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FIZIKMOZAC 2010 CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY ANSWER 7.1 CURRENT & ELECTRIC FIELD 1.

Question 8:Melaka MY 09 (a)(i) A region where a charge experiences electrical forces (a)(ii) (b)(i) Q = It = 0.2 x 3 x 60 C = 36 C (b)(ii) n = Q/e = 36/1.9 x 10 -19 = 1.89 x 1020 (c)(i) Extra high tension Produce higher strength of electric field (c)(ii) metal strong / good conductor (d) R (e) non electrolyte 7.2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT AND VOLTAGE 2. Question 1: MRSM 08 (a) Measure potential di voltage (b)(i) Increases (b)(ii) Remain unchanged (c) Length/ temperature / cross sectional are 3.Question 2: Johor 09 (a) Cross section of P > cross sectional of Q (b) (i) gradient of V-I graph (b)(ii) draw a triangle 0) = 1.6 O (8.0 (5.0 0) difference / 4. Question 4: Kelantan 09 (a) X : Ammeter Y: Voltmeter (b) (i) Directly proportional (b)(ii) Ohm s Law (c)(i) Resistance (c)(ii) Constantan s.w.g 36 Higher gradient 5.Question 8: Kedah 08 (a) Ohm s law states that current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference accross its ends provided that the temperature and other physical quantities of the conductor remain constant (b) (i) . Ohm s law is not obeyed (b) (i) . This is because the resistance of the conductor

is extremely high. (iii) . From the graph: V = 2.0 V, I = 4.6 x 10 . R = V/I = 2.0 / 4.6 x 10 = 434.8 O (c) (i) . X with K . Y with M . Z with L (c) (ii) . Gradient of the graph represents the effective resistance of the circuit . Series circuit has higher resistance // parallel circuit has lower resistance (c) (iii) . R = gradient of graph P = 12/3 R = 3 O gradient. e 10-3 A 10-3

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 7.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUIT 6.Question 3: Kelantan 08 (a) Parallel circuit (b) all symbols correct Circuit is correct (c) The brightness of lamp J = lamp K = lamp L = lamp M (d) The voltage is the same (e) One bulb blow, other bulbs can still lights up. 7. Question 8: SBP 09 (a) When the voltage supplied is 6V the energy produce is12 J per second. (b) Diagram 8.1: series Diagram 8.2: parallel (c) . Voltage for each bulb in Diagram 8.2 more than Diagram 8.1 . Total resistance in Diagram 8.2 less than Diagram 8.1 // Current flow in each bulb in Diagram 8.2 is more than in Diagram 8.1 (d) (i) R1 = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 O I = R V = 12 6.0 = 0.5 A (answer + correct unit) (ii) R 1 = + 4 1 + 4 1 = 4 3 RT = 3 4 = 1. 33 O I T= 1.33 6.0 = 4.5 A I flow each bulb = 3 4.5 = 1.5 A (e)(i) Diagram 8.2 (e)(ii) . If one bulb blow another bulb can still lights up . less effective resistance //more current flow 7.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE

8. (a) Current is rate of flow of charge. (b) . In Diagram 10.1(a) , the voltmeter is placed across the conductor, while in Diagram 10.2(a), the voltmeter is placed across the dry cells. . Graph 10.1(b): potential difference is directly proportional to current. . Ohm s law . Graph 10.2(b): potential difference decreases as the current increases. . Due to the total internal resistance in the dry cells. There is a potential difference drop. . Part of the energy is used to overcome the internal resistance due to the electrolyte in the battery. 7.5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY 9. Question 7: Kedah 09 (a) Electrical energy to gravitational potential energy (b) (i) P = VI = 10 x 1.7 = 17 W (b)(ii) P = mgh = 2 x10 x 1.5 t 2.5 = 12 W (b)(iii) efficiency = 12 x 100% 17 = 70.6 % (c) Ammeter reading decreases Less work done // less power required. (d) Lubricate with oil the moving parts to reduce friction force. 4 1

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 10. Question 8: Johor 07 (a) It releases 1000 J of energy per second// 1000W power when 240 V is supplied to it (b) (i) I = V P I = 240 1000 = 4.167 A (b) (ii) E = Pt = 1000 1000 X 60 30 X 30 // 15 units Cost = 15 X 0.23 // RM 3.45 (c) (i) Calculate the energy by using E = VIt P : 240 X 6 X 90 // 129 600 J Q : 240 X 5 X 150 // 180 000 J R : 240 X 4 X 120 // 115 200 J (c) (ii) R Uses the least energy // save energy Save cost // save time 11. Question 8: Trengganu 08 (a) When 240 V potential difference is supplied, 1.2 kJ of energy is produced per second. (b) (i) 1.2 or 1200 240 240 = 5 A (b) (ii) 240 or 1200 5 240 = 48 . (c) (i) . W and Y . High boiling point not boil at high temperature . High resistivity // produced more heat (c) (ii) W and Z Give the reason correctly The fuse rating just bigger the

current through the kettle (c) (iii) WG ive the reason correctly High boiling point , High resistivity and use 8Afuse 12. Question 8: Melaka 09 (a) Electrical energy to kinetic energy + gravitational potential energy (b)(i) VIt = 5 x 1.2 x 5 J = 30 J (b)(ii) mgh = 1.5 x 10 x 1. 5 J = 22.5 J (c)(i) energy consumption : Computer : Pt = 200 x 1 x 60 x 60 x7 = 5040000 J = 1400 whr = 1.4 kwhr Air condition : Pt = 2000 x 1 x 7 = 14000 whr = 14 kwhr Water heater : Pt = 3800 x x 7 = 13300 whr = 13.3 kwhr = 47880 kJ All answers with correct (d) Air condition Highest energy consumption 13. Section B:SBP 07 a Chemical energy . electrical energy bi . Figure 10.1(a): The dry cells connected in parallel, . Figure 10.1(b): The dry cells connected in series . The voltage supplied in Figure 10.1(a) is smaller

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 ii . The ammeter reading in Figure 10.2(a) is smaller . The greater the voltage supplied, the greater the energy transferred to flow the electric charges around the circuit . The greater the current flowing around the circuit, the faster that the energy is transferred (b) Understanding . Our bodies are at earth potential (0V) . If we touch the live wire, there will be a large potential difference (p.d) the live wire and our body. A large current flow through it, probably fatal. . The neutral wire stays at earth potential (0V), roughly at the same potential as our bodies. . If we touch the neutral wire, there is no potential difference across us and so no current flows. Qualitative: Method Reason The electric appliances are connected in parallel//diagram Allow each electric appliances to be switched on and off independently Fit fuse at the live wire in the fuse box //diagram// Use miniature circuit breakers (mcb s) To stop the flow of current by melting when a high voltage of electric current flows through the circuit // switches itself off very quickly if the current exceeds e.g. 15A (for 15A mcb)

Earth connection to the metal case of electrical appliances Earth wire connected to earth, so that when a fault occurs and a current flows through the live wire and the earth wire, the fuse in the live wire will blow and cut off the supply. It will protect a person who may touch a faulty or live appliance Use low power lamps / install fluorescent lamp Regularly cleaning and removing dust from the air filters of air conditioners Do not put more water in a kettle than needed for hot drinks To save the energy 14. Section B: Trengganu 07 (a) 1 The rate of charge flows. (b) . Diagram 10.1 connected in series and Diagram 10.2 connected in parallel. . The reading of ammeter in Diagram 10.2 is greater than in Diagram 10.1. . The reading of voltmeter in Diagram 10.1 > Diagram 10.2.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 . The effective resistance in Diagram 10.2 < Diagram 10.1. . Effective resistance increases, the current flows decreases. . Circuit connected in parallel, the effective resistance decreases. (b) Understanding: . The ammeter reading increased . The voltmeter reading decreased. . Effective resistance in the circuit decreased. (c) Qualitative problem Modification Reason Attach one fuse to the live wire in the consumer unit/ fuse box. To break/switch off the circuit when large current before the wire become hotter and produce fire. Using the insulating wires // thicker wires To prevent short circuit // To reduce resistance, improve efficiency. Attach switch for each lamp. To allows each lamp to be switched on & off independently Connect the metal fitting lamp to the earth wire/ cable. To flows electron (extra) to earth to avoid lethal shock. Using only 240 V light bulb. To ensure the bulbs light up with normal brightness. 15. Section C: Kedah 07 (i) Three resistors are connected one after another (ii) . The current through each electrical appliance is higher//The bulbs in the

parallel circuit light up brighter compared to the same bulbs in series circuit// Effective resistance is much smaller when connected in parallel circuit . If any devices/components broke down, others can still be used . The circuit breaker / fuse can be connected to each path for safety . Only certain devices that are not in used can be switched off. The current can still flow through the other path (c) Making Decision characteristic reason Low power lamp Safe cost//electric bill High efficiency The room looks brighter//high output power //less power wastage Long life span No need to replace often Low price Save money/cos Choose Long fluorescent Because has Low power with highest efficiency, long hours of life span and medium price (d) Quantitative problem (i) 3.3 .//3.33 . (ii) 9 = I x 5 = 1.8 A (iii) // (0.9)2 x 10 = 8.1 W 10 92

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 16. Understanding: Teknik 07 (a) 9 V means 9 J of energy is needed to move 1 C of charge around a complete circuit. (b) . The two dry cells are connected in parallel. . The effective internal resistance of the two batteries is smaller . So more current can flow 17.Section B: N9 08 (a) (i) 1. Bulbs are connected in parallel 1m 2. Switch and battery are connected in series Correct symbols for all components (a) (ii) When the bulb is connected to a power supply of 1.5V, it will produce 3J of energy in 1 second. (a) (iii) The brightness of bulb A is the same as bulb B (a) (iv) I = P/V = 6/1.5 = 4A (a) (v) Energy = Pt = 6 x 3600 = 21 600 J Or Energy = VIt = 1.5 x 4 x 3600 = 21 600 J Modification explanations Resistance of wire is low to prevent power loss due to heat ore 1m Melting point is high to prevent the wire from melting Density wire is low to reduce the

mass of wire / too heavy Rate of rusting is low to prevent it from rusting easily Rate of expansion of wire is low to prevent lengthening 18.Section B: Johor 08 (a) (i) Work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another (a) (ii) (b) . The bulb in parallel circuit // Diagram 10.2 is brighter than those in series circuit // Diagram 10.1 . The potential difference across each bulb in the parallel circuit is the same as that of the battery // dry cell. . The potential difference across each bulb in the series circuit is smaller than that of the battery // dry cell. . The current flowing through each bulb in the parallel circuit is higher than the current flowing in the series circuit.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 . When the potential difference across each bulb is higher, the current flowing through it is also higher and the bulb is brighter. Suggestion explaination Diameter of wire used as flexible cable must be thicker So that the resistance will be reduced. A thinner wire has a higher resistance. If large current flows through it, it becomes overheated and may burn and cause a fire Length of cable is shorter So that the resistance is smaller Heating element must made of material with high resistivity such as nichrome Can produce the higher heat energy with small current. So that water will boil faster The kettle is made of good heat insulator So that the heat will not loose to the surroundings and water will boil faster. It is safer to handle Use a suitable fuse. The current flow through the cable is 8.33 A. The suitable fuse is between 11 A to 13 A If there is a shortcircuit, a very high current flows and melt

the fuse wire. The kettle will not be damaged 19.Section C: Melaka 08 (a) (i) 240 V, 80 W means the bulb transforms energy of 80 J/s if connected to 240 V power supply. (a) (ii) . the resistance of metal Z is constant / The resistance of metal Y is increasing . The suitable material to be used as filament of the bulb is metal Y . resistance increases as the temperature increases . the higher the resistance the brighter the bulb (b) (i) Characteristic Reason The crosssectional area is small because it can release more heat/ resistance is higher Melting point is high so it cannot be melt easily at high temperature. The specific heat capacity is low so it can release heat in a shorter time length of the heating element is long it can be shaped as a coil and release more heat. The best heating element is L It has a small cross-sectional area, high melting point, low specific heat capacity and long. (c) (i) . . . . 1.5 3 1

3 1 1 R R (c) (ii) I 2A 3 6 2 . . / V = )6 4 2 1 ( 2 . . V P = I 2R . (2)2 (2) / P = 2 2 42 . R V = 8 W

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 20.Section C: Trengganu 09 (a) Electric field is a region where a charge experiece electric force. (b) . Charges on the disc neutralize the negative charges on the ping pong ball. . Like charges on the disc and the ball repelled each other . The ball attracted by the positively charged disc. . The ball oscillates between the two plates. (c) Kilowatt hour meter installed near main fuse Aspects explanation Fuse for each circuit Cut off current if overloaded Bulbs and power sockets arrange in parallel Other bulb or power socket still working when one bulb blows out Circuit for lighting is in parallel with power circuit Supply different value of current Kilowatt hour meter installed near main fuse Record power usage and prevent overloading of current Use circuit L Has fuse for each circuit, bulbs and power sockets arrange in parallel, Circuit for lighting is in parallel with power circuit, Kilowatt hour meter installed near main fuse 13 A (d)(i) fuse 10 (d)(ii) V = IR = 9 x 26.7 = 240.3 V P = VI = 9 x 240.3 = 2162.7 W ecord total 21. Section C: Johor 09 (a) E.m.f is the work done by a source in driving 1 C of charge around a complete circuit. (b)(i) (b)(ii) Parallel connection

(b)(iii) Diagram 12.1(b) provides higher current. Properties explanation Low power rating Consume electrical energy // save energy Low cost Save money / cheaper High efficiency Produce output // less energy wasted Long lifetime Last longer / use for longer period Lamp Q It has lower power rating, low cost, high efficency and long lifetime (d)(i) Electrical energy to light energy + heat energy (d)(ii) I = 200 = 0.83 A 240 R = V2 = (240)(240) P 200 (onsume less roduce high power ower = 288 O

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 22. Section C: Melaka 09 (a) To control the current (b) Length of wire (c) . Current flow from A to B through the slider . Slider is moved to change the length of wire . Length of wire is directly proportional to current. (d) Specification explanation Density of wire is small so it is lighter Melting point is high so the wire will not melt oxidation rate is low at high temperature the wire can be used for a longer time resistivity is high more heat energy is produced The best wire is M Because the density is small, melting point is high, oxidation rate is low and resistivity is high (e)(i) Wire B (e)(ii) convert 60 mA to 60 x 10-3 A R1 = 6 = 300 O 20 x 10-3 R2 = 6 = 100 O 60 x 10-3 300 : 100 3:1 23. Section C: MRSM 09 (a) (i) Direct current. (a)(ii) Series circuit (b) (i) power for washing machine: P = V = 2402 = 4800 W = 4.8 kW R 12 Energy for one day (1 x 24) + (1.2 x 10) + (4.8 x 2) = 45.6 units (b)(ii) energy for one month: 45.6 x 30 = 1,368 unit (b)(iii) total cost: 100 x 0.2 = 20.00 100 x 0.29 = 29.00 1168 x 0.25 = 292.00 Total = RM 341.00 (c)(i) fuse label 8 A means the normal current that flows in the power plug must be less than 8

A. If it exceeds 8 A, the fuse will melt and the circuit will be broken. (c)(ii) Aspects Reason Shorter length of extension cord Reduce resistance / more current flows One fuse for each socket plug Can cut off the circuit if current overloaded Has power surge protection Protect the extension cord if current oveloaded. Has head plug earthing Prevent a person from electric shock if he touches the faulty plug.

FIZIKMOZAC 2010 Choose S because has short extension cord, has one fuse for each socket plug, has power surge protection and has head plug earthing