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Multiples

The products of a number with the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... are called the multiples
of the number.

For example:

So, the multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, 28, and so on.

Note:

The multiples of a number are obtained by multiplying the number by each of the natural
numbers.

For example:

• multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, …
• multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, …
• multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, …

Example 1

Write down the first ten multiples of 5.

Solution:

The first ten multiples of 5 are 5, 10 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50.

Common Multiples
Multiples that are common to two or more numbers are said to be common multiples.

E.g. Multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, …


Multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, …

So, common multiples of 2 and 3 are 6, 12, 18, …

Example 2

Find the common multiples of 4 and 6.


Solution:

Multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, …


Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, …

So, the common multiples of 4 and 6 are 12, 24, 36, …

Lowest Common Multiple


The smallest common multiple of two or more numbers is called the lowest common
multiple (LCM).

E.g. Multiples of 8 are 8, 16, 24, 32, …


Multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, …

In general:

To find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of two or more numbers, list the multiples of the
larger number and stop when you find a multiple of the other number. This is the LCM.

Example 3

Find the lowest common multiple of 6 and 9.

Solution:

List the multiples of 9 and stop when you find a multiple of 6.

Multiples of 9 are 9, 18, …


Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, …

Example 4

Find the lowest common multiple of 5, 6 and 8.

Solution:

List the multiples of 8 and stop when you find a multiple of both 5 and 6.

Multiples of 8 are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, 104, 112, 120, …
Stop at 120 as it is a multiple of both 5 and 6.

So, the LCM of 5, 6 and 8 is 120.

Factors
A whole number that divides exactly into another whole number is called a factor of that
number.

So, 4 is a factor of 20 as it divides exactly into 20.

So, 5 is a factor of 20 as it divides exactly into 20.

Note:

If a number can be expressed as a product of two whole numbers, then the whole numbers are
called factors of that number.

So, the factors of 20 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20.

Example 5

List all the factors of 42.

Solution:

So, the factors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21 and 42.

Note:

Example 6
Is 7 a factor 15?

Solution:

Common Factors
Factors that are common to two or more numbers are said to be common factors.

Example 7

Find the common factors of 10 and 30.

Solution:

So, the common factors of 10 and 30 are 1, 2, 5 and 10.

Example 8

Find the common factors of 26 and 39.

Solution:

So, the common factors of 26 and 39 are 1 and 13.

Highest Common Factor


The largest common factor of two or more numbers is called the highest common factor
(HCF).
Setting out:

Often, we set out the solution as follows:

Example 9

Find the highest common factor of 14 and 28.

Solution:

Prime Numbers
If a number has only two different factors, 1 and itself, then the number is said to be a prime
number.

7 is a prime number since it has only two different factors.

Note:

But 1 is not a prime number since it does not have two different factors.
Composite Numbers
A number that has more than two factors is called a composite number.

So, 14 is a composite number as it has more than two factors.

Note:

1 is considered neither a prime number nor a composite number.

Example 10

State which of the following numbers are a prime:

a. 46
b. 19

Solution:

a. 46 is not a prime because 46 = 2 × 23.


b. 19 is a prime since it has only two different factors, 1 and 19.

Example 11

Express 210 as a product of prime numbers.

Solution:

Note:
We try the prime numbers in order of their magnitude.

Example 12

Express 90 as a product of prime numbers.

Solution:

Alternatively, we can use a factor tree to express 90 as a product of prime numbers as


illustrated below.

Percentages
A fraction that is written out of one hundred is called a percentage. The
symbol used for per cent is %.

Note:
From the preceding discussion, we notice that:

A percentage is the numerator of a fraction with a denominator of 100.

Changing a Percentage to a Fraction


To convert a percentage to a fraction, write it as a fraction with a denominator of 100 and then
simplify the fraction if possible.

Example 1

Express 65% as a fraction.

Solution:

Mixed Number Percentage

To convert a mixed number percentage to a fraction, change the mixed number to an improper
fraction, write the percentage as a fraction with a denominator of 100 and simplify the
fraction if possible.

Example 2

Solution:

Changing a Percentage to a Decimal


To convert a percentage to a decimal, first write the percentage as a fraction out of 100 and
then move the decimal point two places to the left.

Example 3
Express 15% as a decimal.

Solution:

Example 4

Solution:

Changing a Decimal or Fraction to a Percentage


Example 5

Express 0.15 as a percentage.

Solution:

From this we can state that:

To change a number into a percentage, multiply the number by 100%. Then simplify.

Example 6
Solution:

Finding a Percentage of a Quantity


To find a certain percentage of a given quantity, we multiply it by the corresponding fraction.

Example 7

Find 20% of 45.

Solution:

Example 8

Solution:

Expressing a Quantity as a Percentage of another Quantity


To express one quantity as a percentage of another, make sure that both quantities are
expressed in the same units. Write the given quantity as a fraction of the total and multiply it
by 100%. Then simplify.

Example 9
I obtained 30 marks out of 40 in a test. Convert this test mark into a percentage.

Solution:

Example 10

What percentage of $4 is 32¢?

Solution:

Note:

To express one quantity as a percentage of another, we must have both quantities in the same
units.

Squaring the square


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Perfect square dissection)

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A square with sides equal to a unit length multiplied by an integer is called an integral
square. Squaring the square is the problem of tiling one integral square using only other
integral squares.

Squaring the square is a trivial task unless additional conditions are set. The most studied
restriction is the "perfect" squared square, where all contained squares are of different size
(see below).


Perfect squared squares

Smith diagram of a rectangle

A "perfect" squared square is a square such that each of the smaller squares has a different
size. The name was coined in humorous analogy with squaring the circle.

It is first recorded as being studied by R. L. Brooks, C. A. B. Smith, A. H. Stone, and W. T.


Tutte, at Cambridge University. They transformed the square tiling into an equivalent
electrical circuit — they called it "Smith diagram" — by considering the squares as resistors
that connected to their neighbors at their top and bottom edges, and then applied Kirchhoff's
circuit laws and circuit decomposition techniques to that circuit.

The first perfect squared square was found by Roland Sprague in 1939.

If we take such a tiling and enlarge it so that the formerly smallest tile now has the size of the
square S we started out from, then we see that we obtain from this a tiling of the plane with
integral squares, each having a different size.

It was an unsolved problem for many years whether the plane can be tiled with a set of
integral tiles such that each natural number is used exactly once as size of a square tile. This
can in fact be done: see [1]

Martin Gardner has published an extensive [2] article written by W. T. Tutte about the early
history of squaring the square.
Lowest-order perfect squared square

Simple squared squares


A "simple" squared square is one where no subset of the squares forms a rectangle or square,
otherwise it is "compound". The smallest simple perfect squared square was discovered by A.
J. W. Duijvestijn using a computer search. His tiling uses 21 squares, and has been proved to
be minimal. The smallest perfect compound squared square was discovered by T.H.
Willcocks and has 24 squares.

Mrs. Perkins's quilt


When the constraint of all the squares being different sizes is relaxed, a squared square such
that the side lengths of the smaller squares do not have a common divisor larger than 1 is
called a "Mrs. Perkins's quilt". In other words, the greatest common divisor of all the smaller
side lengths should be 1.

The Mrs. Perkins's quilt problem is to find a Mrs. Perkins's quilt with the fewest pieces for
a given n × n square.

[edit] External links

• Mrs. Perkins's Quilt on MathWorld

Cubing the cube


Cubing the cube is the analogue in three dimensions of squaring the square: that is, given a
cube C, the problem of dividing it into finitely many smaller cubes, no two congruent.

Unlike the case of squaring the square, a hard but solvable problem, cubing the cube is
impossible. This can be shown by a relatively simple argument. Consider a hypothetical
cubed cube. The bottom face of this cube is a squared square; lift off the rest of the cube, so
you have a square region of the plane covered with a collection of cubes

Consider the smallest cube in this collection, with side c. Since the smallest square of a
squared square cannot be on its edge, its neighbours will all tower over it, meaning that there
isn't space to put a cube of side larger than c on top of it. Since the construction is a cubed
cube, you're not allowed to use a cube of side equal to c; so only smaller cubes may stand
upon S. This means that the top face of S must be a squared square, and the argument
continues by infinite descent. Thus it is not possible to dissect a cube into finitely many
smaller cubes of different sizes.
BAHAGIAN SEKOLAH
KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN MALAYSIA
PARAS 5, BLOK J (SELATAN)
PUSAT BANDAR DAMANSARA
50604 KUALA LUMPUR
Diilustrasi kembali oleh Ahmad Faris bin Johan, Unit ICT, Bahagian Sekolah, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Tel : 03-2556900
Fax : 03-2562389
Ruj. Tuan :
Ruj. Kami : KP(BS)8591/Jld.VIII / (83)
Tarikh : 6 April 1995
Semua Pengarah Pendidikan Negeri
Y.Bhg. Datuk/Tuan,
SURAT PEKELILING IKHTISAS BIL. 1/1995 :
Keselamatan Diri Pelajar Semasa Pengajaran
Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan Serta
Kegiatan Kokurikulum dan Sukan
Di Dalam dan Di Luar Kawasan Sekolah
Sebagaimana Y.Bhg. Datuk/Tuan sedia maklum bahawa keselamatan semasa pengajaran
Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan, kegiatan kokurikulum dan sukan adalah sentiasa
diutamakan. Walau bagaimanapun kemalangan atau kecederaan mungkin boleh berlaku
tanpa diduga.
2. Tujuan surat pekeliling ini adalah untuk memperingatkan semua guru Pendidikan
Jasmani dan Sukan supaya berwaspada terhadap kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang boleh
menyebabkan berlakunya kejadian yang tidak diingini ke atas diri pelajar serta mengambil
langkah-langkah tertentu untuk mengelakkannya. Pada setiap masa, keselamatan pelajar
semestinya menjadi pertimbangan utama.
3. Sebagai panduan, berikut adalah di antara beberapa langkah yang boleh
dilaksanakan :-
3.1 Guru Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan
3.1.1 Menjaga keselamatan pelajar dengan rapi semasa di dalam atau di luar
bilik darjah.
3.1.2 Bertanggungjawab untuk mengeluar, mengguna dan menyimpan alatalat
sukan, walaupun boleh dibantu oleh pelajar.
3.2 Guru Kokurikulum dan Sukan
3.2.1 Guru-guru mestilah mengawasi dan peka terhadap keselamatan
pelajar-pelajar yang melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti-aktiviti kokurikulum
dan sukan.
3.2.2 Guru-guru hendaklah mempastikan semua alat sukan berada dalam
keadaan baik dan selamat sebelum digunakan.
3.3 Pelajar
3.3.1 Semua pelajar mestilah mematuhi setiap arahan guru dengan
sepenuhnya semasa mengikuti pelajaran Pendidikan Jasmani dan
Kesihatan atau gerakerja kokurikulum dan sukan.
Diilustrasi kembali oleh Ahmad Faris bin Johan, Unit ICT, Bahagian Sekolah, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
3.3.2 Pelajar-pelajar yang tidak dapat mengikuti pelajaran Pendidikan
Jasmani dan Kesihatan hendaklah berada bersama guru.
3.4 Stor Sukan
3.4.1 Stor sukan mestilah kemas dan tersusun.
3.4.2 Alat-alat sukan mestilah diletakkan pada tempat-tempat yang mudah
diambil untuk kegunaan.
3.4.3 Setiap alat yang dikeluarkan dari stor sukan mestilah direkodkan dalam
buku ’keluar dan masuk alat-alat sukan’.
3.5 Cuaca/Musim
3.5.1 Guru hendaklah menggunakan budi bicara supaya keadaan
cuaca/musim tidak membahayakan pelajar sewaktu melaksanakan
aktiviti.
3.6 Laporan Kemalangan atau Kecederaan
3.6.1 Sebarang kemalangan atau kecederaan yang berlaku hendaklah
disiasat dan dilaporkan kepada pengetua/guru besar dengan segera.
3.7 Skim Perlindungan Diri
3.7.1 Sekolah digalakkan mengadakan skim perlindungan diri untuk semua
pelajar.
3.8 Penyelenggaraan Peralatan Sukan
3.8.1 Ketua Panitia Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan/Setiausaha Sukan
hendaklah memeriksa dan bertanggungjawab menyelenggara stor dan
alat-alat sukan dari masa ke masa untuk mempastikan semua peralatan
sukan dalam keadaan baik.
4. Y.Bhg. Datuk/Tuan adalah diminta menyebarkan kandungan surat ini kepada semua
sekolah-sekolah di negeri Y.Bhg. Datuk/Tuan.
Sekian, terima kasih.

“BERKHIDMAT UNTUK NEGARA”


“CINTAILAH BAHASA KITA”
(DATUK HAJI ABDUL TALIB BIN MD ZIN)
Pengarah
Bahagian Sekolah
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
Diilustrasi kembali oleh Ahmad Faris bin Johan, Unit ICT, Bahagian Sekolah, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
s.k 1. Y.B. Datuk Amar Dr. Sulaiman Haji Daud
Menteri Pendidikan Malaysia
2. Y.B. Dr. Leo Michael Toyad
Timbalan Menteri Pendidikan Malaysia
3. Y.B. Dr. Fong Chan Onn
Timbalan Menteri Pendidikan Malaysia
4. Ketua Setiausaha
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
5. Ketua Pengarah Pendidikan
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
6. Timbalan Ketua Setiausaha I
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
7. Timbalan Ketua Pengarah Pendidikan I
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
8. Timbalan Ketua Setiausaha II
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
9. Timbalan Ketua Pengarah Pendidikan II
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
10. Semua Ketua Bahagian
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
11. Ketua Unit Perhubungan Awam
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia