of the wind action is herein neglected. The components in lateral direction (local zdirection) and vertical direction create forces in wind direction (drag forces) as well as forces in perpendicular direction (lift forces) and overturning moments. Accordingly, the wind components in the local y and zdirections require the definition of shape coefficients for the force in wind direction (DragY, DragZ), for the force in perpendicular direction (LiftY, LiftZ) and for the overturning moment (MomentY, MoMomentZ). For details see 7.3.11, Dynamic Loading "Wind. The table of aeroclasses (upper table in the GUI) contains all defined aeroclasses. The coefficients gained from wind tunnel tests are usually related to a characteristic dimension (depth or width of the crosssection). It is therefore possible to specify a related length value to the defined coefficients (b: characteristic dimension is the crosssection width, h: characteristic dimension is the crosssection depth). For the moment coefficient the characteristic dimension is adopted quadratic. The characteristic dimensions valid for the different coefficients are indicated in the table by the respective flags (FlDx, FlDz, FlLz, FlMz, FlDy, FlLy, FlMy). If no FlMz, characteristic dimension is selected, the program assumes, that the dimension is already included in the coefficients, i.e. they are not given in dimensionless terms, but in terms of a length or area (in [m] or [m2]). Any differing user defined length unit is not considered. The coefficients themselves must be entered in the lower table. A single value is specified for coefficients being constants. In case of a dependency on the attack angle alpha, the diagram is defined with pairs of values (maximum 12). Different tables are defined for the 3 components (drag, lift, moment) and for the local z and ydirections. They are activated with the appropriate buttons. If the option Nonsymmetric is set, then the effects of winds in positive and Nonnegative axis directions are different. In this case the coefficients for the negative axis directions must be additionally defined. In case of specifying a diagram the abscissa value (attack angle alpha) has to be entered in terms of the current user defined angle unit. The diagram must cover the whole range of possible deviations of the attack angle (e.g.10  +10 for bridge superstructures). The angle is counterclockwise positive. The <info> button is used to check the table definitions graphically. The correct order of the table data is important. The program does not automatically change the order.
RM2004 UserGuide
5.6 !Variables
5.6.1 General Variables in RM2004 are used to describe constant values, mathematical expressions or functions or tables of value pairs. They are named database objects. The names of the variables (maximum 16 characters) are not casesensitive and must be unique over all property groups. RM2004 checks every newly entered variable name in order to avoid multiple definitions. These variables can be userdefined or internally created and can be referenced during the analysis in many different circumstances. They may also depend on each other. Typical applications for variables are the definition of creep and shrinkage models or the specification of nonlinear spring elements (2.4.7). Sets of variables may hold functions that depend on internal variables, such as the age of elements or the time, which change throughout the structural analysis. Examples for valid variables are: Constants: pi=3,141592 Expressions: a=x^2 (variable x is user defined or an internal variable) Functions: cosh(arg)= (exp(arg)+exp(arg))/2 (arg is passed to this function from the call(exp(arg)+exp(arg ing expression) Evaluation of variables is always done recursively. Therefore variables do not have to be defined in a certain order. Within this user guide variable names are written in capital letters for better understanding. Names of internal variables are reserved names and may not be used for userdefined variables. The variables are requested from the program at the appropriate places. They are not intended for entering their names instead of digital numbers in numeric input fields. 5.6.2 Operators and Available Mathematical Functions For the definition of variables the following operators are available: + (plus), (minus), * (multiplied by), / (divided by), ^ (to the power of). Basic exponential and logarithmic functions are sqr(a) (square root of a), ln(a) (natural logarithm of a), lg(a) (logarithm base 10 of a), exp(a) (10 to the power of a). Basic trigonometric functions (angles always in radians) are: cos(a) (cosine of a), sin(a) (sine of a), tan(a) (tangens of a), acos(a) (arc cosine of a), asin(a) (arc sine of a), atan(a) (arc tangens of a) Basic logical functions are: abs(a) (absolute value of a), min(a,b) (smaller value of a and b), max(a,b) (greater value of a and b), hright(a,b) (= 1 if a>b, else = 0), hleft(a,b) (= 1 if a<b, else = 0), dirac(a,b,eps) (=1 if beps<a<b+eps, else =0, see Figure 54a)., diract(a,b,eps1, eps2) (triangular interpolation (Figure 54b).
eps
5.6.3 Internal Variables Internal variables are managed by the program and may be referenced in userdefined functions or tables. They are either object property values updated in accordance with the current object (e.g. E28 is the Youngs modulus of the current material), or values calculated and constantly updated during the calculation process (e.g. time T). A listing of all for the user available internal variables is given in Table 56 and Table 57. It is strongly recommended not to use these names and the string tabA (see Table 58) for user defined variables, because the user definition might be destroyed in the course of the analysis. Results of all internal variables are always given in default units (kN, m, sec, days) as specified in 2.1. They are NOT converted to user set units (see 7.7.1 and 0 Table 58 can be created for this purpose, using tabA (indicating the current abscissa value) as argument passed to the table when calling the table with q(x). !Units respectively). All internal variables can be listed by pressing the <internal variables> button in the #Properties !Variables pad, each with its name, current value, unit and description. The <modify> button allows to change internal variables for verification of dependent user defined variables. Such modifications do not affect the database or any calculation results because all values are initialised and recalculated in the analysis process.
Table 56 General internal variables Variable
T
Description Basically: Current time on the global time axis Locally for the evaluation of creep and shrinkage coefficients: Age of the considered element (material) at the current point in time in the calculation. [days] Age of the considered element (material) at the application time of the active load case. Used only for the evaluation of creep coefficients. [days] Age of considered element (material) when shrinkage theoretically starts (not equal to the start of shrinkage consideration). Used only for the evaluation of the shrinkage strain. [days] Start time of the current action on the global time axis. [kN/m2] Youngs modulus of considered element. For concrete this value represents the modulus of elasticity at an age of 28 days. [m2] Crosssection area of considered element. [kN/m2] Compressive strength of considered elements (usually for concrete at an age of 28 days). [] Consistency coefficient of the fresh concrete of considered elements. [m] Length of outside perimeter of the cross section of considered elements exposed to drying. [days]
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UIN RH ZF TMP OMEGA GAMMA WCR CECO QLEN
IQVAR RPR
RelCl
RelSig
Variable
RES_N RES_M Es AS Fyd Fcd CS_YZ CS_IYZ BUCK_L IMP_NY
[kN] [kNm] [kN/m2] [m2] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [m] [m4] [m] [m]
Description Current normal force (absolute value) Resultant absolute value of the moment (My / Mz) of the current internal force state Youngs modulus of the current reinforcement steel Total crosssection area of longitudinal reinforcement in the current element crosssection Design value of the tensile strength of the current reinforcement steel Design value of the compression strength of the current concrete Width or height of the current crosssection related to the current bending direction (My or Mz respectively) Moment of inertia of the current crosssection related to the current bending direction (My or Mz respectively) Currently effective buckling length (for the current bending direction) Current imperfection factor (for the current bending direction)
5.6.4 Userdefined variables Sets of variables are defined in the default database as a part of grouped properties. These variables describe creep and shrinkage definitions, and optionally other expressions used for design checks. These variables are imported by #File !Import default properties (see chapter 3). In the Variables pad (#Properties !Variables) all userdefined variables are listed for verification and modification. All variables are evaluated recursively and result values are given in the table. If any of the variables yielded no result, ### is given. The value pairs, describing variables given as a table, are displayed in the lower GUI table for the selected variable. For internal variables, default values are used as given in the internalvariables pad (see 5.6.3). Mathematical expressions may contain 80 characters. Longer expressions must be split into several variables. Functions are defined with numbers, variables and operators (see 5.6.2).
RM2004 UserGuide
Tables are defined as twodimensional arrays. In RM2004 tables are evaluated as functions defined by discrete points with interpolation rules between these points. A table is called by using the syntax Table(VarA) and returns VarB by interpolation between two points defined in the table. VarA is listed in the first column, VarB in the second column. In the third column, an interpolation rule for the section between two points is given. VarA, the abscissa, has to be defined strictly monotonically decreasing or increasing. In Figure 55 a table definition, and the function it represents, is given as an example for the possible types of interpolation rules. Members of tables can also be mathematical expressions referencing either numbers or other existing variables.
VarA 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
+7.0
const
+5.0
linear
Par T0
Par T1
Par T2
VarB
+2.5 +1.5 +1.0
VarA
+0.0 +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0
A
+5.0
Figure 55 Example of a Table definition with the mathematical function it represents
In the example below, a table q(x) is generated which complies with the following set of mathematical rules: q(x) = q1(x) for 0 < x < a q(x) = q2(x) for a < x < l
Table 58 User defined table
VarA 0 a0.001 a l
VarB Interpol q1(tabA) Const q1(tabA) Const q2(tabA) Const q2(tabA) Const
RM2004 UserGuide
Table 58 can be created for this purpose, using tabA (indicating the current abscissa value) as argument passed to the table when calling the table with q(x).
5.7 !Units
For general information about the RM2004 unitsystem and default units see 2.1. All active units for input and output can be viewed and edited with #Properties !Units and alternatively in the pad with the calculationsettings (#Construction schedule !Recalc).
Table 59 Changeable units and defaults Quantity Length (structure) Length (Cross Section) Force Moment Stress Temperature Angle (general) Lstr Lcs Force Moment Stress Tmp Angle
used internally
default Input and Output [m] [m] [kN] [kNm] [kN/m2] [C] [deg]
Units may be chosen from existing unitsystems by clicking the pulldown arrow next to the input field of the unit. Units for length and force may be arbitrarily specified by the user with a given unit name and a factor relating this new unit to the respective default unit. All units given in Table 59 may be changed for input and output in RM2004. LCS, the crosssection length unit only influences: a) Crosssection lengths used as input values for the crosssection definition macros, such as width, height, thickness of crosssection components. b) Coordinates of the nodes of the crosssection elements. c) Computed Cross sectional areas and moments of inertia. d) Tendon areas, duct areas. Lstr, the structural lengthunit influences all other derived length units. This also applies to eccentricities of crosssection centroids with respect to system lines and surface loads related to the crosssection height or width.
Table 510 Fixed units Quantity Time (general) Time (construction schedule creep analysis) Angle (for rotations and angular velocities) default [s] [d] [rad]
Units given in Table 510 are fixed and may not be changed by the user. All other units are derived from the set of standard units and cannot be changed. Table 511 shows examples of some derived units.
RM2004 UserGuide
Table 511 Examples for derived units Quantity EMod (Youngs modulus) GMod (Shear modulus) Thermal expansion coefficient Surface load Specific weight Cross section area Accidental deviation angle Velocities Accelerations Area of longitudinal reinforcement Area of vertical reinforcement derived from Stress Stress 1/Tmp Force / Lstr Force / Lstr LCS Angle/Lstr Lstr/[s] Lstr/[s] LCS LCS/Lstr
default Input and Output [kN/m] [kN/m] [1/C] [kN/m2] [kN/m3] [cm2] [Deg/m] [m/s] [m/s2] [cm2] [cm2/m]
5.8
RM2004 UserGuide
The major application of RM Sets is for post processing purposes, such as the creation of list files, creation of Tables in TDF reports and graphic result representation. Furthermore, some actions may simply be called with an RM Set, instead of an input of several parameters. Some design code checks are more conveniently performed with RM Sets containing all information required. Generally, RM Sets are generated interactively with corresponding inputpads (GUI). Their contents may, however, be viewed and edited manually line by line. Diagram plotting in projects from previous RM versions is converted to the new RM Set conventions, leading to unchanged results. 5.9.2 Input of RM Sets The upper table in the RMSetspad shows RM Sets with their name (case sensitive!) and description and may be modified using the known functions. The contents of RM Sets are interactively modified using the <info> button or line by line in the lower table. RM Sets for element and result selection The input pad is split into a left table with a list of structural elements and a right table with a list of results. These two tables are edited with the corresponding buttons. A list of nodes, elements, element types and element groups may be defined using the <element/nodes>button, whereas load cases, superposition files, influence lines and result types are chosen using the <results>button. In the main RMSetpad displacements, forces and/or stresses may be defined for output. The <plot>button will create diagrams with the data, while a list file is created using <print>. The settings are stored to the current RM Set using the <save> button. 5.9.3 Application of RM Sets Diagrams from RMSets RMSet actions are used to create plot files from RMSets. All results contained in the RMSet are plotted. Only results with same units and same plot sign direction may be displayed in one diagram (e.g. MY with MZ but not MZ with QY). More than one diagram is created if different results are defined in the set. In this case, the given filename is extended by proper endings (e.g. Plot1m.pl for moments, Plot1qy.pl for shear force QY etc.).
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RM2004 UserGuide
For the use in TDFReports, the diagram frame may be changed by adding the item FRAME to the RMSet with the option TDF in column1. In TDFReports, plots are normally scaled to the available size automatically, nevertheless size settings may be useful for better readability of fonts in the diagram. In such cases, the item PAPER is added to the RMSet with the options FREE in column1, width [cm] and height [cm] in columns 3 and 4. TDFReports RMSets are referenced for table creation in TDF reports. As given in the Appendix, the Table is prepared first (TCL command CNF_RMSET) and placed in the report later (TCL command CNF_TABLE).
RM2004 UserGuide
Structure Menu
6.1 General
Nodes and elements are basic structural database objects. Node data comprises coordinates and additional properties such as restraints etc. Elements are described with their start and end
nodes, and additional properties, such as data on material, crosssections, connections, etc.
Tendons are additional structural database objects. They are used for the analysis of
prestressed structures and normally assigned to structural elements (concrete beams), influencing their stiffness and strength behaviour. Nodes, elements and tendons are numbered using positive numbering series. Structural data may be put into the database in one of the following ways: By functions in the #Structure Menu in RM2004 (as given below) By import from TCLScript files (see 3.2.2, !Import TCL Project Data) By generation in and subsequent import from the graphic preprocessor GP2004 (see GPUser guide)
Structural data can be viewed and modified by !Node Data and Properties, !Element Data and Properties and !Tendon Data and Properties in the #Structure menu. !Special Commands is used to prepare, check or modify structural element data using macros. !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) is a preprocessor that is used for preparing the data input for a full ILM procedure. The Input is prepared via two simple input tables.
Nodal support conditions are viewed and edited here. Rigid supports are modelled in RM2004 by using elastic supports with large stiffness values (constrained degrees of freedom are therefore not eliminated from the equation system), i.e. appropriate spring constants are assigned to the respective DOFs. Spring constants for rigid supports are usually within the range 1.0E+9 to 1.0E+10 for both  translational and rotational DOFs. Higher values can cause numerical problems in the solution process. They should be avoided. Spring constants are assigned to a single node or a series of nodes using the <modify> button within "Supp. The support switch is then automatically changed to yes, allowing for easier identification of node support definitions.
Note: Spring elements are preferably used instead of node supports (see 9.2.5), in order to obtain detailed support results.
The default orientation of the assigned set of spring constants is the global coordinate system. User defined orientations may be defined with "Beta. The subfunction "Ecc is used to specify eccentric supports with a certain offset to the node. 6.2.4 !Node Data and Properties "Beta A local coordinate system may be defined for any node support. Three angles, 1 (elevation angle), 2 (plan angle), and (deviation of the yL axis from the default) are used. The conventions for local coordinate systems are described in 2.2.4 Local Coordinate System for Spring Elements. 6.2.5 !Node Data and Properties "Ecc The eccentric connection from the support point to the node is assumed perfectly rigid. The components of the eccentricity vector are always defined in the global coordinate system, positive from the support point to the node.
RM2004 UserGuide
RM2004 UserGuide
If the Ndiv value is given, element results are calculated in the given number (Ndiv 1) of element division points. For the convenience of the user, groups may be assigned to elements for later result output (see 8.3 Alphanumeric Result Presentation in the GUI). 6.3.3 !Element Data and Properties "Mat This function has been provided for assigning material parameters to structural elements. Allocating material parameters is only required for beam elements and cable elements. No material parameters are required for the other special element types. The required parameters may either be directly allocated (switch EG), or by assigning a material of the material table (viewed in #Properties!Material data) (see 5.2). The latter is generally preferred (switch Mat.Nam). In this case the name of the adequate material is selected in the pulldown menu, and the required material parameters are transferred from the material table to the element table. The following parameters are displayed in the element table on selecting !Element Data and Properties "Mat: MatName EMod Poiss GMod AlphaT Gamma Name of the material Youngs modulus Poisson coefficient Shear modulus Temperature expansion coefficient Specific weight
The Youngs Modulus and the Poisson coefficient or the shear modulus must essentially be defined for any structural analysis, the temperature coefficient and the specific weight are used for describing some loading conditions. Poisson coefficient and shear modulus depend on each other due to the intrinsic assumption that the material behaviour is isotropic (GMod = EMod / (1.0 2*Poiss)). The shear modulus is automatically adapted when the Poisson coefficient is modified, and vice versa. 6.3.4 !Element Data and Properties "CS This subfunction allows for allocating crosssection values to structural elements. Allocating crosssection values is required for beam elements and cable elements. Note that the same positions in the element table are used for storing the below described crosssection parameters of beam and cable elements, and also for storing spring constants and other special parameters of the other element types. The required parameters may either be directly allocated (switch CS Values), or by assigning a crosssection of the crosssection table (see 5.4) to the start and end points of the element. The latter is generally preferred (switch CS Table). In this case the name of the adequate crosssection is selected in the pulldown menu, and the required values are calculated in the analysis process after selecting !Recalc "Recalc.
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RM2004 UserGuide
The following parameters are displayed in the element table on selecting !Element Data and Properties "CS: TypB TypE Ecc Type Aero Class Ax/Cx Ay/Cy Az/Cz Ix/Rx Iy/Ry Iz/Rz U UIN Name of crosssection at the element begin Name of crosssection at the element end Eccentricity type of the crosssections Aero Class of the crosssections Crosssection area or Spring constant in xLdirection Shear area or Spring constant in yLdirection Shear area or Spring constant in zLdirection Torsion inertia or rotational spring constant around xL Moment of inertia or rotational spring constant around yL Moment of inertia or rotational spring constant around zL Outside perimeter exposed to drying Inside perimeter (of a hollow box crosssection)
TypB, TypE The crosssections at the element begin and element end may be different if crosssections of the crosssection table are assigned. The effective element parameters for calculating the stiffness matrix are averaged values (Ax = 0.5 * (AxB + AxE) etc.). The real crosssections at the begin and end points are however used for all design code checks. Therefore, assigning crosssections of the crosssection table is essentially required if design code checks should be performed. The direct definition of the crosssection values is only allowed for pure structural analyses without any references to the stress distribution in the crosssections. Ecc Type This parameter refers to the crosssection eccentricity as described below and shown in Figure 61. The below used term CS reference point is either the origin of the crosssection coordinate system, or if a crosssection part is allocated  the reference point of the respective crosssection part as specified in GP2004. The distance from the centroid to the CS reference point is considered as CS ecYlZl centricity (in both, the y and z directions) Only the y component of the distance from the centroid to the CS reference point is considered. The zcomponent is not considered, i.e. the centroid remains in the plane built by the system line and the YGaxis.
YlZo
Only the z component of the distance from the centroid to the CS reference point YoZl is considered. The ycomponent is not considered, i.e. the centroid remains in the plane built by the system line and the zLaxis.
RM2004 UserGuide
YoZo
The distance from the centroid to the CS reference point is not considered. The crosssection centroid will be placed directly on the node (unless there exists a user defined system eccentricity).
YlZo
YL ZL
YlZl
YL ZL
YoZl
YL ZL
YoZo
YL ZL
Figure 61 Crosssection Eccentricity Codes for the centroid position relative to the node (or start point of any user defined eccentricity vector)
Further information on eccentricities is given in 6.3.8, !Element Data and Properties "Ecc. Aero Class This parameter is only used for wind dynamics analyses, which are usually performed for major bridges exposed to dynamic wind excitation. An aero class is a numbered database object defined in #Properties !Aero Class, representing a set of coefficients describing the drag forces, lifting forces and overturning moments acting on a cross section due to wind in different directions. These coefficients are usually extracted from wind tunnel tests and related to a certain cross section. However, in RM2004, they are assumed constant over the element length and the aero classes are assigned as element parameters. Aero classes with average values, valid for different elements or groups of elements, have to be defined in case of superstructures with variable crosssections. Ax, Ay, Az, Ix, Iy, Iz These values are the basic parameters for calculating the stiffness matrix of beam or cable elements, the crosssection area, the shear areas in y and z direction, the torsion moment of inertia and the moments of inertia for bending around y and z. They are calculated internally, when crosssection types are assigned, otherwise they must be specified by the user. For cable elements, it is sufficient to specify the crosssection area. Cx, Cy, Cz, Rx, Ry, Rz These values are spring constants of spring elements. Cx, Cy, Cz are the constants for displacements in the local x, y and zdirections, Rx, Ry, Rz the rotational spring constants for rotation around these axes. For special spring element types these parameters may be differently used (see 2.4, Element Library).
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The perimeter lengths are used in the creep and shrinkage calculation for evaluating the creep and shrinkage coefficients (in most design codes). They are internally extracted from the crosssection geometry if crosssection types are assigned. They may be entered by the user if the direct specification of crosssection values is selected. However, they must only be specified if creep and shrinkage is considered and the used design code specifies a dependency of the coefficients from these values. For special spring element types these parameters may be differently used (see 2.4, Element Library). 6.3.5 !Element Data and Properties "CS Plane This subfunction may be used if the crosssection geometry has been specified in a plane other than normal to the element axis. The deviation from the normal plane is taken into account in some situations (see 2.3, CrossSection Plane). The element table parameters displayed on selecting !Element Data and Properties "CS Plane are a direction code (Normal, Vertical, Horizontal or Angle) for the element begin and element end, and if the code is Angle the sine values of the deviation angles from the normal plane. The data may be modified by clicking the <modify> button, selecting the appropriate code and entering the angle values if required. The exact rules and sign conventions for defining a deviation of the crosssection plane from the plane normal to the element axis are described in detail in 2.3. 6.3.6 !Element Data and Properties "Comp This subfunction is provided for defining composite elements (elements with composite crosssections). Modelling beams with composite crosssections requires defining separate elements for all crosssection parts activated at different times, and for all composite states active at any time in the construction schedule. Chapter 12 shows in detail how to proceed when modelling a structure with composite crosssections. The composite elements are defined by specifying the elements they consist of. The total crosssection is automatically calculated by composing the crosssections of the elements being parts of the composite element. A composite element may be made of up to 8 partial elements. The element table displayed on selecting !Element Data and Properties "Comp shows the partial elements assigned to the considered element and using the <modify> button allows to amend or modify this information. Normal beam elements may be a part of up to 4 composite elements. The rows Comp1 to Comp4 are used for partial elements, indicating to which composite elements they belong. 6.3.7 !Element Data and Properties "Beta The length and the orientation of the elements are displayed in this part of the element table. For elements, whose start and end points have differing coordinates, the length and the orientation is calculated internally and the respective values in the element table (length, plan angle
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RM2004 UserGuide
2, elevation angle 1) are only informative. For details about these angles and the definition of the default local axes yL and zL see 2.2.3. The additional angle is always specified by the user (if different from zero), and defines the deviation of the actual yL and zL axes from those automatically generated (yL, zL). The rule to be used for the automatic generation may be selected by specifying the appropriate BetaType (Deck or Pier), where Deck is the standard case using the YG axis for creating the local z axis (zL = YG X xL) and the first principal inertia plane (xL, yL) perpendicular to it (yL = xL X zL). When the BetaType is set to Pier the ZG axis will be used to calculate the local y axis (yL = xL X ZG) and the 2nd principal inertia plane perpendicular (zL = yL X xL). This is in fact the procedure applied in previous RM versions (RM7, RM2000) for elements with the element axis coinciding with YG. New in RM2004 is, that this rule can also be explicitly assigned to elements, which are not exactly vertical. When xL coincides with YG this rule will still also be applied when the BetaType is not explicitly set to Pier. However, it is strongly recommended to set the BetaType for all vertical elements explicitly to Pier in order to avoid problems in geometrically nonlinear calculations, where the rule might change in the course of the analysis due to arising deviations from the vertical axis exceeding the tolerance value. 6.3.8 !Element Data and Properties "Ecc As given in 2.5, eccentric connections are split into crosssection eccentricities, specified with the assignment of crosssections (!Element Data and Properties "CS, see 6.3.4) and system eccentricities, specified here. Two lines per element are given in the table, with the system eccentricity in the first line (designated as global) and the crosssection eccentricity in the second line (designated by the type code as specified in 6.3.4). The components of the system eccentricity vectors at element begin ExBeg, EyBeg, EzBeg and at element end ExEnd, EyEnd, EzEnd are defined using ExEyBeg EzExEyEzthe <modify> button. The definition may apply to one single element or a series of elements. For sign conventions of eccentric connections, see 2.5. The 2nd line contains the eccentricity type EccType specified in !Element Data and Properties "CS, and the related crosssection eccentricity vectors calculated by the program. Note that system eccentricities may change element orientations and therefore cause changes in the calculated global components of the crosssection eccentricities, if the crosssection plane has been defined as Normal or Angle in !Element Data and Properties "CS Plane. The angles BetaBeg and BetaEnd, also presented in the 2nd line, are purely informative. They represent the deviations of the principal axes of the crosssection from the crosssection coordinate system axes. They are not automatically used a elementangles, but the user must decide, whether the deviations of the principal inertia axes should be neglected or whether elementangles should be specified. The user can enter the presented values (or the values averaged between the element start and end crosssection) in !Element data and properties "Beta as angles of the respective elements (after an appropriate rotation of the crosssection in the crosssection coordinate system (see 5.4.7, Translating and Rotating CrossSection)).
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On selecting !Element Data and Properties "Hinge the related part of the element table contains the information on jointed connections (released DOFs). The releases may be specified for the element begin and element end, and in the element local coordinate system (see 2.2.3) or in the global coordinate system. Accordingly, hinges are called to be global hinges or local hinges. The presented table therefore contains 4 rows, each containing 6 markers for the 6 DOFs possibly released (pay attention to the fact that the notation hinge is used in RM2004 not only for the disconnection of rotation DOFs, but also for translational DOFs). The standard case (rigid connection) is marked by a =, a jointed connection (released DOF) is marked by a *.
Note: In the case that eccentric connections are defined, the local hinges are always between the rigid link and the element end, whereas global hinges are always between the rigid link and the node.
The specified element end release does not affect any other element connected to the joint, i.e. all other elements connected to that node will remain rigidly connected to the node. Note that element end releases may cause system instabilities (see Unstable End Releases). The program does not check in the input phase the stability conditions. Therefore, the user has to take care for a correct input. Unstable conditions will be detected when the equation system is solved, resulting in an error message indicating a negative pivot element or a division by zero. 6.3.10 !Element Data and Properties "Time This subfunction is provided for allocating element parameters for calculating time dependent behaviour (creep, shrinkage and relaxation) as well as for damping for dynamic analysis. The related parameter set is displayed in the element table on selecting !Element Data and Properties "Time, and contains the following parameters: Age ts RH RPR TMP Alpha Beta Concrete age at activation time Concrete age when shrinkage starts Average relative humidity at the construction site Stiffness ratio concrete  steel Average temperature at the construction site Mass factor for (Rayleigh) damping matrix evaluation Stiffness factor for (Rayleigh) damping matrix evaluation
The first 5 parameters are used in creep and shrinkage calculations (as specified in the used creep model). The parameters Alpha and Beta are the socalled Rayleigh coefficients for describing a linear damping behaviour by using a damping matrix created as a linear combination of the mass and stiffness matrices (see 14.1.4). They are used in dynamic time stepping analyses (TInt).
This subfunction is not yet implemented! It will be provided for specifying a fabrication shape deviating from the straight line (e.g. considering deviations provided in order to compensate later deformations (precamber)). 6.3.12 !Element Data and Properties "Checks This subfunction is provided for defining, which design code checks should be performed for the different elements. Setting the appropriate switches for each element allows a selective calculation in order to reduce computation time and complexity of output lists. Yes/no switches may be set for each element for the following checks: FibChk UltChk ShChk UltRein CracChk RobuChk Fibre stress check (longitudinal stress in specified points) Ultimate load carrying capacity check Shear capacity check (required shear reinforcement) Reinforcement design (required bending reinforcement) Cracking check Robustness check
The settings of the above switches are valid for the whole element, i.e. for both, the element begin and element end. There is currently no possibility to perform checks only either at the element begin or at the element end. All other check actions are performed for all elements if called in the construction schedule. An additional switch (Class) is provided for structures with composite crosssections. Class may be set to No tension for elements being a part of a composite element. The calculation action ReloadLC (see action ReloadLC) may be used for calculating the crosssection internal redistribution of stresses, such that tension stresses in the No tension elements are eliminated. The internal forces remain unchanged. The Class setting is irrelevant for all elements not being a part of a composite element. Two further parameters bbeg and bend may be used for defining a reduction of the web width in the shear capacity check. Such a reduction is required in most design codes to consider the attenuation due to ducts of prestressing tendons. bbeg and bend represent the total width to be subtracted from the web width calculated from the crosssection geometry. Specified values different to zero override in any case eventually automatically calculated reduction values (an automatic calculation is performed if every tendon in the crosssection is specified as a separate tendon profile, i.e. all tendon profiles consist of only one tendon, see chap. 6.4.2, Physical and Material Properties of Tendon profiles).
RM2004 UserGuide
The Tendon Table shown on selection of !Tendon Data and Properties consists of 2 parts. The above table shows the existent tendon profiles together with the related basic parameters (physical and material properties) as described in 6.4.2, Physical and Material Properties of Tendon profiles. Three subfunctions are provided for viewing and modifying the special parameters of the tendon table:
The lower table shows  for the currently marked tendon profile of the tendon table  the parameters, which are particularly related to the selected subfunction. By default, the first subfunction "Assignment is active after selecting the function !Tendon Data and Properties. 6.4.2 Physical and Material Properties of Tendon profiles The Tendon Table presented on selection of !Tendon Data and Properties shows the following parameters for each tendon profile: TdNum Type Master Mat Numb No. of the tendon profile Tendon type (internal external) Master geometry used for the tendon profile Material name of the prestressing steel Number of Tendons in the tendon profile
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RM2004 UserGuide At Ad Beta Frict. Status Grout Description Crosssection area of one tendon Duct area of one duct Accidental deviation angle (/m) Coefficient of friction (between tendon and duct) Active or inactive (yet stressed or not) Grouting indicator (yes/no) Descriptive text for the tendon profile
New tendons are created by using the <insert> button, and the above parameters may be specified in the related input pad or later on changed by using the <modify> button (except Status and Grout, which are set when the respective construction schedule actions are performed). Especially the number of tendons of the tendon profiles will often be increased or decreased later in the tendon design process. An effective way for creating new tendons is by using the copy function. The physical and geometry parameters of a tendon can be copied to a new tendon at any time by selecting the appropriate line in the upper table and clicking the <copy> button. All currently existing data will be copied to the new tendon. Only a new start element for the assigned element series has to be entered. This allows to move very efficiently identical tendon profiles e.g. from one span to the next span. However, this function is also applicable when some of the geometry parameters are different. The values to be changed are simply adapted by using the <modify> function after the <copy> function. The <copy> function may either be used before or after the definition of the geometry data, depending on whether only the physical parameters should be transferred or also the geometry parameters. Using the <info> button above the tendon table presents the currently active tendon profile graphically for checking purposes. Type Two different types of prestressing of structures are principally known: Internal prestressing, where the prestressing tendons are installed in ducts poured into the concrete crosssection and External prestressing, where the tendons are located outside the concrete crosssection
The switch Type indicates, whether the tendon is an internal tendon allocated to a series of structural concrete elements, or an external tendon described by separate structural elements. Internal prestressing is the standard case, and generally meant whenever the term prestressing is used without an explicit reference to being external.
Note: A tendon is defined to be external if it lies over the whole length outside of the crosssection of the structural elements and does not contain sections, where it is inside a later grouted duct. Tendons with both, grouted sections inside the structural element crosssection and free external sections in between, must be defined as internal tendons.
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RM2004 allows to define the tendon geometry for a master profile (e.g. for the whole superstructure), and to assign this geometry to different tendons (e.g. segments stressed in different construction stages). The row Master of the tendon table is empty, if the tendon geometry is directly defined (Tendon geometry Normal). It contains the number of the master profile, if the geometry of the considered tendon is taken over (Tendon geometry Slave profile), and it contains the string Master, if the considered tendon is itself a master profile. Mat The material assigned to the tendon is selected in the pulldown menu from the material table of the project database. Assigning a material is essentially required for each tendon. The assigned material must have the material type Prestressing steel (see 5.2.3), and the required parameters must be correctly set (see 5.2.6, Mechanical Properties of Prestressingsteel Material Types). Numb Numb is the number of tendons in the tendon profile. Grouping together more than one tendon to tendonprofiles essentially eases the input, but note that an automatic web width reduction in the shear capacity check cannot be performed in this case. However, the user can specify a width value to be subtracted for this design check (see 6.3.12). At Steel crosssection area for one tendon of the Tendon Profile Ad Duct crosssection area for one tendon of the Tendon Profile
Note: Steel area and duct area are crosssection parameters and therefore measured in the unit [Length(CS)]2 and not in the unit [Length(Structure)] 2.
Beta Accidental deviation angle value (not K!) (in [angle unit per length unit]), describing the wobbling of the tendon (for external tendons only for the region of the deviator blocks). Attention: Details of the calculation of friction losses are given in 11.5.1. Note, that in literature and design codes in the German world the accidental deviation angle , measured in [/m], is commonly used to describe the wobbling of the tendons, whereas the wobble factor K = *rad is used in England and the USA. If the factor K is known, then the value must be correctly determined before entering it into the program database. If as it is often the case degrees are used as angle unit, then the value of to be entered will be degrees = (K / ) * (180. / )
Friction coefficient (for external tendons only for the region of the turning blocks) (tangent of the friction angle) Status The Status is Act if the tendon has already been stressed (calculation action Stress performed) and Dact if it has not yet been stressed. Grout Grout is Yes if the tendon has already been grouted (calculation action Grout performed) and No if it has not yet been grouted. Description Descriptive text (optional) 6.4.3 !Tendon Data and Properties "Assign The information, where the tendon starts and ends, and which structural elements it passes through i.e. which structural elements are assigned , must be specified for all internal tendons. This assignment is done in !Tendon Data and Properties "Assign by adding or modifying the data in the assignment table displayed below the tendon table after the assignment function has been selected. New lines in the assignment table are created with clicking one of the <insert> buttons. An element series (Elfrom, Elto, Elstep) can be entered when inserting new lines, and a separate new line is created for each element. The additional parameters displayed for each element in the assignment table are: X1, X2, S1, S2, N1, N2, Ex. These parameters are related to the start and end points (P1, P2) of the tendon segment in the respective element, and indicate: X1 Distance of P1 from the element begin (along the element axis) X2 Distance of P2 from the element begin (along the element axis) S1 Distance of P1 from the tendon begin (along the reference polygon)+ S2 Distance of P2 from the tendon begin (along the reference polygon)+ N1 Prestressing force in P1 after the stressing sequence N2 Prestressing force in P2 after the stressing sequence Ex Flag indicating that stressing already occurred (Ok), otherwise (??)
+
the reference polygon is the sequence of straight lines connecting all tendon geometry constraint points of the current tendon (see chap. 6.4.4, !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry).
Usually tendons start and end at start and end points of structural elements. Tendons, starting or ending somewhere between the start and end point of an element, may be created by defining the first and last constraint point of the tendon geometry (see chap. 6.4.4, !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry) accordingly.
The geometry of the tendon is specified by defining the position of constraint points (called Tendon Points) (Pi) along the assigned element series and if necessary the tangent direction of the tendon (Fi) in these points. The program calculates a smooth curve matching these constraints. The geometry definition via Tendon Points may be applied directly on the actual tendons (option Tendon geom. Normal), or on a master tendon which itself is not considered in the analysis process (option Tendon geom. Master profile). This profile or the relevant part of it  may then be assigned to actual tendons (option Tendon geom. Slave profile). The Tendon Points are entered or modified in !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry or !Tendon Data and Properties "3DValues. The table of the defined constraint points (tendon point table) is displayed below the tendon table. The definition of the position of the Tendon Points is usually done in terms relative to the structural elements, but it is also possible to define them in global coordinates. The particular values used for describing the constraint point position are presented in the tendon point table. The parameters defined in the local coordinate system of the related element are: Type R.Elem Rel CS Pnt x/l ey ez Rel Alpha1 Alpha2 0 Straight NElem Radius Type of the tendon point (see 11.4.5) Reference element Relation code for the point position (Elem, Node or CSP) Name of the crosssection point (if Rel is set to CSP) Position within the element (in longitudinal direction) y eccentricity of the point in the particular local system z eccentricity of the point in the particular local system Relation code for the tendon direction (Elem, Node or CSP) Tangent deviation from x in the xy plane or Free Tangent deviation from x in the xy plane or Free Empty row in case of element related definition Yes means, the point is the start point of a straight segment Structural element number (for external tendon segments) Curvature radius (if prescribed)
Deviating from the above, the global coordinates x, y, z are displayed instead of x/l, ey, ez for points specified in terms of global coordinates (GlLo = 3D). The direction vector dx, dy, dz is in this case displayed instead of Alpha1, Alpha2 and 0. The input of these parameters is either performed by using the <insert> button above the tendon point table, or in a combined numericgraphic pad activated by clicking the <info> but TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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ton. Using interactive graphics makes the definition of the position of the constraint points easier. This option is described in 6.4.6, Graphic input facilities. Switch: Element related or Space coordinates The basic decision when creating a new tendon point is, whether it shall be defined in terms of local or in terms of global coordinates. This is done with selecting the appropriate switch Space point Structure element Definition in terms of global coordinates Definition relative to a structural element
The default setting is Structure element, and the described parameters are related to this setting. A separate input pad is displayed when Space point is selected, and the input parameters related to the definition in global coordinates are described in 6.4.5, !Tendon Data and Properties "3DValues. This basic specification switch cannot be later modified by using the <modify> button. The rows R.Elem and Rel will remain empty for points entered in global coordinates. Type of a Tendon Point A detailed description types is given below: Normal Line Line (free Y) of tendon point types is found in 11.4.5. A summary of the provided
Standard point for internal tendons Start point of a straight tendon segment (internal and external tendons) Start point of a straight tendon segment (mostly external tendons), with adjusting the y coordinate in order to get a planar curve from the 2 previous points to the next point. Line (free Z) Start point of a straight tendon segment (mostly external tendons), with adjusting the z coordinate in order to get a planar curve from the 2 previous points to the next point. Intersection point Intersection point of two tendon tangents (external tendons). Free node at element Point marking the begin or end of the curved segment (deviator block) of an external segment. Intersection point (free) Tangent intersection point adjusted to get a planar curve (see 11.4.2). Reference element (R.Elem)
Number of the structural element related to the current tendon point. Eccentricity reference point in the crosssection (Rel) The position of the tendon point in the crosssection, defined by the element number and x/l, is specified in a crosssection coordinate system translated in a certain reference point. This point may be either the crosssection centroid (code Elem), the origin of the crosssection coordinate system (code Node) or a specified named crosssection point (code CSP).
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The appropriate code is selected by setting the respective switch in the modification pad (selection switch Elem, Node and CS pnt below the input fields x/l, ey and ez). Figure 62 shows the origin of the local systems used in the different cases.
YL ZL eY/eZ rel. to the node
eY/eZ rel. to a CS Pnt Figure 62 Reference points for the definition of the tendon point position
Related crosssection point (CS pnt) The related crosssection point has to be specified if the code Rel is set to CSP. The point can be selected from the table of crosssection points being displayed in the pulldown menu when clicking the arrow on the right side of the input field. Nonexistent names may be directly entered in the input field, but the respective points have to be specified later in #Properties !CrossSections "RefSet before the analysis can be performed. Position in longitudinal direction (x/l) The position in longitudinal direction is specified by the ratio of the distance x of the respective crosssection from the element begin, and the clear length of the element, i.e. x/l = 0 is the element begin, and x/l = 1 is the element end. Position in the crosssection (eccentricity values ey and ez) The position of the point in the crosssection is defined with the distances from the eccentricity reference point (see above) in local y and z directions (crosssection coordinate system). Direction of the tangent in the tendon point (Rel, Alpha1, Alpha2) The direction of the tangent in a constraint point can be prescribed as a compulsory condition additionally to the specification of the position. This direction is specified by the angles Alpha1 (vertical angle) and Alpha2 (horizontal angle), being the angles in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. These angles are again related governed by a 2nd code Rel either to the element axis (Elem), the connection line of the crosssection origin points (Node) or the connection line of the respective crosssection points (CSP). The favoured reference axis is selected with the switch Elem, Node and CS pnt below the input fields Alpha1 and Alpha2.
Structure Menu 618 Vertical angle between the respective reference axis and the tangent (in the plane built by the reference axis and the crosssection y axis, positive from xL to yCS). Horizontal angle between the respective reference axis and the tangent (in the plane built by the reference axis and the crosssection z axis, positive from xL to zCS).
Alpha2
The specified angles Alpha1 and Alpha2 are only prescribed if also the related switch is set to Value. The direction is automatically calculated if the switch is set to Free. The string Free is in this case displayed in the tendon point table instead of the Alpha1 and Alpha2 values. Straight part between 2 tendon points (Straight) The string Yes in the row Straight of the tendon point table indicates a straight segment from the current tendon point to the next. A straight segment is prescribed by setting the type of the tendon point to Line (instead of Normal). Prescribed direction constraints at the begin and the end of the straight section are ignored, the tangent direction the direction of the straight part. Structural element number (NElem) A separate structural element has to be assigned to external tendon segments. A segment is specified to be external by activating the check box Extern in the modification pad. The External flag may only be set for tendon points of the type Line (or Line (free Y) or Line (free Z) ). Curvature Radius (Radius) A curvature radius may be prescribed for tendon points of the type Intersection point (or Intersection point (free) ). These points are used for specifying deviator blocks of external tendons. 6.4.5 !Tendon Data and Properties "3DValues Another presentation type is available for the tendon point table, where the position of the Tendon Points is given in terms of global coordinates. This presentation type is active if !Tendon Data and Properties "3DValues is selected. The related parameters are specified with selecting Space point in the geometry definition pad. The parameters to be entered are the global coordinates of the tendon point and the components of the direction vector in this point. Parameters in the related tendon point table: Type Tendon point type (see 11.4.5) R.Elem not used GlLo set to 3D in this case Rel not used CS Pnt not used x Global x coordinate of the point
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RM2004 UserGuide y Global y coordinate of the point z Global z coordinate of the point Rel not used dx x component of the direction vector dy y component of the direction vector dz z component of the direction vector other parameters as in !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry
The definition of the position of constraint points via global coordinates in space is not very often used. This option is only provided for special cases. Note that in this case the direction of the tangent must be entered for all points. In this input mode it is not possible to set free the tangent direction of some constraint points, i.e. using this input mode is only allowed if the tangent directions are known in all tendon points. 6.4.6 Graphic input facilities A graphic presentation of the current tendon is displayed on selecting one of the <info> buttons above the tendon table, the element assignment table or the table of tendon points presented in !Tendon data and properties "Geometry and !Tendon data and properties "3DValues. This presentation on selecting the <info> buttons above the tendon table is an isometric view without modification possibilities. The window displayed on selecting the <info> button above the tendon point table in !Tendon Data and Properties "Assignment or !Tendon Data and Properties "Geometry is split into three parts: 1. The interactive graphic screen (right, central) 2. The input part (left, only active for new input or for editing) 3. The table at the bottom of the window displays the existing tendon points. Selecting the <info> button above the 3Dvalue tendon point table also displays a drawing together with a table, presenting the 3D coordinates of the tendon position in all start and end crosssections of the assigned structural elements. This table contains additionally the deviation angles of the tangent from the element axis (Alph1, Alph2), and the eccentricities ey, ez with respect to the element axis. This allows the user to check the tendon geometry along the whole element series and to modify tendon points or inserting additional ones where required. Graphic presentation window: A switch is provided above the graphic window, allowing for presenting either the Crosssection of the currently marked tendon point (radio button CS or Crosssection) or Crossthe Current tendon in isometric, plan, elevation or side elevation view (button View). The function GraphSet is related to the presentation of the crosssection and allows selecting the different crosssection and tendon parameters to be presented. The graphic window in the 3Dvalue mode offers a switch Geometry on the right above the graphic window, which can be used for switching to the graphically supported modification window.
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A vertical line respectively dotted cursor presents the current position of the tendon point in both views. The 4 arrow buttons on the left and right sides are used for moving the cursor to the left or to the right, when the modification or insert mode is active. The buttons ++, +, , and are for vertical movement. The step lengths dx and dz may be adapted by the user. Crosssection view: << Move the cursor to the extreme left side of the cross section < Move to the left using the dz step for the cursor > Move to the right using the dz step for the cursor >> Move the cursor to the extreme right side of the cross section Isometric view: << Move the cursor to the start point of the first assigned element < Move the cursor in negative longitudinal direction (X) using the dx step > Move the cursor in the longitudinal direction (+X) using the dx step >> Move the cursor to the end of the last assigned element Four further buttons are on the right side of the screen: ++ Move the cursor to the top of the cross section + Move the cursor upwards using the dy step Move the cursor downwards using the dy step Move the cursor to the bottom of the cross section Tendon point table The tendon point table is displayed on the bottom edge of the window in order to keep the information about the currently active constraint point resident. The effect of changes is there immediately visible. Changing the position in the graphics does not change the active constraint point. Only the parameters shown in the input part of the window are adapted. These parameters are transferred to the active tendon point if the function <apply> is selected in the modification mode (<modify> selected). A new point at the current position will be created in the insert mode. Input part The input part on the left upper side is active, when the <modify> or <insert> button has been selected. The user can enter the values either directly, or by stepping with the cursor in the graphics window as described above. The steps to be used (Step dx, Step dy, Step dz) may also be adapted by the user. The <apply> button is used  after the data modification has been terminated in order to store the modification or new point in the tendon point table.
RM2004 UserGuide
6.5.1 !Special commands "Node compare This subfunction allows comparing the coordinates of a series of nodes with those of another series. The coordinates of the specified nodes, and the x, y and zcomponents of the distance between the related nodes are written to an ASCII list file, which can be viewed with any text editor program. 6.5.2 !Special commands "Element compare This subfunction allows comparing a series of elements with another series of elements. The comparison of the relevant parameters of the related elements is given in an ASCII list file, which can be viewed with any text editor program. These parameters are Element length (LEN1, LEN2) Crosssection values (GEO1, GEO2) second line: It, Iy, Iz, UIN o first line: Ax, Ay, Az, U Directions of the local axes (SICO1, SICO2)
o sin(2), cos(2), sin(1), cos(1), sin(), cos()
RM2004 UserGuide
6.5.3 "Beam subdivision (new beam elements) This function allows for subdividing previously defined structural elements. New elements will be created for all elements of the element series specified for being subdivided. The numbering of the generated elements and nodes will be done automatically in ascending order, starting from user defined start numbers. The element parameters (material, crosssection, etc.) are automatically transferred from the original element to the new elements. The original elements remain resident in the element table. The user may activate later on either the original elements (e.g. for a preliminary analysis), or the generated elements. Original elements and generated elements do not exclude each other, i.e. the user has to take care not to activate both sets simultaneously. 6.5.4 "Cable subdivision (new cable elements) Refer to 6.5.3, "Beam subdivision (new beam elements) for the principles of this function. Additionally to the subdivision process there described, this function creates rigid rotational constraints for all created intermediate nodes in order to avoid an unstable system due to the fact, that the cable elements do not have bending and torsion stiffness. 6.5.5 "Macro for Live Load (BS 5400 Part 2, 1978) All live load macros are preprocessor programs writing TCL files rather than directly changing the database. These files may be viewed and checked by the user, and must be imported later on before the analysis is performed. Refer to the British standard for the special terms and abbreviations (e.g. HA, HB, ) used in this section. Function The British Standard Traffic load macro generates the following: The live load trains for HA loading, HB loading & HA + HB loading The variable tables defining the load intensity against the loaded length Runs the different load trains over each lane on the bridge Calculates the most structurally critical traffic loading envelopes for: HA load only HB load only HA + HB loading The worst of these three envelopes. Procedure Select the macro for British Standard Loading under #Structure !Special Commands Choose between Load train generator and live load calculation (both are needed order of choice is not important) Load train generator Modify the following default values (if necessary) to suit the project: Check boxes for the different cases (Create HA loading, Create HB loading, Create HA+HB loading)
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The numbering for the different load trains (HA load train number, HB load train number, HA+HB load train number) The variable name for the HAUDL loading (Name for HAUDL function) The number of HB units to be considered (Number of HBUnits). The name of the TCL file to be generated by the macro if necessary (TCL outputfile) (Default: bstrains.TCL) Choose the loading code to be used in the project from the following: o BS5400 UD o BD 37/01 UDL o HKSDM UDL bstrains.TCL
The loading trains for the three alternatives will be produced together with the variable table associated with the HA loading curve that varies with loaded length. These data are stored in a TCL file (default name bstrains.TCL). This TCL file must be imported later as a partial project directly into the RM2004 project database. This is done with using the program function #File !Import "Partial Project. Live load calculation Modify the following default values (if necessary) to suit the project: The width of the First Carriageway (Distance between kerbs) Select the Second carriageway box if there is a second carriageway The width of the Second carriageway if any The number of the stage for the Influence line calculation The number of the stage for the Live load combination calculation The name of the TCL file to be generated by the macro if desired BSLIVE.TCL The Construction schedule for the calculation of the influence lines, the application of all the possible live load & lane combinations and the determination of the worst envelope for each of the HA only load, HB only load and the HA + HB load will be generated and stored in the form of a TCL file called BSLIVE.TCL. This TCL file must also be imported into the RM2004 project database in the same manner than bstrains.TCL. Application Each of the individual sup files can be referred to in the Combination table and factored as desired. The following names are used by default: live.sup Worst combination of all the 3 different combination files liveHB.sup Worst combination of all the HB only combination files liveHA.sup Worst combination of all the HA only combination files liveHAHB.sup Worst combination of all the HA & HB combination files
RM2004 UserGuide 6.5.6 "Macro for Live Load (BD 37/01, 2001)
The macro for generating the traffic load definitions for BD 37/01 is in principal similar to the previously described macro for BS5400(1978), except that the parameters for the load train definition and the live load generation are pooled in one common input pad, and that only one common TCL file is written for the load train definition and the live load definition. This TCL file is per default called liveload.TCL and must be imported into the database before the analysis is performed. The main difference of BD 37/01 with respect to BS5400(1978) is, that the basic loading values are different, and that different lanes of the carriageway are differently treated (basic loading factors multiplied by different lane factors). These lane factors (values) depend on both, the length qlen of the loaded region and the notional lane width. The lane width has therefore to be additionally specified for all lanes. The parameters identical to those of the BS5400(1978) macro are Check boxes for the different cases (Create HA loading, Create HB loading, Create HA+HB loading). The numbering for the different load trains (HA load train number, HB load train number, HA+HB load train number). The variable name for the HAUDL loading (Name for HAUDL function). The number of HB units to be considered (Number of HBUnits). The number of the stage for the Influence line calculation. The number of the stage for the Live load combination calculation. The name of the TCL file to be generated by the macro.
Additional parameters are Prefix of the names of the functions for creating the lane factors (BETA functions) Prefix of the superposition file names to be created The table of traffic lanes to be considered, together with their notional widths A checkbox defining whether all lanes are in the same direction (one way traffic) A checkbox defining whether intermediate superposition files should be automatically deleted 6.5.7 "Macro for Live Load (HK Standard, 1997) The macro for generating the traffic load definitions for the Hongkong Standard is very similar to the previously described macro for BD 37/01, except that the values of the individual basic parameters are different. Deviating there from, no lane factors and therefore no BETA functions  exist, but the lanes have to be assigned to the right carriageway. 6.5.8 "Preprocessor for Moving Load This macro has been provided for easing the data preparation for dynamic time history analyses of railway bridges. Based on a specified load train and the velocity of that train moving
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over the bridge, a series of load sets is created together with the variation in time, related to each individual set. These sets are collected in a load case, which is used in the analysis for calculating the system response (action TInt). The name of this load case is specified by the user in the top left input field of the input pad. The macro creates a separate load set for every affected point (or simultaneously loaded points on different lanes) and every force in the load train, i.e. in total nSet load sets, with nSet = nP * nF, where nP and nF are the number of affected points and the number of train forces respectively. The labelling scheme of these load sets is governed by the userdefined prefix (Starting loadset), where a reference number (#1, #2, etc.) is added for creating the individual load set names. The name of the load case is usually also used as prefix of the load set names (default MLOAD). The load train definition is currently restricted to a series of concentrated loads at fix distances, moving as a whole over the structure with the specified velocity. These concentrated loads usually represent the axle loads of a locomotive and the trailed railway cars. A table of these concentrated loads, showing the force value and the distance to the next load, is displayed at the right side of the input pad. Inserting new loads or modifying existent lines is performed with using the appropriate modification buttons and input fields below this table. The sequence in the table must be from the front axle backwards. The values of this table may be factorised be specifying a Qy factor in the appropriate input field. This factor is 1 per default, allowing for entering the axle loads as positive values acting in the negative global Y direction.
Note:
!Load definition"LTrain.
The term load train used above has nothing to do with the database object Load Train specified in
A 2nd table, displayed on the left side of the input pad, shows the series of elements or nodes affected by the moving load train. Again, these values may be edited by using the modification buttons and input fields below this table. The switches at centre top of the input pad (Node Forces (FEX) if the forces are related to a node series, Element Forces (FSGY) if related to an element series) govern, whether a node series or an element series has to be entered. An eccentric point of application of the forces is defined by the eccentricity values, specified at the top right side of the pad. These values are related to the nodes (if Node Forces (FEX) has been selected), or to the crosssection reference points (e.g. the top centre point of the crosssection, if Element Forces (FSGY) has been selected). A lane number may be assigned to each node or element series in this table, indicating different main girders in parallel, which are simultaneously loaded when the load train moves forward. Note that this lane number has nothing common with the general lane definition in !Load definition "Lane. The splitting of the load train forces to the different lanes is governed by the Force Factors in the lane table below the table of node or element series. The parameters Ramp Begin and Ramp End in the lane table are approach and backlash distances from the lane begin and end respectively, where an influence of approaching or departing forces on the first or last node is given. It is recommended to always specifying suitable ramp lengths (maybe 1 to 3 times the element length) in order to avoid inaccuracies and oscillations due to suddenly arising or vanishing loads.
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Once the input data are complete, the user may use the <Save/Restore> button to save the data in a TCL file (mldia.TCL), allowing for an easy modification after the macro has been left. Using this button again, the data are restored and may be modified before repeating the analysis. Leaving the macro function by selecting the <OK> button creates a TCL file containing all the data (variables, load sets, load case) generated by the macro. The name of this TCL file is specified by the user in the input field RMinputfile. This TCL data must be imported afterwards as a partial project before the analysis can be performed. It is strongly recommended to check the TCL file, before importing it into the database. The TCL file contains the following data: Unit definitions: Length(Struct) Force Variables: V Vm RBeg1 REnd1 Tint Tpos m1(p,n) Ltotal Duration sload sn1 dp1 dn1 set to default (m) set to default (kN) Load train velocity (input value km/h) Velocity (calculation value in m/sec) Ramp length at the begin of lane 1 Ramp length at the end of lane 1 Current time of the train position Position at time Tint Influence function of the force p for the point n at time Tint (or for load train position Tpos respectively) Total length (From the start point of the begin ramp to the position of the first force when the last force leaves the end ramp) Time elapsed when the last force leaves the end ramp Distance table of the forces of the load train Station table (nodes or elements) of lane 1 Distance table to the previous station Distance table to the next station
Construction schedule items: LSET xxx Load set definition for load set xxx LCASE yyy Load case definition load case yyy
RM2004 UserGuide
6.5.9 "Preprocessor for Cable Stayed Bridge General This function supports the full nonlinear calculation of cable stayed bridges as described in 13.1.7. The procedure there proposed comprises 4 steps, 1. Preliminary design calculation on the final system (without considering construction stages), 2. Calculation of the related cable geometry (cable sagging), 3. Adaptation of the system geometry (cable subdivision and adding the sagging values), and 4. Final analysis considering all construction stages and PDelta effects The first 3 of these steps are supported in this preprocessor function with the related subfunctions, which are selected in the input pad displayed on selecting the preprocessor function. Each subfunction creates TCL files containing the related data. These TCL files must then be imported into the database. Step 1 The subfunction for creating the data for performing the first step of the proposed analysis procedure is provided for generating a total loading case for the calculation on the final system. This allows proceeding in the modelling phase in the same standard way with defining different load sets and load cases to be superimposed in the construction schedule. The subfunction collects all indicated load sets and load cases, and creates a new load case, which will be used in the preliminary analysis. The following data must be entered in the related input fields: Final state LC Outputfile loads Name of the load case, where all required load sets are collected Name of the TCL file to be written
Load manager final state LC String indicating the treatment of the load case in the automatic superposition (see 7.3.7, Load Manager "LManage, usually G1 in order to make sure, that the load case is stored in the summation load case SumLC). Load manager cable LCs String indicating the treatment of the cablestressing load cases in the automatic superposition (see 7.3.7, Load Manager "LManage, usually CABLE). Additional loadsets for final state LC The permanent loading accumulated in the summation load case SumLC is automatically considered in the analysis. Other permanent loads (or other loads to be considered for the cable force design) may be included in the total load case by specifying the load sets in this input field. The table below the switch RESET ALL CABLES contains the stressing information for all cables in the system. The first row contains the numbers of the cable elements to be stressed. This information is taken from the element table created in !Element Data and Properties. Cables, which are for any reason inactive or not stressed, may be deleted from the table. The other rows contain the stressing information for the different cables, i.e. the load sets describing the selfweight and any fix stressing force part (2nd row), and the load sets describing
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the variable unit stressing force (7th row). As a default, the selfweight loading gets the cable element number as load set name, and the unit stressing forces get the element number increased by 1. These values may be edited by using the <edit> buttons below the different rows. The specific weight used for creating the selfweight load sets is per default taken from the material specification of the cable elements. A deviating value may be easily specified with modifying the values using the <edit> button. A fix part of the stressing force may be specified with using either the toad type LX0 (5th row) or FX0 (6th row). Avoid specifying both values, they are both considered in the created load set and therefore superimposed in the calculation. A value of 100 kN is per default used for the variable unit stressing force. The names of the unit load cases are per default assumed to be the same than the names of the related load sets. The TCL file with the specified name containing the corresponding load set and load case information is created on selecting the <Ok> button. This TCL file may now be imported before the preliminary analysis is performed. This is done with creating the required construction schedule (final state only) and selecting the !Recalc function. Step 2 The Step 2 subfunction is used for applying rigid constraints to all nodes of the system. Persagging forming the analysis with this totally restrained system and the option Cable sagging selected will give the sagging line of all cables without any other node deformations. These cable displacements may then be superimposed to the original cable geometry in step 3. The nodal support constants are per default set to 1.E12. They may be modified in the input pad. The TCL file (step2sys.TCL) for applying the constraints to all nodes is written on selecting the <Ok> button, together with a 2nd TCL file (step2undo.TCL) for removing the constraints after the sagging lines have been calculated. The TCL file step2sys.TCL must be imported after the Step 2 subfunction has been terminated. Then the analysis is again performed with using the !Recalc function. The TCL file step2undo.TCL must afterwards be imported before proceeding to step 3. Step 3 The Step 3 subfunction creates 3 TCL files: Step3sys.TCL (default name) for subdividing the cables and creating the new nodes and elements along the sagging line Step3undo.TCL (default name) for reestablishing the original state if required Step3load.TCL (default name) for creating the loading information (like step1load.TCL) for the subdivided cables (new elements and nodes) The step 3 input pad requires the following data to be entered or modified: The names of the TCL files to be created (default names see above) The no. of the summation load case (default LC 1000) The table of stressing information for each cable The table of stressing information contains the following parameters:
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RM2004 UserGuide Cable Nr NDiv Stage Gamma LSet FX0/LX0 LSet LCase AddCon LSet AddCon LCase First cable no. First node no. LSys LX0 total
Note:
Structure Menu 629 Element no. of the original cable (created by the program) Number of subdivisions (information from the element table, no direct modification, specification done in !Element Data and Properties) No. of the construction stage, where the cable is stressed (default 1, modification with the <edit> button) Name of the selfweight load set (taken over from the step 1 information, no direct modification possible) Name of the fix stressing part load set (taken over from the step 1 information, no direct modification possible) Name of the self weight and fix stressing part load case (default: name of the Gamma LSet, modification with the <edit> button) Name of the variable stressing load set (taken over from the step 1 information, no direct modification possible) Name of the variable stressing load case (taken over from the step 1 information, no direct modification possible) Start no. of the element series created in the subdivision process (default: no. of the original cable + 1) Start no. of the node series created in the subdivision process along the sagging line (default: no. of the original cable + 1) System length of the cable (informative) Total stressfree length of the cable (informative)
The creation of new elements and nodes in the subdivision process does not get around existing element or node numbers. The user has to take care, that the first numbers of the created series are specified such that existing elements or nodes are not overwritten. It is recommended to apply sufficient space in the numbering scheme of the original elements in order be able to use the default settings of this macro function (e.g. 7000, 7010, 7020, original cable numbers, 7001, 7002, , 7011, 7012, generated elements and nodes)
The abovementioned TCL files are created on selecting the <Ok> button. Step3sys.TCL and step3load.TCL must both be imported before the final nonlinear construction stage analysis may be performed. 6.5.10 "Compensation of new element length Deformations arising during construction are often compensated on site, either consciously in order achieve the intended final shape (see 10.5, PreCamber) or implicitly by arranging the end of new members at the theoretical point in space without taking into account any previous displacements of the start point. The macro Compensation of new element length has been provided for supporting the special case, where a full precamber calculation as described in 10.5.5 should be avoided, but the effects of the longitudinal deformation must not be neglected. A typical application example is the pylon of a stay cable bridge, where the shortening due to the cable stressing forces is implicitly compensated in the construction process. Another example may be a prestressed girder, where the transverse displacements are approximately compensated by the prestressing. However, longitudinal deformations due to prestressing will fully arise. They must be compensated in order to achieve compatibility conditions.
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The macro generates a TCL file (default name lx0comp.TCL) containing the load sets to be used for compensating the longitudinal deformations of the indicated beam elements. The load type LX0 is used for this compensation process. The reference load case, containing the deformations to be compensated, is specified by the user (default LC1000). The input pad shows the elongation (Vx) or shortening (negative values Vx) of the individual elements in the 4th row of the presented table. The user can specify a percentage of this displacement difference to be compensated (%), and/or a constant value (const). This loading information is added to the load set specified in the 2nd row. This may be a separate load set referenced later in the related load case in the construction schedule, or an existing load set (e.g. the selfweight specification of the respective element). All assigned load sets must have been created before in the function #Construction schedule !Load definition "LSet (at least as empty sets). The overall procedure is 1. Performing a preliminary analysis for creating the required deformations in the summation load case SumLC. 2. Running the macro for creating the corresponding loading information 3. Importing the created TCL file (lx0comp.TCL) for updating the total loading information 4. Performing the final analysis by again selecting "Recalc.
RM2004 UserGuide
Note that temporary supports are currently treated like fix supports and activated in all launching steps created in !ILM (Incremental launching method) "Recalc. The user may however delete the appropriate lines in the construction schedule, if the support is removed before the final system is activated. The segment table displayed on selecting !ILM (Incremental launching method) "Segments contains the following parameters: Segment name Name of the segment for reference (e.g. A, max 23 characters) Type SegLength Spring Node Type of the segment (see above) Segment length (Nose and Girder) Element number (ILMsupport spring) Node number (ILMsupport spring)
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Nose segment Name of the related nose segment (only for girder segments)
RM2004 UserGuide NewNdNo NewElNo Tolerance Description Start no. for generated new nodes (Nose and Girder)
Start no. for generated new elements (Nose and Girder) Only for support segments: tolerance value for the connection Descriptive text for the segment (max. 127 characters)
The above parameters have to be entered in the <insert> or <modify> pad. The first segment must be the nose segment. It is recommended to define afterwards the girder segments in the right order, and the support segments at the end. The table below the segment table displays the elements belonging to the current segment. The original values entered by the user are displayed when "Segments "Old is active. New elements can be assigned in this mode by using the <insert> button. A precamber value (ydeviation) can be defined for the start and end points of each element by using the<modify> button after the elements have been initially assigned. The program creates a refined superstructure system with new elements and new nodes if the position of ILMsupport elements does not coincide with nodes of the superstructure in any of the launching steps. The numbering of these new elements and nodes is done automatically in the program. The user has however the possibility for influencing the automatic numbering, by specifying a lower limit for the new node and element numbers (NewNdNo and NewElNo). For girder elements, the option "Segments "New can be used to present the elements created in the refinement process together with the coordinates of subdivision points. For ILMsupports, the coordinates of the start and end are presented in this mode. ILMSupport segments usually consist of one single support element connecting the node 0 with the (detached) reference node Node (which will be connected in the launching process to the structural node being currently at the position of the support element). However, the user may also define groups of springs as ILMSupportSegments, where the start point of the ILMspring is not the node 0, but the respective node of the related substructure (e.g. a pier). The elements of this substructure are in this case defined to be a part of the same ILMSupport segment. Note that the ILMspring itself must always be the last element in the table of elements belonging to the current support segment. If more than one ILMspring is connected to the same substructure, the substructure elements have only to be specified in one of the respective ILMSupport segments. A Tolerance value has to be specified in the case that eccentric (in local zdirection) ILM supports are specified at the same longitudinal location (eccentric bearings, one left and one right). All ILM springs with zeccentricities below this tolerance value will be connected in the launching process to the superstructure at the current position. 6.6.3 !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "Launch The different launching steps are defined in this function. Positioning the nose segment with its cone point at the start point of the bridge is usually the first step. In a 2nd step the nose segment may be launched over the whole length. The further steps are standard steps, where the active segments including the nose are advanced by a certain amount.
RM2004 UserGuide
The launching table displayed on selecting !ILM (Incremental launching method) "Launch contains all launching steps with the following parameters: Launch SegName Step SumStep SegPos Stage LCase Load set No. of the launching step Name of the segment being pushed Advancing length of the current launching step Total advancing length at the end of the current launching step Position of the cone point of the nose segment at the end of the current launching step No. of the related construction stage No. of the related load case No. of the related load set
The advancing length for one step is in the <insert> pad defined by the number of steps and the total moving lengths, assuming that each step has the same advancing length. Differing advancing lengths may be specified with inserting more than one stepseries for the same segment. In the <modify> pad the single step length has to be entered even if a step series is modified. Modifying a step length does not automatically modify the subsequent step to keep the total length constant. The construction stage related to a launching step or a series of launching steps must have been previously defined as an empty stage. It must essentially be assigned to the launching steps by specifying its number (Stage No.). The function !ILM (Incremental launching method) "Recalc will then place all related actions in the referenced construction stage. All launching steps of a particular segment are usually in the same construction stage, but launching steps of different segments must be in different stages. The loading information related to the launching steps (removal of previous ILM supports and activation in the new position) will be assigned to the previously created empty load set and load case specified by the load case no. LCase and the load set no. Load set. This load case and load set may be the same for all launching steps, or different ones. Usually, all steps of one construction stage are related to the same load case and load set, but different load cases and load sets are used for the different construction states. This keeps the final state of every construction stage resident in the database and available for the result presentation functions. When "Launch "Activation active, the lower table shows related to the currently marked launching step the active support segments (Pier Name) and the girder elements connected to them (elements (Elnew) and nodes (Nonew) in the refined structure, elements (Elold) and relative position (x/l) in the original structure, affected segment (SegName). When "Launch "Action is active, the lower table displays the construction stage actions related to the current launching step. The parameters are the same than in the standard action table described in 7.5.3, #Construction schedule !Stage actions. Any additional actions can be inserted in this table (e.g. removing a temporary support).
If the option Export to RM9 is set, this function will create a new database containing the (if necessary refined) structural system and the actual loading and construction schedule data to be used in the analysis. The user can then switch to the new database and start the actual analysis. Please note that all further actions such as traffic load, final creep and shrinkage, etc. need to be performed in the new database on the refined system in order to guarantee compatibility of the results. Additionally this function offers some checking facilities, which may be activated when the option Export to RM9 is switched off. !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "New project This function clears all ILM tables and allows defining a new variant of the incremental launching data.
RM2004 UserGuide
7.1 General
schedules Construction schedules in RM2004 are used to sequentially activate parts of the overall structural model and perform actions. Actions may be linear or nonlinear, static or dynamic calcu
lations, design code checks, load case superposition and manipulation, generation of lists and plots or general file system operations. The principle of the construction schedule is, that every action is performed at a specific time in a project related time frame. The construction schedule is divided into a number of stages. Structural elements may be set active or inactive within these stages. Furthermore, a sequence of actions is defined within the schedule, and these actions are pursued later when the calculation is performed. Actions in stages apply only to active elements. The main benefit of the additional definition of a computational time schedule analogous to the construction schedule of the real structure, is to include time dependent material characteristics, such as creep, shrinkage and relaxation conveniently. Moreover, results may be accessed after any stage as intermediate result or as accumulated result of previous stages. Special features of RM2004 allow for full time dependency of loads and structural response with time integration. 7.1.1 The Project Time Axis In Figure 71 the time axis of an exemplary construction schedule is given. In each stage elements may be set active or inactive if they were activated in a stage before. Furthermore, load cases are applied and calculated as actions within a stage. Static load cases are considered to act simultaneously on the active structure at a certain point in time, while creep, shrinkage and relaxation load cases are applied with a given duration. By specifying this duration a step along the project time axis is defined, leading to a complete time frame for analysing the whole structure in the construction schedule. Actions are more generally used not only for load case calculation, but also for traffic load preparation, load manipulation and superposition, post processing actions and further functions as described in "Actions further below in this chapter. To consider a certain age of elements prior to loading (e.g. from pouring concrete to loading of dismantled elements), this age is defined in #Structure!Element data and properties"Time. As given in Figure 71, the input value in the element table is the age of newly activated elements, while the age of elements activated in an earlier stage is calculated automatically. According to the construction schedule all actions and especially load case calculation actions are performed and accessed later by the RM2004 load case pool, where load cases are listed in the order of stage calculation (see 7.3.4).
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Stage 1
Activate Elements of Stage 1 Age 7 days
Stage 2
Activate Elements of Stage 2 Age 7 days Elements of Stage 1 Age 28 days Loadcases SelfWeight (LC102) Prestressing (LC502) (simultaneously at t=21)
Stage 3
Activate Elements of Stage 3 Age 7 days Elements of Stages 1+2 are older Loadcases SelfWeight (LC103) Prestressing (LC503) (simultaneously at t=42)
Stage 4
No new Elements Elements of Stages 1+2+3 are older Loadcases DeadLoad (at t=92)
Stg. Activation
Loading Actions
(LC204)
t=0
t=21
t=42
t=92
t& t
C+S Actions
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
7.1.2 Required Definitions The following definitions are required to successfully perform actions in the construction schedule: Import (or definition) of properties Variables for Creep, Shrinkage and Material, Crosssections (defined in the #Properties menu) Definition of the structural model Nodes, Elements, Supports (defined in the #Structure menu). Definition of Loads Load cases (Load sets), load combinations and load manager definitions have to be defined (in the #Construction Schedule !Load definition pad).
RM2004 UserGuide
RM2004 UserGuide
A rough overview over the available load types is given in 7.3.2; and a detailed description of the related load definitions is given in the Appendix. Load cases may be combined in many ways to superposition load cases or envelopes, which may in their part be combined again to overall envelopes. A very useful tool for automatic superposition of load cases is provided in the load manager function (see 7.3.7, "LManage). Design code checks are usually performed with sets of load combinations with different multiplication factors, which may easily be set up as combination table (see 7.3.6, "Comb). 7.3.2 Load Types The available load types of RM2004 are grouped in load type groups. Table 71 shows the provided load type groups, each with several load types with differing parameter set for allowing an easy definition of arbitrary loading situations. The load types themselves are together with the related parameter sets described in detail in the Appendix to this document.
Table 71 Load Types of RM2004 Load Types Concentrated Load Distributed loads (Uniform Loads) Partial Uniform Load Trapezoid, Triangular and Variable Load Masses Stressing Temperature and Initial Stress/Strain Actions on Element End Wind Load (velocity) Normal forces (Stiffness change) Special (Pier dimensioning)
7.3.3 Principles for Load Case Superposition For structures with linear structural behaviour, load cases results may be superimposed without limitations. As shortly mentioned in 7.3.1, load case combinations and superposition results may either be created automatically by using the load management function (see 7.3.7, "LManage) or explicitly by defining all required superposition actions in the construction schedule. These superposition results may be later used for various purposes, e.g. for different design code checks. Besides the superposition with evaluating extreme (maximum, minimum) values (creating envelopes, see 7.3.5), load cases results may be simply added resulting in a new load case stored in the load case pool. Such superposition load cases may be treated further on like any directly calculated load case. Creating such load cases by explicit construction schedule ac TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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tions is performed with using the superposition actions LcInit (Creating an empty new result data set), and LcAddLc (Adding a load case to an other load case). Table 72 shows a possible load case scheme from a construction schedule similar to the one shown in Figure 71. LC1000 is used to sum up all load cases over all stages. Stage subtotals are created as copies of LC1000 at the end of each stage. The sums of all load of a certain category (self weight, prestressing, etc., see 7.3.7, Load Manager "LManage) are also built, but without copying the subtotals to separate load cases. This summation of load cases may be done directly as above described by the respective actions in the construction schedule, or much more conveniently by using the load manager.
Table 72 Scheme of load case superposition
Stage 1 Stage 2 Lc1000(1) Self weight Dead load Prestressing Creep, Shrinkage, Relaxation SumLC LC101 LC201 LC501 LC601 LC1000(1) LC101 LC202 LC502 LC602 LC1000(2) Stage 3 Lc1000(2) LC103 LC203 LC503 LC603 LC1000(3) LC699 LC1000 Stage 99 (Final) Lc1000(3) LC199 LC299 LC100 LC200 LC500 LC600 Load subtotals
LC1001
LC1002
LC1003
7.3.4 The Load Case Pool As mentioned above, load cases are calculated whenever a calculation action is defined in the stage definition of the construction schedule. RM2004 creates a record of the load case results in the load case pool, which is accessed with post processing commands (#Results !Load case results). Time dependent load cases, such as creep, shrinkage and relaxation, are calculated by time integration in a given number of time steps. Each time step is stored as internal sub load case and summarised to the total creep and shrinkage load case.
Table 73 Example for a load case pool Time 1 Time 2 SumX SumY SumZ Sum Sum Sum Load MasX MasY MasZ Case name LC101 0 0 LC102 0 0 LC201 0 0 LC501 0 0 LC601#1 1,036 2,072 LC601#2 4,218 8,439 LC601#3 14,0 28,0 LC601 28,0 28,0 Description
Table 73 shows the load case pool after calculation of stage 1 in the example of Table 72.
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Time1 and Time2 are timedata from creep and shrinkage calculation. Time1 is the end time
of the load case in days along the project time axis from the beginning of the construction schedule. Time2 is a modified, fictitious time value for the application time of the stress redistributions due to creep and shrinkage (calculated from the ageing factor w2 given in the recalc pad #Construction Schedule !Recalc "C+S to Time2 = Time1 + (Time2Time1) w2 ). In Table 73, a time dependent load case (LC601) was calculated in three (logarithmic) time steps summed up to the final load case. The load case pool can also contain eigenvectors besides normal static load case results. The row Omega () contains in this case the related eigenfrequency in terms of radians per second. 7.3.5 Load Case Envelopes Definitions The term envelope is used in RM2004 to denote Sets of result values, which represent maximum and minimum values of combinations of several load cases, which may act together or alternatively according to certain rules. Each envelope consists of result value matrices related to all result points (element start and end points, subdivision points). A matrix for a certain result point contains different result vectors (deformation vectors, internal force vectors). Each vectors contains 12 components (6 deformation values, 6 internal force values), and represents maximum or the minimum of a certain component (characteristic Component) and the related other result components. An envelope is identified with a userdefined name, which is used as a filename for storing the related result values. The characteristic components used for evaluating maximum and minimum vectors are specified in #Construction schedule !Recalc (check boxes Max/Min Displ, Max/Min Forces). Thus, the matrix for one result point contains up to 24 result vectors with 12 components, with one of these components being a maximum or minimum value.
Note: Further allocated result components, such as e.g. the primary parts of prestressing or creep load cases, are also stored in the envelope, but they cannot be used as characteristic components for the maximum/minimum evaluation.
Envelopes are named objects, where the name is also the name of the file, where the results values are stored. The name is freely defined by the user. However, it is recommended to always use the file extension .sup. Envelopes are created by first initialising the appropriate superposition file (action SupInit) and then superimposing load case results or other envelopes, using defined superposition rules. The superposition rules are specified with operators (SupAdd, SupAnd, SupAndX, SuSupOr and SupOrX). This operator forms the related construction schedule action together with a code, defining whether a load case should be superimposed (Lc) or another envelope (Sup) (e.g. SupAddLc unconditional superposition of a load case, SupAndSup conditional superposition of an envelope). In addition to the explicit creation of envelopes with defining the different superposition actions in the construction schedule, envelopes may also be created with simply defining the
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action SupComb for combinations previously specified in a combination table (see 7.3.6, Combination Tables "Comb). The different available superposition operators are described below. Besides this operator describing the conditions for superimposing a load case ore envelope, RM2004 also allows for the definition of factors used for multiplying the values prior to being added. This procedure is typically stipulated in design codes for ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. Superposition operators and rules All of the following superposition operators may be applied as actions in the construction schedule or be used as rules assigned in the combination table. The unconditional superposition operator SupAdd is used to superimpose different permanent loads such as selfweight, presetressing, earth pressure etc.
Table 74 Example for SupAdd
SupAdd
The new values are directly added to the envelope as in a table (compare Table 74).
SupAdd 70 30 30
SupAdd 22 52 52
The conditional superposition operator SupAnd is used to superimpose results of live loads, such as traffic loads or snow. New values are added to existing minimum envelope values, if the characteristic component value has a negative sign, and to existing maximum envelope values, if the characteristic component value has a positive sign (compare Table 75).
Table 75 Example for SupAnd
SupAnd 70 70 100
SupAnd 22 70 122
The conditional superposition operator SupAndX is used to superimpose results of load cases that may change the direction, like temperature and wind loads.
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The superposition rule SupAnd is applied twice with new values of both signs. Consequently, with this rule existing minimum envelope values are decreased by new values with negative sign and maximum envelope values are increased by new values with positive sign (compare Table 76).
Table 76 Example for SupAndX
The conditional replacement operator SupOr is typically used to find the envelope of exclusionary load cases like heavy traffic load, positioned on different places along the structure. New values replace existing minimum envelope values, if they are smaller, and existing maximum envelope values, if they are greater (compare Table 77).
Table 77 Example for SupOr
SupOr 70 70 100
SupOr 22 70 100
The conditional replacement operator SupOrX is used for load cases with changing sign. The superposition rule SupOr is applied twice with new values of both signs. Consequently with this rule existing minimum envelope values are replaced by the new value with negative sign if smaller, and the maximum envelope values are replaced with the new value with positive sign, if greater (compare Table 78).
Table 78 Example for SupOrX
Two factors may be defined for superposition in case of SupAdd. A factor for favourable superposition F1 and a factor for unfavourable superposition F2 may be given or set to 1.0 by default. F1 is used, if the characteristic value of the new load case to be added decreases the respective absolute value of the envelope and F2 is used, if the new value to be added increases it. Only F1 is used for all other (conditional) superposition operators. Creation of envelopes Envelopes have to be created in the construction schedule first (action SupInit). Subsequently superposition rules are applied to superimpose load case results to the envelopes superposition file (see 7.5.3 on Load case and envelope actions). Zero state of envelopes When envelopes are initialised, all values in the superposition file are set to zero. When conditional superposition operators (SupAnd, SupAndX, SupOr, SupOrX) are applied, existing zero values in the envelope are always treated as results i.e. the initial state is kept for the favourable result vectors. As given in Figure 72, positive values of the minimum curve and negative values of the maximum curve will be truncated, if the envelope has a zero state at the beginning, and the superposition is made with conditional operators only, i.e. the state without any loading is a valid state of the envelope. In cases where the most unfavourable case of several load cases is to be found with SupOr (but the zero state is not allowed), it is necessary to use SupAdd at first in order to fill the envelope with the results of the first load case, and to use the operator SupOr for the further load case results. Note that in cases, where the envelope contains unconditional load cases and conditional load cases, in order to get correct results the unconditional load cases must be added with SupAdd prior to superimposing the conditional load cases with SupAnd. Mmin min max Mmax 0.0
Problems often arise with zero result values of numerical load case calculations. They are mostly not exactly zero, but may oscillate between small positive and negative values. It is therefore often a pure hazard in conditional superposition cases, whether a load case is added to the maximum vector or to the minimum vector, or if it is not at all considered because the
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characteristic component is exactly zero. This problem for instance often occurs in pure bending girders, where the bending moment diagram of result vectors related to the normal force as characteristic component, may become inconsistent. 7.3.6 Combination Tables "Comb Load combination tables are used to define up to 24 different combination rules for a list of load cases. A superposition operator and a factor for favourable and unfavourable superposition (as described above) are set. Up to 24 sets of factors may be defined and any of the rules (columns of the table) may later be addressed by its number and used with the action SupComb in the construction schedule (see 7.5.3). The function #Construction schedule !Load definition "Comb has been provided for creating a Combination table, where the rules and affected load cases (or envelopes respectively) for creating up to 24 combinations (envelopes) are stored, together with superposition factors for all load cases or envelopes to be superimposed. Each combination is referencesd by a number (I to XXIV in the table, 1 to 24 in later identifications). The function SupComb (see 7.5.3) is later in the construction schedule used for creating envelopes for the different combinations by specifying the number of the combination and the name of the envelope file to be created. Using a combination table allows for a clear and easy creation of design code related envelopes. By specifying multiplication factors (in the case of SupAdd separately for favourable and unfavourable properties), combinations for serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state checks are created in a consistent way, when SupComb is performed for the same combination in different construction stages. However, the names of the envelopes should be different (e.g. Comb1_1.sup &combination 1 for construction stage 1, Comb1_2.sup & combination 1 for construction stage 2, etc.), in order to keep all construction stage results resident for later references. A further advantage of using combinations is, that the configuration details are still known later on. This allows for demerging the individual parts in the design code check procedures (e.g. fibre stress check, see 15.1.3). Note that in the combination table the load cases to be superimposed must be entered in the order they shall be processed in the action SupComb. 7.3.7 Load Manager "LManage The load manager "LManage is used to automatically add load cases into superposition load cases (and envelopes) immediately after they have been calculated. The function creates a table of load case categories (LMng). Appropriate superposition rules are assigned to each of these categories. These categories (see examples below) are objects, which are assigned in the load case definition function (#Construction schedule !Load definition "LCase) to the different load cases. Whenever a load case with a valid assigned category code is calculated, the required superposition actions are automatically determined and performed. Each load case category get a user defined name, which is used as a reference in the load case definition. This name usually points to the type of the load case characterising its treatment in the superposition process, e.g.
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Construction Schedule Menu 711 self weight loading acting on the net crosssection additional permanent loads acting on the composite crosssection as G2 (e.g. formwork traveller, scaffolding, wetconcrete etc.) prestressing load case creep and shrinkage load case
TDV recommends using a standardised scheme for denoting the load case categories (see 9.4.2). Up to 3 load cases and 3 envelopes may be defined for each category, where all load cases of this category are automatically superimposed. This allows for instance for creating a superposition load case, where all G1 load cases are accumulated, an other one, where all permanent weight load cases (G1+G2+G3) are accumulated, and a third one containing all permanent load cases (e.g. G1+G2+G3+PT+CS). The addition into the superposition load cases is performed unconditionally, i.e. the load case results are added without considering, whether they act favourably or unfavourably. Multiplication factors may not be defined for this automatic superposition. Only one part can be processed for load cases consisting of a primary and a secondary part: the user must select, whether the primary or the secondary parts or the total result values shall be superimposed. All superposition operators described in 7.3.5 can be used for automatically superimposing load cases of a certain category into an envelope (selection in the pulldown menu). This allows for instance for automatically excluding the different load cases of the category WIND with each other, or for automatically superimposing all load cases of any category LIVELOAD. This superposition into an envelope may also be performed for another than the currently calculated load case. This load case must in this case be specified by the user. Indeed, this option is very common, and advantageously used for searching the most unfavourable state of the summation load case accumulated throughout the construction schedule. The summation load case (e.g. LC1000) is in this case defined as the load case to be superimposed using the superposition rule SupOr. The current contents of the summation load case is then compared with the contents of the envelope, and replaced if necessary. Finally, the envelope will contain the worst state arising during the whole construction schedule. Requirements All superposition load cases and envelopes, addressed in the specified load manager rules, have to exist, when the rules are applied. I.e. they have to be initialised with using the action LcInit or SupInit respectively. Example The load manager rules as briefly given in Table 79 can be alternatively used for the summation of the load cases as given in Table 72. The data of Table 79 will then be entered in the load management function, and the categories SW, DL, PT, CS assigned to the respective load cases. The superposition load cases must have been previously initialised in the construction schedule. The envelope containing the most unfavourable state throughout the construction schedule is created directly, without creating and finally superimposing intermediate
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states. Only the states after prestressing and after creep are considered, assuming that the previous load case Self weight will in reality only be activated by the prestressing.
Table 79 Sum load cases as part of the load manager rules applying to Table 72 Rule SW DL PT CS Sum LC 1 LC100 LC200 LC500 LC600 Sum LC 2 LC1000 LC1000 LC1000 LC1000 Sum LC 3
One load definition line contains a code characterising the load type (Kw), the loaded node or element range specified by a from/to/stepdefinition, a code (Proj) identifying the related element dimensions (element length or projection of the element length, etc.), and 6 components of the load definition vector (Data1 to Data6). The meaning of Data1 to Data6 is dependent on the particular load type. The exact meaning of the codes and coefficients is described in the detailed description of the load types in the appendix of this document.
Load sets are defined in "LSet in the same way than directly defined load cases. A new load descripset is defined by pressing an <insert> button and specifying the load set name and a description. The name should preferably start with the prefix LS and contain the name of the load
case where it will be used (e.g. LS501 for a set used in LC501) (see also 9.4.2, Recommended labelling scheme for load cases). Load sets may be immediately when being defined assigned to a load case by selecting the Add to load case option. The assigned load case may in this case be an existent one, or a new one to be created. Every load case gets besides its name and description a code, describing whether the load case is a quasi permanent state (P for permanent), or a load acting only for short periods (NP for not permanent). This code governs the creep calculation, specifying whether the loading is creep inducing or not. It is moreover used for nonlinear calculations, when permanent loads are accumulated for stiffness calculation (see 7.7.1 on Accumulate permanent load). Additionally, a load case category can optionally be assigned, which has been created in the load management function "LManage together with the related superposition rules (see 7.3.7, Load Manager "LManage).
Allgemeine Angaben ber die Verkehrslastberechnung in RM2004 sind in 10.6 zu finden, dieser Abschnitt beschreibt die erforderlichen Eingaben zur Definition von Verkehrslastspuren und Lastenzgen. Lane definition "Lane Lanes are fixed paths, defined as a series of points relative to structural elements. With respect to the geometry allocation to structural elements we distinguish between 2 cases: Lanes, which are related to longitudinal girder elements (see Figure 74), and Lanes, which are related to cross girder elements (see Figure 77). 1 2 3 4
Lanes may have an arbitrary shape and position. The lane geometry may be defined as a straight parallel or skew line, or even a curved line. The definition is done with specifying a series of lane points. The position of theses lane points is defined by the user in reference to the superstructure elements. In order to achieve a sufficient accuracy it is necessary to define an appropriate number of lane points (at least 1 point per element, or subdivision point when element subdivision is used). To include all possible discontinuities in influence lines, lane points are normally defined at the begin and end of all deck elements. Unit force vectors must be defined for all lane points. These unit forces are used for calculating the influence lines. In the influence line evaluation the results of these unit load calculations are multiplied by the respective load intensities of the load trains, resulting in the actual envelope of deformations and internal forces.
RM2004 UserGuide
Lane2
e
Figure 74 Lane definition with Points defined relative to the elements and a load vector to each point.
Lanes are defined at #Construction Schedule !Loads "Lane. The upper table (lane table) contains the list of lanes identified by a lane number. The output file name and influence line file name are automatically generated. Furthermore when the influence line calculation has been performed the table contains the information about the number of lane points Npos, the number of calculated influence lines Ninfl and the length of the lane. The lower table (lane point table) displays the definitions for all lane points of the active lane. Two lines are displayed for every lane point: The 1st line with parameters describing the position of the lane point, and The 2nd line with the unit force vector describing the direction of the loading related to this influence line. A code in the 1st row of the lane point table defines the type of the definition of the position and the force direction as given in the 2 lines. The following possibilities exist for the definition of the position: POS3D Position defined via space coordinates POSEL Reference is a longitudinal girder element, the eccentricity is defined in the local coordinate system POSEG Reference is a longitudinal girder element, the eccentricity is defined in the global coordinate system POSERL Reference element is a cross girder element These 1st lines of the lane point table contain in addition the position parameters (x/l, eccentricities) under Data1 to Data3 and a factor (Data7), which is used for multiplying all loads of this lane (revaluation for considering a dynamic coefficient, devaluation of auxiliary lanes etc.).
RM2004 UserGuide
The following codes describe the definition of a unit force: POSFG Eccentric force, defined in the global system POSFL Eccentric force, defined in the local system POSFRG Concentric force, defined in the global System POSFRL Concentric force, defined in the global System These 2nd lines contain under Data1 to Data3 any additional eccentricities of the load application point with respect to the lane point (e.g. centre of the load above the lane), and under Data4 to Data6 the components of the load vector. The right sign of the loading may be considered either here, by defining the correct unit load direction, or later in the definition of the force intensities of the load train. However, lane definition macros always create unit load vectors in positive axis directions. This has to be taken into account when specifying the force intensities of the load train. A Y or Z added to the above describes codes, specifies, that the crosssection eccentricity in the local YL or ZL direction is considered additionally to the user defined eccentricity. Apparently, the direct input of all lane points by using the above described definitions is a tedious undertaking. RM2004 therefore offers macros, which allow for efficiently defining the whole lane point table by entering few data. These macros generate the required lines of the lane point table for the most often arising cases (vertical traffic load, braking load in local xdirection, centrifugal load in local zdirection). The user can modify the created table with entering additional lines or modifying the created lines. Macros for lane definition are:
Macro1 (concentric lane points and load vectors, Figure 75)
This group of macros is used to define concentric lanes on a series of deck elements with only vertical crosssection eccentricities to apply the load on the deck surface.
B yL zL xL
E B
RM2004 UserGuide
Macro1X generates load vectors in local xdirection (longitudinal). It may for instance be used
for braking forces. However, braking forces are usually more realistically modelled by a single load case and not by an influence line evaluation. Macro1 generates load vectors in global ydirection (vertical). It is used for general vertical traffic loads. Macro1Z generates load vectors in local zdirection (horizontal). It is for instance used for centrifugal loads. Any crosssection eccentricities (ygl and zgl from the centre of gravity to the node) may be included with the options ygl (default) and zgl or be ignored by no ecc. Phi is the abovementioned multiplication factor Data7, used in most cased for specifying a dynamic coefficient. Ndiv is used for generating lane points in element subdivision points.
Makro2 (eccentric lane points and load vectors, Figure 76)
This group of macros is used to define lanes related to a series of deck elements with eccentricity ez in local z (horizontal) or ey in global ydirection (vertical). Any crosssection eccentricity may be considered in addition to the defined eccentricity. For details of the definition of crosssection eccentricities, Ndiv and Phi see Macro1.
ez E B E B
B yL zL
xL
Makro3 (lane points on cross girders, load vector on cross girders, Figure 77)
This group of macros applies to decks, defined by two or more longitudinal girders connected by a series of cross girders. The lane is related to a series of cross girders with the position of lane points defined by the ratio of x/l. In contradiction to the definition with Macro4 the unit force is applied on the crossgirder, resulting in torsion moments acting on the main girders. For details of the definition of Ndiv and Phi see Macro1.
RM2004 UserGuide
y z x
Figure 77 lane definition with Macro3
Makro4 (lane points on cross girders, load vectors on longitudinal girders, Figure 78)
This group of macros applies to decks, defined by two or more longitudinal girders connected by a series of cross girders. The load vectors are applied at the connecting nodes to the longitudinal girders. They therefore act directly on the longitudinal girders without torsion moments. The lane is related to a series of cross girders with the position of lane points defined by the relative ratio of x/l or by an absolute length value dx for the first girder and the last girder (different to the first girder for skew lanes) in the cross girder series. x/l or dx may be differently specified for the 1st and the last crossgirder, with linear interpolation in the intermediate crossgirders. This allows for effectively modelling skew lanes (e.g. for diverging lanes, etc.)
y z x
Figure 78 Lane definition with Macro4
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For details of the definition of crosssection eccentricities, Ndiv and Phi see Macro1. Makro4 contains a further option (orthogonal to lane) allowing for applying the unit loads on the intersection points of the normal to the lane with the main girder rather, than applying them on the connection points of the cross girders (see Figure 79).
general
201 202 203 204 205 206
207
208
LANE dxBeg. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
dxEnd
301
orthogonal to lane
201 202 203 204 205
206
207
208
LANE dxBeg 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
dxEnd
Figure 79 Lane definition with Macro4 normal and orthogonal to lane
load sections, placed next to each other. A load section may be defined with a given or free length, and a uniform distributed load and a point load at the start of the section. The lengths of the individual sections is usually constant values, however, they may be variable within given limits (e.g. for modelling variable axle spacing or more than one vehicle behind each other in the same lame). The first and the last section may be defined to have a free length, for defining distributed loads before and behind the vehicle (or group of vehicles). Defining a single load at begin of the first section with free length does naturally not make any sense.
RM2004 UserGuide
When influence lines are evaluated (LiveSet and LiveL actions), the load train is automatically positioned to obtain extreme (minimum and maximum) internal forces. The forces are calculated by multiplication of load train intensities with load vectors specified at each lane point (the direction of the traffic load is defined by the load vectors of the lane). Example 1: distributed load and one point load F Q Q
Section1
Section3
Figure 710 Load train with a distributed load and one point load
Using simple load trains as shown in Figure 710 is sufficient in many design codes. This covers the case, where a uniformly distributed traffic loading is prescribed, acting in all unfavourable sections of the lane. An additional heavy vehicle moving over the lane must be considered. The point load of the load train represents the weight of the vehicle, reduced by the amount of the distributed loading acting on the plan area of the vehicle. Example 2: Distributed load and two point loads with variable distance
F0: Lfrom F1: Lfrom = Lto Lto = Lstep Lstep F2: Lfrom = Lto = Lstep
Section2
F1
F2
Section1
Section2
Section3
Section4
Section5
Figure 711 Load train with distributed load and 2 point loads
Attention:
Note that the intensity q of the uniform distributed load must currently be the same in all load sections (except it is zero for modelling sections with point loads only). The first and the last section must essentially be defined with free length if the load train contains any uniform distributed load.
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RM2004 UserGuide
Figure 711 shows a more accurate definition of a distributed load on the whole lane with a single heavy vehicle. The vehicle is modelled with axle loads. The distributed load is omitted in the area of the vehicle. In order to define the distance of the first axle from the end of the distributed load, a separate section without load (F0 with intensity 0, q=0) has to be specified. Lfrom, Lto and LStep define any variable axle spacing. The definition of load trains is done with #Construction Schedule !Loads "LTrain. Load trains are identified by numbers, and listed in the upper table (load train table) containing load sections defined as items in the lower table. When load trains are evaluated, factmin and factfactfactmax may be used to factorise the maximum and minimum results separately. The variables function qlen and function Beta and the option Triangle f. are provided for the definition functi of complex load trains, where the load intensity is dependent on the loaded length. Such complex traffic load definitions are required in the British Standard, and various design codes of the former Commonwealth countries based on it (see 10.6.5). Further special parameters assigned to the whole load train, which are not displayed in the load train table, may be viewed by using the <Info> button on top of the table. These parameters are tolerance values in the upper displayed block (Eps1 to Eps12), and factors (Fac1 to Fac12), for differently factorising the loads considered for the evaluation of maximum and minimum values of the different result components (e.g. different factors for M and Q required in the AASHTO code). The tolerance values are used for suppressing the influence line evaluation in regions with small influence. The section table of the current load train is displayed below the load train table. The individual lines of this table contain for the different sections the intensity of the distributed load (under q), the intensity of the point load at the section begin (under F) and the range of possible section lengths specified by lfrom, lto and lstep. The rows qFlag and FFlag indicate, whether the load is a block load acting in any case over the whole length of the section (Fix), or if it acts only in the unfavourable parts of the section (Var). These flags may currently not be specified by the user. The distributed load is presently assumed to always being Var (acting only in unfavourable regions), and for point load to always being Fix. The simulation of distributed block loads (e.g. crawler type vehicles) requires transforming the block load into a series of point loads. Point loads which only act in unfavourable regions (e.g. a 2nd vehicle in the same lane) must be modelled by appropriately varying the section length (minimum distance as required, maximum distance > lane length). The option AASHTO indicates, whether the respective point load should be placed a 2nd time unfavourably in the neighbour span, when the most severe influence on the negative moments is evaluated. This proceeding is required in the AASHTO code. The row qfree indicates start and end sections with free length. The described parameters are entered in the input pad displayed on selecting the <insert> button. The defined loads act always in the direction of the unit forces specified for the lanes. Attention must be paid to the fact, that the lanes created by macros always have unit vectors in positive coordinate directions. Negative load intensities of the load train are therefore required for the vertical loads, in order to let them act downwards.
RM2004 UserGuide
The required input data for the above graphically presented load trains are shown in the following: Example 1: Section1 Q: Section2 F: Section3 Q: LITEM LITEM LITEM Q = 15 kN/m F = 300 kN Q = 15 kN/m
Free length
Example 2: Section1 Q: LITEM Q = 15 kN/m Free length Section2 F0: LITEM F = 0 kN Lfrom = Lto = LStep = 2.0 m Section3 F1: LITEM F =300 kN Lfrom = 3, Lto = 15, LStep = 3 m Section4 F2: LITEM F =300 kN Lfrom = Lto = LStep = 3.0 m Section5 Q: LITEM Q = 15 kN/m Free length (The distance between F1 and F2 will be varied from 3 to 15 m in steps of 3 m). 7.3.10 Earthquake Events "Seismic Earthquake events are numbered objects stored in the database separately from ordinary load cases. The calculation is performed in the action RespS by using the modal method, i.e. the individual natural modes are multiplied by participation factors and superimposed (see 14.3). The results are envelopes, containing the maximum and minimum amplitude values of the individual deformation and internal force components. The table of earthquake events is presented in 2 parts on selecting the function "Seismic: The upper table contains the basic parameters of all defined earthquake events, whereas the lower table contains (only one line!) contains the related ground motion parameters. The upper table contains the following parameters: Number Number of the seismic event Modal File Name of the file (*.mod), containing basic results of the eigenvalue analysis (must be created in the action Eigen prior to using it in the action RespS, see 14.2, Calculation of Natural Frequencies) Rule Combination rule for superimposing the contributions of the different modes. The available rules are described in 14.3.1 and in the Technical Manual. Duration Duration in [sec] of the seismic event (influencing the result only in combination with rules using duration dependent correlation factors, DSC, CQC, CQCX) Description Descriptive text (max. 80 characters) The lower table contains the direction of the ground motion (VecVx, VecVy, VecVz), the damping value (DampFact) to be used, the name of the variable (expression) representing the response spectrum (VarName(Graph)) and the type of the ground motion (Type) specified in the response spectrum (displacement (d), velocity (v)or acceleration (a)).
RM2004 UserGuide
7.3.11 Dynamic Loading "Wind General remarks on wind loading Wind loading is basically specified like other loadings: load cases are defined for the different wind cases, containing load sets with the information on the affected elements and size and direction of the loading. Static wind loading may be trivially specified with applying uniformly distributed loads (load type Uniform load). Calculating the loading values by hand is however tedious and RM2004 provides special load types, based on the specified wind velocity, for doing this automatically in the program (load types WINDM, DRAGML, DRAGM, PITCHM LIFTM and PITCHM). A detailed description of these load types is given in the Appendix.
DRAGML, DRAGM, LIFTM and PITCHM are special cases describing the static wind load for wind in longitudinal direction (DRAGML), and for winds in a direction perpendicular to the superstructure (DRAGM, LIFTM and PITCHM). An attack angle is specified for winds not being completely horizontal. Further parameters are the density of the air, the design velocity, the related shape factor (and derivative with respect to ) and the appropriate reference width.
Note:
The function !Load definition "Wind is not needed as long as the above described load types are used together with constant, user defined shape factors.
General case static and dynamic wind in arbitrary direction In a general case the shape factors (aerodynamic coefficients) are often determined in wind tunnel tests and given as diagrams describing for a particular crosssection shape the dependency of the drag, lift and pitch coefficients from the the attackangle. Additionally to the static part defined by the wind speed, direction and shape factors, the dynamic part is described by a fluctuation spectrum, describing the variation of the wind speed in time. A detailed description of the basics of wind loading may be found in the Technical Manual. The specification of this general wind loading is in RM2004 split into 2 parts, the a) Definition of the general parameters related to a particular wind type (Wind no.) specified in this function !Load definition "Wind, and b) The definition of the actual wind load case by using the load type WINDM and specifying the actual mean wind speed and direction, together with the Wind no. to be used for evaluating the actual forces (see Appendix, load type WINDM). The parameters defined in !Load definition "Wind are: a) Basic calculation parameters (method, duration, mode superposition rule, etc.) b) Distribution of the mean wind speed (law and associated parameters) c) Turbulence parameters d) Power spectrum parameters e) Coherence data The upper table displayed on selecting "Wind contains all wind types (Wind no.s) available for the loading definition (load type WINDM). The lower tables contain the parameters of the currently selected Wind no. A detailed description of these parameters can be found in the Technical Manual.
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Y(m)
Wind fluctuation
The user can switch between Constant flow, Exponential distribution and Distribution according to Swedish design code Refer to the Technical Manual for further explanations on the associated parameters. Wind Turbulence Intensity
Y
Constant Turbulence
Exponential Turbulences
m/s
The friction of the wind close to the ground is usually greater than the friction further away from the ground. Therefore, turbulences near to the ground are often higher. The user can again switch between Constant distribution (Constant), Inverse velocity distribution (Inverse prop. to velocity) and Distribution according to Swedish design code (Sweden)
4 types are currently implemented. The user can switch between Constant (White noise) spectrum (constant spectrum value in 3 directions) Kaimal spectrum (one value and the spectrum is defined) Swedish spectrum (Sweden) Karman spectrum Coherence data The user needs to identify the correlation between simultaneous load applications of the wind at several locations on the structure by defining the type of coherence law. The user can switch between Full coherence (everywhere, everything simultaneously) and Coherence type 1 (using Decay constants) matrix 3*3 Coherence according to Swedish design code (Sweden)
RM2004 UserGuide
The constraint conditions are prescribed values of internal force and/or deformation components at specified points of the structure. In order to achieve these values, the variable load cases are appropriately factorised. In order to obtain a set of equations with an equal number of knowns and unknowns, the number of freedoms (variable load cases) and constraint conditions must be the same for a successful use of the AddConfunction. An iteration process after the primary solution of the equation system allows for using the AddConmodule also in nonlinear analyses and for inequality conditions (, , etc.). 7.4.2 Input Sequence The constraint table (upper table in the input pad) contains the number, a code (Fix(Var)) described below, and a descriptive text (description) for each specified additional constraint.The code Fix(Var) indicates, whether one of the fix load cases or envelopes specified in the load variation table (see Variable and fix loads to be considered) does also contain the variable load cases (see Considering superposition load cases as fix load cases). The lower table is related to to the current additional constraint and contains either the constraint conditions (if "Elements is selected) or the variable and constant load cases and envelopes to be considered (if "Loads is selected).
Note: The compliance of the numbers of constraint conditions and variable load cases is not checked in the input phase. An error message will in this case be displayed in the Restart action.
Variable and fix loads to be considered All load cases and envelopes to be considered are defined in the load variation table displayed on selecting "Loads. The table contains in the 1st row a code (Kw) indicating whether the entry is an envelope (SUPFIX) or a variable or constant load case (LCFIX, nd LCVAR). The 2 row (DOF) is only used for envelopes and indicates the characteristic component of the considered result vector (see 7.3.5). The 3rd row (Load case / Superposition) shows the name of the load case or envelope respectively. Fix load cases and envelopes may be multiplied by a user defined Factor, displayed in the 4th row of the load variation table. The string VAR is displayed for variable load cases instead of the Factor. The 5th row (CombEnd) is related to variable load cases only, and indicates whether the option End of linear combination has been set to yes. This option has been provided for allowing for using more than one load case with one common variable factor instead of a separate factor for each individual load case. This option is per default set to yes, but may be set to no for load cases, which should be included in a package with the first ensuing load case with the option set to yes. A simple example is given in Table 710 and Table 711.
Table 710 Three variables Table 711 One variable
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Each of the load cases is factored with an in The linear combination of the load cases is dividual variable factor: factored with one variable: VAR1 f1LC201 VAR2 f2LC202 VAR1 (f1LC201 + f2LC202 + f3LC203) VAR3 f3LC203 Note that the number of unknown variable factors is the number of lines with the End of linear comb combination option set to yes. Considering superposition load cases as fix load cases In large systems with many construction stages, it is a laboured task to specify in the load variation table individually all load cases, which are to be considered as fix load cases. RM2004 therefore also allows for using superposition load cases or envelopes. In this case, the required superposition load case or envelope is created in the construction schedule, and AddCon uses the respective result values in the iteration process. Superposition load cases and envelopes usually created in standard analyses do often also contain the variable load cases (e.g. the sum of all permanent loads contains also the cable stressing forces). The user may naturally create a 2nd superposition load case, which does not contain variable load cases. This one can be specified without problems as a fix load case. However, the effort for creating this additional summation, is maybe the same, than for individually specifying all fix load cases. In order to allow for using also superposition load cases, which contain the variable load cases, the option Compensate for variable load cases (Code vari Fix(Var)) has been provided. If this option is set, the program assumes that the specified fix load cases also contain the variable load cases. When checking the constraint conditions, it subtracts in this case the previous results of the variable load cases, before adding the new values in the iteration process. Constraint conditions
Constraint conditions are defined either for nodal or element results (displacements, internal forces, longitudinal stresses or tendon forces). They are presented in the table of constraint conditions displayed below the constraint table on selecting "Elements.
The code Kw indicates, whether a node result (ND) or an element result (EL) is restrained, and, whether a displacement component (DEF), a rotation component (ROT), an internal force (FOR), an internal moment (MOM), a longitudinal stress (STR) or a tendon force (TND) is meant. The actual component is specified under DOF. For tendon forces Tnd identifies the considered tendon profile and for stresses CS Pnt identifies the considered stress point in the crosssection. The code Res.type is related in the first part to composite elements (Normal, Nor nd Split, Join, see chapter 12, Composite Structures), and in the 2 part to load cases where the results are separated into a primary and secondary part (prestressing load case, creep and shrinkage load case) (Total, Primary, Secondary, see 2.6.2). The data From, To, Step and x/l define the position(s) in the structure, x/l being only relevant for element results. Constraint conditions may be equations or inequality relations, where the specified result value is multiplied with a Factor (giving the value Val) and compared with a given value
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(Valmin) (or 2 values Valmin and Valmax). The valid relation is described by the Operator, which may be = (Val = Valmin), <= (Val Valmin), => (Val Valmin) or <> (Valmin Val Valmax). Similar to the variable load cases the option End of linear combination may be used for considering linear combinations of result values instead of the values specified in the current line (e.g. the difference between 2 cable forces must not exceed a certain value). The values of a line with the option set to no will not be compared but added to the values of the next line. The values Operator, Valmin and Valmax of such lines are irrelevant. The respective data of the first ensuing line with the option set to yes are then used for comparing the sum of all these result values. Any factorisation is naturally considered (e.g. 1.0 if the difference between 2 values shall be created). A simple example is given in Table 712 and Table 713.
Table 712 two constraints Table 713 one constraint
f 1.0 1.0
f 1.0 1.0
Each of the results has to fulfill a constraint: f1N(C501) ! 1000, = f2N(C502) ! 1000 =
Note:
The linear combination of the results has to fulfill one constraint: f1N(C501) + f2N(C502) ! 1000 =
Apparently only linear combinations of result values of the same type make sense (e.g. only Moments in different points, only normal forces of different elements). The program does not check whether the data are consistent, the user must make sure, that the data make sense. Also a from/to/stepdefinition is not meaningful for the definition of linear combinations, each line in the table should in this case be related to only one result point.
Numerical problems may arise in the solution process if the specified values Wmin and/or Wmax are exactly zero. Therefore it is recommended to work with small values different from zero instead of entering exact zero values (e.g. 1E8). 7.4.3 Application of the AddCon Function The action Restart is used to apply additional constraints to the structure (see 7.5.3, "Actions). With Restart the constraint conditions are checked. If the constraints are not met, new factors are calculated and entered in the load case definitions as factors of the loadsets. Then the whole construction schedule is repeated. These steps are repeated in an iterative process until all constraint conditions are fulfilled. Requirements for performing AddCon calculations with the action Restart are: All constant load cases and the variable (unit) load cases have to be defined and calculated Restart before Restart is started. It is essentially required to define the variable load cases by using load sets, because all factors calculated by AddCon are stored as multiplication factors of the
RM2004 UserGuide
individual load sets. As mentioned above, the number of constraint conditions (knowns) has to be equal to the number of variable load cases (unknowns).
RM2004 UserGuide
the respective line in the activation table. Deleting by mistake specified elements must be done with using the <delete> button.
Age and ts are start values of the current elements for creep and shrinkage calculation, where age is the element concrete age at stage start (time of first load application to the elements) and ts is the concrete age when shrinkage starts. These values are directly crosslinked to the
values in the table of #Structure!Element data and properties"Time for automatic mutual update. The parameter Action is ACT for elements being activated, and DACT for elements being deactivated in this construction stage. The activation of elements may be checked visually by using the function #Construction Schedule !Simulate Actions. 7.5.3 "Actions General The action table (lower table displayed on selecting #Construction schedule !Stage Activation and Actions "Activation) contains all actions of the stage currently selected in the stage table. When the calculation is performed, all actions of the construction schedule are handled in the defined order. Therefore <insert before> and <insert after> buttons are used to insert actions at he desired position. Actions are always defined by selection from a list of available actions. Different related parameters are entered in accordance with the actually selected action. The definition of a descriptive text (description) is common to all actions. Up to 3 lines (Input1, Input2, Input3), with up to 3 parameters each, are entered for governing the performance of the action. Further 2 input lines (Output1, Output2) are provided for entering file names for binary and ASCII output of results. For output listfile names, an asterisk (*) is replaced by a default file name and no output list is generated if the field is left empty.
deltaFor time dependent load cases, the duration of the load case in days, deltat is defined. With the <renumber>button actions may be set for being skipped, either individually or in multiple lines. The <renumber>button is also used for skipping marked lines or lines with a specific action filter.
Available actions are: Calculation actions static o Calculation of static load cases o Handling of pre stressing actions (stressing, calculation and grouting) o Calculation of creep, shrinkage and relaxation load cases o Live load calculations (influence line calculation and evaluation) o Material elasticity update and cable sagging o Calculation of nonlinear temperature loading o Buckling calculation Calculation actions dynamic o Time history calculation o Calculation of natural modes (eigenvectors)
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o Wind and earthquake dynamics with response spectra analysis Checking actions o Fibre stress calculation and checking (states I and II) o Tendon stress calculation and checking o Reinforcement calculations o Other design code checks Load case and envelope actions o Preparation and initialisation of superposition load cases and envelopes o Superposition functions Post processing actions o List, plot and diagram functions Changes of the structure o Change of element connectivity o Changes in activation settings System commands o Copy, delete, move files
The different actions are described below in detail. The model definitions previously required for performing actions are given in 7.1.2. Calculation actions static This group contains the actions basically required for static analyses yielding basic load case results.
Calc
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
The definition of load cases is required (#Construction Schedule!Load definition). The load case is calculated and the results are listed and stored in the database (accessed in the load case pool, see 7.3.4). If a load manager definition is assigned to the load case, the load manager will be processed for automatic superposition after calculation. Details of the applied calculation method depend on the options set in the "Recalc pad (see 7.7.1 Calculation options).
RM2004 UserGuide
Stress
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Requirements: a) Tendon definition (#Structure !Tendon data and properties) b) Stress label definition (#Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Tendon) Primary internal forces of the tendons will be calculated by applying the tensioning actions of a stress label step by step (calculation of friction losses). The actual calculation of the prestressing loadcase (calculation of secondary forces) is not included, it must be performed with the action Calc. The final step in calculation of prestressing is the Grout action (for internal tendons only).
Grout
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Prestressing Grouting of ducts (end of prestressing) (RMSET or Tendon: From, To, Step) ListFile * 101
No further definitions are required other than for the Stress action above. With this action, ducts are grouted as final step of prestressing of internal tendons. Composite crosssections are established by adhesion. These composite crosssections consist of the original concrete cross section + tendon steel area duct area + fill area and are updated in accordance with the calculationsettings (see 7.7.1 Calculation options). The updated crosssection values are only used for stresscalculation and have no influence on the structural behaviour, as all beam elements are always calculated with the concrete section as defined. No system reactions are calculated with this action.
RM2004 UserGuide
Tstop
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Creep & Shrinkage Time stop for element series RMSET or Element: From, To, Step Timeperiod [days] 101,201,1 28
This action is used to freeze creep, shrinkage and relaxation for elements. It is used to simplify modelling of structures with a number of similar independent stages, such as balanced cantilever bridges. Different piers are actually build at different times but in the same sequences and are therefore modelled in the same stages together. Tstop is used to bring the time of individual parts in line with the actual construction time. A considerable amount of input effort can be saved using this action, as the number of required stages is greatly reduced. No system reactions are calculated with this action.
Creep
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2 Delta T
Creep & Shrinkage Calculation Number of time steps Load case name ListFile Creep interval in [days] LC601 * 28 3
Creep and shrinkage models, imported or user defined (#Properties!Variables), are required. Alternatively, creep and shrinkage may be calculated by using the models directly embedded in the RM2004 program code, bypassing the variable definitions (#File !Optimisation Settings). This option leads to shorter calculation times for large projects. Furthermore, the definition of an empty load case is required. Each time step is calculated as an internal load case. The differences of the time step load cases are summed up to the resulting creep and shrinkage load case and may be viewed in the load case pool (7.3.4). The time is split into either linear or logarithmic steps (as defined in 7.7.1 Calculation options) Primary and secondary system reactions are calculated.
RM2004 UserGuide
LC101
LC101b
To use this action, a material has to be defined with an assignment to a function for the variable EModulus Emod(t) and the definition of this function in #Properties !Variables. The Youngs modulus will temporarily be updated for all materials with an Emod(t) definition. The given load case is calculated with the modified Youngs Modulus and the correction values will be stored in the output load case. Note, that the action does not perform a new calculation of the load case, but only evaluates correction values with respect the previous results. The input load case must therefore be previously calculated with Calc The output load case must not be the same than the input load case, and Both load cases must be taken into account in the case of accumulation of results into a superposition load case.
CabSag
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Cable sagging (correction of Youngs Modulus by a factor) RMSET or Element: From, To, Step Factor 120 0.95
A virtual modulus of elasticity of cables may be used to take into account the effects of nonlinearity due to the sagging of the cables. The virtual modulus also known as ErnstModulus E*  is calculated by multiplying the Emodulus of the material with a factor. The required factors are not calculated by the program, but must be entered by the user. They depend on the tension in the cable (), the length (l0 is the horizontal projection length) and the specific weight () and is given in relevant literature and in Figure 715. Alternatively to this action, nonlinearity of stay cables may be taken into account by using the option stay cable nonlinear in the Recalcoptions (see 7.7.1 Calculation options). In those cases, a transverse cable load (e.g. selfweight of the cable) and internal cable subdivision (n 8) in #Structure!Elements data and properties"Elem) are required for accurate results.
RM2004 UserGuide
l E E* = Ef
f =
1 2l02 E 1 + 12 3
Infl
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Life loads Influence line calculation Lane number (Reference load case name) Influencefile *.inf ListFile lane0001.inf * 1 
Requirement for the calculation of influence lines is the definition of traffic lanes (#Construction Schedule!Loads"Lane). A reference load case may be optionally defined in order to take into account the stress state of the structure prior to the occurrence of the traffic loading. This is only used in nonlinear calculations for calculating current tangential stiffness matrix. Mostly this reference load case will be the summation load case SumLC accumulated in the construction stage analysis. Results are a list file, giving a protocol of the used unit loads, and a set of influence lines (stored in binary files *.inf ) used for the influence line evaluation with the LiveL action, and for calculating the most unfavourable position of the load train in the action LiveSet.
LiveL
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Life loads evaluation of influence lines Lane number Load train number (ELEM:NPoint) Output file (*.sup) ListFile SLZ200R.sup * lane0001 live0011
Required are the definition of a traffic lane and calculation of its influence line (Infl), and the definition of a load train to be put on the lane for evaluation with the influence line. Furthermore the specified superposition file has to be initialised before.
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The position of a result point (either an element begin, element end or a subdivision point) may optionally be specified (ELEM:NPoint). In this case, the position of the load train is calculated only for the given result point position. The results of all other elements are corresponding results with the same position of the load train. In all other cases, when no element is given, the load positions are always calculated to obtain extreme MIN and MAX results for each element (see Figure 716 and Table 714). P1
[minP1]
[maxP1]
[minP2]
P2
[maxP2] Figure 716 Example of influence lines and load train positions
Load train position used, if no position Load train position used, if the result is specified point position P1 is specified [minP1] [maxP1] [minP2] (Extreme results) [maxP2] (Extreme results) [minP1] [maxP1] [minP1] (Corresponding results) [maxP1] (Corresponding results)
LiveSet
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Live loads calculation of the load train position for a certain result value Lane number Load train number ELEM:NPoint:Force (, Init) Load set name * Lane0001 Live0011
Required are the definition of a traffic lane and calculation of its influence line (Infl), and the definition of a load train to be put on the lane for evaluation with the influence line.
RM2004
UserGuide
The position of a result point (either an element begin, element end or a subdivision point) and the considered result component (DOF) must be specified (ELEM:NPoint:Force). The position of the load train is calculated according to the influence line of the specified result value. The result is a load arrangement of the load train and is stored to a load set. The calculated load may be added to an existing load set. The option (Init) may be used for creating a new load set before adding the calculated loads.
TEMP1
Required is the definition of temperature points in GP2004 as reference sets (see 5.4.4). The reference sets of the different crosssections have to be related to an attribute set (e.g. TMP1) (see 5.2.13 on the definition of attribute sets in #Properties !AttributeSets). Further on, an empty load set has to be defined (#Construction Schedule!Load definition). This action will handle all elements that are related to the given attribute set (via the crosssections containing related reference sets) and will, as a result, put load definitions into the specified empty load set. Subsequent to this action, a Calc action must be used to obtain the actual load case results. This load case must contain the above load set.
Buckle
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Buckling analysis calculation of buckling load factors Number of natural modes Reference load case name (Option Var) Start Output LC ListFile LcBuckleA * 3 LC901
The reference load case must essentially be defined in #Construction schedule !Load definition "LCase, specifying a superposition load case created with LcAddLc or "LManage is LcAddLc not allowed. The reference load case may either be defined by direct load definitions or by the use of load sets (in their turn containing load definitions). The definition via load sets must be used, when the buckling factor should only apply to some of the loads, while others stay con TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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stant (e.g. the dead loads should remain constant and the factor for increasing the live load only should be determined). The option Var in Input3 is used to specify this case.
inIf the option Var is set, only those load sets are increased, which got the option Load set increased in the load case definition in #Construction schedule !Load definition "LCase. Without the Var option, all loads are increased by the buckling factor. Loads directly defined in the load case are always increased.
The calculation of the reference load case itself ist included in Buckle, the load case needs not to be calculated with Calc before. The reference load case must if the option No accumulaaccumulation is set in #Construction schedule !Recalc be a total state, i.e. contain all current impacts on the structure. The sum of all permanent load cases (see 7.3.8, duration code P) is additionally taken into account if one of the options Accumulate stiffness or Accumulate perpermanent load is set. In the case of Accumulate stiffness being selected, the previously calculated permanent load cases will be taken into account in principle, but not increased. The calculated factor is therefore related only to the reference load case (e.g. a certain live load). Attention has to be drawn in this context to the fact, that the reference load case must not be previously calculated with Calc (if it is specified as permanent load case), in order to avoid that it is doubly considered. In the case of Accumulate permanent loads being selected, the load definition data of the previously calculated permanent load cases will be included in the reference load case. The calculated factor is therefore related to the total state containing all permanent load cases and the reference load case. The reference load case must therefore not have been previously calculated with Calc if it is a permanent case. This option also allows for defining the reference load case as empty load case, if the buckling factor related to the total of all permanent load cases should be calculated. Only in this special case, it is also allowed to specify the superposition load case itself as reference load case. Results are not only calculated for the lowest failure mode, but for a user defined number of natural modes (buckling modes). This allows e.g. for estimating the increase of safety due to preventing the lowest mode failure, or to get with one Buckle action the relevant safety factor for different, not or only weakly coupled, structural parts (E.g. the different piers of a free cantilever bridge before closing the gaps). The eigenvalues and eigenforms will be stored in a file with the name being composed from the name given in Start output load case and the number of the current mode, separated by the sign # (e.g. LcBuckleA#1). The buckling factor is viewed in the listfile. listBuckling analysis linearly determines the stability divergence point of the structural system according to second order theory (compare Figure 717), independent of whether the option for PDelta effects is set in the Recalcpad, or not (see 7.7.1).
RM2004
UserGuide Buckling analysis failure calculation Factfrom, Factto, Tol Reference load case name (Var) Output LC ListFile fail * 1.0, 6.6, 0.01 LC901
Failure
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
With respect to the reference load case, the same requirements and restrictions are valid in the action Failure, than those for the action Buckle. In Failure, the reference load case is increased by a factor in a similar way than in Buckle. However, Failure performs a full geometrically nonlinear analysis in accordance with the specified calculation options (compare Figure 717). I.e. the load definition data are multiplied with factors between Factor from and Factor to, and the modified reference load case is recalculated, until a state is reached, where the loading is within the specified Tolerance value below the failure load (buckling of the displaced system). The specified output load case contains all forces and displacements of this state just before failure. If the Factor to value is below the failure load, this state will be output. The user will in this case not get the information about the failure load. F Buckle (1st mode) Failure u
Figure 717 Actions Buckle and Failure
LC101
RM2004
UserGuide
The action ReloadLC is applicable to composite structures (see chapter 12). It performs a stress redistribution due to cracking of notension elements. The respective partial elements (see 12.2) must be designated as no tension elements in #Structure!Element data and properties"Checks (parameter Class, see 6.3.12). The function transforms the strain planes related to the internal force values and stored in the load case pool such, that positive normal forces in the respective elements become zero. Structural effects (constraint forces) due to the redistribution on crosssection level are not calculated. The redistribution only affects the calculation of longitudinal (fibre) stresses, because these result values are always recalculated with using the strain plane. The internal forces in the composite element are not influenced by the redistribution, and the redistribution is currently not considered in the calculation of the internal forces of the partial elements with the function
Split. ReloadSup Cracked concrete Reload considering cracked tension zones
Input1 Input2 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
res1.sup
The same principles, described in the action ReloadLC above, are applied to envelopes instead of load cases.
OpenTCL Script run procedures from the TCLlibraries
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
LST:Elem 101
MyList.lst
Run a TCL procedure from one of the TCLlibraries. For details on the TCLLibrary see 3.2.4.
RM2004
RunTCL
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
ListFile
MyList.lst
Run a TCL script file that has to be created in the project directory (see 3.2.3).
Time History Calculation Load case name Deltat RMSet Output file (*.sup) ListFile LCTint01 2 DOFTint01 Tint01.sup Tint01.lst
With this action, a time history calculation using direct time integration (Newmark scheme) is performed. The calculation is performed over the given time interval (Deltat in seconds), Deltausing time steps (dt in seconds) defined in the calculation settings as given in 7.7.3). The current time is stored during calculation in the internal variable t, and can be used as dependency variable for userdefined dynamic loading. To get the time value relative to the start time of the current tint action, a function Tint = t tstart may be used. The initial state at tint=0 is always a static state (all velocities and accelerations are zero). The time step size is crucial to obtain reliable results and depends on the load, structural behaviour and damping (see 14.4.2, Time Interval and Time Steps). Dynamic loads and system masses are both applied with the specified load case (Input1). Dynamic loads are defined as standard load sets that are multiplied by a time dependent variable in the load case. These variables have to be set up as tables or a functions depending on the internal time variable t. All masses on the structure are given in load sets, which are applied with constant factors in the load case. During calculation, certain degrees of freedom (DOF) are plotted and logged to the given list file. All of these DOFs have to be listed in an RMSet with the syntax given in Table 715 and Table 716.
RM2004
UserGuide
Table 716: Example of RMSet for Time Integration Object NODE NODE Col1 6 7 Col2 6 7 Col3 Vx Vy Col4 Col5 ALL ALL
Maximum and minimum values of displacements and internal forces, arising at any time in the given time interval, are stored in an envelope if an envelope name is specified in Output1. An envelope of velocities and accelerations can currently not be created. It is however possible to crate an excel sheet containing the devolution in time of the DOFs specified in the RMSet for graphical presentation in the graphics window (limited availability, activate the environment variable TDVACC or contact TDV before using this facility). Maximum and minimum values can then be determined with the standard Excel functions. All static and dynamic load definitions are listed in the list file, state of the structure before the time history calculation is documented, and the extrema of node displacements, velocities and accelerations are given as well as and the time devolution of the specified DOFs.
Eigen
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Calculation of natural modes of the structure Number of natural modes Reference load case name (Subspace) Output file (*.mod) ListFile Eigen01.mod Eigen01.lst 10 LC1000
With this action the given number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors are iteratively calculated for the structure. The reference load case must include all mass definitions. The reference load case is in Eigen at first calculated as a static load case. The results are used as the initial state, taken into account for calculating the tangent stiffness matrix in the case of a geometrically nonlinear calculation. RM2004 uses a subspace iteration algorithm for finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in a very efficient way. The size of the subspace matrix (number of iteration vectors), and the initial iteration vectors, are automatically chosen in the program in accordance with suggestions found in literature. These default settings will mostly allow for calculating all required eigenvalues in a very efficient way. However, special conditions of the mathematical model may occur, where not all required eigenvalues are found. In order to overcome such a problem, the user may increase the default number of subspace iteration vectors by a given value (Input3 (Supspace)), accepting a higher computation time (e.g. 10). (Sup
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Eigenmodes are stored to the given outputfile (*.mod) and results are listed to the given list file. The list file contains the load definitions (masses), the reults of the static calculation of the reference load case, the calculated eigenvalues (frequencies in Hertz) with the related participation factors (see description of the modal method in the Technical Manual), and a list with the diagonal terms of the mass matrix (nodal masses). An alphanumeric printout of the eigenvectors may be created with the action ListMod (see List/plot actions). This list also contains the eigenvalues in rad/sec (Omega) and in Hertz, together with the reference DOF (Node, DOF) being excited in the system to the greatest extent (maximum value of the eigenvector being normalised the value 1.0). Further presented data are parameters used in the modal analysis. After the calculation, the eigenvectors are stored like static load cases, and the calculated number of load cases (n) can be accessed from the load case pool (named Outputfilename#n, with n being the eigenmode, e.g. Eigen01#3.mod). The load cases contain unified eigenvectors as displacements and may be used for plotting later on.
RespS
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Modal analysis with response spectrum evaluation Number of the SEISMIC event 1
Resp01.mod Resp01.lst
With this action, a modal analysis with response spectrum evaluation is performed. Dynamic reactions of structures with small displacements may be calculated using modal analysis. The oscillations of such structures may be split into oscillations of the individual eigenmodes that are noninteracting in case of structures with small dampening. With these assumptions, the overall vibration may be broken down into independent single mass oscillators each vibrating in form of an eigenvector of the structure. The reactions of all single mass oscillators may then be analysed individually and superimposed to obtain the overall structural response. A spectrum is used to describe the impact of any oscillator in dependency on its frequency to include structural and geological aspects. For modal analysis, the main eigenfrequencies and corresponding eigenvectors have to be known. This means, that a sufficient number of eigenmodes have to be calculated and the resulting modal file (*.mod) has to be given together with the spectrum (#Construction Schedule !Load "Seism). The spectrum is a formula (that may also use a table), describing the dependency of the accelleration a from the angular frequency (the internal variable omega holds the angular frequency for each eigenmode analysed during calculation). Alternatively to accellerations (a), displacements (d) or velocities (v) may be defined as spectrum in dependency of . The results of this action are stored to the given superposition file and are extreme forces and displacements. As the superposition rules are statistic, only leading values may be obtained.
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With the use of a special algorithm, called TDVSuperposition method (set in the RecalcTDVoption as given in 7.7.1), it is possible to obtain affiliated results in the superposition file. The list file holds the complete spectrum definition and the response factors of the individual eigenmodes.
T2Resp
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Convert Table Name Input type, Output type Damping % Output table name Plot file Table1 Input 0.01 Table2 Transf.pl
Random analysis for excitation spectra Load case name Spectrum, Dconst File (*.mod) Output file (*.sup) List file
Calculation of wind turbulence with aerodynamic effect Wind No. Damp, dx:dy:dz File (*.mod) Output file (*.sup) List file
RM2004
UserGuide Power Spectrum calculation using Fast Fourier Transformation Table name Deltat Area Table name List file
FFT
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Initialising a superposition load case (result data) (Load case, to be copied) (Factor1), (Factor2) Superposition load case to be created LC1000a LC1000 1.0, 1.0
This action initialises the result data of a superposition load case. The data in the load case pool are set to zero, if no load case to be copied is specified, or they are copied from a previously calculated load case, multiplied by 2 factors (Factor1 for the primary part, Factor2 for the secondary part!). Default: Factor2 = Factor1, and Factor1 = 1.0 respectively.
LcAddLc
EingabeEingabe1 EingabeEingabe2 EingabeEingabe3 AusgabeAusgabe1 AusgabeAusgabe2
Adding a load case to a superposition load case Load case name Superposition load case Load case name Load case to be added (Factor) (Optional: Output superposition load case) LC1000a LC100
Adding a load case (multiplied by any given factor). The sum is written to the output superposition load case if it is specified, otherwise the original superposition load case will be overwritten.
RM2004
UserGuide Deleting a load case from the load case pool Load case name LC1000a
LcDel
EingabeEingabe1 EingabeEingabe2 EingabeEingabe3 AusgabeAusgabe1 AusgabeAusgabe2
The specified load case will be deleted from the load case pool (only result data).
SupInit
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Superposition File initialisation (Input superposition file name) (Factor) Superposition file name New.sup Existing.sup 1.0
Initialise a superposition file as zero state or as copy of an existing file with a factor. The file is initialised if no Input superposition file is given, otherwise the values are copied and multiplied by the factor (refer to 7.3.5).
SupAddLc Superposition Add load case result
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Load case name (Factor 1), (Factor 2) (Optional: Output superposition file name) 
Existing.sup LC100
Unconditionally superimpose load case results (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The sum is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten. The factor1 is used in case of a favourable effect, the factor 2 in case of being unfavourable.
RM2004
UserGuide
SupAddSup Superposition Add envelope (signed)
Input1 nput2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Superposition file name (Factor1), (Factor2) (Superposition file name) 
Existing.sup Additional.sup
Unconditionally superimpose an envelope (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The sum is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten. The factor1 is used in case of a favourable effect, the factor 2 in case of being unfavourable.
SupAndLc Superposition Conditionally (if unfavourable) adding load case data SupAndXLc Superposition Adding load case data with the unfavourable sign
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Load case name (Factor 1), (Factor 2) (Superposition file name) 
Conditionally superimpose load case results (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The sum is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten.
SupAndSup SupAndX Superposition Conditionally (if unfavourable) adding envelope data SupAndXSuperposition Adding envelope data with the unfavourable sign Sup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Superposition file name (Factor  Element:NPnt(:Force)) (Superposition file name) 
Conditionally superimpose an envelope (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The sum is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten. If a certain result component in a certain point is specified with Element:NPnt:Force, then this value will be the characteristic value, used for superimposing all result values.
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SupOrLc Superposition Conditionally exchange with load case results SupOrXLc Superposition Conditionally exchange with load case results (+/)
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Load case name (Factor 1) (Superposition file name) 
Conditionally superimpose load case results (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The new state is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten.
SupOrSup SupOrXSupOrX Superposition Conditionally exchange with envelope Superposition Conditionally exchange with envelope (+/) Sup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Input superposition file name Superposition file name (Factor  ELEM:PART(:FORCE)) (Superposition file name) 
Conditionally superimpose an envelope (refer to 7.3.5 on Superposition operators and rules). The new state is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten.
SupSqrt
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2 Output2
Superposition Calculate square roots of all values Input superposition file name Factor (Superposition file name) Existing.sup 1.0 NewFile.sup
Calculate square roots of all values in the envelope and store to the new superposition file given or overwrite the existing file, if no new file is given. The factor is applied to the input values before the square root is calculated.
RM2004
UserGuide Superposition Calculate the square of all values Input superposition file name Factor (Superposition file name) 
SupSqr
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Calculate square of all values in the envelope and store to the new superposition file given or overwrite the existing file, if no new file is given. The factor is applied to the input values before the square is calculated.
SupComb Superposition Use a combination table
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Create an envelope in accordance with the rules specified for a certain combination of the combination table. The previous definition of the combination table is required (refer to 7.3.6).
SupImp
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Superposition Evaluate an impact factor Dynamic superposition file Static superposition file Impact factor ListFile
Evaluation of impact factors (ratio between result values of 2 envelopes). The maximum and minimum ratios and the point, where they occur, are determined and stored in the list file. A classical application field is the comparison of result values of a dynamic analysis with those of an equivalent static analysis.
RM2004
UserGuide Superposition Transformation to a 2D superposition file Input superposition file name (Optional: Output superposition file name) 
Sup2D
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
The term 2D superposition is used for an envelope, where all values resulting from a displacement in zdirection are zero. The action Sup2D deletes (sets to zero) all respective result components of a general (3D) envelope (Qz, Mx, My, vz, rx, ry), i.e. the complete vectors with the mentioned components being the characteristic component governing the superposition process, and the mentioned components of the other vectors. The values, which are related to the displacement in the vertical plane (N, Qy, Mz, vx, vy, rz), remain unchanged, i.e. no transformation is applied if the local system does not coincide with the global coordinate system. The new state is written to the output superposition file if it is specified, otherwise the input superposition file will be overwritten.
Checking actions
FibLc FibSup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Fibre stress check for a load case, or Fibre stress check for an envelope repectively Load case name or envelope file No. of the stress limit pair List file * Lc1000; Worst.sup
The actions FibLc and FibSup perform fibre stress checks for the defined stress points (see 15.1.2). The internal force state used for calculating the stresses is entered in Input1. The number of the stress limit pair (defined in the material table) used for comparison of the actual stresses in order to detect stresses exceeding of the allowable level, is specified in Input2.
RM2004
UserGuide Fibre stress check for combinations of the combination table Combination number (124) No. of the stress limit pair List file * 1
FibRpt
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
The action FibRpt performs a fibre stress check with detailed evaluation of the contributions of the different load cases and envelopes to the total stress value (see 15.1.3). The internal force state used for the stress evaluation must in this case be a combination of the combination table (see 7.3.6). The number of the considered combination is entered in Input1. The number of the stress limit pair (defined in the material table) used for comparison of the actual stresses in order to detect stresses exceeding of the allowable level, is specified in Input2.
TndFibLc Stresses in Tendons (for a load case or envelope respectively) TndFibSup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Load case name or envelope file (t=0) Load case name or envelope file (t=) List file
Lc1000 Lc5000
TndChkLc List of maximum/minimum stresses in tendons TndChkSup (for a load case or envelope respectively)
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Lc1000 or Worst.sup
RM2004
UserGuide Tendons Control list of distances Load case name or envelope file List file * Lc1000 or Worst.sup
TndDist
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
FibIILc FibIISup
Input1
Fibre stress check (cracked state) for a load case or envelope respectively Load case name or envelope file, (2nd envelope file) Stress limit pair 1, Stress limit pair 2, (prestressing load case) Option Rein Output superpositionfile List file * Lc1000 bzw. Worst.sup
The actions FibIILc and FibIISup perform a fibre stress check for a cracked concrete section (see 15.1.4). The internal force state used for checking whether the crosssection is cracked and for if necessary calculating the stresses in the cracked section, is specified in Input1. In FibIISup it is possible to specify different envelopes for checking the cracking state (1st envelope) and for calculating the stresses (2nd envelope). The number of the stress limit pair (defined in the material table) used for comparison of the actual stresses in order to detect stresses exceeding of the allowable level, is specified in Input2. A 2nd stress limit pair (maybe the same) must be specified for performing the equilibrium calculation in the cracked section (only the compression limit used, the tensile limit is always set to zero in this context). If the option Rein is set, a reinforcement design procedure will be performed if necessary, i.e. if no equilibrium can be achieved without additional reinforcement. The detailed printout of the equilibrium forces is not given in this case. The program gives all points only the required amount of additional reinforcement, or indicates, that no additional reinforcement is required.
RM2004
UserGuide Ultimate load check for a load case, or Ultimate load check for an envelope respectively Load case name or envelope file UltNxMyMz, Rein, (prestressing load case) RMSet Output superpositionfile List file Shear check for a load case, and Lc1000 or Load case name or envelope file (Prestressing load case) (Class) (Detailed list file) List file * Worst.sup * Lc1000 or Worst.sup
UltLc UltSup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
ShearLc
The actions ShearLc and ShearSup perform the shear capacity check (see 15.5) for the design load case or envelope specified in Input1. The specification of the prestressing load case is required for design codes, where the primary internal forces are considered as additional resistance (see Design Forces in Prestressed Structures). In addition to the standard list file (specified in Output2), a very detailed listing containing intermediate values for tracing the checking procedure can be created by specifying the name in Output1.
CrackLc
Cracking check for a load case, or Load case name or envelope file, (2 envelope file) Crack width (Detailed list file) List file *
nd
Lc1000 or Worst.sup
RM2004
UserGuide Robustness check for a load case, or Load case name or envelope file (Prestressing load case) (Detailed list file) List file * Lc1000 or Worst.sup
RobuLc
Worst.sup
PrDinSLc Principal stress check in accordance with DIN (serviceability state) for a PrDinSSup load case or envelope respectively
Input1
Lc1000 or Load case name or envelope file (Detailed list file) List file * Worst.sup
Principal stress check in accordance with DIN (ultimate state) for a load case or envelope respectively PrDinUSup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
PrDinULc
Load case name or envelope file (Detailed list file) List file
Lc1000 or Worst.sup
RM2004
UserGuide
PrincLc
Calculation of principal and equivalent stresses for a load case or envelope Lc1000 or Load case name or envelope file Options Princ Mises Shear List file Initialisation of the reinforcement area A2 AttrSetName (Name of the AttributeSet) Restart the project with corrected load factors Constraint number Tol (Ignore or Update) ListFile * acon001 0.01 Reinf1 * Worst.sup
PrincSup respectively
Input1
ReinIni ReinIni
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Restart
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
This action is used to perform AddCon calculations and restarts the construction schedule with modified variable load factors to meet the desired constraints. The definition of additional addi constraints is required (see 7.4 for definition and further requirements). All constraints defined in the given constraint number are checked. If all constraints meet the given tolerance Tol RM2004 will continue with the next action defined in the schedule. If the constraints do not meet the tolerance, AddCon is used to calculate new factors for variable load sets and the construction schedule is repeated for an iterative process. The option Ignore is used to write the factors to the list file without changes and Update may be used to calculate new factors (one step in the iteration) without restarting the calculation.
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List/plot actions
ListLc ListSup
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Creating a results list for a load case, or for an envelope respectively Load case name or envelope file Option Split/Join Option EXP List file *
ListInf ListMod
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Creating a results list for a influence line file (*.inf), or Creating a results list for a modal file (*.mod) respectively Influence line file or modal file Option EXP List file Creating a report file RMSet List file * MySet *
DoRep
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
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ListSh
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
List file Start a plot file PlotContainer, PlotProfile Variable 1; Variable 2; Variable 3 Variable 4; Variable 5; Variable 6 Plotfile name Plotting a crosssection Crosssection, variant Option RefSet, (RefSetName) Plotfile name Drawing the creep and shrinkage curves Element (Tendon) Plotfile name 
DoPlot
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
PlCross
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
PlCrSh
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
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UserGuide Drawing influence lines Influence line file (Load train number) Elem/Part Plotfile name *
Pl Infl
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
RMSet, or Tendon from, to step repectively Plotfile name Drawing tendon actions and tendon forces of several load cases Tendon RMSet Plotfile name Drawing the start and end crosssections of an element with all tendons RMSet, or Element from. to step respectively Text factor Plotfile name * * *
PlTens
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
PlElTnd
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
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UserGuide Drawing the wind property diagrams WindNo. Plotfile name Drawing and printing the ultimate check diagram RMSet, or Element from, to step respectively (Prestressing load case) Plotfile name List file Drawing the crosssection shear stresses Crosssection; variant Option Mt, Qy, Qz Plotfile name Start of the TDFreport TCL file TDF file * * * * *
PlWind
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
PlUlt
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output1 Output2
PlShear
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
DoTdf
Input1 Input2 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
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DgmSet
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
The given RMSet is used to create one or more diagram plots. If the plotfile name is defined as *, a default name is created automatically as DgmMySet.pl. More than one plot files are created if different results are given in the set with extended filenames as given in 5.9.3.
PlSys
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
System commands
GoCopy
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Copy file Name of the file to be copied (Source directory) (Target directory) Name of the created file 
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UserGuide Displaying a plot on the screen Plot file (Source directory) Delete a file Name of the file to be deleted (Source directory)
GoCrt
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
GoDel
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Rename a file File to be renamed (Source directory) New file name Interrupt the calculation for a certain time interval Time interval (in seconds) 
GoRen
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
GoWait
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
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ActOn ActOff
Input1 Input2 Input3 Output1 Output2
Activating an element series, or deactivating an element series RMSet, or Element from, to, step 
7.5.4 "Tendon
The stressing sequences for prestressing tendons are defined in this function. One sequence of prestressing actions is specified for each tendon profile as a stresslabel that will be used in the calculation action Stress. Although this function is placed in the Construction schedule menu, it is not related to construction stages. It just stores scheduled prestressing actions applied at any time in the construction schedule in a common table. The stressing actions are later on applied by the calculation action Stress, placed in the right position of the action table of the appropriate construction stage (see 7.5.3) The table of prestressing actions is displayed on selecting !Stage Activation and Actions "Tendon. The above table shows all specified actions for all tendons, the below table shows an excerpt the actions for the tendon currently selected in the above table. The table shows the following parameters: A code, defining the type of the prestressing action (Action) The number of the affected tendon profile (Tendon) The number of tendons in the profile (informative) (Number) The type of the specified stressing value (Type)
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UserGuide The actual stressing value (Data) A string characterising the stresslabel (Stresslabel) A descriptive text for the action (Description)
The following prestressing actions are available: PREL Stressing the tendon at the left end of the tendon PRER Stressing the tendon at the right end of the tendon RELL Releasing the tendon at the left end of the tendon RELR Releasing the tendon at the right end of the tendon WEDL Wedge slip at the left end of the tendon WEDR Wedge slip at the right end of the tendon
Stressing value (Data) and type of this value (Type)
The actions PREL, PRER, RELL and RELR are force related. The parameter Type defines, whether Data represents the stressing force (of one tendon of the tendon profile) (type f), or a factor related to the allowable prestressing force defined as the product of the crosssection area of the tendon and the allowable stress (parameter SIGallowpr of the material table) (type Fact). The wedge slip actions WEDL and WEDR are length related. Type is irrelevant for these actions. Note that the unit [length(structure)] must be used, i.e. 0.006 has to be entered for a wedge slip of 6 mm when [m] is the used length unit.
Stresslabel
A label is assigned to every stressing action. The program identifies by this StressLabel, which actions should be considered when the load case prestressing, where this label is referenced, will be calculated.
Defining and modifying stressing actions
The data of the table of stressing actions are specified or modified by using the <insert> or <modify> buttons. The input pad displayed on selecting one of these buttons allows to enter these data. Each stressing action is related to only one tendon profile. However, the stressing sequence applied to the tendons is often similar or the same for all for all tendons in the structure. The <copy> button may advantageously be used for taking over stressing actions from one tendon to another one. Note that the specified sequence of tendon actions with the same Stresslabel defines the sequence actually applied in the calculation action Stress. The sequence of the actions with different Stresslabel is arbitrary.
Viewing the prestressing force distribution
The force distributions resulting from the individual stressing actions can be viewed by selecting the <info> button after the calculation action Stress has been performed. The displayed diagram shows the tendon forces for the selected and previous actions applied on the specified
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tendon. Different colours are used for presenting the effects of the different previously applied actions. The user can also store this picture in a plotfile. An ASCII file called STRESS.LST is automatically created in the calculation action Stress. This file contains the important information such as tendon elongation and tendon forces for all tendons.
The option Draw loads in the top left corner of the GUI window must be selected for graphically presenting the loads. The details of the load presentation are defined in the related input pad. The following options may be selected: Selection with respect to load types: all load types, marked load types, a certain load type Selection of the load cases: all load cases, marked load cases, a certain load case Selection of the construction stages: all construction stages, marked construction stages, a certain construction stage The button <Geometry> can be used for a further selection of model objects. Loads may be displayed either with text or with symbols. They may be sorted regarding to load type or regarding to stage. In case of text display, all load cases are displayed above each node, element and tendon they apply to. The loads are displayed for all objects as given in the list of the simulate window. Graphic symbols for loads are displayed as 3Dvectors built up from a thin cylinder and a conical head with two radii as given in the settings (in length units of the structure shown in the view). Vectors are generally shown in their three components of the local or global coordinate system.
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Forces are presented as singleheaded vectors and moments as doubleheaded vectors (sign always according to the right hand rule). The scale definition is related to the full vector length (including the cone(s)). The scale value is multiplied with moments, forces and uniform loads (in user defined units), giving lengths in model coordinates (user defined unit [length(structure)]. E.g. when using the default unit system, a moment scale 1:100 will indicate, that 100 kNm are presented like 1 m of the structural system. I.e. the picture will be built in space in model coordinates, and presented together with the model in accordance with the current view options.
7.7 !Recalc
7.7.1 Calculation options General
Calculation options may be set for each of the individual construction schedule variants. The current variant is selected in the bottom of the Recalcpad (CSched variant). Different variants may be selected from a list and set to be calculated or skipped.
Calculations and actions to be performed
Crossa) Crosssection calculation ' default. crosssectionvalues will be calculated for defined crosssections ( existing cross sectionvalues will be used, if present in the database
b) Structure check ' default. accuracy of input data (connectivity of elements, support definitions, assignment of materialdata and crosssection data) will be checked and the structure will be initialised. ( no check of the input data and no initialisation will be made. Used for postprocessing and checking actions. c) Stage activation ' default. activation of elements will be performed as defined in stages ( all elementactivations will be skipped and the current activation state is kept. Skipping this option is only appropriate for postprocessing of structures, already calculated successfully. Design checks and postprocessing actions will be performed using the results from the database. Structure check has to be turned off to avoid initialising of the structural system and calculation actions have to be skipped. d) Stage actions ' default. all stage actions will be performed ( all actions will be skipped.
Influencee) Influencelines calculation (see actions Infl, LiveL, LiveSet ) ' default. influence line are calculated if defined in actions ( no influence lines are calculated, existing ones will be used.
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UserGuide f) Time effects (C+S) (see actions Creep, Tstop) ' default. include creep & shrinkageeffects in calculation Import (or definition) of creep, shrinkage and relaxation models is required. If ( creep & shrinkagecalculation will be skipped
plotg) Plot to plotfiles ' default. plotfiles will be generated ( no plotfiles will be generated.
Calculation types
a) Ignore shear deformations
b) PDelta effect ' non linear calculation according to second order theory using the given SumLC (see SumLC and GrpFile in this chapter) ( default. The actions Buckle and Failure are always performed independent of this setting.
nonc) Stay cable nonlinear ' Consider non linear behaviour of cables due to cable sagging. A transverse load case (e.g. self weight of the cable) and an internal subdivision of cable elements (n 8) has to be defined. Cable sagging may also be considered manually, by using the action CabSag. ( default.
d) Large displacements ' Non linear calculation with large displacements (large displacement, small strain) ( default.
Nonmaterial e) Nonlinear material properties ' Consideration of nonlinear material properties by using the nonlinear diagram definition from the materials (#Properties !Material Data, Nonlinear, Values). The calculations are not compatible with creep and shrinkage calculations ( default. Nonf) Nonlinear springs/dampers ' Consideration of nonlinear springs and dampeners like contact or bilinear springs or viscous dampers. Nonlinear springelements or damperelements have to be defined. ( default.
g) No accumulation (linear) ) default. Load cases are always applied to the unloaded structure. For linear calculations or non linear calculations with one single load case.
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h) Accumulate permanent load ) Non linear calculation of structures including accumulation of permanent loads. This option applies for structurally unchanged systems with unchanged element activation (no stage activation changes).
Load
initial state for total load case calculation
current LC LC*=LCPERM+LC
Displacement
Total Displacements
u* uPERM
incremental Displacement
Calculation of load cases is always done with the sum of permanent loads, calculated earlier (LCPERM) PLUS the current load case (LC in Figure 718). The initial state is the unloaded structure. At first, the total sum load case (LC*) is calculated internally using non linear analysis. To obtain current load case results (u) as an individual differential result, all permanent load case results (LCPERM) are subtracted. Table 717 shows how load case results are calculated and stored. Load cases have to be set as permanent and nonpermanent as desired (#Construction Schedule!Load definition"LCase). The given SumLC is used to accumulate all permanent load case results (see 7.7.1 for Recalc Options).
Table 717 Load case calculation with accumulate permanent loads
Current LC
Internal calculation
LC results
SumLC 1000
1 2 3 4 5
P P P P NP
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i) Accumulate stiffness (SumLC) ) Non linear calculation of structures, starting with an initial state accumulated from results of previous load cases. This option applies to structurally variable systems with changing element activations in different construction stages.
Load
KT
Displacem ent
Figure 719 Initial state by stiffness calculation from SumLC results (accumulated stiffness)
Calculation of load cases is done with an initial state of the structure determined from the SumLC. The results, stored in the SumLC (see 7.7.1 for Recalc Options) are used to calculate the current stiffness matrices (e.g. the normal forces of the SumLC influence the overall stiffness when PDelta effects are considered) as given in Figure 719 in principle. The current load case is then calculated, starting from the stiffness of the initial state (KT) yielding appropriate results (u) for the load increment. This procedure is applicable for general cases and less restrictive than accumulating permanent loads, because element forces are added up in different construction stages independent from activation changes. Previous load case results have to be added up to the SumLC as desired manually, by using superposition actions or automatically, with the load manager. j) Calc. losses for el. Compression ' default. Changes in the normal force of tendons (Nx) due to an elastic elongation of the surrounding concrete are calculated for all grouted tendons. Loads applied to a prestressed structure with grouted tendons lead to changes in tendon normal forces. These changes are generally referred to, as tension force losses, although tendon forces might not only be decreased, but also be increased. k) Losses ungrouted = grouted '*ungrouted tendons are treated as grouted for calculation of tendon force losses due to elastic compression of concrete.
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Special Settings
a) Store slave tend. geom. as 3D points ' with this option, tendon geometry is stored in absolute 3Dcoordinates ( default. Tendon geometry is stored relative to element points. b) Update CS (+ tendon steel area) ' default. Tendon steel area is taken into account when calculating new crosssection values after grouting (see action Grout). Updated crosssection values only affect stress calculations and design code checks. In structural analysis, the beam element stiffness is always calculated with the original concrete section. c) Update CS ( duct area) (' Duct area is subtracted from the updated cross section after grouting (see action Grout). Updated crosssection values are used as stated in b). ( default d) Update CS (+ fill area) ' The area of filled duct is taken into account when calculating updated crosssection values after grouting (see action Grout). Updated crosssection values are used as stated in b). ( default e) TDV mode superposition method ' A special mathematic algorithm is used to obtain corresponding results to leading values calculated with the stochastic superposition in response spectra analysis (RSA). See for further details. ( default f) Create primary state due to TempVar ' The internal forces of load cases with nonlinear temperature distributions are transformed in such a way, that the stresses in 2 indicated points (border stresses top and bottom) exactly contain the primary effects. Attention: the new internal forces are in this case not meaningful, they must not be used for other purposes than for calculating the respective stresses. ( default g) Print creep and shrinkage factors ' The creep and shrinkage factors are given in the list file when a creep calculation is performed (action Creep). ( default h) Store partial forces due to creep '*With this option, creep results are stored as secondary results instead of primary results ( default
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All calculations are done with a certain number of degrees of freedom automatically set according to the chosen structure type. a) Active DOF Active degrees of freedom are shown here. Naturally, results can only be calculated in direction of active degrees of freedom. b) Max/Min. Displacements Displacement components to be used as characteristic components in the superposition process. c) Max/Min Forces Internal force components to be used as characteristic components in the superposition process.
General settings
a) Coordinate system may be left or right hand system (currently only lefthand system allowed) b) Standard is the design code family used. This setting will influence property settings and design code checks. c) Constr.Start is used to define the (absolute) start date of the construction schedule time axis and does have no influence on the results as all time dependencies are calculated on a relative time axis.
7.7.2 Iteration Parameters
The iteration parameters entered in "Convergence govern the iteration process and termination for all nonlinear calculations. Relax is the Relaxation factor in NewtonRaphson calculations. Niter is the maximum number of iterations in NewtonRaphson calculations. The rootmeansquare deviation Tol1 and the maximum deviation Tol2 is used as convergence criteTolTolrion for forces. The rootmeansquare deviation Tol3 and the maximum deviation Tol4 is TolTolused as convergence criterion for displacements.
7.7.3 Parameters for Dynamic Analyses
These parameters are entered in "Dynamic, and govern dynamic analyses. g is the gravity constant in m/s, dt is the time increment for time integration, c1 is the Deltavalue and c2 the AlphaValue of the Newmark time integration used. The Rayleighdamping model1 is
1
[D] = [M] + [K], with the damping matrix [D], the mass matrix [M] and the stiffness matrix [K] and the
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defined by alpha and beta. xsi is the global damping factor. Tol is the tolerance use in the eigenvalue calculations (schedule action Eigen). Further information on this topic is given in chapter 14 and in the Technical Manual.
7.7.4 Parameters for the Creep and Shrinkage Calculation
These parameters are entered in "C+S and govern the internal process for calculating creep and shrinkage load cases. Linear and logarithmic time stepping may be set. w2 is the factor for calculating the application time of the stress redistributions due to creep and shrinkage within a time step.
7.7.5 Output Parameters
These parameters are entered in "Printer. The first page number and the printer page size in lines are set here.
7.7.6 Parameters for the Calculation of Crosssection Values
These parameters are entered in "CS Int. They are used for iterative calculation of the displaced cross section plane in ultimate load capacity checks and reinforcement design. Iteration Iteration is the maximum number of iterations. Recurs.level, Incr.factor, Relax.factor and Tolerance, rein try best reinforcement and reduce small values govern design checks as given above.
7.7.7 Summation Load Case SumLC and GrpFile
SumLC is used in different actions for nonlinear calculations, and holds accumulated results.
AccuSumLC needs not be specified if the option No accumulation is selected. If the option Accumulate permanent loads is selected, then the specified load case must have been defined in #Construction stage !Load definition as an empty load case. The results are in this case automatically accumulated in SumLC. If the option Accumulate stiffness is selected, then the results in SumLC must be created with using general superposition actions, or with using the load management function "LManage.
Refer also to calculation settings Accumulate permanent load and Accumulate stiffness .
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Results Menu
8.1 General
Results are automatically logged to list files (*.lst) by RM2004 during structural analysis (see 8.2). Moreover, specific results may be read from the result database (8.3) and viewed as lists, reported to list files or plotted to diagrams (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.2) and system plots (8.4.2) with commands in the #Results menu. Two further functions are used for graphic presentation of element time dependency curves (8.4.4) and for influence line plots (8.4.5).
The content of the input database is logged when the structure is processed in RM2004. The list files given in Table 82 may be used for checking and documentation of structural input.
Table 82 List files from the input database File Struct.lst Contents Structure Structure geometry, node supports, element assignments and complete geometry, crosssection values and assignment, material properties and assignment, connections, element time definitions, reinforcements etc. Tendon.lst Tendon geometry Detailed listing of tendon positions, angles, lengths and radii. Cross.lst CrossSections Detailed listing of crosssection data. Material.lst Materials Detailed listing of material data. Stress.lst Prestressing Detailed listing of all prestressing actions (individual tendon forces and elongations). Lanexxx.lst Lane definitions Detailed listing of lane geometries.
Time dependent material properties and influence lines are not automatically logged. They are viewed and plotted as given in 8.4.4 and 8.4.5.
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8.2.2 Calculation Action Logs and Results
The results of most calculation actions are stored in the database and logged to list files, which may be viewed or printed with using standard tools, e.g. the result lists of the calculation action Calc. These files are named LCname.lst by default. The structure of the output lists of the different actions is described in detail together with the description of the respective action (section 7.5.3)
Load case results may be listed for elements, nodes and tendons. To view results, the list may be scrolled or a specific position may be given as node or element number as quick jump. Results are displayed in displacement and force units as defined in #Properties!Units (see 0).
Element results
All elements are listed unless filtered by a group name, given in ElemGrp. Results may be listed in the local element coordinate system or in the global coordinate system (on coordinate systems see 2.2). Forces are usually displayed as local, displacements as global results. The calculation of internal forces and moments in the global coordinate system is based on the local values, defining the signs in accordance with the general rules presented in 2.6.3. A standard mathematical direction transformation is applied on these values to get the global result values. If Ndiv is ticked, results are listed for element subdivision points (as defined in #Structure!Element Data and Properties "Elem, see 6.3.2). The options Normal, Split, Joined are used for composite cross sections. With Normal, results values are displayed as internally calculated. With Joined, sub part results are joined to equivalent composite part results, and with Split, composite part results are split to equivalent sub part results (see 12.5). The distinction between total, primary and secondary results is used for constraint load cases such as creep, shrinkage and relaxation or prestressing. Primary results are the primary loading part of the load case (e.g. V*estate in prestressing), secondary results are the secondary effects of the load case (e.g. constraintstate in prestressing) and total results are the sum of the two parts (see 2.6.2).
Nodal results
Nodal results are d) Displacements always in the global coordinate directions e) Nodal support reactions always in the local system of the nodal support spring
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Tendon results
The tendon number for result presentation is given as TdNr. Tendon normal forces at element start and end positions are listed. The presented tendon forces are only primary parts, secondary parts (due to further load cases after grouting) are not calculated. Global results are tendon normal forces (in direction of the tendon !), local results are tendon forces in local element components. Tendon strains are presented instead of displacements if the button <displacements> is selected. The option Global gives strains in tendontangential direction and the option local gives the tendon strain components in the local element directions.
Diagram output
With using the <diagram>button currently listed element results may be viewed graphically as a diagram. Node results and tendon results cannot be presented. In the diagram setting the result value to be plotted is selected from forces (e.g. MZ), stresses or reinforcement contents. The diagram is presented on the screen and additionally written to a diagram plot file created in the current variant subdirectory with a file name generated in accordance with the diagram contents (dia .pl). For the convenience of the user, current diagram data may also be saved as RMSet for later use (see 5.8 on RMSets).
List output (Print)
An output list file is generated from selected results (in the current variant subdirectory).
Min, Max, Recalc
The buttons <Min> and <Max> are used to find extreme values in a series or group of elements. <Recalc> is a link to the Recalcpad (see 7.7).
8.3.2 !Envelope Results
Envelope results may be displayed similar to load case results as described in 8.3.1. Instead of load cases, superposition files are given and element results are displayed for the given leading value (e.g. maxMz). Nodal superposition results only apply to node with supports in global direction.
The graphical presentation of results (and/or structural system views) is done in RM2004 with writing plot files, which may be presented on the screen with the integrated plot file interpreter (symbol <Crt> in the tool bar), and printed or plotted to an output device (printer, plotter) with the appropriate interpreter functions. The plot files are written in a TDV origin plotfile format and may be transformed to some other graphics formats with using the related buttons in the interpreter <Crt>.
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TDV plotfiles actually always consist of at minimum 2 files related to each other: the actual plotfile with the file extension *.pl, and a related information file (*.pla) (text file in ASCIIformat), where basic information is stored, such as size of the plot, version of the plotfile format, etc. Further information files (*.plb, *.plc, ...) are created when clippings of the plotfile are stored. These clippings may be afterwards referenced with this file name. Details about how to create such clippings and other information on the functionality of the interpreter <Crt> are given in a separate document (Description of the plotfile interpreter). Plot files are in RM2004 created in different functions, on the one hand with using the button <Plot to file> in several graphics windows, and on the other hand in different plot actions, which create plotfiles based on sets of governing input parameters. These sets of input parameters are called plot profiles. For improving the clearness, plot files and plot profiles are collected so called plot containers (see 8.4.2, !Graphical Result Presentation (!PlSys). The current view is presented as fitting to a DINA4 page (portrait), when a graphic view of the GUI is plotted with using the button <Plot to file>. The user can in this case not adapt any presentation parameters. The button <Plot to file> is available in the following functions: #Properties !Variables Diagram presentation of variables defined as tables (mathematical expression cannot be presented). Presentation of the altitude de #Construction schedule !Load definition !Wind pendency of the mean wind and the turbulence intensity, of the power spectrum, the standard deviation and the coherence data. #Construction schedule !Stage actions !Tendon Presentation of the stressing force diagram. Presentation of creep and shrinkage coefficients, time de #Results !PlCrSh pendency of the Yongs modulus (see 8.4.4). Presentation of influence lines and load train positions (see #Ergebnisse !PlInfl 8.4.5).
8.4.2 !Graphical Result Presentation (!PlSys)
Graphic results are created from different plot definition types as given. These plot definitions  so called plot profiles are stored in plot containers with common types of definitions. Additionally the list of plot containers is extended by a plot output files (*.pl) from the project directory structure to be conveniently viewed here. This function is provided for managing both, finished plot files and plot profiles for creating plot files. Three types of plot profiles may be handled in RM2004, 1. RMSets (see 5.8), 2. RM2004 plot profiles (see below) and 3. RM2000 plot input files (*.rm, see RM2000Manual). Plot files and the plot profiles of the different types are collected in separate plot containers. The container type indicates the contents of the container, being either plotfiles ore one of the plot profile types mentioned above. Table 83 gives an overview on the container types and their contents.
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Plot container
PLOT (RM2004 plot profiles) PLSYS (RM2000 plot input files *.rm) RMSET (Diagram definitions) PL (Plot files *.pl from given project directories) Plot definitions (Input parameters)
Origin
#Results !Graphical Result Presentation (here) Previous RM Versions #Properties !RMSets Created plot files (output) Construction schedule actions
Refer to
Below Manual of the previous version 8.3.1. Diagram output
The pad is split into two lists to the left and a graphical view with a ruler. The upper list shows existing plot containers with the type designation as given above. The lower list contains plotprofiles, or plot files. The selected item of the lower list is viewed in the graphics screen to the right.
Container type PL finished plot files
Containers of this type are used to view output plot files (TDV format, see 8.4.1), produced directly by the user or from actions during the calculation of the construction schedule. The project directory and all existing subdirectories may be browsed here. The file is opened in the Ploteditor window (see 8.4.3), but cannot be modified. The graphical processor <Crt> is called with the <info> button and can be used to view multiple plot files and to convert TDV plot files to other graphic formats, if desired (see 8.4.1).
Container type PLOT  RM2004 plot profiles
Graphic presentations of this type are views of the model or a model part, where result values are inserted as diagrams or alphanumerical texts. The results lines are herein treated as model parts, i.e. they are created in space in model coordinates and subjected together with the model to the graphical presentation in accordance with the selected presentation parameters (orthogonal projection or general isometric view, see Figure 86). So called plot profiles are used for defining the graphical view parameters of such plots. These plot profiles are created interactively with the ploteditor described in 8.4.3. In addition to the above mentioned views, referenced as complex (drawing) objects, the plot editor may be used for placing additional graphics objects (lines, circles, texts, etc.). These objects are referenced in the GUI as simple objects.
Container type RMSET Plot profiles for creating diagram presentations
Diagrams are in RM2004 plots, where the presented elements are arranged along the xaxis, and the required result values are plot as ordinate against this line. The governing parameters for creating diagrams are specified in #Properties !RMSets, and stored in the database as RMSets.
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The created diagrams may be viewed in this function #Results !Graphical results presentation with using the <info> button. The presentation is identical to the one displayed in #Properties !RMSets, where the governing parameters may be modified. The button <Plot> can be used for immediately producing the new plot file in accordance with the modified parameter set. Another possibility for creating the plot file is using the symbol <Create plot> (rightmost icon in the tool bar on top of the table of plotprofiles, see Viewing the Plot).
Container type PLSYS Plot profile as text file (obsolete)
Plot profiles of the PLSYS type contain text definitions in RM2000 syntax (files pl*.rm). They may be viewed and edited here to stay downwards compatible in RM2004. The <insert> buttons are in this function disabled, but the user may produce a new profile by copying an existent file with the <copy> button and subsequently modifying it. Using the <modify> button loads the file into the text editor, and using the <info> button loads it into a GUItable, which can be interactively modified or completed (for further details see RM2000 manual).
Button <Macro>
The button <Macro> can be used for plot profiles of the type PLOT as well as for profiles of the type PLSYS. It creates more or less automatically the relevant profiles for standard situations. If necessary, these profiles may be modified with the already described functions (ploteditor, texteditor, GUI modification buttons). An RM2004 plot profile is created on clicking the <Macro> button when a plot container of the type PLOT is selected. An appropriate *.rm file is created on clicking the <Macro> button when a plot container of the type PLSYS is selected. Clicking the <Macro> button is disabled for the container types PL and RMSET. The following standard plots can be created with the function <Macro>. Plot of the structural model Structural model with deformations for a load case Structural model with internal force diagram lines for a load case Structural model with stress diagram lines for a load case Structural model with deformations for an envelope Structural model with internal force diagram lines an envelope Structural model with stress diagram lines for an envelope
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Each plot profile creates one plot file representing a plot page, containing one ore more graphic presentations arranged on it. The page is defined by the total page size, the margins, which remain empty, and the name of the plot file (see Figure 81). Y
Useable Plot Area
Y0
X
X0 WIDTH
Figure 81 A Printed sheet containing a plot with plot size and origin
The plot file interpreter TdvCrt (icon <Crt> in the tool bar) allows also presenting several plot files on one common sheet, maybe side by side or overlapping. Such composed pictures may be printed or plot like a single plot file. A plot origin X0, Y0 can be defined for any individual page in order to support this facility. This value is used for arranging the individual pages on the common sheet, if more than one plot files are together presented in <Crt> (see Figure 82). Y
Printed sheet PlotA  Page definition PlotB  Page definition
(X0/Y0)
(X0/Y0)
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So called views are arranged within each plot file on the page in the useable plot area (Figure 83). They can be placed side by side, overlapping or one upon the other. These views contain the actual graphic objects (complex objects and simple objects). Simple objects may also be directly related to the page. Y
Useable Plot Area
PlotA
TOP
View ViewA
BOTTOM
X
LEFT RIGHT
Margins reducing the effective size are also defined for the individual views. The program differentiates between margins defining the usable view area (Marg.), and clipping borders, where objects reaching beyond the borders of the usable view area are clipped (Clip.). Y
TOP
View ViewA
Useable View Area
BOTTOM
X
LEFT RIGHT Figure 84 View margins
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The usable view area is used for calculating the scaling factor for the case that the option Fit into view has been selected (Figure 84). Only the basic geometry items (elements and nodes) are considered for this scaling calculation, i.e. additional objects like crosssections and result lines may reach beyond this frame. These object parts are clipped along the clipping border (see Figure 85). Y
TOP
View ViewA
Clipping Border
BOTTOM
X
LEFT RIGHT Figure 85 View clipping border
FY
Y
Z FZ
FX X
Figure 86 Orthogonal projection of the views coordinate systems (X, Y, Z, FX, FY, FZ)
The plot editor has been provided for creating RM2004 plot profiles interactively. The plot editor is called with selecting the respective plot profile in the table of plot profiles of the selected container (container type plot), and clicking the <info> button. New profiles must be previously created with the <insert> buttons.
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The plot editor window displayed after selecting the <info> button contains the following buttons and input fields: on top a horizontal bar with 4 selection and modification functions, and on the right border a vertical tool bar for inserting views and graphic objects.
Selection function Current (top left)
This function allows for selecting the active item for being processed (the page or one of the existent views). Inserted graphic objects will be inserted in the page or selected view accordingly. The icons adjacent to the selection field may be used for modifying the dimensions of the page or view, for copying the data of one view to a new one, and for deleting a view. New views are created with using the topmost icon in the right vertical tool bar (see Function Insert view (topmost icon of the right vertical tool bar)). When processing the page dimensions the button <Suggestion> can be used for selecting one of the commonly used paper formats (European and American standards). A direct definition must be given in [cm], user defined model units are not supported. The plot coordinates of the model origin (see above) and the widths of the margins have additionally to be entered. The name of the plot (output) file is usually defined via internal plot variables (see Definition of PlotVariables (rightmost top)), e.g. <DPLOT>Stg<STAGE>.pl, where the plot variable <DPLOT>DPLOT characterises the name of the plot profile, and STAGE the name of the current construction stage in the calculation run. When processing the view dimensions the length values are either entered in terms of [cm], or as percentage values related to the page dimensions (usable plot area). Input values are the distances to the respective borders of page. Therefore, the default case (all values zero) indicates, that the view includes the whole page. In addition to positioning the view with Edge and Origin, and defining the usable view area with the Margin values, a clipping border is defined with using Clip. The input block Transformation is used for specifying the required projection data. The button <Suggestion> allows for selecting between plan view, elevation view, side elevation view and a general isometric view. On selecting a general isometric view the user can define an arbitrary presentation direction for every global coordinate axis (angle from the horizontal axis in anticlockwise direction). A distortion factor can also be individually specified for the different coordinate directions (default 1.0 for all axes). The scaling of the view is set in the bottom block. Separate scaling factors may be defined for the x and y directions. The scale values are not used when the option Fit into view is selected. Four different scaling options can be selected in total: Adjust to Fit The dimensions the view will be adapted to allow for the presentation of the structure with the given scale. Fit into view Set the scale for the structure to fit into the view. Scale and position Let both, view size and scale as defined. The structure will be centred to a given 3D Point (X, Y, Z), parts exceeding the clipping borders will be clipped. Scale and centre Let both, view size and scale as defined. The structure will be centred to the centre point of the structure. Parts exceeding the clipping borders will be clipped.
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This function is provided for selecting the type of graphical objects to be presented (simple objects, complex objects, both types).
Selection function Object (top right)
This function is provided for selecting the active object of the current view, which may be modified with using the buttons arranged on the right side of the selection field (see Icons for inserting graphical objects).
Definition of PlotVariables (rightmost top)
Plot variables have been provided in RM2004 in order to allow for a very effective specification of different plot profiles. Internal plot variables may be used in the definition of plot profiles as well as user defined plot variables. All plot variables are individually assigned to the different plot containers, and must not be understood as global properties as specified in #Properties !Variables. The names of plot variables are not casesensitive as it is also the case for global variables. The available internal plot variables are summarized in Table 84.
Table 84 Internally created plot variables
Variable
DPlot Stage PText1, PText2 FileName Date Time
Contents Name of the PlotProfile Current stage name during analysis Project description lines 1 and 2 Filename of the current plot file Creation date of the current plot file Creation time of the current plot file
A printed page may contain one or more plots with a given offset, as given in Figure 82. A number of plots is displayed using the graphical interface CRT (in the main Toolbar). The <variables> button may be used for viewing and editing the existent user defined plot variables of the current plot container. User defined plot variables are identified by their names (e.g. LC = LC1000). A new value can be assigned to a variable later on in the action PlotCon DoPlot creating the actual plot file (e.g. DoPlot PlotContainer1:PlotA LC=LC0100). Note that plot variables are not mathematical expressions like the global variables, but replacement characters, which may get a new value when they are used (see above). This allows for used the same plot profile for creating several plot files. Plot variables are referenced in the profile by placing the between angle brackets. They can be selected in the pulldown menu if they have been previously defined.
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Function Insert view (topmost icon of the right vertical tool bar)
The button <Create a new view> (topmost icon of the right vertical tool bar) is used for inserting a new view on the current page. The same input window is presented as when changing the view dimensions (see Selection function Current (top left)).
Arranging Simple Graphical Objects on a Page or View
<Line>,
<Circle>,
<Rectangle> and <Text> (right vertical toolbar, 2nd to 5th icon from top). The help pad contains detailed information about how to define the position and contents of the object. Plot variables may be used for specifying texts.
Inserting Elements, Nodes, Tendons and Result lines (complex objects)
<Elements>,
<Nodes>,
<Tendon>,
<Result>, <Stress> and <Limits>. Details are given in the help system. Plot variables can be used for various items (load case, envelope, scale, RMSet). Within the editor, these complex objects are presented symbolically with rectangles, and short texts indicating the type and contents of the object.
Viewing the Plot
The respective plot is automatically displayed in the graphics window when the plot editor is closed. The freehand zoom functions may by used in the presentation as well as the zoom symbols of the left vertical graphics tool bar (icons with the lens and icon V0). The plot file is not automatically created. The action DoPlot must be used for creating it. Immediately creating the respective plot file may be performed with using the icon <Create plot>(rightmost icon in the tool bar on top of the table of plotprofiles).
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Contents of a Plot Container of the Type PLOT RMPLOT ContainerA DVAR DVAR LC1 LC2 LC0100 LC1000
Common definitions
DPLOT PlotA DFILE (DPLOT)(LC1).pl DPLOT END DPLOT PlotB DFILE (DPLOT)(LC1).pl DPLOT END RMPLOT END
As given above, a plot container may be used to group plot definitions with common variable settings. The main benefit is that the same plot setup and layout may be applied for different load cases, variable texts or given internal forces and displacements. Plots are addressed with the syntax :
Containername:Plotname Variables ,
ContainerA:PlotB
ContainerA:PlotB LC1=LC0200 Call PlotB and Replace the default Value for Variable LC1
The time dependent variation of element properties may be viewed for creep and shrinkage (PlCrSh), for the time dependent Youngs modulus (E(t)) and for the relaxation (Rel(t)). The
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<Set> button is used to check and temporarily change internal variables. The current element is given by its number or selected with the browsebuttons. The <plot to file> button is used for plotting the current window contents to a file.
8.4.5 !Influence Line Presentation
All 12 Influence lines (related to a lane) are displayed for each element (start point, end point, subdivision points) or node with the most unfavourable positions of the selected load train. Freehand symbols may be used to zoom in and out. The current element is given by its number or selected with the browsebuttons. The <plot to file> button is used for plotting the current window contents to a file.
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The data preparation for a structural system and construction schedule for a RM2004 analysis is described in detail in the previous chapters. A logical sequence for defining the structure, the loading and the results is listed below in a concise format. It should be noted that the sequences given below are not the only way that the structure and loading etc. can be defined. The prepared sequence is just a suggestion.
9.1.1 Define the Structure
Step 1) Define (import) the material properties Step 2) Define the required cross section properties Step 3) Define the structural nodes and their attributes Step 4) Define the structural elements (beam, spring, cable, ... ), eccentricities, hinges, beta angle etc ... Step 5) Assign material properties and cross sections to the elements;
Properties
&
Material
or
File
& Import
Properties
&
CS
or
File
& Import
Structure
&
Node
or
File
&
Import
Structure
&
Element
or
File
&
Import
Structure or File
&
Element
&
Mat CS
&
Import
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Step 6) Define additional element attributes if required, (e.g. reinforcement, creation time, .) Step 7) Define PRESTRESSING TENDON geometry and assign properties to the tendons
Structure or File
&
Element
&
..
&
Import
Structure or File
&
Tendon
&
Geometry
&
Import
Construction schedule
&
Load definition
&
LSet
Step 2) Combine any number of load sets to compose the load cases including the definition of load factors Step 3) Establish the load management system (rules for combining the load cases during the stages of the construction schedule)
9.1.3 Define the Construction Schedule
Construction schedule
&
Load definition
&
LCase
Construction schedule
&
Load definition
&
LManage
Step 1) Define elements to be activated/deactivated in the construction stages Step 2) Define the actions that take place to the prestressing tendons during each construction stage (stress, wedge slip, restress etc.) Step 3) Define the actions which take place during each stage (calculation actions, result evaluation actions, )
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Construction schedule
Stage actions
Activation
Construction schedule
Stage actions
Tendon
Construction schedule
Stage actions
Action
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Recalc
Recalc
Load Case
A complex engineering system is analysed by regarding it as an assembly of elements, the properties of the system being determined from the properties of the individual parts. The junction point between the elements is termed node or joint. Displacement compatibility and stress continuity between the elements is ensured at the nodes unless local releases are specified. The location of the nodes and elements is critical in determining the accuracy of the structural model. Some of the factors that should be considered when defining the elements (and hence nodes) for the structure are: The number of elements should be sufficient to describe the geometry of the structure Element boundaries should be located at points, lines, and surfaces of discontinuity:
o Structural boundaries, e.g., corners and edges o Changes in material properties o Changes in thickness and other geometric properties o Support points (Restraints and Springs)
Note: All elements should have reasonable dimensions. Very short elements (compared with the crosssection dimensions) will cause numerical problems in the solution process. They should be avoided. Eccentric connections (see 2.5) should rather be used instead of small fictitious connection elements.
The above criteria for the subdivision of the structure into elements are in principle sufficient for standard static analyses of frames, because the stiffness matrices and nodal forces for beam elements are calculated exactly in accordance with the deformation method. An additional subdivision to get a better approximation  as usually required for Finite Element procedures is not necessary. This is applicable even if results (displacements and internal forces) in intermediate points between start and end are desired. However, there are some functions, which use approximations on the element level or are available only for nodal points. An appropriate subdivision in order to get accurate answers is required in such cases. Such situations are for instance: Varying crosssections (stiffness matrices based on mean crosssection values)
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Fixing the numbering and element scheme is therefore the most important primary task in every modelling process. It has to be done very thoroughly, considering all requirements regarding accuracy as well as amount and density of results. Practical modelling hints for typical bridge structures will be found in chapter 10, Modelling Bridge Structures.
9.2.2 Nodal Points
Nodes (or joints) are a fundamental part of every structural model  they are the primary locations in the structure where the displacements are calculated and they perform a variety of functions: All elements are connected to each other at the nodes The structure is supported at the nodes using restraints and/or springs All loads and masses applied to elements are actually transferred to the nodes
All defined nodal points are stored in the database in the nodal point table. Every node is described by its number and its position specified by the coordinates in the global coordinate system. Additional node attributes my be support conditions (see 6.2.3).
9.2.3 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs)
Every node of the structural model may have up to six displacement components:
Note:
The node may translate along the three global axes The node may rotate about the three global axes
No warping DOFs are currently considered in the program, therefore flexibility terms due to warping effects of the crosssections cannot be taken into account.
These six displacement components are known as the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the node. Each DOF in the structural model is one of the following types: Active Restrained The displacement is computed during the analysis The displacement is specified, and the corresponding reaction is computed during the analysis
Unavailable The displacement has been explicitly excluded from the analysis
Active and unavailable Degrees of Freedom
The set of global degrees of freedom that are available to every node in the structural model may be explicitly specified (!Construction schedule "Recalc). By default, all six degrees of freedom are available to every node. This default should generally be used for all threedimensional structures. A restriction of the available degrees of freedom has advantages with respect to computation time and support definition requirements. It may be applied to true 2D structures with inplane loading or pure loading normal to the plane. Examples are frames or trusses in the xy
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plane or grids in the xz plane. A plane truss in the xy plane only needs vx and vy; a plane frame vx, vy and zs, and a grid in the xz plane needs vy, x and z. The degrees of freedom that are not specified as being active are called unavailable degrees of freedom. Any stiffness, loads, mass, restraints, or constraints that are applied to the unavailable degrees of freedom are ignored in the analysis.
Restrained Degrees of Freedom
If the displacement of a joint along any one of its available degrees of freedom is specified, such as at a support point, that degree of freedom is restrained. The known value of the displacement may be zero or nonzero, and may be different in different Load Cases. The force along the restrained degree of freedom that is required to impose the specified restraint displacement is called the reaction, and is determined by the analysis. Unavailable degrees of freedom are essentially restrained. However, they are excluded from the analysis and no reactions are computed, even if they are nonzero.
9.2.4 Elements
The elements are described by their start and end nodes, and further by element properties like material, crosssections, connection details, etc. The definition of elements is done in the function #Structure !Element Data and Properties. Different element types are provided as given in 2.4. A local coordinate system xL, yL, zL is built for every element. For elements with 2 nodes this system is per default based on the element axis (possibly different from the system axis due to eccentric connections). For elements with only 1 node, the directions of the default local system are identical to the global directions. The rules for establishing the local axes are described in detail in 2.2.3 and 6.3.7 (#Structure !Element Data and Properties "Beta). Input data, such as external loadings may be related to this local system, and results like internal forces and stresses are usually evaluated in this system. This local coordinate system characterising the principal axes describes together with the related crosssection data the element geometry. The standard crosssection values (crosssection area, moments of inertia around the principal axes) are sufficient for normal static analyses with evaluation of internal forces only (see 6.3.4 #Structure !Element Data and Properties "CS switch CS Values). Detailed stress analyses require the full geometric definition of reference sets (5.4.4). These crosssections are assigned to the element begin and end points respectively. A small deviation of the crosssection plane from the normal to the element axis is allowed. The respective restrictions and approximations are described in 2.3.
9.2.5 Boundary Conditions Nodal Point Supports
Each nodal point of the system may be assigned a rigid or an elastic support condition. Nodal point supports are defined in the function #Structure !Node Data and Properties "Supp.
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Any nodal restraint may be specified as an elastic support with spring constants assigned to specify the stiffness of the support. A totally rigid support where the appropriate DOFs are eliminated from the equation system is not provided in RM2004 for numbered nodes. For simulating a rigid support, the user has to specify suitable high spring constant values. Values of 1.0E9 to 1.0E12 kN/m or kNm/rad have been found to be reasonable values for simulating a rigid support in usual civil engineering structures. The usage of higher values is not recommended, because such stiffness values can cause numerical problems in the solution process. This is especially the case when the spring tensor is transformed into inclined directions.
Note: The translational and rotational spring constants defining the support are per default in the global coordinate directions. They may however be transformed to a local system by assigning a set of angles 1, 2, and to the node in the function #Structure !Node data and properties "Beta (6.2.4).
Another transformation of the spring tensor is possible with respect to an eccentric position of the spring. An eccentric position of the support spring is defined with #Structure !Node data and properties "Ecc as given in 6.2.5.
Spring Element Boundary Conditions
Spring element boundaries are almost the same as nodal point boundaries. The only difference is that they are treated as elements, which may be set active or inactive, whose results may be superimposed to get maximum/minimum values, and which may be specified in selection filters for output lists and graphics. Additionally, special spring types like contact elements may be used for simulating nonlinear support behaviour. Simulating boundary conditions with spring elements is therefore generally preferred to using nodal springs. The boundary points may be specified as spring elements that are connected to the node 0 at one end. The translational and rotational spring constants defining the spring element are in the local element coordinate directions. The spring element does not have any real dimension but it can be given a nominal length dimension so that it can be plotted and easily seen. The spring element also has the advantage that it can be orientated in any direction and so the restraints can directly represent the onsite condition. Eccentric connections can be defined for the element begin and end in the same way than for beam elements (#Structure !Element data and properties "Ecc, 6.3.8).
Rigid support in all directions Node 0
If all degrees of freedom of a point are to be fixed, this condition may also be achieved by assigning this point the node number 0 (also possible for beam elements). The DOFs of the node 0 are not considered in the global system of equations. Length and angles 2, 1, specifying the local coordinate system must be assigned to all elements connected to node number 0, because these nodes do not have coordinates.
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All the elements are assumed stiffly connected to their associated nodal points at the element ends. Actual structural members do, however, have finite crosssectional dimensions and when two elements, such as a beam and column, are connected at a joint the two sections overlap. In many structures, the length of the overlap can be a significant fraction of the total length of a connecting element. Many programs require introducing fictitious rigid connection elements to consider such a situation. Using these fictitious elements enlarges the database and extends the computation time, and often yields severe numerical problems in the solution process. RM2004 allows to consider such a situation without creating additional elements, simply by defining an eccentric connection of the element end to the nodal point. The consideration in the analysis is done by a suitable geometric transformation of the stiffness matrix of the affected element. Eccentric connections may also be used for allocating elements eccentrically to the system line (= straight connection line between the nodes). This is very advantageous in the case of variable crosssection height, where the position of the centre of gravity of the actual crosssection is not a priori known. An arbitrary known reference line may in this case be defined as system line (e.g. the connection of the top centre points of the crosssection) and the elements are allocated eccentrically to that line. These 2 types of eccentricities are called
CrosssectionEccentricity and SystemEccentricity
The crosssection eccentricity is defined by specifying the appropriate crosssection type (CS Type) in !Element Data and Properties "CS (see 6.3.4) and the system eccentricity is directly defined by the user in !Element Data and Properties "Ecc (see 6.3.8).
9.2.7 Element End Releases Jointed Connections
The joint releases are specified in RM2004 in the form of element end releases and may be defined in the global or the local coordinate system directions. The element end releases are specified in 6.3.8!Element Data and Properties "Hinge.
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ZG XG YL ZL
NODE xL
Center of gravity
Any release (disconnection) of one or more of the element degrees of freedom may be made between the element end and the node. The releases may be specified in the element local coordinate system or in the global coordinate system. Accordingly, hinges are called to be global hinges or local hinges. Pay attention to the fact that the notation hinge is not only used for disconnected rotation DOFs, but also for translational DOFs. Note, that hinges may also be modelled by spring elements with the respective spring constants set to zero, but most release conditions in practical structures can be simulated element end releases. Only cases, where two or more rigidly connected elements are partially connected to another group of rigidly connected elements essentially require the spring element approach. In this case two different nodes with the same coordinates have to be defined. These nodes have to be connected by spring elements whose spring constants are 0 for the released DOFs. Modelling jointed connections with spring elements may however also be used in standard situations (e.g. for directly getting the forces transmitted in the spring directions).
YL ZL XL Local HINGE (by SPRING Element) XL YL ZL
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Unstable End Releases
Using jointed connections may cause structural instabilities. Therefore any combination of end releases may be specified provided that the element or the node remain stable. This is usually not the case if both, global and local hinges are allocated to the same element end. Restrictions in this context are for instance:
All but one element end connected to a specific node may be released.
Local torsion hinges must not be defined for both ends of an element or of a straight sequence of elements. Global hinges for DOFs contributing components to local torsion must not be defined for both ends of an element or of a straight sequence of elements. The whole system must not become unstable due to the release (e.g. rotational hinge in a statically determined beam)
It is strongly recommended to use a unified system for specifying all loadcases. The benefits of using a unified specification system lie in the ease of addressing load cases at any point in RM2004, in reading the results and in a clear and unmistakable communication with the TDV staff for support questions or project work. For the specification of loadcases, a numberingscheme is recommended as given in Table 91. For Stages increasing numbers in steps of 100 are recommended.
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Table 91 Numbering scheme for load case definitions Loading Standard Loadcases in Stages Self weight Dead load Formwork traveller, Wet Concrete, Scaffolding Prestressing Creep and Shrinkage Final and Sum loadcases Final stage LC299, LC699 LC699 Creep, Shrinkage and Relaxation in final stage LC100, sum of self weight in all Stages LC500+Stage LC600+Stage LC100+Stage LC200+Stage LC300+Stage LC101, self weight in Stage 1 LC203, self weight in Stage 3 Numbering scheme Examples
Subtotal summation load LC100, LC200 case Total summation loadcase Additional loads Earth quake Settlement Temperature Wind Braking forces LC010+{no} LC020+{no} LC030+{no} LC040+{no} LC050+{no} LC1000
In RM2004, load cases are identified by names (not numbers) as text string. Therefore a naming scheme is possible in addition to the suggested numbering scheme. The benefit of load case names also lies in easier insertion of additional load cases with ending letters (e.g. LC501a).
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Limitations: The specified design criteria must be numerically achievable (i.e. if a moment is specified as constraint, then at least one variable force must exist, such that when this is appropriately factored and combined with the fixed load case the defined constraint can be achieved). There must be as many user defined design criteria (constraint conditions) as there are unknown variable load cases.
Additional Constraints as database objects are numbered sets of such design criteria together
with the related variable unit load cases (e.g. stressing of stay cables) building the required state. They are defined in the GUI in the Construction schedule menu (see 7.4). The iteration process itself is performed in the construction schedule action Restart. This function determines the multiplication factors for the variable load cases and then repeats the analysis considering the new loading conditions up to the actual state if no error occurred. An appropriate error message indicating the failure reason will be displayed if no mathematical solution can be found. If a mathematical solution exists, the result from the AddCon calculation will be a state, where the defined set of constraints (say bending moments in certain places along the deck girder) is achieved. However, this might still be a physically impossible solution. The engineer must ascertain whether the means by which AddCon achieves the result is a structurally admissible solution. E.g. it is not allowed that stay cables are under compression, because this is physically impossible. Actions, located in the schedule behind the Restart action, will be performed subsequently in the standard manner. I.e. additional loads can be calculated after the AddCon calculation has been completed loads such as traffic, wind, temperature, pier settlement, braking forces, earthquake etc.
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It is also possible to perform more than one Restart action in the construction schedule. This might for instance be applied when a primary stay cable stressing sequence should be designed, in order to achieve certain design criteria in the construction phase, and a later restressing sequence is applied to achieve other design criteria in the final stage.
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This class contains most hollow box bridges, where the assumption, that the whole crosssection remains plane, can be made with sufficient accuracy. Multiple box girders with small crosssection height may however require dividing the crosssection in several parts forming different main girders, and to connect them with cross girders simulating the plates connecting the webs of the crosssection. Narrow Tbeam bridges with one single web or 2 webs with small distance may often also be modelled as bridges with only one main girder. This is also true for narrow plate bridges. Figure101 shows a part of a bridge with one single main girder, and a recommended typical subdivision of the superstructure into beam elements.
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Recommended node spacing in the deck girder: X L/10 Y D (for elements immediately before and after a support)
Bridges with prefabricated segments use 1 node per segment joint minimum!
10.2.2 Bridges with more than one Main Girder
If a bridge has a wide superstructure crosssection, it is not possible anymore to model the superstructure with one single main girder. The crosssection is in this case divided into several parts. The figure below shows a double Tbeam divided into 2 parts. The loading of each main girder acts on the loaded part, not on the total crosssection. The connection between the 2 main girders by the upper flange plate is modelled by fictitious cross beams, the beam stiffness being equivalent to the plate stiffness. A greater or smaller part dependent on the stiffness of the connecting plate  of the load acting on one of the main girders will be redistributed by the cross beams to the other girder. Figure102 shows a detail of a double Tbeam superstructure modelled as a grid of beam elements. The two main girders are connected with transverse crossgirders.
RM2004
UserGuide Main girder 2: e.g.: Element 201230 Transverse girders: e.g.: Element 301331
Y Z X
Sometimes it is required to investigate the bearing behaviour in the transverse direction additionally to the analysis performed for the main (longitudinal) direction with one single girder and the total superstructure crosssection (e.g. to determine the influence of a single wheel load to the moments in transverse direction in the carriageway plate). In order to do this it is possible to cut out a strip of the crosssection and to model this strip as a plane frame. The particular parts of the crosssection (upper plate, webs, bottom plate) are modelled as beams with rectangular crosssection. For analysing a strip along a support line (above the bridge bearings), the support elements may be used in the same way than for the longitudinal model. For investigating a midspan crosssection, the elastic indirect support must be simulated in a suitable way (e.g. fictitious support elements in the centre of the webs).
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Figure103 and Figure104 show typical models for analysing the transverse bearing behaviour by modelling a crosssection as a plane frame. Note that such an analysis is performed in addition to the standard longitudinal analysis on a separate model.
The bearing configuration at a typical connection is normally either a Single or Double bearing connection depending on the overall structural stability and on the torsion capacity of the bridge deck. The Double bearing configuration provides torsion fixity and is typically provided at the ends of the bridge deck and even at certain internal piers on long viaduct type bridges. The double bearings are usually placed under a stiff diaphragm (in box girder bridges) so their position is not constrained by the positions of the webs. Given below is a series of sketches that depict the recommended modelling of these Typical Connections for a Bridge deck diaphragm (typically in a concrete box girder) to a single Column connection. All the bearing connections between the deck and the substructure are modelled with spring elements. The spring elements do not actually have any dimension. The spring elements are located at the actual position of the bearings in space. The spring elements are connected to the substructure and the superstructure with rigid connections. These rigid connections are called eccentric connections and are arranged between the ends of the elements and a node (see 2.5 and 6.3.8).
Referring to Figure105 below (Bearing arrangement taken to be 0.5m from top of pier to the soffit of the deck):
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UserGuide The column (or abutment) element no. 103 is connected to the ground (Node 0) Spring element no. 101 (Left bearing) is connected to the node at the top of the column: ZDirection eccentricity (Spring element 101 to node 100) + 2.500m YDirection eccentricity (Spring element 101 to node 100) 0.250m Spring element no. 101 (Left bearing) is connected to the node at the top of the deck: ZDirection eccentricity (Spring element 101 to node 1) + 2.500m YDirection eccentricity (Spring element 101 to node 1) + 3.000m Spring element no. 102 (Right bearing) is connected to the node at the top of the column: ZDirection eccentricity (Spring element 102 to node 100)  2.500m Direction eccentricity (Spring element 102 to node 100) 0.250m
Spring element no. 102 (Right hand bearing) is connected to the node at the top of the deck: ZDirection eccentricity (Spring element 102 to node 1)  2.500m YDirection eccentricity (Spring element 102 to node 1) + 3.000m
Figure105 Modelling the bearings and abutment by eccentrically connected spring elements
When allocating the cross section to the element the node at the top of the deck is automatically connected to the centroid of the section with an Eccentric connection (see 2.5).
The type of the bearing rigid; multidirectional; or unidirectional is modelled by defining the releases for the individual spring elements (Vx; Vy; Vz; x; y; z). A typical value for a rigid connection is a spring constant of 1E10. Therefore a multidirectional bearing allowing free rotation in all directions and movement in the global X and Z directions would be given the following values in the global coordinate system: 0, 1E10, 0, 0, 0, 0. Ho TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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However, spring elements are usually oriented in vertical direction (xL = YG) in order to get the support forces as normal forces in the output listings. In this case the appropriate set of spring constants will be 1E10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0. A unidirectional bearing restricting transverse movement but allowing full rotation in all directions would be given the following values: 0E10, 1E10, 1E10, 0, 0, 0. Note that the spring elements have in this case to be oriented in the direction of the superstructure elements, if this direction deviates from the global XG direction.
Figure107, Figure108 and Figure101 show some typical piers which are rigidly connected to the superstructure.
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Note: The internal tie beam is in the box girder Figure109 Modelling a rigidly connected single pier
Figure1011 Figure1010
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Figure1010 and Figure1011 show typical examples of piers with bearings on the top face for supporting the superstructure.
Substructure Type C abutments with bearings supporting the superstructure
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Figure1012 and Figure1013 show typical abutments and the structural model consisting of beam elements and eccentrically connected spring elements representing the bearings and ground support respectively.
Substructure Type D Stiffness matrix / Flexibility matrix
The entire substructure can be replaced by a single matrix representing the the whole support system below the deck girder at this point (see Figure1014). Such stiffness or flexibility matrices are special element types, which may be entered in the GUI (see 2.4, Element Library). Such matrices are sometimes provided from geotechnical engineers, or may be calculated by analysing a separate model with RM2004 or any other structural or Finite Element program. Unit load cases are in this case applied at the point where the matrix element is allocated. The resulting displacements and rotations give the matrix coefficients to be entered.
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
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The deflections finally stored in the summation load case SumLC represent the negative values of the required precamber related to the design shape to be applied when the total deflection shall be compensated. The required camber line can be determined by appropriately factorising the summation load case (LC1000) and storing these results in a new load case (e.g. LC2000). The camber line can then be presented numerically or graphically like any other displacement distribution. The applied factor is 1.0 when the whole deflections of the summation load case shall be compensated, but will be different if only a part of the deflections must be compensated or an overcompensation is required. Different factors for different load cases require a more complicated proceeding: the factors must be considered already in the superposition process. This requires using the direct superposition tools (superposition actions in the construction schedule) instead of using the automatic superposition with "LManage.
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Example: 2 span beam bridge built in 2 stages:
The camber line (red) and the deflection lines of a 2 span bridge erected in 2 steps are shown in Figure 1015. The camber line is discontinuous at the points, where a new part is connected to the previously active already deformed structure. This discontinuity describes the displacements of the connection point arising in the previous construction stage. By precambering the girder, the position of node 13 at the end of stage 1 is E (instead of F), the discontinuity value CE is identical to the 1st stage deflection DF. The deflection of node 13 due to stage 2 loading is DB (= 3.368 + 2.48), which is equal, but with opposite sign, to the precamber position value E. After applying stage 2 loading, node 13 will therefore be at position D.
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Decomposed deflections and precamber for clarification:
Figure 1016 Deflections due to the loads of the 1st construction stage
Figure 1017 Deflections due to the loads of the 2nd construction stage
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Figure 1019 Shape after the 1st construction stage when precamber has been applied
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Applying the calculated camber line correctly on site essentially requires that the calculated deformations comply with the actually arising values. In particular, the deflections of the joints between the construction segments have to be checked before the formwork for the new segment is arranged. Minor errors may often be neglected, but correction measures have to be started in case of major or progressively increasing deviations. This control work is supported by RM2004 by calculating the target position for all construction stages. The target deflection line (Cn) for a state at the end of a construction stage is achieved by adding the deflections, summed up from the very beginning to the end of the current state (n = LC1000 at the end of the construction stage), to the calculated camber values (LC2000 = Cend) (Cn = Cend + n). Figure 1019 shows the target deflection line for the 1st construction stage of the above described example. The deflection sum (LC1000) is continuously changed during the construction schedule. I.e. the intermediate sums  up to the respective construction stage ends  are not automatically available at the end of the construction schedule when the camber line (LC2000) has been calculated. Therefore, it is necessary to save the intermediate deflection sums by copying the current state of LC1000 to a separate load case at any stage, where a target camber line for intermediate control is required. This is performed by the standard superposition action LcInit in the construction schedule. E.g. LC1000 is copied to LC1001 at the end of the 1st construction state, to LC1002 at the end of the 2nd construction stage, and so on. At the end of the construction schedule it is now possible to calculate the target lines (e.g. LC2001, LC2002, LC2003, ) by superimposing the final camber line (e.g. LC2000) and the individual deflection sums (LC1001, LC1002, LC1003, ).
10.5.4 Brought Forward Activation of new Segments
The abovedescribed procedure for calculating the camber line values is related to the standard case, that all loads of the previous construction stage have actually been applied before the formwork for the new segment is arranged. This is given in most practical situations, at least for all free cantilevering processes. However, there might be situations, where the formwork is arranged before the weight of the previous segment is active or prestressing of the previous segment has been performed, i.e. arranging the formwork and pouring the new segment are not backtoback actions in the construction schedule. In this case, this deviating chronology has to be correctly modelled in the construction schedule in order to get a correct camber line. The new segment has then already to be activated at the right position in the previous construction stage, without applying the selfweight (the weight of the formwork may often be neglected). This may be performed with the activation action ActOn (Structure change command in #Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Action). In this stage, the new segment elements represent the formwork, being itself later on displaced by activating the weight or prestressing of the previous segment. In the next construction stage, the same elements represent the new concrete segment, where any new loads are applied.
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10.5.5 Considering Precamber in Nonlinear Analyses
The abovedescribed procedure allows for determining the required precamber values to be applied on site. However, as it is often the case in large structures, the internal force distribution can be considerably influenced by changing the stressfree design shape accordingly (e.g. stressing forces of stay cables). Therefore, nonlinear analyses usually require considering the shape changes due to precambering. Different procedures may be applied in RM2004 to take into account the precambered shape in a nonlinear analysis. Apparently, the user may in a first step perform a linear analysis calculating the camber line as described above. Performing a recalculation after modifying the node coordinates by adding the calculated camber values will give a better, and mostly sufficient, approximation. Performing a new modification and recalculating will further improve the result. However, no discontinuities essentially arising in stagewise analyses can be modelled with this procedure. Any discontinuities must be additionally specified with applying element end displacements. Changing coordinates by hand is a tedious process. Therefore, RM2004 offers the possibility to take over the results of the camber line calculation to be used as stressfree predeformations of the system. An external load case, containing only the factorised deformations and no internal forces, has to be created instead of or additional to the standard load case LC2000 described above. This load case can be copied into the summation load case SumLC at begin of the construction schedule, in order to be considered as stressfree predeformations in the nonlinear analysis.
Note: The modification of node coordinates will also influence a linear calculation, whereas predeformations are only considered in nonlinear analyses.
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Shortterm loadings due to traffic are usually very important for any bridges. It is however impossible to consider all possibly arising actual load combinations due to traffic, therefore all national design codes have specified detailed rules defining which traffic load combinations must be considered. As a matter of principle the traffic loads are separated in 2 general parts, a distributed load, which may act on the whole roadway, but has to be applied only in those regions, where it has an unfavourable effect, and Vehicles moving over the roadway along certain paths (lanes), giving in different positions the most unfavourable influence on the result components in different result points. Instead of directly applying different traffic load combinations on the structural system by specifying separate load cases, which are calculated and finally superimposed, RM2004 offers an easy and fast possibility for calculating the most unfavourable internal forces due to traffic. This method is based on the theory of (related) influence lines. Many particular design code rules are covered by special functions implemented in RM2004. Objective of traffic load calculations is to obtain result envelopes of all forces and displacements allowing for performing the design code checks and the reinforcement design. Certain steps are required to successfully obtain these results, as given in Figure 1020: Traffic lane geometries related to the superstructure elements are defined ("Lane). Load trains are specified ("LTrain) for being automatically placed along the lane according to influence lines. Influence lines are calculated with Infl actions (all lanes and load trains must have been previously defined) All envelope files used for the evaluation of influence lines must be created and initialised (actions SupInit). Influence lines are evaluated in the construction schedule by using LiveLactions. All result envelopes of different lanes and/or load trains are combined to obtain overall Su envelopes (combination actions SupOr, SupAnd, etc.). Optionally, the action LiveSet may be used for determining the most unfavourable loading position for some characteristic result values, and stored as load sets (see also 10.6.3, Nonlinear Calculation of Traffic Load Cases (LiveSet))
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Structural model
Lane definition 1 2 3 4
Traffic envelope
Mz
With respect to the preparation of input data, basic elements are the definition of (traffic) lanes in #Construction schedule !Load definition "Lane, and of Load trains moving along these lanes (see 7.3.9, Traffic load calculations, "Lane, "LTrain).
10.6.2 Calculation and Evaluation of Influence Lines
The influence line definition and calculation procedure used in RM2000 is slightly different from the common approach found in literature. The influence lines for the different points and result components (displacements, internal forces) are not calculated directly by applying an appropriate local strain at the considered point, but by calculating a series of unit load cases and collecting the results gained in the different unit load cases for the considered point. Point forces of 1 kN are applied in these unit load cases in a series of points along one or more lines over the whole superstructure. These lines are called traffic lanes or simply lanes. The definition of these traffic lanes is described in 7.3.9. The influence lines created by col TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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lecting the results of the unit load cases of such a lane are also called related influence lines, because they are related to the lanes. However, within this document they are for simplicity only called influence lines.
Note: The point load applied for calculating the influence lines is independent from the selected unit system and always 1 KN. The applied load is shown in the GUI and in the influence line result listings in terms of the selected units (e.g. 0.225 kips).
This special influence line definition has been chosen because the traffic loading generally moves along lanes, which are eccentric or even skew with respect to the system line or element axis. This general load application condition cannot be taken into account in the classical influence line approach. The disadvantage of this procedure is, that it is impossible to calculate one single influence line for a special point. A simultaneous calculation of all influence lines for all points of the lane is required, and, in order to get sufficiently accurate results, a sufficient amount of lane points must be specified (generally all element start and end points). The evaluation of the influence lines is done by placing a predefined traffic load set such that the influence on the result is a maximum. These traffic load sets are called load trains. The definition of these load trains is described in 7.3.9.
Graphic presentation of influence lines
All influence lines for all elements can be displayed graphically on the screen (#Results !Influence line presentation (!Plinfl) after the calculation (#Construction schedule !Recalc) has been performed. The button <Plot to file> may be used for creating a plot file with the presented picture. Plot files presenting the influence lines can also be created in the construction schedule after they have been calculated. This is done with placing the action PlInfl in the action table.
10.6.3 Nonlinear Calculation of Traffic Load Cases (LiveSet)
The calculation of traffic load cases by evaluating influence lines is based on the superposition principle and therefore in general not allowed for nonlinear calculations. However, it is in many cases allowed to use a process, where the dead loads are calculated with taking into account the nonlinearity of the system, whereas the behaviour under traffic loading is considered as being linear. In this case, the stiffness matrix used for the traffic load analysis is the tangent matrix based on the deformed shape under dead loading. This approximation might be suitable when the traffic loads are small compared with the dead loads. Assuming linearity of the behaviour under traffic loading and using the tangent matrix for calculating and evaluating the influence lines, is automatically performed in the program if one or more nonlinearity options are set in the #Construction schedule !Recalc menu. However, sometimes a full nonlinear calculation of traffic loads is required (e.g. in the case of a highly nonlinear behaviour, or if the traffic loading is a considerable part of the total loading). This is done by calculating traffic load cases directly like any other load case with creating load cases and load sets in the related database tables by using the standard load types provided in the program.
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The effort for directly defining the load sets describing complex load trains moving on arbitrary lanes may however be considerable, especially if the most unfavourable position of the load train for a certain internal force component has to be considered. The action LiveSet has therefore been provided in order to support this task. This action generates by using the influence lines a load set describing the loading due to a load train acting at the most unfavourable position with respect to a (user defined) characteristic result value (internal force or deformation component, maximum or minimum). This set is assigned to a load case, and a fully nonlinear calculation may be performed for this case.
Note: This process is based on the assumption that the relevant position of the load train is not affected by the nonlinearity, i.e. in general, that the zerocrossings of the influence lines do not considerably move due the nonlinearity.
Determining the relevant position of a load train is sometimes also of interest in linear calculations, and the action LiveSet may certainly be used in this case. The input parameters for the action LiveSet are described in 7.5.3, Calculation actions static. Such a fully nonlinear calculation will usually only be performed for a restricted number of characteristic max./min. values in order to avoid an exploding calculation effort. However, proceeding in this manner often allows a very good estimation of the influence of nonlinearity by comparing for some values the fully nonlinear results with the results of the influence line evaluation process.
10.6.4 Taraffic lanes
Lanes are fixed paths along which load trains (refer next chapter) can move. Only loadings defined in #Construction schedule !Load definition "LTrain as load trains can be used for the influence line evaluation.
A lane consists of a series of points (lane points), where unit point loads acting in a specified direction are applied, resulting in result vectors called (related) influence lines. These unit result vectors are later multiplied by the actual load intensity values of the actual load trains. The lanes are defined #Construction schedule !Load definition "Lane (see 7.3.9). The lane points are defined relative to the structural elements and do not need be parallel to the axis of the structural model (skew lanes are allowed, e.g. in transition areas). A series of lanes can be interconnected in any random pattern if desired thus if a traffic lane on a bridge traverses a bridge at a highly skew angle it can be easily defined using this flexible lane definition. The automatic determination of the position of the lane points by the provided macros may be supplemented or refined by direct definitions in the GUI. The loading can be defined as being eccentric to the lane. Any number of lanes may exist on a structure at any one time. Any lane is positioned relative to the members of the structural model, usually the beam elements forming the bridge deck. We distinguish between 2 basic types: Longitudinal elements (main girder elements) Transverse elements (cross girder elements) For details of the definition of the position, refer to 7.3.9.
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10.6.5 Load Trains
Load trains represent traffic loading diagrams, which may vary within some limits. They consist of sections with a uniform distributed load, and with a point load at the section begin. The structure is described in detail in 7.3.9, Load train definition "LTrain. The number of load trains is not restricted. The traffic loading of a lane may also be portioned in several load trains (e.g. one load train for the distributed loading, an other load train for the vehicles). The influence lines are in this case separately evaluated for the different load trains. The respective envelopes are combined at the end (besides the different envelopes of different lanes).
The complexity of the traffic loading to be applied in accordance with the different design codes is very different, therefore the basic parameters for the load train definition as described in Load train definition "LTrain are not sufficient for all design codes. Especially the codes based on the British Standard and the AASHTO code have numerous peculiarities, which must be considered. Two heavy vehicles with varying distance must be applied (British Standards, AASTHO). The intensity of distributed loads may depend on the total length of the loaded portions of the bridge (British Standards). This is modelled using load functions (Function qlen). The intensities of lanes may be factored by a beta function (Function Beta) depending on a user defined lane order (Hong Kong Standards). A fictitious reduced loaded length in regions of highly cusped influence lines (BD 37/01) (option Triangle f.). The heavy vehicle must be placed for a second time in an unfavourable position, but only for negative moments (Option AASHTO). The loads have to be differently factorised for maximum/minimum moments and shear forces (AASHTO Code)
Two or more heavy vehicles with variable distance in one lane
This situation is modelled by defining between the 2 vehicles a section with variable length by using Lfrom, Lto, LStep. Lfrom represents the minimum distance (e.g. the length of the vehicle), Lto is usually the length of the lane (the 2nd vehicle may also be outside the bridge). The parameter LStep defines, which intermediate positions will be investigated (thus influences the accuracy of the result). The special case, that a 2nd vehicle must only be placed on the lane for calculating the negative moments (AASHTOCode) is covered by the option AASHTO. Only one heavy vehicle will be defined in this case in the load train. This vehicle is unfavourably placed a 2nd time in the adjacent span on the lane.
Distributed loads with length dependent intensity
A variable load intensity is defined by using formulas or tables defined in #Properties !Variables. The loaded length is available as internal variable qlen to be used as abscissa value of the variable. The name of the variable is assigned to the load train in the load function Function qlen. It is valid for all sections of the load train. Table 101 and Figure 1021 show an example of such a dependency, using the variable BSHA(qlen) defined in #Properties !Variables.
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Table 101 Definition of the variable BSHA(qlen) as table
45.602
VarA VarB Interpol 0 45.602 const 20 336*(1/qlen)^(2/3) const 50 36*(1/qlen)^0.1 const 5000 36*(1/qlen)^0.1 const
0 20 50
QLEN
The loaded length is the total length of the distributed load on the lane. It is automatically varied in the program in order to get the most severe influence. In this variation process the different regions of the influence line with unfavourable influence (sections between the zeropoints of the influence line) are considered individually and in any combination, but loaded portions of the sections are not considered. In order to avoid taking into account large sections with very small influence (and thus underestimating the total influence due to a much too small load intensity) tolerance values may be defined (see 7.3.9). Regions, where the influence is below these values are not taken into consideration for the calculation of qlen. Another effect of defining reasonable tolerance values a reduction of computation effort.
Lanes with variable lane factors
Applying such factors is e.g. required in BD37/01. The factors to be applied are dependent on the loaded length as well as on definition, whether it is a 1st lane, a 2nd lane, a 3rd lane or a further lane. In RM2004 these factors are not allocated to the lanes, but to the load trains. This allows for defining all lanes just once in their real position, and to use the in the influence line evaluation as 1st, 2nd, 3rd or further lane, dependent on the actually assigned load train. These factors are defined in the same way than the variable intensity of the distributed loading, namely be defining a variable as a function of the loaded length qlen. This variable is under Function Beta allocated to the load train. Using variable lane factors is only possible together with the definition of the load function Function qlen.
Reduction of the loaded length in highly cusped influence lines (option Triangle f.)
This reduction must be performed (e.g. in accordance with BS5400) if the total influence is becoming worse. The area A below the influence line section between 2 zeropoints is calculated, and the modified loaded length is calculated such, that a triangular shape of the influence line gives the same area (lred = 2A/Ymax) (see Figure 1022). This modification will give an increase of the loaded length in regions without cusp, therefore the program uses the smaller value of the original and modified loaded length (lb = min (L, 2A/Ymax) if the option Triangle f. is set to yes.
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Ymax
This variation may be considered by using different Load Factors allocated to the different result components. The input pad for these factors is displayed on selecting the <info> button on top of the load train table.
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11 Prestressed Bridges
11.1 General
Two different types of prestressing of bridge structures are principally known:
Internal prestressing, where the prestressing tendons are installed in ducts poured into the concrete crosssection and External prestressing, where the tendons are located outside the concrete crosssection.
The internal prestressing is in the following generally meant whenever the term prestressing is used without a special indication. Tendons are structural members defined in #Structure ! Tendon data and properties and assigned to structural members as described there (see 6.4). Tendons with the same geometric and physical parameters may be grouped together in tendon groups called Tendon Profiles. Whenever the term tendon is used in the following, this term is also related to tendon profiles, which may consist of more than 1 physical tendon. Performing the prestressing analysis of a prestressed structure requires the following definitions and actions and addition to the standard procedure:
Definition of the prestressing tendons (!Tendon Data and Properties): Material properties of the tendons Crosssections of the tendons and number of tendons per tendon profile Tendon geometry Structural elements assigned to the tendons Stressing process (!Stage activation and actions "Tendon): Definition of the type and sequence of stressing actions ("Tendon) Calculating the related impacts on the structural system ("Action Stress) Determination of the system reactions (!Stage activation and actions "Action): Assigning the stressing process to the prestressing load cases Calculation of these load cases in the construction sequence Grouting of the prestressed tendons
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Material Parameters
The definition of the material parameters is performed in #Properties !Material Data (see 5.2.6). The relevant parameters are shortly resumed below:
EMod
The basic elasticity modulus is used for computing the composite crosssection after grouting and determining the tendon stresses due to load cases applied after grouting.
EMODP
A reduced modulus is often used for computing the cable extension in the stressing process. The additional flexibility counts for considering lateral deviations of the tendon within the duct and effects due to differential displacements between the strands etc.
SIGP
The allowable stress value is a reference value used in the stressing actions for limiting the tension force at the end of the stressing process (see 7.5.3 and 7.5.4). It is used if the tension force is not directly specified, but as a factor of an allowable tension force, defined as the product of SIGP with the crosssection area of a single tendon.
YS
The adhesion coefficient COF indicates the adhesion behaviour between concrete and steel is used in the crack propagation check in accordance with Austrian code ON B4750.
Physical Parameters
The physical parameters Numb, At, Ad, Beta and Frict are related to the crosssection and the friction behaviour of the tendons and described in 6.4.
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Figure 111 below shows an example for user defined constraint conditions (P1, P3, P2, P4, P5, F1, F3). In this example, the tangent vectors at points P2, P4 and P5 are Free, i.e. not prescribed.
F2=Free
P2 F1
P4
F4=Free
L1, E1
L2, E2
P3 F3
L3, E3
L4, E4
P5
P1
i Li Ei Pi Fi
No. of the constraint (tendon) point Length between two constraint points Fictitious EModulus of the fictitious tendon members Constraint points Prescribed tangent vectors with fixed angles at a specified constraint point
For calculating the actual tendon geometry, the program performs the following: Determination of the stiffness matrices [kTMj] of the different segments and calculation of the fixed end forces of the different spare beams {pj}= [kTMj] * {dj} Specification of the additions stiffness terms [kZi] for the points with prescribed tangent direction and calculation of the equivalent forces: {pz,i}= [kZi] * {vi} Assembling the element stiffness matrices to the total matrix [K], considering the additional stiffness at the points, where the tangent direction is prescribed. Solving the equation system: {p} + [K ] ( ) = 0 Adding the calculated transversal deflections to the reference polygon
A straight part between 2 specified constraint points is enforced by applying additional tangent rotation constraints in the direction of the segment between the respective constraint points, and by increasing the stiffness of this segment. Attention has to be drawn to the fact that 2 straight segments must not be arranged immediately backtoback, and that the tangent direction in the straight part cannot be prescribed because it is unconditionally determined by the direction of the connection line. A more detailed description is given in the Technical Manual of RM2004.
Tendons or tendon parts outside of the element crosssection may also be modelled with RM2004 (external prestressing). We distinguish in this context between external tendons, being located over the whole length outside the crosssection, and external segments of internal tendons.
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External segments are always straight. A straight part is automatically created by the program when the radio button Extern in the tendon point definition menu is set. These external segments must get an individual structural element number. They are only at the beginning and at the end connected to the structural system.
Note: These elements are automatically activated when used in a Stress action in !Stage activation and actions "Action. They need not be activated by the user. They are however listed in the element table in #Structure !Element data and properties, but they cannot be modified there.
The geometry definition of external segments of internal tendons is done in the same manner, than for internal tendons, except that a tendon point of the type Line (see 11.4.5) is used for specifying the begin of the straight part, and a new structural element number is assigned. External Tendons are also in the curved parts located outside of the crosssection. They are in these sections however assigned to structural concrete elements for transmitting deviation and frictions forces. However, it is assumed that the contact line is outside of the crosssection (along a deviator block). These tendons cannot be grouted, and they will never contribute to a net or composite crosssection. An external tendon always requires after a straight segment at least one ensuing structural element simulating the deviator block. Folds in the tendon geometry are not allowed. Each deviator block requires at minimum 1 structural element between 2 straight parts. Two elements are required if also the summit of the curve should be defined. Note that the begin and the end of the deviator block should already be considered in the modelling process of the structural system (nodal points approximately at the begin and end of the deviator), in order to guarantee a proper transmission of the deviation forces to the structure. The straight segments (with a start tendon point of the type Line) are defined as external segments, i.e. separate structural elements simulating the tendon are created. These elements are connected to the structural system at begin and end points. No friction calculation is performed in these segments.
Note: It is formally possible to treat straight parts of external tendons with respect to friction and tendon force calculation in the same manner than internal tendons. This is done by not setting the switch in the constraint point definition menu to external and not assigning a new element number. They are however not considered for the calculation of net and composite crosssection values.
Due to the high friction and the high deviation forces it may be assumed, that along the deviator block external tendons may be treated like internal tendons (rigidly connected to the structural element). The friction calculation is therefore performed in these sections in the same manner than for internal tendons. The accidental deviation angle should be zero in order to avoid wrong additional friction forces, if there are straight (or nearly straight) parts within the deviator region. The geometry definition of external tendons may be performed in 2 different ways: Definition via tangent intersection points (Type 1) Definition of the straight parts, where the curved segments are fitted in between.
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11.4.2 Geometry Definition via Tangent Intersection Points (Type 1)
The user defines in this case the start and end points of the tendon and the tangent intersection points as Tendon Points of the tendon geometry (points P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 of Figure 112). Additional points describe the start and end of curved sections (deviator blocks). Minimum required point definition: Besides the tangent intersection points (ISP) at least one free point F (in calculation direction) before and one point of the type Line after each intersection point have to be specified. The free point before the tangent intersection point marks the end of the external segment, the Line point after the intersection point defines the begin of the next external segment. Only the position in longitudinal direction (x/l) has to be specified for these points. The specified position in the crosssection is irrelevant, the eccentricities are automatically calculated by the program (intersection between the ISP connection line with the crosssection plane). Calculation direction
ISP (R) P2 F F F Line ISP (R) P5
Plane 2 F F F
P4 Line P3 ISP (R)
Line
P1
P6
Line
Straight part
Plane 3
Normal or ISP
EXT
INT
EXT
INT
EXT
Two subsequent sections between the tangent intersection points form a plane, defined by 3 tendon points (see planes 1, 2, 3 in Figure 112). The curve representing the tendon geometry between the straight sections is then calculated as 3rd order parabola, with the positions and tangent directions of the start and end points (F and L), and the specified Radius as curvature radius at the vertex, are constraint conditions.
Note: The resulting 3rd order curve in the deflection plane is more or less different to the mostly required form straight line circle straight line. The size of the deviation may be controlled by an suitable choice of the vertex curvature radius too small radii yield opposite curvatures at the start and end points, too large radii may yield begin and end points of the curved part being outside of the predefined deflection region. A better approximation can be achieved by defining additional free points (see below).
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Additional Free Points: The deflection region, where the tendon is treated as internal tendon for calculating the friction losses, is often much larger than the effective deflection area, where the tendon is really in contact with the deviator block. I.e. the actual tendon geometry within the deflection region consists of a circular arc in the vertex region and additional straight pieces to the connection points of the (external) straight segments. This shape can only approximately be represented by the 3rd order curve calculated as described. The main shortcoming is, that opposite curvatures usually arise at the start and end points, influencing the friction losses.
A much better approximation can be achieved by defining additional Free points between the tangent intersection point and the start and end points of the curved section. The position of these points is calculated by the program by fitting a circle with the specified radius into the angle between the 2 straight connection lines forming the tangents of this circle. The 3rd order curve is now calculated between these theoretical new points. Straight pieces are then arranged between these new points and the start and end points of the internal section. The resulting shape in the curved area is now much closer to the exact circular form.
11.4.3 Geometry Definition by Specification of Straight Segments (Type 2)
Calculation direction
Plane 2 Plane 1
ISPF (R)
ISPF (R)
Normal
F
P2
F
P3
*
LineY Normal
P4
F
P6
F
P7
*
LineY
P1
Line
Straight part
ISPF (R)
Normal
EXT
INT
EXT
INT
EXT
The calculation process is in this case in some details different to the procedure used in the 1st method with tangent intersection points: the planes for the calculation of the curved parts are characterized by other Tendon Points, and
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In this case, the start point of the tendon is a point of the type Line, the end points of each straight (external) segment are points of the type Normal. The start points of all further straight segments (from the 2nd onwards) are either
Line (free Y) for the definition of the plan geometry, or Line (free Z) for the definition of the elevation geometry respectively.
Three tendon points (P1, P2, P4), specified by the user, build a plane (e.g. plane 1, see Figure 113). The final position of point P3, describing the transition point from the curved internal section to the ensuing straight segment, is calculated by the program. The condition, that this point is in the plane built by P1, P2 and P4, must be fulfilled. Dependent on whether the Y or the Z coordinate should be adapted to pull the point into the defined plane, P3 is specified as Tendon Point of the type Line (free Y) or Line (free Z).
Attention: Line (free Z) has to be used for defining the elevation geometry, Line (free Y) for the plan geometry. The type Line must not be used, for program internal reasons even not, when the point is already located in the right plane.
If no further free points are defined besides the start and end points of the straight segments, then the curve between the 2 points describing the begin and the end of the curved region automatically becomes a 2nd order parabola with prescribed tangents at the start and end points. The curvature radius at the vertex can in this case not be defined by the user, but will be an implicit result of the calculation. If a certain curvature radius should be prescribed for the vertex point, then the user has the possibility to insert the tangent intersection point as Free point with radius (ISPF). The calculation is then performed in the same manner as described in 11.4.2 (inserting a 3rd order curve with prescribed curvature radius at the vertex). Again, opposite curvatures within the deflection region may arise and additional Free Points may be defined in order to get a better approximation.
11.4.4 Approximate Geometry in the Region of the Deviator Block
If in the region of the deviator all Free points (see above) are defined, then the program calculates the exact transition from the straight part of the tendon to the circle (condition: the straight segment is the tangent to the circle with the radius R). The curve between the vertex and these transition points is approximated by a 3D cubic spline curve. If the additional free points are omitted, then the cubic parabola is fitted between the start and end point of the deflection area and in consequence the approximation is worse (the resulting geometry is more inaccurate). The parabola deviates in both cases more or less from the circular shape (curvature radius at the vertex is smaller than at the transition points). Therefore, the radii listed in TENDON.LST are not equal to the prescribed radius.
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straight F
F Exact circle ( R)
F F
straight
The following section describes the different available types of tendon points and the related influence on the geometry calculation.
Normal
The type Normal specifies fixed points, where an internal or external tendon has to pass through. The tangent at this point can be free or constraint (value). Elevation and plan are separately calculated, i.e. the direction may be prescribed in the elevation and free in the ground plane ore vice versa. This type is default and used for the definition of internal tendons for all points except the start points of straight sections (for the correct use of this function for external tendons see chapter 11.4 External Prestressing).
Line
This type defines a start point of a straight tendon section. This might be the begin of a straight part of an internal or external tendon. The tendon direction is automatically defined by the positions of this point and the next point. If the type Line is used in the external tendon definition for defining the start of a straight section after a tangent intersection point, then the entered position in the crosssection is not used, but the intersection point of the straight connection line between the tangent intersection points and the crosssection plane.
Line (free Y)
This type also defines the beginning of a straight tendon part, but in this case for start points after a straight section and a subsequent curved segment. The next and the 2 previous segments are assumed to be in a common plane. Therefore, RM2004 calculates the plane built by the 2 previous points and the subsequent point, and changes the Y coordinate of the actual point such that the point lies in the prescribed plane.
Line (free Z)
Same as Line (free Y), but the Z coordinate is adapted instead of the Ycoordinate.
Intersection point
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This type defines an intersection point of two tangents (or a fix tendon point like Normal), e.g. tangent intersection points of a deviator block or end point of an external tendon).
Free node at element element
The type Free node at the element defines a point of the tendon with variable position. The exact position will be calculated using the specified constraints (e.g. transition of a straight external part to the internal part in the region of the deviator or intersection point of the straight part to the curved deviator block).
Intersection point (free)
An intersection point (free) can be used if the position of this point should be calculated by the program such that it becomes a point of the plane defined by three tendon points.
The curvature of a tendon governs the friction losses in the stressing process. The accumulated direction changes () at any position in the tendon are used to calculate the losses up to that position, using the friction loss formula given below:
Zi = Zo * e ( + * l )
l Coefficient of friction Angular deviations (in radians) Accidental deviation angle (rad/m) (entered in /m; internally transformed to rad/m) Member length
The abovementioned physical parameters and are entered in the #Structure !Tendon data and properties menu. Note that the wobbling of the tendon is not described by the wobble factor k, but by the accidental deviation angle as described in detail in 6.4, !Tendon Data and Properties.
11.5.2 Scheduled Stressing Sequence
The stressing actions to be applied are specified in #Construction schedule !Stage activation and actions "Tendon (see 7.5.4) when the tendons have been defined. Several subsequent stressing actions, related to common procedures applied on site, may be specified for each tendon (initial stressing, release, restressing, wedge slip, ). A socalled Stresslabel is assigned to every stressing action. Actions with the same Stresslabel are assumed to be backtoback actions, performed at the same time in the construction schedule. The stressing itself is modelled by selecting the action Stress in #Construction schedule !Stage activation and actions "Action. All scheduled stressing actions with the there specified Stresslabel will be performed in this calculation action. All affected tendons need to be stressed before the related prestressing Load Case can be calculated in the construction stage.
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Note that the stressing action (i.e. the friction loss calculation) is performed on the rigid (undeformable) system.
11.5.3 The Prestressing Load Case
In order to be able to calculate the deformations and internal forces resulting from prestressing the tendons, the program requires respective load cases being created in the load case table. The tendons stressed in every individual prestressing load case are specified in the related input pad, when the load type Stressing has been selected in the function !Load definition "LSet or !Load definition "LCase. The action Stress must have been performed for the affected tendons before they can be assigned to a prestressing load case. Separate load cases have to be created for all stressing sequences applied at different times in the construction schedule. When tendons are stressed in 2 or more steps in different construction stages, this has to be considered by assigning different Stresslabels to the stressing sequences applied at different times. The action Stress with the Stresslabel of the first stressing sequence must in this case be called before the Calc action for the related prestressing load case, then the action Stress with the Stresslabel of the next stressing sequence before the Calc action for the next related prestressing load, and so on. The radio button IncrementForce / TotalForce is also related to this case of stressing tendons more than once in the construction schedule. The button IncrementForce indicates, that any previous stressing state shall be considered, and only the differential forces between the new and the previous stressing state shall be applied. The button TotalForce indicates, that for whichever reason the previous state is not considered and the forces due to the current stressing sequence are fully applied. Using this option is dangerous, the user must take care, that the previous stressing case has not been accumulated in the summation load case or has been subtracted before the new total case is applied. Otherwise, the first prestressing part will be doubly considered. Example: Construction stage 1: First stressing to the tendon force state A The selection of the switch has no influence on the results A ... TotalForce = IncrementForce
Stressing A Wedge slip A Begin End
The stress state A is applied to a tendon in the first construction state. Selecting TotalForce or IncrementForce is irrelevant, because no previous tendon forces exist.
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Construction stage 2: Restressing of the tendon to the tendon force state B B ... Total Force
Stressing Wedge slip B
BA
Begin
End
End
The stressing force state B is assigned to this tendon in the 2nd construction stage. The total tendon force B is used if ! TotalForce is selected. If the results are summed up in a superposition file, then the sum A+B will be as result in the superposition file, instead of the correct state B. If ! IncrementForce is selected, then the force state BA will be used as loading. The sum of the 1st and 2nd construction state will now be the state due to the tendon force state B. A practical application of the option ! TotalForce may be an approximate consideration of the prestressing steel relaxation. Considering the load set in the load case with a factor of 0.1 means a relaxation of 10%. Another application of TotalForce is the removal of tendons (load set with TotalForce is assigned to the load case with a factor of 1.0). Example for relaxation: Assumption: A tendon is stressed up to 100% as usual. The stressing sequence is available, a load set (LS501 Tendon number Increment) and a load case LC501 with factor 1.0 for the load set LS501 are defined and calculated within the construction schedule. The relaxation occurs over a certain time interval (e.g. 8 days). It is 0 at application time of the Load Case and e.g. 10% after 8 days. A further load set (LS502 Tendon number Totalforce) and a load case LC502 with factor (0.10) for the load set 502 are defined and calculated in the construction schedule, 4 days (as approximation) after the load case 501.
11.5.4 Calculation of the Prestressing Load Case and Results
The calculation of the prestressing load case is slightly different to the calculation of normal other load cases. The applied  in fact external  stressing forces (deflection forces, anchor forces, friction forces) are transformed into an equivalent internal stress state (or internal force state respectively). This equivalent internal force state related to the concrete cross
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section is generally called primary state or V*e state. The tendon forces are separately allocated in the database and additionally stored. This internal force state is on the one hand stored in the result file as the primary internal force state, and on the other hand used to calculate an equivalent strain state to be applied as a loading (similar to a temperature loading) on the structural system. Solving the equation system for this loading, gives a 2nd part of the internal force state, the secondary state or constraint state(see 2.6.2, Internal State Deformations, Forces, Moments and Stresses). I.e. the total internal force state is separated into 2 parts, the V*estate (or primary state) and the constraint state (or secondary state) The 2 parts are separately stored and controlled in the database. They are added in the superposition process if required. This separation into 2 parts cares for the design rules in most national codes, where often the primary and secondary states have to be treated differently with respect to safety conditions. Some approximation are assumed in the process for calculating the V*estate: Crosssections remain plane (linear stress distribution in the crosssection) Friction forces are neglected (theoretically there were shear components due to friction) Reference crosssection is always the original crosssection (without subtracting the duct holes or adding the weighted tendon crosssections) These approximations are generally made in engineering and may be seen as allowable in most cases. However, to user must be conscious of these approximations when evaluating and judging the results, because they may cause in special contexts essential deviations from the exact resulting state. Primary state and secondary state are separately stored in the result files and may be separately printed or viewed in the function #Results !Load case results. This holds for true for internal forces of the structural elements as well as for the tendon forces. The primary state is always the state directly resulting from the stressing action Stress. The results of all later applied loads, especially also tendon force losses due to later stressed other tendons, are stored as secondary forces. Only tendon force losses due to creep and shrinkage are themselves again separated into a primary and secondary part.
11.5.5 Grouting Prestressed Tendons
Grouting of tendons is modelled by the calculation action Grout. No system reaction is calculated in this action. The only effect is, that the composite crosssection will be used (crosssection values adapted) for the concrete stress calculation (not for further load case calculations, no change of the stiffness matrix!). This adaptation of the crosssection values is however only performed, if the related !Recalc options (see 7.7.1) are selected.
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11.5.6 Treatment of Tension Force Losses
External tendons or external segments of internal tendons are modelled by separate structural elements. All later stress changes are therefore implicitly calculated in the analysis. The below given comments apply only to internal tendons. The general usage of the term stressing force is capable to be misunderstood. On the one hand it is used for describing the force in the tendon applied in the stressing process (11.5.2), and on the other hand related to the concrete crosssection for describing the prestressing state of a structural element. In statically determined structures, the two forces are in equilibrium and therefore equivalent. The respective internal force state is called primary state or V*estate. However, the tendon force will not be fully applied to the structural concrete element if the system is constrained (especially in longitudinal direction). The initial prestressing state will in this case deviate to some extent from the V*e state. These initial prestressing losses are usually not considered as primary effects, but as secondary forces. These secondary internal forces are treated like those due to any other external loadings, although they are acting on the net crosssection and do partly change the internal equilibrium state. Most design codes do not clearly define, whether the term stressing force is related to the tendon force or to the force in the prestressed structural element. Therefore there are often found different perceptions on what is meant by the terms (pre)stressing force and (pre)stressing force losses. In order to avoid this definition problem, the term (pre)stressing force is in RM2004 only used for describing the force, which arises in the tendons in the stressing actions. With respect to internal force results in the structural elements and tendons we strictly use the terms tendon forces, describing the total force in the tendon. Individual loadings applied after the stressing process yield tendon force changes, which include all changes of the total tendon force (arising before and after grouting). Our design code interpretation is, that the term stressing force losses characterised a reduction of the prestressing state, i.e. of the forces acting on the concrete section due to prestressing. Using the above described approximation characterising the V*e state as initial prestressing state and neglecting initial prestressing losses, stressing force losses are related to the primary state of the internal force state due to prestressing. Stressing force losses in this sense are also the primary parts of internal forces arising in later load cases. I.e. such stressing losses only arise due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation, and due to any stressing actions in stressed but not grouted sections of the structure. (Temperature load cases do not yield primary parts, because it is generally assumed, that the temperature expansion coefficients of concrete and prestressing steel are identical.) Therefore, whenever national design codes require stressing forces and stressing force losses being separately considered in checking procedures, RM2004 uses the primary parts of the respective load cases. Any initial losses due to longitudinal constraints are treated like external load case results. The stressing forces and stressing force losses are in RM2004 the primary parts of the tendon forces and tendon force changes. When calculating the tendon force changes we must principally differentiate between grouted tendons, and not yet grouted tendons.
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Grouted tendons:
Changes of the tendon forces due to external load cases (weight loads, traffic, temperature, etc.) are automatically calculated for all grouted tendons. They are stored in the database as secondary state forces. A special case is the situation, where, in a certain section of the superstructure, some tendons have been stressed and grouted, before other tendons are stressed in a further prestressing load case. The primary part of the new prestressing load case is in this case not automatically taken into account in the calculation of the tendon forces of the previously stressed tendons, because the related tendon strain is irrelevant for calculating the internal forces of the structural elements. (Using the stiffness of the original concrete crosssection requires also using the strain of the concrete crosssection as loading). However, changes of the tendon force will arise in the already grouted tendons, and it is often required to get them as result values. A special function has therefore been provided in RM2004 to calculate these tendon force changes. This function is run through, when the option Calc. Losses for elastic compression is set in the !Recalc menu.
This option should always be set, if different tendons of a certain section of the structural system are stressed and grouted at different times. The effects of the primary part of a prestressing load case are usually essential. The secondary part mostly reduces the effects of the primary part, i.e. omitting the primary part may give tendon forces, which are very different and can have the wrong sign. Ungrouted tendons:
Calculating the exact tendon force changes in ungrouted tendons is very difficult and cannot be done in the line with the general calculation concept of RM2004. Therefore, in the standard case, the program does not calculate any losses in ungrouted tendons. This is in accordance with the assumption, that a) The total length of a tendon between the anchor points is not changed with applying the new load case, and b) The tendon slips in the duct, and the mobilised friction losses are in this context negligible. The latter condition can usually be assumed for weakly curved tendons. It is in accordance with the calculation of the friction losses in the stressing actions with assuming, that the deformations of the structure do not influence the tendon forces (calculation of friction losses on a rigid system). The first condition (change of the total length of the tendon) is not relevant for the tendons currently being stressed, because in this case, the elastic shortening of the structural elements is automatically compensated when stressing to a specified stressing force. The only practical displacement driven stressing action is the wedge slip. Its part is small, and the respective structural deformations may be neglected. However, later load cases acting on the system with tendons being anchored but not grouted, can cause essential changes of the total length of these tendons. These are mostly load cases, which cause an elastic shortening of the structure, e.g. prestressing load cases of later stressed tendons. The length changes due to lateral deviations are mostly negligible, but it must be taken into account, that in the case of eccentric anchor points of the tendons, any rotation of
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the end crosssections will cause longitudinal displacements, which may be essential even in standard load cases such as weight and vertical traffic loading. Directly taking into account such a shortening of the tendon length due a change of the distance between the anchor points is not provided in RM2004. However, the user can approximately find out this influence by evaluating the displacements of the anchor points and calculating the change of the total length. An average strain can be calculated with using the total length and the length change, and subsequently the related average tendon force change. This change can be taken into account in the stressing actions, giving an accordingly enhanced internal stress state after repeating the calculation. In some cases, the user wants to specify the primary state, which shall be valid for the structure after the losses due to later stressed tendons. In this case, the calculation without taking into account these losses is not repeated, but on site, the actual stressing is performed with an accordingly higher force. The tendon force change calculated as described above, describes in this case the required raise of the stressing force to be applied on site. The !Recalc option Losses ungrouted = grouted allows to consider ungrouted tendons as grouted tendons in the tendon force loss calculation process. This is a useful assumption especially in the case where the friction is very high (e.g. deviator blocks of external tendons). Also for normal tendons, this assumption can be better than completely omitting the losses due to later load cases. However, using this option stands for treating the tendon force changes as secondary effects, which are not considered as prestressing losses in the strict sense. Finally, it should be mentioned, that all calculated secondary tendon force changes are purely informative. They do not influence subsequent checking procedures, and any inaccurate values do not have essential negative effects in this context. All checking procedures use only the results of the structural elements related to the current net or composite section, and if required the primary state of the prestressing forces. Therefore, not setting the option Calc. Losses for elastic compression in !Recalc does not have a fatal subsequent effect. When the used design code requires the separate consideration of prestressing losses, any losses before grouting should be calculated with adapting the stressing action as described above.
11.5.7 Calculation of Concrete Stresses
The primary results of static analyses of beam structures are always deformations and internal forces, where the full original concrete crosssection (gross crosssection) is always used for calculating the beam element stiffness matrices. However, the real crosssection in the case of prestressed structures is initially weakened by the duct holes (net crosssection). After grouting the ducts, the crosssection is strengthened with respect to the original one (composite crosssection). It is generally not necessary to adapt the crosssection for the standard static analysis for determining the internal force state, because the internal forces do not vary very much with stiffness changes. It is however most often required to use the correct crosssection values for calculating the concrete stresses, because the deviations of the stresses may be essential.
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In order to perform the required crosssection adaptations for the concrete stress calculation RM2004 offers 3 options in the !Recalc menu (Special settings):
Update CS (+ tendon steel area) ( duct Update CS ( duct area) Update CS (+ fill area)
Update CS (+ tendon steel area): If this option is set, then the tendon steel area factored by n
= Es/Ec is taken into account for calculating the composite crosssection to be used for evaluating the concrete stresses. Usually selecting this option is only meaningful together with the option for subtracting the duct area described below. Otherwise, the concrete stiffness in the tendon steel area would be taken into account additionally to the steel stiffness. If no duct exists (prestressing in a prestressing bed), then it is recommended nevertheless to define a duct area (equal to the steel area) in order to get the correct composite crosssection. The calculated composite crosssection is used for the stress evaluation for all load cases applied after grouting (action Grout).
Update CS ( duct area): If this option is set, then the net crosssection values (crosssection (
weakened by the duct holes) are used for evaluating the concrete stresses due to all load cases applied before grouting of the tendons. The net crosssection by subtracting all specified duct holes. After grouting, the respective steel area is again added if the above described option Update CS (+ tendon steel area) is selected.
Update CS (+ fill area): This option governs the treatment of the grout material in the calcula
tion process of the composite crosssection. If the option is set, then for the grout material the full area between the tendon and the duct is considered with the Youngs modulus of the structural concrete. Some design codes do not allow to take into account the longitudinal stiffness of the grout material, in this case the option must not be set. A possibility for partially considering this stiffness is currently not provided in RM2004.
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12 Composite Structures
12.1 Composite Crosssections
Crosssections of composite elements are allocated in the same manner than those of ordinary beam elements (see 6.3.4). However, a direct allocation of the crosssection values is not allowed, because the geometric arrangement of the different crosssection parts is in this case essential for calculating the stiffness matrices. Therefore, all start and end crosssections of composite elements have to be defined as database objects either in the function #Properties !CS (see 5.4) in the RM2004 GUI, or in the Geometric Preprocessor GP2004. The composite crosssections have to be geometrically defined as a crosssection consisting of different crosssection parts. The individual parts are parts with different material and/or parts being activated at different points in time in the construction schedule. The geometry definition (FEmesh) has to be done for the whole crosssection; it is not possible to treat the different crosssection parts as different crosssections and composing them later on. For details on defining crosssections, see 5.4. In principle, the different parts must be consistently connected to each other (FE element edges and nodes must coincide along the connection line). An exception may be made for crosssection parts with no or negligible shear stiffness (e.g. longitudinal reinforcement of reinforced concrete crosssection in the special case, where the stiffness of the reinforcement shall be considered in the analysis). These parts may be modelled with FE elements, which are not connected with the element mesh of the basic crosssection. I.e. discontiguous FE meshes are treated as coherent with respect to bending and normal force, but not with respect to shear. For composite crosssections consisting of parts with different material assignment, the geometry information is not sufficient for calculating the correct crosssection values: the different parts have to be weighted in accordance with their stiffness parameters (Youngs modulus for bending and normal force terms, shear modulus for shear terms). The calculated crosssection values are related to the parameters of the material assigned to the respective structural elements. The weighting factors used for the different crosssection parts are the ratios between the moduli of the actual crosssection part and those of the structural element. Crosssection variants are automatically created if the same section is allocated to elements with different materials. The crosssection values of the different variants may be viewed with selecting the appropriate variant in the pulldown menu of the variant indication field on top of the crosssection value table (see 5.4.3).
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the construction schedule. The respective maybe intermediate composite crosssection must be specified as an additional crosssection part consisting of two or more individual parts (see 5.4.3), and assigned to the composite elements. Partial elements and composite elements are usually related to the same system line, i.e. they are allocated to the same series of nodal points. All crosssection parts must in this case have the same reference point (defined in GP2004 in the crosssection definition process, see 5.4.3), and the crosssection eccentricity must be considered (CSeccentricity type YlZl selected, see 6.3.4).
Note: Theoretically and in the program accepted the different element series may also be allocated to different node series. However, the user has in this case to take care, that the correct geometric relations remain preserved, and that the different element series get the same support conditions allocated.
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tribution of the steel part to the total weight, the user may neglect the deviation, or compensate it by specifying an accordingly adapted specific weight value. Considering the temperature impact, we must differentiate between a linear and a nonlinear temperature distribution over the crosssection. In the case of a constant or linear temperature loading (load type T), it must be taken into account, that this impact although being itself linear causes a nonlinear stress state in the composite crosssection if the temperature expansion coefficients of the different materials are different. This effect is not automatically considered by the program, i.e. the program uses the specified expansion coefficient, or the one of the element table (in accordance with the material assigned to the composite section). The user has to enter the temperature distribution as a nonlinear temperature diagram, if the different temperature expansion coefficients should be correctly considered. However, it is common use to neglect the temperature expansion differences between steel and concrete. For considering nonlinear temperature distributions over the crosssection, the program also uses a common temperature expansion coefficient. However, the user has the possibility to weight the temperatures in the specified reference set in accordance with the deviations of the coefficient of the respective crosssection part from the one in the element table. E.g. the temperatures in the steel part may be multiplied by 1.2, if the expansion coefficient of the concrete is 1.0E5 1/C, and the steel value is 1.2E5 1/C. The calculation of the equivalent strain loading is then performed with using the schedule action TempVar (see Calculation actions static), in the same manner, than for ordinary beam elements. Load type Prestressing: Further details on how to model the prestressing of composite girders are given in section 12.8. Here in this paragraph it is only noted, that the restriction, that loads can only be applied on the elements representing the active composite state, also applies to the load type prestressing. I.e. in the system specification process, the individual tendons must (#Structure !Tendon data and properties "Assignment) be assigned to the elements, which represent the active composite state when the tendons will be stressed. It is therefore not possible to model partially stressing tendons in a state before the composite has been established, and restressing them, when the composite section is active. In such a case, the respective tendon profile has to be split into 2 profiles, one assigned to the partial element and stressed before establishing the composite, and one assigned to the composite elements and stressed when the this elements are active.
Basic results of an analysis of a composite structure are the deformations and internal forces of the composite element. They are stored in the load case pool and are used together with the additionally stored strain information as a basis for all postprocessing actions (superposition, design code checks).These results are displayed in #Results !LCase or #Results !Envelope if the option Normal is set. Only deformations and no internal force values are in this case displayed for the partial elements.
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12.5.2 Option Split
The option Split may be used for splitting the results of composite elements to the belonging partial elements. In this case, the results shown for the composite elements remain unchanged, and the corresponding internal force components of the individual partial elements are additionally displayed. For the normal forces and bending moments Nx, My and Mz this is done by using the well known formulas, and the user may feel free checking the split results by manually doing this transformation as an exercise. For the shear forces and torsion moment Qy, Qz and Mt however, the FE model must be used to calculate the shear stress distribution in the composite crosssection. These stresses are integrated over the partial crosssections yielding the contributions of the different parts to the total shear forces and torsion moments. Calculating the stress distribution by using the partial internal force values is only partly possible (not allowed for the shear terms Qy, Qz, and Mt). The program does therefore not use the split internal forces for calculating the stresses in stress checking routines and if required in ultimate load calculations. The contributions to the different parts may only be used for a general result evaluation, allowing the user for getting a deeper insight in the internal state of the structure. However, RM2004 stores additional information in the database (strain diagrams) allowing for performing correct stress calculations in the checking modules. Apart from #Results !LCase and #Results !Envelope the switch for invoking the function
Split and presenting split or total results (or both) is also available in the following functions
Action PlSys (Value default command PLSPLT) Actions ListLc, ListSup (Generating output lists of results) Computation of shear key forces (see below)
#Construction schedule !Additional Constraints "Elements (Constraints for determining the stressing sequence of stay cables of a cable stayed bridge may be split results)
The inverse function Joined (inverse with respect to Split) allows for transforming the results of partial elements (being individually active in an early stage) to the element axis and crosssection of a later in the construction schedule activated composite element. These transformed internal force values may also be superimposed with the results of other partial elements or of the composite element itself. The transformation is again made for Nx, My, Mz with using the wellknown formulas. For Qy, Qz, Mt analogous formulas are used, derived from equilibrium conditions. When superimposing load cases, which are acting partly on the partial elements and party on the composite elements, only the joined forces represent the total impact. The normal forces only represent the sum of the load cases directly acting on considered element, because the normal forces are zero in the partial elements if the belonging composite elements are
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loaded, and vice versa. The joined forces cannot be used for calculating fibre and shear stresses, but they are the basis for performing the shear capacity check. RM2004 automatically used the appropriate values in all design check functions. However, when performing hand calculations for verifying the results of the program, the user must take into consideration, that the joined results are related to an equivalent plane strain distribution, whereas the program uses the nonlinear distribution caused by the internal force contributions acting on different crosssections. The function Joined is available in the same functions and schedule actions as the abovedescribed function Split. In PlSys, it is activated by the value default command PLJOIN (reset to Normal by PLNORM).
xy =
Qy S z Jz b
However, the validity of this formula is limited (connection face parallel to the element axis, constant crosssection, etc.). A more general approach is therefore used in RM2004. The shear stresses in the connection face must correspond to the change of the normal force ( dN / dx ) transmitted in that part of the composite element, which is separated by the considered connection face. These normal forces are available for all partial elements if the above described function Split has been used.
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Only the normal force difference between the start and the end of a partial element has to be calculated to get the total shear force being transmitted by the pins over the element length. This process avoids the restrictions of the above shear stress formula and the result is consistent to all other system modelling assumptions. However, there is another problem arising because the load case superposition of traffic loads and other life loads does not yield the maximum values for normal force differences, but only for the normal forces. This problem is solved by using so called combination elements. RM2004 allows the user to define arbitrary linear combinations of basic element results as results of combination elements. These linear combinations may for instance be displacement differences or, as used in the above described context, normal force differences between start and end of the element. The required linear combinations are built in RM2004 when a load case is calculated, and the results are stored for the combination element in the same way than the basic results for the structural elements. An element number different to the numbers of the structural elements has to be defined for every combination element. But this number does in this case not identify a real structural element, but is related to another (structural) element, whose additional result values are stored under this element number. The combination elements must be activated in #Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Activation and are then taken into account in all functions of load case superposition and influence line calculation. Thus, these elements also allow for calculating and evaluating influence lines for the shear key forces of a composite element, and for determining the maximum forces in the shear keys for complex traffic load combinations. RM2004 supports the use of combination elements for the calculation of shear key forces by automatically creating such elements for all partial elements of composite elements in the database. The numbers of these elements are generated by adding 10000 to the element number of the related partial element. Example: The steel girder of a composite bridge is numbered from 101 to 150 The automatically established related combination elements get the numbers 10101 to 10150.
No further input is required for specifying the combination elements if the user agrees with this numbering scheme. The elements must however be specified in the activation list of the construction stage where the shear keys become active and the transmission of shear forces starts.
Note: Currently, input facilities for defining combination elements are not provided. Therefore, a general use of these elements is not yet possible. They are automatically established for composite structures with the above mentioned normal force difference as related result value.
The design codes of several countries also claim an ultimate load check in addition to the described shear key calculation for the ultimate serviceability state. The German code (DIN) requires for instance, that the Plastic moment of the composite crosssections has to be calculated and the related total compression forces in the concrete
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part  and the related tension forces in the reinforcement of the cracked zone respectively  be determined. The maximum value of these compression and tension forces is determined for different sections of the girder (midspan region, support region) and the chosen shear key amount must be able to transmit these forces. However, these maximum forces may be reduced using the ratio between the actual Ultimate load moment (moment times safety factor) and the Plastic moment. This reduction factor must not be under 0.5. RM2004 gives the values of the Ultimate load moment in the result listing of the computation of the ultimate moment of the composite crosssection. The Plastic moment of the composite crosssection is calculated by performing the ultimate moment calculation for a zero internal force combination. This is created by initialising a load case ( LCINIT ) and assigning it without superimposing any calculated load cases to the ultimate moment calculation action.
It is up to the user, whether this area is modelled in detail with system nodes on both ends of the idle roll and maybe further intermediate system nodes and detailed description of the tendon geometry or whether the idle roll is modelled in a rough way with only one single system node and a kink in the tendon geometry.
In between the deviator blocks, the external tendon is modelled by a separate structural linear cable element. This cable element is a straight connection between the end of the one and the beginning of the other idle roll. The cable element is at both ends connected to the system node by eccentric connections. The system parameters of the cable elements are automatically created when the input for prestressing is made. The user must only assign element numbers to the cable elements. This is also done in the input sequence for prestressing.
Unfortunately, no practically applicable hints for treating the adhesion along the idle roll in the ultimate limit state are actually available in the relevant design codes. This is also true for internal prestressing states before the adhesion due to grouting has been established. Assuming fixed end anchorage and free or frictiongoverned sliding inbetween is the basis for calculating the friction losses during the stressing procedure. However, this assumption would lead to a very complex nonlinear computation process if used for any later applied Load Cases and especially for traffic loads. Such analyses are in principal possible, but the related huge computation effort cannot be afforded in most cases. Some design codes (e.g. DIN) re TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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quire treating the ultimate limit state principally in the same way, than an internal prestressing with adhesion. The only difference is that no additional strains due to later applied loadings are transferred from the crosssection to the tendon. It is however allowed to add an additional tendon stress mostly a percentage of the yield stress  to the stress state applied in the tendon by the stressing procedure.
Internal prestressing: For internal prestressing and external prestressing in the idle roll area all application rules of the general prestressing functions as described in chapter 5 are valid. The following special hints are to be considered in the context of composite structures:
a b c
Primary and secondary results must be distinguished and separately calculated and stored for the load type Prestressing. The primary state (also called V e state) contains the direct effect of the tensioning process onto the prestressed structural elements (internal stress state without taking into account external constraints). The applied prestressing force is transformed into the components Nx, Qy, Qz, acting in the direction of the element axis and perpendicular to it. The eccentric position (ey and ez) of the tendon with respect to the centre of gravity results the moments M x = Q y e z + Q z e y , M y = N x e z , M z = N x e y . These internal forces of the primary state are related to deformations of the prestressed elements, yielding deformations of the total system. External constraints (boundary conditions) will yield restraint stress resultants in the general case. The secondary state contains these internal forces due to restraint and the deformations of the total system within the boundary conditions.
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TDVs understanding of the behaviour of this type of structures is based on the experience gathered in several calculation projects performed in TDVs computation centre for real bridges. The software design process, RM2004s capabilities and the incorporated functions were influenced by this experience to such a degree that the program actually reflects the state of Technology Know How for this type of structure. The below described approach divides the analysis into two parts: the preliminary design process on the Final state system the Construction stage analysis based on the results of the final state calculation
The design process on the Final Structure results in fixing the basic structural parameters, such as the dimensions of the crosssections of the structural members, defining an acceptable internal force diagram to be aimed at, and calculating the approximately required final cable stressing forces to achieve this target force distribution. The Construction stage analysis determines the required final stay cable forces and stressing sequence required to achieve the previously defined force diagram under stagewise construction conditions. RM2004 is designed to fulfil both of the above steps of the calculation even whilst taking several special effects such as creep & shrinkage, cable sagging, PDelta effects etc into account. Which of these effects can or shall be considered, depends on the characteristics of the particular structure. The question must be thoroughly checked by the project engineer before fixing the calculation strategy. Table 131 shows four typical cases with a proposal for the calculation options to be used. The main topics to be considered for analyses of cable stayed bridges and the related functions provided in RM2004 are
AddCon function for calculating the required cable forces
Load types FX0 and LX0 for modelling the stressing process Consideration of cable sagging Influence of the structural nonlinearity effects Fabrication shape deviating from the design shape
These topics are described in the ensuing sections before a proposed procedure for the nonlinear analysis of a cablestayed bridge is presented.
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The girder without cables is in principle a continuous beam and the result diagrams will have the same characteristic shape than those of standard continuous beam bridges (e.g. hogging moment at the pylon support and high sagging moment at mid span). Installing the cables will reduce the values, but keep the principal behaviour. Both, the hogging and sagging moments will be decreased. The cables themselves are very soft and their stiffness does hardly influence the structure. Stressing the cables will bring the girder moments to the desired order of magnitude. This stressing process must be evaluated in the design process. The TDV tool for this design process (evaluation of cable forces) is the unit load method, supported by the construction schedule function !Additional Constraints. This method is called AddCon method in this document. The rules and restrictions for the additional constraint definition are in detail described in 7.4 and 9.5. The user must: Define a unit (stressing) load for each cable (possibly together with another unit load such as support jacking) Apply all the permanent loads to the structural model Define the required design criteria (e.g. the bending moment at certain points in the girder, a deformation at the pylon top, etc.) to be aimed at By using a suitable iteration process, the AddCon function finds appropriate multiplication factors for the unit loads to achieve the above design criteria (constraints) specified by the user. Using unit stressing loads near the final values considerably enhances the iteration process. All the additional calculations (traffic, additional loads, dynamic) required to complete the design of the structure are carried out after the AddCon function (started by the calculation action Restart) has been successfully performed.
13.1.3 Load Types for Modelling the Stressing Process
Two essentially different procedures for stressing cables are theoretically possible: a) Stressing against the structural system b) Stressing in a prestressing bed When stressing against the structural system, the cable is installed between 2 points of the structure and disconnected at one end. Forces in opposite directions are applied at this end on the cable and on the structure, resulting in displacements of both, the structure and the cable. The connection is restored after the deformation has been produced, and the applied stressing forces remain in the cable until other impacts produce new deformations. The RM2004 load type describing exactly this procedure is FCAB (see the Appendix). When stressing is performed in a prestressing bed, the force is applied on the cable without acting on the structure. The stressed cable is installed in the structure and rigidly connected to the start and end points before structural deformations occur. When removing the bed, the prestressing will cause forces acting on the structural system and deformations decreasing the
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original stressing force. The RM2004 load types describing exactly this procedure are FX0 and LX0 (see the Appendix). Further applicable load types of minor importance are T (uniform temperature load) and VGA (element end displacements). Stay cables are generally stressed against the structure. This procedure is modelled by the load type FCAB. However, FCAB may only be used for doing a linear analysis, where the final stressing force is already known. This load type performs manipulations on the structural system, which are not compatible with the iterative process performed in nonlinear analyses or in the AddCon function for calculating the required stressing forces to achieve the specified additional constraints. Therefore, FX0 or equivalent LX0 are generally used to model the stressing process of stay cables. The fact, that the specified FX0 values are not the true stressing forces, is no disadvantage, because the stressing forces are generally entered as unit forces, and the required stressing forces are a result of the design calculation. Considering cable sagging requires the selfweight (and any additional load acting on the cable) being additionally applied apart from the stressing force. This transverse loading must be applied in a separate load case, in order to avoid factorising the selfweight together with the unit stressing force. However, the sagging calculation might be unstable for a loading without longitudinal stressing, therefore the stressing is usually split into 2 parts, one fix part applied together with the selfweight, and a 2nd part applied in the load cases, which are factorised in the AddCon function Restart.
13.1.4 Consideration of Cable Sagging
Cable sagging essentially influences the stiffness of the cable elements. Two alternatives are provided for considering this effect: Using a fictitious, stress dependent elasticitymodulus (Ernst modulus) Considering the curved cable geometry (nonlinear deformation behaviour of the cables)
Using a fictitious Emodulus (Ernst modulus)
Simulating cable sagging effects by using a fictitious elastic modulus is a very rough approximation and tedious process. It should only be used in very simple linear cases. The calculation action CabSag is used to decrease the elastic modulus and calculating the effects of this stiffness modification on the system. The stiffness reduction factors have to be entered by the user and are not calculated automatically. I.e. the user must approximately know the final stressing forces before he can calculate the appropriate factor by using the Ernst formula presented in figure Figure 715.
Considering the nonlinear cable geometry (Stay Cable nonlinear)
This is the standard normally being used in all analyses of cablestayed bridges. The user has only to select the option Stay Cable nonlinear in the !Recalc menu. Additional requirements for using this option and getting right answers are the cable elements have to be subdivided into smaller parts
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the self weight has to be applied on the cable elements (and any additional load directly acting on the cables)
A subdivision into 4 to 10 elements (dependent on the required accuracy) is recommended for each cable. The subdivision may either be performed by setting Ndiv in the element property table, or with using the function Cable subdivision in the #Structure !Special commands menu. Working with an internal subdivision by setting Ndiv in the element property table is not allowed in construction stage analyses, because the decomposition of the displacement components for relating them to the individual construction stages is not possible in this case. Applying the Cable subdivision function in the #Structure !Special commands menu creates new partial elements to be used in the analysis instead of original ones, and simultaneously establishes rigid rotational constraints (Node supports 1.E10 kNm/rad) at all created intermediate points. It is theoretically also possible to define subdivided cables directly in the original structure modelling process (e.g. in GP2004), but the user must be aware, that rotational constraints have to be applied at all intermediate nodes connected to no other structural members than cable elements.
13.1.5 Influence of Structural Nonlinearity
Structural nonlinearity is divided in material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity. Whereas the effects of a nonlinear material behaviour can mostly be neglected in cablestayed structures, geometric nonlinearity effects often have a big influence on the behaviour of this kind of structures. Besides the cable sagging effect, which should be considered in all cable stayed bridge analyses and may be activated also for otherwise linear calculations (see 13.1.4), geometric nonlinearity may be divided in a basic part related to the translational movement of a stressed member (considering the PDelta effect), and a stress rotation part. A further nonlinearity effect is related to the question, whether external loads are conservative or nonconservative, i.e. whether size and direction of external loads is preserved, when an element rotates or is deformed. An example for a conservative loading is the selfweight, acting always in vertical direction. An example for a nonconservative loading is the prestressing, being always related to the current local coordinate system of an element. RM2004 offers the possibility to consider only the PDelta effects (option PDelta effect in !Recalc) or the full geometric nonlinearity including both parts (option Large displacements in !Recalc).
Note: Considering the PDelta effects is automatically included when the option Large displacements is selected. It is in this case irrelevant, whether PDelta has been selected or not.
The basic requirement of all nonlinear calculations is, that total loads always have to be used in the solution process. However, RM2004 provides special techniques allowing the construction schedule with incremental loading being applied even in nonlinear analyses (see 7.7.1). Two different approaches may be applied The accumulate load method (option Accumulate permanent load in !Recalc, see 7.7.1), or The accumulate stiffness method (option Accumulate stiffness (SumLC) in !Recalc, see 7.7.1)
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Both methods require establishing a summation load case (SumLC) by respective superposition techniques, usually by automatic superposition of permanent load cases governed by LManage. One of the 2 options has essentially to be selected in any nonlinear analysis (except when calculating only one total load case).
Table 131 Use of RM2004 calculation functions for cable stayed bridges
Procedure Classification Smaller Structures Final System 2 Smaller Structures Construction Stages Larger Structures 3 Final System
% diff in results
PDelta
Cable (nonlin)
IIIrd Order
Shear displacement
10 20%
10 20%
10%
10%
3 7%
....
Note:
Smaller structures can be understood to be structures with a relatively high girder stiffness where effects such as PDelta, Cable sagging etc do not have a significant effect on the structural behaviour. These effects will have a high influence for larger structures.
In principal both methods are equivalent, except that the accumulate load method always assumes conservative loading, whereas the accumulate stiffness method implicitly assumes a nonconservative loading. However, restrictions of the applicability are given in special cases, and this has especially to be considered in the context of cablestayed bridges: The accumulate load method (without applying special construction stage constraints) can not be applied in construction stage analyses The accumulate load method cannot be applied if special loadings, such as perstressing, creep & shrinkage, element removal occur. The accumulate load method cannot be applied if composite elements occur. An additional function Apply constructions stage constraints has been provided in order to overcome the construction stage restriction. Together with this option the accumulate load method may be used also for construction stage calculations, but still not for e.g. prestressed or composite girders.
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The accumulate stiffness method has none of these restrictions. However, using the fully nonlinear stiffness matrix does not cover all nonlinearity effects. E.g. the fact, that the mostly fundamental weight loading is conservative, is not considered. Therefore, when Large displacements have to be considered, better results will often be achieved by performing the analysis on an initially deformed system and using only the option PDelta effect.
Geometrically linear calculations generally constitute equilibrium on the undeformed system, whereas in fully nonlinear calculations equilibrium is related to the deformed system (option Large displacements in !Recalc selected). Due to this fact, the standard precamber calculation described in 10.5.2 cannot be directly applied in nonlinear analyses. However, such a linear precamber calculation usually gives a good estimate of the required construction shape. Adding the calculated precamber values to the node coordinates or specifying them as stressfree predeformations (see 10.5.5), and repeating the analysis with this modified system, yields a better solution. Repeating the whole procedure again and again, will further improve the solution, and allows for an accurate determination of the required precamber shape and related cable stressing procedure. Sometimes it is sufficient to neglect effects related to the transversal displacement of the girder elements, but necessary to take into account an implicit compensation of the shortening of elements due to selfweight and stressing forces. As an example, we consider a pylon being built synchronously with the girder segments and the stressing sequence. The construction level of each new pylon segment is the theoretical design level related to a fix ground level. Due to the fact, that previous vertical deformations of the pylon have occurred, the lengths of the individual segments will be greater than the original design lengths. This ends up with a final height of the pylon, which corresponds to the design height, although the deformations have already occurred, i.e. the pylon deformations have been implicitly compensated during construction. Considering this effect is often necessary because the originally assumed geometry conditions (length and inclination of the cables), and thus the related calculated cable forces are otherwise not correct anymore. The most common approach is to apply a respective stressfree elongation of these elements at the right positions in the construction schedule e.g. by using a temperature load (T) or stress free element length (LX0). A special macro is provided in #Structure !Special commands (see 6.5.10) for creating this loading information.
13.1.7 Proposed Procedure for Nonlinear SCB Analyses
The following proposal for how to proceed when analysing a cable stayed bridge with fully considering nonlinearity and construction stages is divided in 4 steps: 1. Preliminary analysis (linear or partially nonlinear) on the Final state system 2. Modification of the stay cable geometry 3. Input of the new cable elements 4. Final nonlinear analysis considering the construction stages
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Step 1: Final State System DESIGN
of the structure
Recalc
AddCon Design OK ?
yes support all nodes Recalc restore original node supports
 final state system  cables with subdivision points (Ndiv)  all loads in one final state LC  LSets with fix part of stressing force and self weight of the cables  LSets with the variable part of the stressing force for all cables  use Accumulate Permanent Load  AddCon converged faster, if the stressing is first calculated with linear cables and after that with nonlinear cables
no .
Step 2:
Step 3:
input the new cablegeometrie define the LSets and LCs for the new cables
 recalculate the position of the cable subdivision points from the result in SumLC of step 2  these are node coordinates of the new cables  deactivate the old cable  transfer all initial forces, defined in Step 1, to a stress free element length of the old cable  this length divided through the number of the new cables gives the initial force of the new cables  activate the cables in the construction stages  the first calculation on a new activated cable has to contend the initial force and the selfweight of the cable  use Accumulate stiffness (SumLC) in the Recalc pad
Input of the
Construction Stages
Recalc
AddCon
no . final forces meet design criteria ? yes END calculation
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Preconditions: The final system must be active for the calculation (no construction stages!) Internal subdivision of the Cable elements must be specified because the definition of the new cables and nodes are based on this subdivision information. All loads must be defined in one single (final) load case (alternatively different load cases, complying with the sequence of load application, can be defined and calculated when the option Accumulate Permanent Load in !Recalc is selected). To run the AddCon function Restart, load sets and load cases with unit stressing forces have to be defined each of them corresponding to the cable stressing procedure. All permanent load cases must be accumulated in the summation load case (e.g. LC1000). Use Accumulate Permanent Load for calculation.
Special macros for generating the required input data are provided in #Structure !Special commands "Preprocessor for cablestayed bridges. The macro for this step 1 generates all the required load sets and load cases for stressing the cables and applying the selfweight.
Step 2: Modification of the stay cable geometry (first intermediate step)
The intention of this step is to calculate the sagging of all cables for the previously calculated stressing state. These curves may be assumed as approximate final sagging curves, because the final stressing forces will not be very much different. In order to get a load case without other structural deformations than the deflections of the intermediate cable points, rigid node supports have to be applied on all structural nodes. The special macro in #Structure !Special commands "Preprocessor for cable stayed bridge for this step 2 provides TCL files for applying these supports, and for removing them together with reinstalling any original node supports after the sagging lines have been calculated. The deformation of the subdivided cables is found by performing !Recalc after the node supports have been applied (i.e. after the respective TCL file has been imported, when the above mentioned macro is used). The calculated position of the intermediate cable points will define the node coordinates of the new cable elements after the subdivision as specified in step 3. The primary node support conditions must be restored before proceeding to the next step (e.g. by using the appropriate undo TCLfile created by the macro).
Step 3: Input of the new cable elements (second intermediate step)
The original cable elements with the full cable length are replaced in this step by the series of shorter cable elements related to the defined subdivision. The node coordinates must be created by using the results of the step 2 cable geometry calculation. Note that the intermediate nodes must get rigid rotational restraints in order to avoid an unstable system (cable elements do not have a bending and torsion stiffness). When using the macro #Structure !Special commands "Subdivision of cable elements, or the step 3 macro
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of #Structure !Special commands "Preprocessor for cable stayed bridge, the created TCL file will automatically contain the required commands for defining the rotation restraints. When using the macro #Structure !Special commands "Subdivision of cable elements the original system will be subdivided and new elements created. The sagging curve has to be created by hand by changing the coordinates of the created points by the amount of the previously calculated deflections. The new elements are then activated instead of the original ones, and the load sets simulating the stressing have to be related to the new elements. Using the step 3 macro of #Structure !Special commands "Preprocessor for cable stayed bridge performs the same subdivision process and additionally automatically adds the deformations of the specified load case, activates the new cable elements instead of the old ones and relates the stressing loads to the new elements.
Step 4: Construction stage analysis
The construction schedule, containing the details of the structure erection procedure is now specified and the final analysis can be performed considering the updated system geometry. In order to keep the original construction schedule related to the final state analysis in the database, this step is usually performed in a separate project directory where the project database has been copied. RM2004 also offers the Construction schedule variant option, which may alternatively be used instead of creating a new project. It should be noted, that the first load case calculated on any cable after its activation must contain the self weight of the cable and the fix part of the stressing force, i.e. this load case must be in front of the variable stressing load case being factorised in the AddCon function. The final results in the summation load case (e.g. LC1000) contain the forces of the cables after all cables have been stressed and additional permanent loads have been applied. The user however often requires the cable force immediately after this cable has been stressed (this is the stressing force to be applied). These forces are stored in the intermediate state of LC1000 immediately after the stressing has occurred. A common means to keep these intermediate results available for later result evaluation processes is, to copy the intermediate state of LC1000 to separate load cases (construction schedule action LcInit) after every variable stressing load case. Another possibility is, to create respective output lists (DoList or RunTCL) within the construction schedule.
Considering nonlinearity effects:
There exist many nonlinearity effects, which may occur individually or in combination. It is recommended to apply a stepbystep procedure in considering these effects, in order to get a feeling for the different influences. Randomly applying all the possible combinations of nonlinear effects might have little influence on the accuracy but may result in huge unnecessary computing time.
Note: The calculation time will considerably increase with each additional nonlinear effect considered.
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In any case, cable sagging and creep and shrinkage effects should be considered in every analysis (creep makes the analysis nonlinear because the cable stressing loads influence the creep behaviour).
For several reasons, the erection procedure for an incremental launching bridge requires specific support from the software. The amount of construction stages is much higher than for any other erection procedure, the launching process itself must be simulated to get the typical envelopes of results and finally the structural model must be completed by additional elements such as launching nose, casting yards and temporary supports (spring elements). Basically, bridges erected with using the incremental launching method, are modelled like all other bridges: the final structure with supports and any prestressing conditions is modelled in accordance with the standard modelling rules, following the restriction that the boundaries of the concreting segments must coincide with structural element boundaries. The points of the superstructure, which are supported in the individual launching steps, need not essentially coincide with superstructure element ends. The function #Structure !ILM Incremental launching method (see 6.6), creates on selecting "Recalc a new subdivided model, where all points being supported at the end of any launching step are nodes of the superstructure. It is however recommended to choose the lengths of the individual launching steps such, that the creation of an unnecessary big amount of possibly very short elements is avoided. In addition to the standard bridge model, the launching nose has to be modelled in its final position, and the intermediate supports have to be defined as special (spring) elements (ILMsprings) in their real position, detached from the final structural system. The particularly related data is entered in #Structure !ILM (Incremental launching method). It contains the information about concreting segments and the launching process.
Note: The final support springs are not used in the ILM data preparation function. Therefore, ILM springs have to be defined also where final supports exist.
A special macro function (#Structure !ILM Incremental launching method)) has been provided in RM2004 in order to support these special requirements (see 6.6). The application of this function is restricted to the following conditions: The road alignment in plan view must be straight or circular. The road alignment in elevation is supposed to be straight. The cross section height should be constant.
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Different cross section heights are possible, but in order to allow for subdividing the superstructure elements the crosssections must be elementwise constant. I.e. only sudden crosssection changes at element ends are allowed. The bridge decks structural nodes need to be allocated along a straight system line (most frequently at top of the cross section). This is also valid for the launching nose! The specific ILM supports (spring elements in addition to the ordinary supports) must be allocated along the same system line.
The following structural elements have to be specified in addition to the standard model of the bridge after completion: Definition of the launching nose (Elements, Nodes, Cross section and material properties) Additional spring element at end of the launching nose, in order to stabilise the structure during launching against torsion, transverse and longitudinal displacement. Additional spring elements for the launching procedure (ILM springs). These spring elements are not connected to the superstructure nodes, but connected to the superstructure during the launching process at the respective position.
ILM springs
The substructure needs to be coupled with the superstructure in any launching state. This is performed by using specific spring elements connecting any existing substructure node (or the node 0) with a new (detached) node located in the superstructure system axis above the substructure (see Figure 131). These nodes are in the launching process automatically connected to the coinciding nodes of the superstructure in the current position.
Structural nodes ILM nodes (new)
Final springs
Hints: These springs (and nodes) are preferably defined in GP2004. Elements located outside the structure (e.g. the casting yard) can of course be directly defined in RM2004. The spring constants of the ILM supports should be specified as follows: Cx = 1e10, Cy, Cz, Rx, Ry, Rz = very small in order to avoid constraints, but providing for a stable system.
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Prestressing (Tendon definition, stressing sequence, etc.) as well as Creep & Shrinkage is defined in the usual way.
The major difference to the standard procedure is, that in case of an ILM simulation separate construction stages have to be specified a) for the launching process itself, and b) for the actions performed in between I.e. we will have alternating stages for every concreting phase, and for every subsequent launching phase. E.g. stage 1 for pouring the 1st segment (activating the self weight, stressing the adequate tendons, creep and shrinkage till the start of launching, etc.), stage 2 for launching the 1st segment with a given number of steps, stage 3 for pouring the 2nd segment and so on. The removal of the launching nose is modelled in a final stage after the last launching stage. All superstructure elements and spring elements (permanent supports and ILM springs) are activated and deactivated in the usual way in the respective stages (e.g. in stage 1, 3, 5, ). These are the stages where the newly launched segment has arrived at the current location and the related schedule actions, such as calculating the load cases self weight, prestressing, creep & shrinkage or performing design code checks (fibre stress check, etc.) are performed. The specifications for these stages have to be made by the user according to the actual needs. The intermediate launching stages consist of a predefined number of launching steps and are defined as empty stages in the construction schedule, i.e. no specification of activation and schedule actions are required from the user. These empty stages will be used for the ILM simulation later. Further, one or more empty load sets and load cases have to be created, in order to be used in the launching stages. The loading information related to the launching steps (removal of previous ILM supports and activation in the new position) will be assigned this load set and load case. This reference load case and load set may be the same for all launching steps, or different. Usually, all steps of one construction stage are related to the same load case and load set, but different load cases and load sets are used for the different construction states, i.e. one load set and load case are specified for every launching stage. This keeps the final state of every construction stage resident in the database and available for the result presentation functions. The actual information about pouring segments and the launching procedure is specified in the GUI in the function #Structure !ILM (Incremental launching method) (see 6.6). This function creates a new database with updated data (see 6.6.4, !ILM (Incremental Launching Method) "Recalc). If this database could be successfully created (no error messages), the user can switch to the new directory and start the actual analysis. The calculation can be immediately started, because all empty load sets, load cases and stages have been filled up by the ILM function. Please note that all further calculations such as traffic load, final creep and shrinkage etc., need being performed on the new system in order to guarantee compatibility of the results.
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Dynamics 141
Handbuch
14 Dynamics
14.1 Structural requirements, Mass matrix and Damping matrix
14.1.1 Structural model requirements
The overall program concept is, to perform dynamic analyses within the construction schedule together with static analyses on the same model in accordance with the active construction stage. All requirements for either static or dynamic analyses must be taken into consideration in the standard structural modelling process. In many cases the standard requirements for modelling the structure are also sufficient for dynamic analyses, except that additional parameters like masses, damping, time dependency of loads etc. have to be specified. There are however some restrictions that must be taken into consideration to allow the same structural model being used for static and dynamic analyses. The most important of these restrictions is, that the consideration of the influence of masses distributed over the element length is not exact, but approximate. The mass matrix is usually lumped (see Technical Manual), i.e. the distributed element masses are integrated over the element length and applied as point masses on the structural nodes. Therefore dynamic calculations essentially require, that the total deformation shape may be sufficiently well described by the nodal displacements. The part of the deformation shape within an element, which is caused by the distributed masses, must be small enough to be neglected. This requires a sufficiently fine subdivision of the structural parts into elements.
As a general rule, each span of the superstructure should be subdivided into at least 10 elements to get a sufficiently good answer for the dynamic behaviour. High piers have also to be subdivided, if the mass of the pier has a considerable influence.
Other additional structural requirements may concern the boundary conditions or the admissibility of model simplifications, such as for instance calculating a 6 or 7 span bridge instead of a 30 span bridge with constant span lengths. The user has to check from case to case, whether the chosen the model assumptions allow a sufficiently accurate solution of the required dynamic analysis.
14.1.2 Specification of Masses
In RM2004, the masses and moments of inertia are defined as forces and moments. The specified force values are (for the calculation of mass matrices) divided by the gravity acceleration value in order to get the actual values used in the solution process. Per default the gravity acceleration is set to 9.81 m/s2. This value can be modified by the user (see 7.7.3). The masses must be grouped in load sets and assigned to load cases in the same manner than static loadings. Refer to 7.3.8 for how to create load sets and load cases. This section only shows the special requirements for the definition of masses.
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Only selfweight masses can be specified for being used either for the mass matrix calculation, or for the load vector calculation or for both, the mass matrix and static load vector computation. All other masses are only used for the mass matrix calculation, any static loading effect of these masses must be additionally specified by using other load types. The actual load types of the above groups, and the specific input parameters, are described in detail in the Appendix.
Attention:
Masses are generally scalar values, acting in the same manner in all possible acceleration directions. Thus, the definition of masses as force vectors requires entering the same value for all three forcecomponents. RM2004 does not set zero force components automatically equal to the nonzero value (except for the self weight masses). This enables the user to take into account special effects (e.g. to exclude or reduce the vibration in a certain direction, considering hydrodynamic masses etc.), but requires being careful and specifying all three components in the standard case.
Note:
Rotational mass inertia values can only be entered in terms of moments of mass inertia. The definition in terms of radii of mass inertia is not possible.
Note, that all loads which are not specified by using the above mentioned load types, will not be used for the calculation of the mass matrices in the dynamic analysis. This allows including loads in the same load set, which should not be taken into account as masses, but only as loads in the static or in the time history analysis. Whereas the definition of the masses is sufficient for the eigenvalue calculation, the time history analysis requires additionally the definition of time dependent loads (and possibly masses). These load sets describing the time dependent loads must be included in the same load case where the mass distribution is specified. Two multiplication factors may be assigned to the specified load sets to factorise the related loading. Apart from the factor ConstFac for the static analysis (multiplication factor for Constloads), a variable factor VarFac can be assigned to the Load Set. This dynamicfactor is Vardefined as an arbitrary expression normally expressed as a function of time (see #Properties !Variable).
Note: The specified factors will be applied to the complete specified load set. That means, that masses and loads will be factorised in the same manner, if they are in the same load set. Because the masses (or at least the greatest part) are constant in time, the rolling masses and loads must usually be placed in a different load set.
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Once the load case for the dynamic analysis has been specified, it will be assigned in the function #Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Action to the required schedule actions (e.g. TInt, Eigen, RespS, )
14.1.4 Definition of the Damping Behaviour
A specification of the damping matrix is only required when a time stepping analysis is performed. The calculation of eigenvalues and eigenforms is performed on the undamped system, and the modal method for the analysis of forced vibrations or earthquake response behaviour requires only the damping degree being specified. Information on the theoretical background of considering damping is given in the Technical Manual. For time stepping analyses with TInt the damping matrices must be established as a linear combination of the stiffness matrix and the mass matrix ([C] = * [M] + * [K]). The socalled Rayleighcoefficients and have to be entered as global system parameters in #Construction schedule !Recalc "Dynamic (see 7.7.3) or elementwise in #Structure !Element data and properties "Time (see 6.3.10). For convenience the program also offers an internal recalculation of these values from specified damping degree values (i for 2 frequencies i). Usually the damping degrees for the 1st and 2nd eigenforms are specified (absolute values, not percent!). The modal analysis function works with an overall valid damping degree Xsi, which is specified in #Construction schedule !Recalc "Dynamic. Elementwise varying damping is in contradiction to the modal analysis theory (see Technical Manual).
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The mathematical background of the response spectrum method is given in the Technical Manual. It is based on the modal analysis method. Assuming, that the solutions for the different eigenvalues are given in terms of a response spectrum, the response of the actual system may be determined by suitably combining the responses of the different eigenvectors. Different combination rules may be applied for performing this superposition: ABS Adding the absolute values of all individual contributions SRSS Pythagorean addition (the individual eigenvalues are completely uncorrelated) DSC This rule takes into account a correlation between the contributions of the individual eigenvalues. CQC This rule is based on a more complex theory modelling the correlation between the different natural modes. It gives good results, if the duration of the earthquake is at least 5 times higher than the longest considered period of vibration. CQCX Variation of the CQC rule: the natural modes are combined like in CQC, but the sign of the modes is considered, whereas CQC uses the absolute values. A more sophisticated description of these combination rules is given in the Technical Manual. The combination rule to be used must be specified together with the direction of motion and the type of the specified response spectrum (given in terms of either displacements, velocities or accelerations) in #Construction schedule !Load definition "Seismic. This function is used to specify different seismic events, which can be referenced in the dynamic calculation action RespS (see 7.5.3) provided for performing the earthquake analysis.
14.3.2 Response Spectrum Diagram
A response spectrum is a diagram describing the relationship between the angular velocity OMEGA (abscissa value) and the related ground motion amplitude (ordinate value). Response spectra for different geographical regions are generally available from design codes or from the local earthquake investigation institutes or authorities. Mostly they are given in terms of Hz instead of the angular velocity (abscissa) and acceleration factors (ordinate) related to the gravity acceleration g. Sometimes the abscissa is given in a logarithmic scale. The available response spectra may also be given in other units. The frequency can be given in Hertz [Hz] = Rotations/sec, as an angular velocity Omega (Radians/sec), or in terms of the period T [sec/rotation]. The response value describing the related ground motion may be given in terms of displacements, velocities or accelerations. In RM2004, the response spectrum diagram must be specified as a named variable, defined in #Properties !Variable, representing a table or a formula (expression), or even a piecewise valid set of different formulas. This variable describes the ordinate value as a function of the abscissa value, where the related ordinate value is either a subsoil displacementamplitude into a certain direction, a velocityamplitude, or an accelerationamplitude. A switch in the menu #Construction schedule !Load definition "Seismic described in 7.3.11 is provided to
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specify whether the assigned response spectrum is given in terms of displacements (d), velocities (v) or accelerations (a). The direction of the described motion is also specified in the same menu.
Attention: The ordinate values of the response spectrum must be given in the program internal units [m, sec, see 2.1]. A suitable previous transformation has to be applied for spectra given as motion amplitudes in other units, or as factors of the gravity constant.
The abscissa value must be the angular velocity Omega (), which is defined as an internal variable. A suitable transformation formula has to be related to the entered abscissa values, if they are defined in terms of Hz or Periods. Such a transformation rule must also be applied, if the abscissa values are given in terms of logarithms of frequency or period respectively.
Example:
We assume that the variable describing the response spectrum were named RESP. The variable will now have the form RESP = f (ABSCISSA) RESP may either be a displacement, velocity or accelerationamplitude. This property is assigned in #Construction schedule !Load definition "Seismic and not specified in the varivariable definition function. However, in the case of the ordinate value not being specified as displacement, velocity or acceleration term (in internal units!), an additional transformation has to be used to describe the spectrum. This can be performed with introducing an additional variable ORDINAT. If e.g. the spectrum is entered in terms of factors of g, the appropriate formulation will be: ORDINAT = f (ABSCISSA) RESP = f (ORDINAT) = ORDINAT * g
variable RM2004 uses internally the angular velocity [rad/sec] available as internal variable OMEGA as abscissa value. It is necessary to establish the relationship between this internal variable and the actually used abscissa value. When the spectrum is given in terms of angular velocities, the appropriate variable definition for assigning OMEGA will simply be:
ABSCISSA = f (OMEGA) = OMEGA For spectra given in terms of Hertz or the Period T, the appropriate necessary variable definition would be ABSCISSA = f (OMEGA) = OMEGA/2 or ABSCISSA = f (OMEGA) = 2/OMEGA. Similarly, for spectra given in terms of logarithms of Hertz or the Period T, the appropriate necessary variable definition would be ABSCISSA = f (OMEGA) = log (OMEGA/2) or ABSCISSA = f (OMEGA) = log (2/OMEGA).
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Summary of the required steps for defining a response spectrum: Select #Properties !Variable Define the response spectrum as table or formula as given in the design code (ORDINAT=f(ABSCISSA)) Define the calculation value of the ordinate as a function of the given ordinate value (RESP = f(ORDINATE)) Define the given abscissa value as a function of the internal variable OMEGA (ABSCISSA = f(OMEGA)) Select #Construction schedule !Load definition "Seismic Indicate the type of the subsoil movement amplitude in the spectrum (displacement, velocity or acceleration) Define the direction vector of the subsoil movement 14.3.3 Performing the Response Spectrum Analysis
The Response Spectrum analysis is performed in the action RespS. The overall procedure is summarised below: A response spectrum (#Properties !Variable) is defined as a variable. The seismic loading (name and type of the response spectrum, direction vector) is defined (#Construction schedule !Load definition "Seismic). Natural modes have been calculated before (#Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Action Eigen). Initialisation of the superposition file, which will contain the results (#Construction schedule !Stage actions and activation "Action SupInit). Calculate the seismic forces with the action RespS using the specified response spectrum RespS Create the list file and/or graphic in order to view the results
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The time integration method is used when the loads acting on the system vary in time (in the case of small damping a harmonic variation allows for either using time integration method or the modal analysis method). The basics of the time integration method are given in the Technical Manual. In the bridge engineering context the time integration method is usually used for investigating the dynamic response for loads (and maybe masses) moving over the bridge. Another practical application is investigating impact loads (e.g. ship impact on a pier). The emphasis of following sections is set to the dynamic calculation of moving loads and masses.
14.4.2 Time Interval and Time Steps
The time interval to be investigated is specified as a parameter of the dynamic calculation action TInt performing the time history analysis (parameter Deltat (Inp2), given in seconds). DeltaThe action related time axis (tint) presented as abscissa in the time diagrams of result values is locally defined and does not influence the global time of the construction schedule. i.e. the definition range is zero to Deltat for each TInt action. The time step (dt) for the numerical integration scheme is specified in #Construction schedule !Recalc "Dynamic (see 7.7.3). The default value is 0.01 seconds, a reasonable value for bridge structures, where the relevant natural frequencies are between 1 and 10 Hz, corresponding to periods of 1 to 0.1 seconds. One tenth of the lowest relevant period is indeed a limit value for getting passably accurate results, and smaller time steps have to be used if eigenvalues above 10 Hz give a considerable contribution. With respect to moving loads, the default value 0.01 seconds stands  in the case of a maximum speed of 100 m/sec (360 km/h) for moving the load train by 1 m in one time step. The global schedule time t is calculated in the TInt action by using t = tstart + tint although it is not directly used. It is reset to tstart at the end of the action in order to avoid influencing the construction schedule. But it is available to be used for defining the time dependency of the loads and masses.
14.4.3 Loads and Masses as a Function of Time
A time stepping analysis essentially requires defining loads as a function of time in addition to the standard structural definitions. The acting masses may be constant in time, but more often they are also time dependent (the mass of a vehicle moving over the bridge). The time dependency of loads (and masses) is described in the program by using variables (expressions). The actual load and mass values are calculated by evaluating these expressions at any point in time in the schedule. The respective variables must be defined in #Properties !Variables and then specified as multiplication factor VarFac when assigning the related Varload sets to the load case to be investigated. Note that the variable multiplication factor can
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only be applied to load sets, i.e. a time dependent loading can not be directly specified in the load case. Loads with different time dependency must be grouped in different load sets. This means with respect to moving loads that for every load position in the structural system a separate load set has to be specified. Each of these load sets is active in a different time interval. An exact definition is complicated, and it is therefore common custom to model moving loads by point loads acting on the nodes of the superstructure when the related axle of the load train passes this point. A linear influence function is commonly applied, because it is assumed, that the full load is acting when the axle passes the considered point, and no influence is given before and after the axle passes the previous and next point respectively. Figure 141 shows this load distribution modelling procedure.
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load application using f1 load application using f2 load application using f3 load application using f4
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The internal function to be used for modelling this triangular influence shape is diract (see 5.6.2). Note, that the action related time value is not directly available as internal variable, i.e. the user has to define time tint by creating a user defined variable (e.g. Tint) as a function of the internal variables t and tstart (Tint = t tstart). This variable can then be used in the diract function to describe the time dependency of the loads and masses. Even when restricting the moving load and mass definition to nodal point loads and masses, generating all required variables and load sets is a tedious process. Therefore a preprocessor macro has been provided in #Structure !Special commands to generate these data. This macro Preprocessor for moving load creates a TCL file containing all these variables and Preload sets from few input data like the load train definition (axle loads and spacing) and the velocity (see 6.5.8, "Preprocessor for Moving Load).
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14.4.4 Initial State and LoadCase Definition
The initial state at the start point of a TInt action is a static state, i.e. all velocities and accelerations are assumed zero at tstart. Initial deformations and stresses may be relevant in the case of nonlinear calculations. Numerical problems or unrealistic oscillations may occur in the first time steps due to the sudden application of loads on the structure. In order to avoid these effects, influence functions are often used for the first and last point, which define a smooth increase or decrease of the applied loading (see parameters Ramp Begin and Ramp End in 6.5.8, "Preprocessor for Moving Load). All load sets specifying masses and (at least all variable) loads must be combined in one load case using the factors as described above. This load case is referenced as input parameter in the action TInt.
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Most design codes require checking the fibre stresses in the extreme points of the crosssection, and to compare them with allowable stresses. The points, where RM2004 calculates fibre stresses, are the reference points of the type stress point, as defined in the crosssection specification process (see 5.4.4). These points must be specified, when the crosssection is defined (preferably in the preprocessor program GP2004). For comparing the actual stresses with the allowable values, the user must have defined stress limits. These limits are material parameters, allocated to the respective material of the structural elements (see 5.2.1). Up to 6 stress limit pairs (limits for negative and positive stresses) may be defined in the material parameter table. The user specifies in the checking action, which of these pairs shall be used in the current check. The material tables provided in the default database of RM2004 do partially contain stress limit pairs, which may be used in different design code checks. However, with respect to stress limits, there is no claim of completeness in the default data, and no systematic implementation of stress limit pairs has been provided. The user must check in any application, whether the required stress limit pairs are defined and whether any defined default values match the current needs.
15.1.2 Standard Fibre Stress Check (Uncracked)
Fibre stress checks for the uncracked crosssection are performed with using the schedule actions FibLc and FibSup. The action FibLc performs the check for a load case (e.g. the summation load case of the construction sequence analysis), FibSup performs the check for an envelope (e.g. the most unfavourable state considering permanent and traffic loading). The required load case or envelope may be specified in the input pad in the GUI, together with the number of the stress limit pair to be used for comparison (see Checking actions). The output listings of the actions FibLc and FibSup contain a table with the maximum and minimum tensile stresses (TEN) and compression stresses (COM) in all elements and stress points. The rows MAX herein contain the most unfavourable tensile and compression stresses respectively, the rows MIN the corresponding minimum values, or zero, if the sign of the stress value is different for different internal force vectors of the envelope. The MAX and MIN values are identical in checks for a load case. Values exceeding the limits are marked with #. A graphic presentation of fibre stress diagrams with the related stress limits (diagrams of stresses of a certain stress point along a group of elements) can be performed with using RMSets and the related plot action DgmSet (see List/plot actions), or with the other functions for graphic result presentation (see 8.4).
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15.1.3 Demerging of Fibre Stress Quota
The action FibRpt can be used for determining the stress parts due to the different load cases contributing to the total state. Precondition for using this action is, that the considered envelope is a combination created with the schedule action SupComb, and with superposition rules specified and stored in the combination table (see 7.3.6). FibRpt creates a detailed listing, showing in addition to the total values for the specified combination the contributions of all combined load cases and envelopes. A separate block is displayed for every internal force vector in the envelope. This block contains the internal force contributions and the related longitudinal stress value.
15.1.4 Fibre Stress Check for Cracked Concrete Sections
Some design codes (e.g. NORM B4750, DIN 1045) require checking the fibre stresses in the cracked section, if certain tensile stress limits are exceeded. The actions FibIILc and FibIISup have been provided in RM2004 for performing this task. These actions perform in a first step standard fibre stress checks as performed with FibLc und FibSup (see 15.1.2), but the respective stresses are not written to the output listing. Therefore, it is recommended to perform standard checks with FibLc or FibSup prior to using FibIILc or FibIISup. The standard check gives the basic information on where the tensile stress limit is exceeded. The check of the stresses in the cracked section is performed in a 2nd step for all result points, where the tensile stress limit (of the 1st assigned stress limit pair) is exceeded in any considered stress point. This check is done by starting an iteration process, where like in the ultimate load check (see 15.3) the strain plane is varied until equilibrium is achieved between the acting internal forces and the stress state in the crosssection. The 2nd assigned stress limit pair defines the allowable stress limits used in this iteration process. Attention has to be paid to the fact, that this assigned stress limit pair number is equally related to the concrete, the prestressing steel and the reinforcement steel, i.e. it defines the stress and strain limits of the prestressing and reinforcement steel, and the compression stress limit of the concrete. Therefore, when specifying the stress limit pairs in the material table, the user must take care that the herein jointly used stress limit pairs of prestressing steel, reinforcement steel and concrete get the same number. It should be noted, that the assigned stress limit of the reinforcement steel (actually the related strain limit) is also used as a limiting condition, if the existent and required reinforcement content is zero. In order to calculate an equilibrium state without considering the limits of any existing reinforcement steel definition, it is necessary using zero reinforcement content and unlimiting the respective strain. The latter is done by specifying very high or zero (=unlimited) stresses in the stress limit pair definition. (Apparently, it would also be possible to delete all attribute sets related to bending reinforcement). In the iteration process, the concrete stresses are always assumed to be zero in the tension zone, independent of any other tensile stress limit specified in the assigned stress limit pair. This assumption is in accordance with the perception, that after occurrence of an initial crack at the concrete surface the crack will in any case propagate to the neutral axis in the crosssection. Therefore, it is possible to use the same stress limit pair for both, the detection
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of cracked sections (1st stress limit pair) and the iteration process (2nd stress limit pair), without assuming, that the tensile stresses below the specified limit also act in the cracked section. Linear elasticity is assumed in this check for the prestressing and the reinforcement steel as well as for the compression zone of the concrete. This can be considered as being allowed due to the fact, that this check is usually performed for the ultimate serviceability state. Any nonlinear stressstrain diagrams defined in the material table for describing a nonlinear material behaviour are not considered, in contradiction to the ultimate load check according to 15.3. The iteration is only performed within the specified limits (allowable compression stress and strain in the concrete, allowable stress and strain in prestressing and reinforcement steel). The load case containing the initial strain of the prestressing steel may be specified in this check, as it is also required in the ultimate load check. However, this definition is irrelevant in this context, because the check is only performed for the linear elastic material behaviour region (the initial strain is only used for establishing the correct stressstrain relationship of the prestressing steel in the strain iteration process). If the option Rein is not set, then the data describing the equilibrium state, found for points Rein where the tensile stress limit is exceeded, is written to the list file. The listing is equivalent to the one created with the ultimate load check (subfunction Ult, see 15.3). For points, where no equilibrium can be achieved within the specified limits, question marks are presented instead of the internal reaction force rates, only the acting forces and the primary strain of the tendons are accurately output. If the option Rein is set, a bending reinforcement design (see 15.4) is performed for all points, where no equilibrium can be found with the current prestressing and reinforcement contents. I.e. using this option required the appropriate reference sets (see 5.4.4) and attribute sets (see 5.2.13 being defined. The required additional reinforcement is output in the list file. The option is not an additional, but an alternative option, i.e. if it is set, no printout of the found equilibrium state is performed for points, where no additional reinforcement is required.
The calculation of shear, principal and equivalent stresses is also related to the stress points (see 5.4.4) defined for the crosssections of the beam elements. It is performed with using the checking action PrincLc or PrincSup respectively. By selecting the appropriate option, it is possible to calculate and output either shear stresses, or principal stresses or equivalent stresses. The output listing contains for every result point the relevant internal force vector, the longitudinal stress value, and the shear stresses in y and zdirections due to torsion Mx and the shear forces Qy and Qz (separate values). Dependent on the selected option, either the principal stresses, or the equivalent stresses or the total shear stresses are additionally output. When calculating the stresses for an envelope (PrincSup), the maximum vectors and minimum vectors are separately grouped. The program searches for each group the internal force vector giving the most unfavourable considered stress value (principal stress, equivalent stress or shear stress). The stress results due to this internal force vector are output.
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15.2.2 Shear Stresses
The calculation is based on the unit stress distribution calculated for every crosssection for unit forces Mx, Qy, Qz (see 5.4.2). This calculation process is done with the finite element method. Note that the used element subdivision refinement is in this method essential for the accuracy of the results. The primary results are the stress values in the integration points (Gauss points). The unit stresses in the respective stress points are calculated by extrapolating the Gauss point values to the nodal points of the crosssection element, then averaging the contributions of the different elements connected to the nodes, and finally interpolating to the stress point with using the averaged nodal values. The actual shear stresses are calculated by multiplying the unit stress values of the individual stress point with the current internal force values.
Note: The evaluation of shear stresses and derived principal and equivalent stress values may require a finer FEmesh, than required for the calculation of crosssection values. In any case, the unit stresses of the crosssection calculation should be thoroughly checked, and defining stress points should be avoided for locations, where stress peaks arise due to insufficient mesh refinement.
The resulting shear stresses in y and z directions are both output under SumT if one of the options Shear stress ydirection or Shear stress zdirection is selected. The difference beyzdirection tween the 2 options is related to whether the shear stress in y direction or in z direction shall become a maximum or minimum value.
15.2.3 Principal Stresses
The principal stresses are calculated from the longitudinal and shear stresses, and output under SigI, SigII and SigIII. They are sorted in accordance with their magnitude, i.e. SigI is always the maximum principal tensile stress (if there occur any principal tensile stresses). When considering an envelope (PrincSup), SigI is also the characteristic component evaluated for determining the force vector, which gives the most unfavourable influence. Attention has therefore to be drawn to the fact, that the maximum principal compression stresses will not be necessarily detected with PrincSup. Note that the principal stresses are always calculated in the 3dimensional space. For omitting any irrelevant lateral effect (Qz), the user must create an appropriate envelope by using the superposition action Sup2D (see Load case and envelope actions). This envelope can then be used for calculating the respective principal stresses.
15.2.4 Equivalent Stresses
Equivalent stresses can alternatively be calculated in accordance with the deformation energy hypothesis (vonMises) or the maximum shear stress hypothesis (Tresca). The calculated equivalent stress value is in both cases output under SigI. The negative equivalent stress value is given under SigII, indicating, that the related impact may also predominantly consist of compression stresses. The value SigIII is not used in the printout of equivalent stresses (always zero).
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The principal proceeding for checking the shear capacity of concrete crosssections and dimensioning the required shear reinforcement is very similar in all design codes: It is based on the ultimate limit state loading. The check is performed separately for o Pure shear force o Pure torsion o The combination of shear force and torsion The design values of the acting forces are compared with the design values of the shear strength (shear resistance) and must be less or equal. The calculation of the shear resistance is based on a truss model, where the acting shear forces are in equilibrium with on the one hand vertical and horizontal tension forces mainly beard by the reinforcement, and on the other hand by diagonal concrete compression struts. The check must be performed with respect to both, the o Tensile failure (limiting the skew tensile forces, if necessary by arranging an appropriate shear reinforcement), and o Compression failure (limiting the principal compression stresses in concrete) Despite this basic compliance between the different design codes, the details of performing the shear capacity check in accordance with particular codes are quite different, and detailed information on the formulas and peculiarities used in the different national codes is given in the Technical Manual. The basic formulas are presented below, using the notation of the AASHTO code in this document.
Basic equations
The basic equations for the shear capacity check with respect to shear force are (in the notation of the AASHTO Code): Vu Vr(1) = *(Vc(1)+Vs+Vp) Vu Vr(2) = *(Vc(2)+Vp) Check with respect to tensile failure, and Check with respect to compression failure
It can be seen in the above equations, that the AASHTO code does not treat the prestressing as an impact, but as a resistance term (Vp) (see 15.5.2, section Design Forces in Prestressed Structures). However, other codes especially those based on Eurocode treat the prestressing as an impact included in the design forces Vu. In the above equations, Vc and Vs represent the nominal shear resistances of the concrete and reinforcement steel respectively. is known as a capacity reduction factor (see 15.5.5). Analogous equations exist for torsion (Tu Tr) and the combined loading (Vu,(v+t) Vr(2)).
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Shear in lateral direction
In general, it is enough to perform the shear capacity check only for the shear force in the main bearing direction. This is usually the local y direction. In RM2004, the shear force being used for the check is implicitly defined with the definition of the direction of the webs (see 15.5.4, Required Geometric Data). Webs in both directions have to be specified, if the check shall be performed for Qy and Qz (e.g. for checking a pier). The specification of webs is done by creating reference sets of the type Shear reinforcement for web (see 15.5.4).
Shear capacity of flanges
Apart from the standard shear capacity check, some design codes (e.g. OENORM B4700 and DIN 1045) require a separate check, proofing the longitudinal shear capacity in the connection faces between web and flanges, and maybe at the end of any haunches. The shear flow in these longitudinal sections results from the change of bending moments in longitudinal direction, and respectively the related change of the longitudinal force in the crosssection part dropped out. In order to perform this check in RM2004, the required longitudinal sections must be defined by creating flange sections with specifying respective reference sets of the type Shear rereinforcement for flange (see 15.5.4). The check is only performed for compression flanges. Currently, the check is only performed, if either the design code OENORM or DIN 1045 has been selected. Otherwise, any defined reference sets of the type Shear reinforcement for flange are ignored.
15.5.2 Design Forces Design Force Envelope
No special provisions are made in RM2004 for automatically creating the design force envelopes in accordance with the different design codes. However, the standard superposition functions of the program allow for easily creating any envelope containing factorised load case results (see 7.3.3 to 7.3.7). Most frequently, the required envelopes are created with using combination tables (see 7.3.6), where the actual combination rules will be defined by the user together with the safety factors being applied for the different loading categories. The checking procedure is in RM2004 principally performed for all internal force vectors of the specified envelope, but only the most unfavourable case is stored and printed to the list file. Individual checks for shear force without torsion, for pure torsion and for the combined impact are performed as required in all design codes. In RM2004, the shear capacity check is principally performed without taking into account the sign of design value of the respective internal force component. I.e., when checking the combined impact of shear force and torsion, the program always assumes that the torsion moment can act in both directions with the same magnitude. This assumption may be too conservative for webs essentially unloaded by torsion, e.g. occurring in cases of unsymmetric crosssections, eccentric or skew support conditions or curved superstructures. However, in practice, crosssections of bridges are usually designed with symmetric webs (including same reinforcement), even if the actual torsion moments act in a distinct direction. For the check for
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pure shear force or pure torsion, the sign is in fact irrelevant, as long as the influence of inclined bottom and top flanges (shear force component due to bending) is neglected.
Design Force Values used in the Shear Capacity Check
The design force value Vu used in the basic equation of the shear capacity check is usually the absolute value of the respective internal force value found in the design force envelope, i.e. the shear force or torsion moment respectively. However, for hollow box crosssections with two or more webs, Vu due to shear force represents the part of the shear force related to the currently considered web. The individual contributions are calculated proportionally to the effective width (see Definition of Web Sections) of the individual webs. In some cases e.g. for checking the shear in longitudinal direction the shear flow (shear force over length unit) is used in the basic equation instead of the integral shear force. Some national codes also use a formulation based on shear stresses. Considering the combined impact shear + torsion, some national codes calculate an additional shear force due to torsion, which can be directly added to the one due to shear force, resulting in a combined shear force value Vu,(v+t). Other design codes use a nondimensional formulation (e.g. Tu/Tr+Vu/Vr 1).
Design Forces in Prestressed Structures
Differences exist in the individual design codes with respect to the rules for taking into account any prestressing of the structure. Affected is only the primary part of the internal forces due to prestressing (V*e state). The secondary part (constraint part) is always treated as a normal external load case. Some design codes consider the shear component of the prestressing force (Vp) as impact, which due to the mainly deloading effect is factored differently from other acting loadings. Other design codes consider this component Vp as an additional shear resistance value (see 15.5.3). In addition to the envelope containing the design values of the acting internal forces, the user has to specify in RM2004 a superposition load case (Initialstrain load case) in order to identify the loadings, which with respect to the primary part have to be considered in a special way in accordance with the selected design code. Depending on whether the check is performed for the state before or after creep and shrinkage, this superposition load case must also contain the creep load cases or not. Note that the load cases of the Initialstrain load case must also have been included in the specified design force envelope. The primary parts of these load cases are in the program subtracted from the envelope values, and taken into account separately in accordance with the selected design code. Sometimes, the safety factors for superimposing prestressing and creep load cases into the design envelope are different from those used for creating the superposition load case defining the initial strain state. In this case, the difference remains in the envelope and acts like any other normal external loading.
Design Forces in Composite Structures
No special requirements exist for composite structures, as with respect to creating the proper design force envelope. The shear capacity check is always performed for the currently active composite element. The design force envelope may also contain internal forces resulting from loading a previously active partial element. The program module performing the shear capac TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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ity check automatically creates the related joined internal force results of these components, and uses them for performing the check (see 12.5.3).
15.5.3 Design Values of the Shear Resistance General
The calculation of the shear resistance is quite different in the various national codes, therefore only basic formulas are given below. Details are given in the Technical Manual. We differentiate between the shear resistance in the narrower sense, which is related to the shear force, and the torsional resistance related to torsion moments. Based on the truss model, we always get two resistance values, one related to tensile failure (Vr(1)), which can be influenced by increasing the shear reinforcement, and the other related to concrete crushing in the compression strut (Vr(2)), which is an absolute maximum value for the given crosssection (Vr(2)). In most design codes, Vr(1) is split in 2 parts, one part related to the tensile strength of the concrete (*Vc), and the other part related to the strength of the reinforcement steel (*Vs). The calculation of the characteristic (or nominal) strength values Vc and Vs is based on characteristic geometry data of the crosssection (see 15.5.4) and characteristic material parameters of the concrete and steel respectively (see 15.5.5). The factor denotes a strength reduction factor, in RM2004 being defined in the material table (see 15.5.5) as reciprocal value (material safety factor). Some design codes (e.g. OENORM and DIN) do not allow taking into account the concrete tensile strength Vc; except in minor structures, where no shear reinforcement is arranged. Prestressing is in some codes treated as an additional resistance. In this case, Vp denotes the shear component of the effective tendon force. Note that in RM2004 Vp can also decrease the design strength, if it increases the design shear force in the considered crosssection.
Resistance with Respect to Shear Force
The resistance with respect to shear force is related to the individual web sections and given as a function of the appropriate material parameters (see 15.5.5), the incline of the transverse reinforcement (currently in RM2004 always 90, i.e. perpendicular to the element axis) the incline of the concrete compression strut (varied in the program in accordance with the selected design code) and characteristic geometry values. These are the effective depth in the direction of the shear force, and the effective width of the considered web, measured in perpendicular direction. The effective depth characterises the distance between the top and bottom flanges of the fictitious truss. It is automatically calculated in accordance with the rules of the selected design code. Most codes use the same effective depth for calculating both, the shear resistance related to tensile failure and the one related to compression failure. Generally, the codes define a lower limit (e.g. in AASHTO 0.72*h, where h is the overall depth), with the allowance for using a greater value, if the distance between the fictitious truss
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flanges is calculated more accurately. E.g. the AASHTO code states 0.9*de, where de is the distance between the compression face and the centroid of the tensile force in the reinforcement. However, the particular rules for calculating this value are very much different in the different codes, but most rules specify like AASHTO a dependency on the amount of existing longitudinal reinforcement (see Consideration of Existing Longitudinal Reinforcement). The effective width is the minimum value of web widths in the considered sector of the current web (see Definition of Web Sections), reduced at duct levels by full or partial diameter(s) of the appropriate ducts, dependent on whether they are grouted or not. The reduction value is automatically applied only for tendon profiles with one single tendon (as shown in Figure 151), and must be specified by the user, if there exist any tendon profiles with more than one tendon (see 6.3.12) in the current crosssection. However, any user defined reduction values bbegin, bend other than zero will always override the automatically calculated values.
Qy
y z
bw,z bw,
bw =bw,
bw,eff,i =min(bwdh,tend) bw,i = min(b) w bw,eff,i =bw,ibw,inputbw,i/bw,i
Note that the user defined reduction values bbegin, bend are related to structural elements and thus to the total crosssection. They are apportioned to the individual webs as proportionally to the minimum web widths. The user defined width reduction is applied at any investigated level within the considered sector of the current web, independent on whether any tendon profiles exist at this level. This may be a very conservative approach in webs with variable width, if the tendons only occur at the maximum width level. (E.g. hollow boxes with vertical inner and inclined outer web faces, support region with tendons in the upper part). The incline of the concrete compression strut considerably influences the calculated strength value. Older design codes often take a constant value of 45, being a conservative value leading to a maximum amount of required transverse shear reinforcement and a minimum utilisation level of the compression strut. This constant value is often not directly specified in the codes, but implicitly contained in constant factors in the respective formulas. Modern codes (e.g. those based on Eurocode) allow a variation of the inclination angle within certain limits, mostly between 30 and 45 (prestressed members) or between 30 and 60 without prestressing. This allows for reducing the shear reinforcement, if the concrete compression strut has enough free bearing capacity.
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Resistance with Respect to Torsion
The calculation of the torsional resistance is based on the theory for thinwalled closed sections. Therefore, an equivalent hollow box (see Figure 155) has to be defined, as described in 15.5.4, section Effective Hollow Box for calculating the Torsional Resistance. The actual resistance value used in the basic equations comparing impact and strength, is different in the individual design codes: most codes use for checking pure torsion an overall resistance (Tr), which can be directly compared with the acting torsion moment (Tu). However, for checking a combination of shear force and torsion, either a nondimensional formulation must be used (Tu/Tr+Vu/Vr 1), or a shear force due to torsion (Vu,(v+t)) must be calculated. This value can be added to the design shear force allowing for being compared with the standard shear resistance as described above. Some design codes also use a formulation based on shear flow values or shear stress values. Pure torsion will never be controlling for compression failure, however, the most unfavourable result vector of the design envelope may be one, where both, the torsion and the shear force, are not maximum values. With respect to tensile failure, the required torsional reinforcement is always governed by the maximum torsion moment. The most unfavourable combination of shear and torsion may require less total reinforcement, than the sum of the required amounts for pure shear and pure torsion. The transverse reinforcement for shear force can in this case be reduced to the difference between the total amount and torsion amount (see also 15.5.6, Shear Reinforcement). Therefore, both values, the required amount for pure shear and for shear plus torsion, are output in the result listing. In some design codes, especially in the Englishspeaking world (e.g. BS5400), the shear resistance with respect to compression failure is not directly related to the strength of the compression strut in the truss model, but defined in terms of maximum shear stresses (e.g. v+vt vtu in BS5400). Note that the torsional resistance is generally governed by the minimum width of the effective hollow box. However, in RM2004, the different web and flange sections (see 15.5.4, Sections of Crosssections) are separately investigated. The maximum required shear reinforcement of all defined sections is finally stored in the relevant attribute set (see 15.5.6). Crosssection parts, where no sections are defined, are not investigated. This might be a problem in bottom plates of hollow box sections, which are usually very thin, and where the check with respect to longitudinal shear is often omitted. In the case of essential torsion (e.g. at skew end supports), the capacity with respect to concrete crushing may there be critical.
Consideration of Existing Longitudinal Reinforcement
The calculation of the shear strength takes into account all existing longitudinal reinforcement, if any related strength dependency is specified in the selected design code. This reinforcement may either have been directly entered by the user in the element table (#Structure !Element data and properties "Checks), or be results of the bending reinforcement design of other checking actions (e.g. ULS checks UltSup, UltLc, fibre stress checks FibIISup, FibIILc, crack width limitation checks CrackSup, CrackLc and robustness checks RobuSup, RobuLc).
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The results of the shear capacity check will therefore in this case depend on the sequence of performing the different design code checks. All design code checks creating longitudinal reinforcement shall be performed before, if the corresponding reinforcement should be taken into account in the shear capacity check.
15.5.4 Required Geometric Data Sections of Crosssections
The shear capacity check in RM2004 is essentially performed for individual sections of the considered crosssection. These sections are webs and parts of flanges. The latter are specified for being considered if either the ON or DIN design code is used in checking the torsion effects (slab parts of the effective hollow box (see below) and/or for being taken into account in checking the longitudinal shear flow. These sections are defined by specifying appropriate reference sets. The section type is implicitly defined by the type of the used reference set. Web sections are defined by reference sets of the type o Shear reinforcement for web. Flange sections are defined by reference sets of the type o Shear reinforcement for flange. Additional reference sets related to the total crosssection are required for defining the web parts to be investigated, and respectively for taking into account any torsional effects. These are reference sets of the types o Shear longitudinal reinforcement and o Torsion reinforcement
Definition of Web Sections
Web sections are primarily defined by a reference set of the type Shear reinforcement for web, which describes the direction of the web. For each web, an individual reference set of this type has to be specified.
Web L: Median Line
vert. reinf. WEB_L
bWeb L
bWeb M
bWeb R
wL
As shown in Figure 152, this reference set will usually contain 2 points and characterise the median line of the respective web. In the case of a broken median line, it is up to the user either defining more points in order to follow up the median line exactly, or to place one
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straight line within the web. However, the specified line must always be within the web, because the program searches the next boundary line on the left and on the right side for calculating the proper web width. The actual incline of the line does not influence the results, but it is used for deciding, whether the check is performed for the shear force Qy (vertical web) or Qz (horizontal web, e.g. in piers). Webs with web directions of more than 45 from the horizontal plane (zaxis) are assumed being vertical webs, and Qy is used for the shear check. Qz is used for all webs with directions of less than 45. I.e. performing the vertical shear capacity check is not possible for hollow box crosssections with very flat webs, if the reference set describing the web direction follows the median line of the web. However, the user may define a steeper web direction deviating from the median line, with the restriction that the region, where cuts across the web are investigated, is limited to the sector, where the defined direction line lies within the web.
Web Upper Bound
long. reinf. area M
The shear check for the individual webs requires an additional reference set being specified, defining the total sector in the crosssection, where cuts across any webs should be investigated (see Figure 153). This reference set is of the type Shear longitudinal reinforcement, and not related to the individual web sections, but to the total crosssection. It is also used for storing the required additional longitudinal reinforcement due to shear force. This reference set must contain 2 lines, defining the upper and lower bound of the sector, where cuts across the webs will be checked. All webs must lie within this sector. Note that these lines do not describe the position of the required longitudinal shear reinforcement, although the allocated attribute set is used for storing this reinforcement amount. Note that individual web sections must essentially be defined for all webs, even those, where e.g. for symmetry reasons no results are required. The total design shear force will be apportioned to the web sections defined as described in 15.5.3, and in case any webs are not defined as sections, the shear forces acting on the defined ones will be much too high. Two separate groups of reference sets must be defined if the shear capacity check should be performed for both shear force directions, one group with vertical webs and horizontal flanges, and the other group with horizontal webs and vertical flanges. Results are given for both groups, and the user must decide, how to handle all requirements for shear reinforcement (maximum value or sum).
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Definition of Flange Sections (only considered for OENORM and DIN)
Flange sections must be defined for two purposes: a) for checking longitudinal shear forces vEd in critical cuts across flange elements, and b) for checking torsional effects in flange parts being parts of the effective hollow box (see Effective Hollow Box for calculating the Torsional Resistance). Flange sections are defined with reference sets of the type Shear reinforcement for flange reinforce (Qy), or in case of performing the check for horizontal shear force with sets of the type reinforce Shear reinforcement for flange (Qz). These reference sets are defined by 2 straight lines, specifying the borders of the current section (see Figure 154).
Flange Compression Area right outside top flange
Type Shear reinforcement for flange
The first line defines the cut across the flange, where the longitudinal shear flow is checked. The second line marks the cut, where the longitudinal shear stress is assumed zero (e.g. the end of a cantilever slab, or the symmetry line of the intermediate slab of a hollow box crosssection). Note that this sequence is essential, i.e. the line definitions of the different sections of a flange must not be uniformly made from the left to the right or vice versa. Attention must also be paid to the fact, that the 2nd line must always be the zero stress cut, i.e. the flange sections always define the whole area dropped out. I.e. for instance, 2 flange sections of a cantilever slab defined because 2 cuts might be critical do not complement one another, but are overlapping section, both reaching from the investigated cut to the free end. The same restriction is valid for slabs between 2 webs, and it is also not allowed to define only one flange segment reaching from one web to the other. Note that the longitudinal shear check is only performed for flanges under compression. However, the check with respect to torsion is performed for all flange sections, which are parts of the effective hollow box as described below. There is no possibility to omit in such sections either the longitudinal shear check or the torsional check.
Effective Hollow Box for calculating the Torsional Resistance
The calculation of the torsional resistance is based on the theory for thinwalled closed sections. Therefore, for any actual crosssection, an equivalent single cell hollow box (see Figure 155) has to be defined by the user, which allows for performing the shear capacity check with respect to torsion. This is done by geometrically defining the median line (perime TDV Technische Datenverarbeitung Ges.m.b.H. Heinz Pircher und Partner
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ter line uk) of the effective hollowbox crosssection with specifying an additional reference set of the type Torsion reinforcement (see 5.4.4, Table 55). rein
CentreLine of Effective Cross Section
Perimeter uk Torsion reinf.
tw,L tw,R tf,b tf,t
Effective Cross Section Figure 155 Effective single cell hollow box crosssection for torsion
The same perimeter line is used for the calculation of both, the shear resistance of the concrete and the shear resistance of the torsion reinforcement. In the case of hollow box crosssections, where the torsion reinforcement is usually placed on both sides of the affected webs, the perimeter line will mostly be placed along the centre lines of the actual web and slab parts forming the effective hollow box. The effective thickness of the effective hollow box is not specified by the user, but automatically determined as being twice the distance from the perimeter line to the section outline. I.e. the actual thickness of the affected and defined web and flange sections will be used, if the perimeter line is defined as being the centre line of these sections. A thickness reduction due to ducts will not be made in the torsion check. The user may however, if such a reduction must be taken into account, move the affected lines further to the outside face of the webs (at least locally, where the ducts are arranged), in order to get the reduced thickness automatically. With respect to the torsional strength of the concrete, moving the perimeter line outwards will always be on the conservative side, because the influence of the thickness decrease is greater, than that of the increase of the enclosed area. It will be slightly nonconservative for the determined torsional reinforcement, if the related reinforcement centroid lies in the centre line. For solid crosssections with closed stirrups forming the torsion reinforcement, a reasonable approach can be to define the centre line of these stirrups as the relevant perimeter line. This is the consistent and best assumption for calculating the torsion reinforcement, but in the case of a small concrete cover it is too conservative with respect to concrete crushing. In this case, it might make sense slightly moving the perimeter line inwards, with accepting a higher amount of required shear reinforcement.
15.5.5 Required Material Parameters
Various material parameters are needed for calculating the shear resistance values. These parameters must be specified in the material table. The required values for calculating the concrete part of the shear resistance must be defined for the material assigned to the considered structural element. The material of the shear reinforcement must be assigned in the attribute sets describing the different reinforcement groups. Different materials for different reinforcement groups are theoretically allowed, however, there might arise result interpretation problems in certain cases (e.g. reinforcement required for shear + torsion).
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In most national codes, the design resistance values are calculated by multiplying the characteristic (or nominal) values with resistance factors () smaller than 1.0, or by dividing them by respective safety factors (). RM2004 always uses safety factors, if the respective design values are not directly specified in the material table (see 5.2.12). The safety factors are stored as material parameters, although they are actually related to the different design code checks and not necessarily to material strength values. I.e. the reciprocals of any resistance factor values specified in national codes must be defined as safety factors in the material table.
Table 151 Concrete material parameters used in the shear capacity check
AASHTO
National Code
Concrete Youngs modulus Characteristic compressive strength Nominal compressive strength (cube strength) Design value of compressive strength Mean value of axial tensile strength Splitting tensile strength Characteristic flexural tensile strength Design value of axial tensile strength Capacity Factors Capacity reduction factor shear & torsion Safety factor (Shear) Capacity reduction factor bending Safety factor (Ultimate) Capacity reduction factor normal force V
1/V
Ec
fc
Ec
fc
Ec fcu m 
Ec
fck
Ecm
fck
Ec

fcd

Ec fc

fcu,k fcd
ftk
fcd fctm 
fck

fcf 
ftk

ftd 1.45
1/
c 
1/
M
1/M
Some codes do (partially) use reduced material strength values for calculating the design resistance, rather than calculating the nominal resistance and reducing it afterwards. However, because the material strength always linearly influences the resistance, equivalent safety factors may be derived by dividing the characteristic material strength values (stored in the material table and available for the checking procedure) by the design values specified in the code. These factors must be specified by the user in the material table, unless they are already predefined in code related standard material tables. The shear capacity check in RM2004 uses only the factor Shear (for all design codes), and for codes using the ULS strain plane for the resistance calculation (like DIN, ) the factor Ultimate (see 5.2.12).
Note: The factor Ultimate is not used in the Ultimate Load Check, i.e. it can be defined without restrictions for being used in the shear capacity check.
ON B4200
AS 5100
BS 5400
Norway
NZS
DIN
IRC
CS
Ec fcd ftd c
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AASHTO
National Code
Reinforcement Youngs modulus Characteristic yield strength Design yield strength Capacity Factors Strength reduction factor Safety factor (Shear) 
Es
fs 
fsy

fy

fsk fsd 
fyk fyd 
fyv

fsk fsd 
fy

0.87
1.15
0.871.15
Table 153 Tendon material parameters used in the shear capacity check
AASHTO
National Code
Tendons Youngs modulus Characteristic strength Capacity Factors Prestressing reduction factor Safety factor (Shear) fL
1/fL
Ep fpu
fpu
0.8
1.25
fpu 
The material stiffness and strength parameters used in the individual national codes are tabulated in Table 151, Table 152 and
Table 153). The lines with yellow background contain design code values, which are not directly stored in the material table, but internally recalculated from appropriate other material parameters (given in italic letters). Note that RM2004 stores strains instead of stresses; therefore the shear capacity check needs the appropriate stiffness parameter (elastic modulus) being defined, if the respective formulas use the stress state in the crosssection.
Design Code related remarks:
AASHTO American National Code Safety factor Capacity reduction factor: o Code specification: capacity reduction factor for the internal force components, M for bending moments, V for shear forces, N for normal forces. o RM2004 notation: Shear and Ultimate safety factors Concrete material c,shear =1/V c,ULT =1/M
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CS
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AS 5100
BS 5400
Norway
NZS
DIN
IRC
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fyd 
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AS 5100 Australian National Code Safety factor Capacity reduction factor: o Code specification: capacity reduction factor for the total shear capacity o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Concrete material: c,shear =1/ BS 5400 British Standard Safety factor Capacity reduction factor: o Code specification: material safety factor for shear (eq. 5.3.3.2): m=1.25 o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Concrete material: c,shear = m = 1.25 Prestressing  safety factor (favourable): o Code specification: prestressing safety factor fL (1.15 or 0.87) o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Tendon material: p,shear = 1.15 Safety factor for reinforcement): o Code specification: 0.87 fyv (reduced characteristic strength) o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Reinforcement material: s,shear = 1.15 CS Chinese National Code Safety factor Capacity reduction factor (if fcd, ftd are not directly entered): o Code specification: separate tables for characteristic strength values fck, ftk and design values fcd, ftd. The relation is approximately fcdfck/1.45 and ftdftk/1.45. o RM2004 notation: Ultimate safety factor Concrete material: c,ULS = 1.45 DIN 10451 German National Code (based on Eurocode 2) Safety factor Capacity reduction factor (if fcd is not directly entered): o Code specification: concrete material safety factor c; additionally a reduction factor for considering long time effects (fcd = fck / c). o RM2004 notation: Ultimate safety factor Concrete material: c,ULS = c/ IRC 18 Indian National Code Prestressing  safety factor (favourable): o Code specification: A reduction factor of 0.8 must be used for the concrete compression stress fcp due to prestressing (in the centroid). o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Tendon material: p,shear = 1/0.8 = 1.25 Safety factor for reinforcement: o Code specification: 0.87 fyv (reduced characteristic strength) o RM2004 notation: Shear safety factor Reinforcement material: s,shear = 1.15 NS Norwegian National Code Characteristic concrete compressive strength: o Code specification: a socalled insitu strength fcn is to be used as characteristic concrete compressive strength o RM2004 notation: Used characteristic value is CS (fc, fck) Safety factor Capacity reduction factor (if fcd, ftd are not directly entered): o Code specification: separate values for characteristic strength (values fcn, ftn) and design values fcd, ftd. o RM2004 notation: Ultimate safety factor Concrete material: c,ULS = c
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NZS Newzealand National Code Safety factor Capacity reduction factor: o Code specification: capacity reduction factor for the total shear capacity o RM2004 notation: Shear Safety Factor Concrete material: c,shear =1/ ON B4700 Austrian National Code (based on Eurocode 2) Safety factor Capacity reduction factor (if fcd is not directly entered): o Code specification: concrete material safety factor c; reduction for considering long time effects is integrated in fck. o RM2004 notation: Ultimate safety factor Concrete material: c,ULS = c
Any reinforcement profiles are stored in attribute sets (see 5.2.13) interlinked with crosssection related reference sets (see 5.4.4), and, by the crosssection assignment, with the structural elements. Considering shear reinforcement, the respective reference sets describe geometric crosssection entities used for calculating the required reinforcement amount (see 15.5.4), and do not necessarily describe the position or geometry of the reinforcement bars. The following types of attribute sets (and related reference sets) are used for describing shear reinforcement profiles: Shear reinforcement for web Transverse reinforcement (stirrups) in webs Transverse reinforcement in slabs Shear reinforcement for flange Longitudinal reinforcement due to shear Shear longitudinal reinforcement Torsion reinforcement Torsion reinforcement of effective hollow box Up to 5 prescribed and 5 calculated values, describing existing or required reinforcement amounts and other related result values (such as capacity factors, see 15.5.7), are stored in the corresponding element table (#Structure !Element data and properties "Checks) for the assigned attribute sets for begin and endcrosssections of the relevant structural elements. Attribute sets of the type Shear reinforcement for web contain the additionally to any prescribed amount (presented as Input value) required transverse reinforcement in the individual web sections. The calculated area values specify the total (additional) crosssection area of the transverse reinforcement (i.e. of all vertical bars in the respective web) per unit length. The following values are calculated in the shear capacity check and stored as Output value: Aq Required transverse reinforcement for shear without torsion Aqt Required transverse reinforcement for shear + torsion CF(Q) Capacity factor shear without torsion CF(Q+T) Capacity factor shear without + torsion It is possible to assign the same attribute set to all reference sets defining individual web sections. The maximum value of all individual webs will in this case be stored, not as it is the case for bending reinforcement the sum! This can be used to limit the amount of results (e.g. for symmetric hollow box crosssections). Attribute sets of the type Shear reinforcement for flange contain the required transverse reinforcement in the relevant (first) vertical cut of the respective flange sections. The calculated values are the same, than defined above for the transverse reinforcement of webs. The same
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attribute set can be used for all specified flange sections. The maximum value of required reinforcement amounts and capacity factors in the different vertical cuts through the flange will then be stored in this attribute set. Reference sets of the type Shear longitudinal reinforcement are related to the total crosssection of the structural element, therefore, the calculated reinforcement amounts stored in the related attribute sets refer to the total crosssection of the structural member, and not to the individual webs. The stored values are: Al+M Required additional longitudinal reinforcement due to shear, on the crosssection side, where positive moments yield tension (bottom side for Qy). AlM Required additional longitudinal reinforcement due to shear, on the crosssection side, where negative moments yield tension (top side for Qy) The values are total reinforcement section areas for one side of the element crosssection. The distribution of the reinforcement along the respective edge is not determined, and must be made in accordance with constructional needs. Reference sets of the type Torsion reinforcement are related to the effective hollow box. However, the required torsional reinforcement is separately calculated for the different defined web and flange sections, and the maximum values are stored in the assigned attribute set. The required torsional reinforcement is not very much influenced by the thickness of the different sections along the effective hollow box, therefore, omitting the definition of any flange sections will hardly be a problem for the reinforcement calculation. However, the maximum capacity factor can be underestimated (see Resistance with Respect to Torsion). The stored values are: At Required transverse torsional reinforcement Al Required longitudinal reinforcement due to torsion. CF(T) Maximum capacity factor for pure torsion At is the maximum reinforcement area (per unit length in longitudinal direction), arranged in cuts across the sections of the effective hollow box. I.e. in actual hollow box crosssections for cuts across the considered web and flange sections, and in solid crosssections for one side of the web section. Al is an integral value for the complete effective hollow box, calculated by multiplying the maximum length related value with the length of the perimeter line of the hollow box. Usually, Al will be linearly distributed along the perimeter line.
15.5.7 Results of the Shear Capacity Check
Results of the shear capacity check are required shear reinforcement values (see section 15.5.6 above), for getting an adequate shear resistance with respect to tension failure, and capacity factors, characterising the utilisation level with respect to compression failure. The most important maximum values are stored in the element table as parameters of the relevant attribute sets, as described in detail in 15.5.6). These values can be viewed in the GUI in #Structure !Element data and properties "Checks, and are available for the graphic presentation utilities (presentation of diagrams by using RMSets). More detailed result data are presented in the list files, written by the shear check module if required.
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The standard list file (default name composed by the string shea, the name of the design load case or envelope and the extension .lst, see Checking actions) contains the design forces and the final result data for the start and end crosssections of the structural elements being investigated (see 6.3.12). A typical block of result data for a single cell hollow box crosssection (element 114, begin) is shown in Figure 156.
ELEM POS CF(Q) CF(Q+T) CF(T) LINE LINE: RESULTS Q Qp T M N REINFORCEMENT: A1 A2 A3 LINE (B) 114 0 0.14 0.14 (1,1,1) 1: MINQy 12168.60 4719.82 6884.95 2141.34 2425.13 2: MAXMz 6397.96 4719.82 8799.19 52749.74 1785.49 SHEAR_WEB_1 10.54 10.54 (1,1,1) 0.67 SHEAR_WEB_2 10.54 10.54 (1,1,1) 0.67 (AL) 353.03 (2,,)SHEAR_TORSION
In the standard list file, the result data are related to the specified web and flange sections rather than to the individual attribute sets. The first line contains besides the element number (ELEM) and position within the element (POS), the capacity factors for pure shear force (CF(Q)), shear + torsion (CF(Q+T)) and pure torsion (CF(T)) (maximum of all considered sections). The numbered lines below contain the design internal force vectors, being decisive for any maximum reinforcement or capacity factor value, with the primary part of the initial strain load case subtracted where appropriate (see Design Forces in Prestressed Structures). Qp is the relevant shear component of the prestressing force. The subsequent lines, with in the first row the names of the reference sets describing the individual sections, contain the required transverse reinforcement for pure shear (A1), shear + torsion (A2) and pure torsion (A3). The corresponding values of the element table are Aq and Aqt of the respective attribute sets, and (A3) the value At of the attribute set Torsion reinreinforcement, related to the respective section. The last line (AL) contains the longitudinal reinforcement values Al+M, AlM of the attribute set Shear longitudinal reinforcement (A1, A2), reinforcement and Al of the attribute set Torsion reinforcement (A3). The row LINE indicates, which design force vectors have been relevant for calculating the values A1, A2, A3 and CF(Q), CF(Q+T), CF(T) respectively. An extended list file (default name composed by the string sheX, the name of the design load case or envelope and the extension .lst) may be created for testing purposes by specifying its name in the input field Detailed list name (see Checking actions). This file contains a sequence of intermediate results allowing for tracing the whole calculation procedure in detail. However, this file will contain a huge amount of data, and it is recommended to use this output option only for checking few elements.