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1

Materials
Data
Book





2003 Edition













Cambridge University Engineering Department



2

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS IN SI UNITS

Absolute zero of temperature 273.15 C
Acceleration due to gravity, g 9. 807 m/s
2

Avogadros number,
A
N 6.022x10
26
/kmol
Base of natural logarithms, e 2.718
Boltzmanns constant, k 1.381 x 10
26
kJ/K
Faradays constant, F 9.648 x 10
7
C/kmol
Universal Gas constant, R 8.3143 kJ/kmol K
Permeability of vacuum,
o
1.257 x 10
6
H/m
Permittivity of vacuum,
o
8.854 x 10
12
F/m
Plancks constant, h 6.626 x 10
37
kJ/s
Velocity of light in vacuum, c 2.998 x 10
8
m/s
Volume of perfect gas at STP 22.41

m
3
/kmol


CONVERSION OF UNITS

Angle, 1 rad 57.30
Energy, U See inside back cover
Force, F 1 kgf
1 lbf
9.807 N
4.448 N
Length, l 1 ft
1 inch
1
304.8 mm
25.40 mm
0.1 nm
Mass, M 1 tonne
1 lb
1000 kg
0.454 kg
Power, P See inside back cover
Stress, See inside back cover
Specific Heat, C
p
1 cal/g.C 4.188 kJ/kg.K
Stress Intensity, K
1 ksi in 1.10 MPa m
Temperature, T 1 F 0.556 K
Thermal Conductivity, 1 cal/s.cm.
o
C 4.18 W/m.K
Volume, V 1 Imperial gall
1 US gall
4.546 x 10
3
m
3
3.785 x 10
3
m
3

Viscosity, 1 poise
1 lb ft.s
0.1 N.s/m
2
0.1517 N.s/m
2




1
CONTENTS
Page Number

Introduction 3
Sources 3

I. FORMULAE AND DEFINITIONS
Stress and strain 4
Elastic moduli 4
Stiffness and strength of unidirectional composites 5
Dislocations and plastic flow 5
Fast fracture 6
Statistics of fracture 6
Fatigue
7
Creep 7
Diffusion 8
Heat flow 8

II. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
Melting temperature 9
Density 10
Youngs modulus 11
Yield stress and tensile strength 12
Fracture toughness 13
Environmental resistance 14
Uniaxial tensile response of selected metals and polymers 15

III. MATERIAL PROPERTY CHARTS
Youngs modulus versus density 16
Strength versus density 17
Youngs modulus versus strength 18
Fracture toughness versus strength 19
Maximum service temperature 20
Material price (per kg) 21

IV. PROCESS ATTRIBUTE CHARTS
Material-process compatibility matrix (shaping) 22
Mass 23
Section thickness 23
Surface roughness 24
Dimensional tolerance 24
Economic batch size 25




2
V. CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Metals: ferrous alloys, non-ferrous alloys 26
Polymers and foams 27
Composites, ceramics, glasses and natural materials 28

VI. EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS
Copper Nickel 29
Lead Tin 29
Iron Carbon 30
Aluminium Copper 30
Aluminium Silicon 31
Copper Zinc 31
Copper Tin 32
Titanium-Aluminium 32
Silica Alumina 33

VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS
TTT diagrams and Jominy end-quench hardenability curves for steels 34

VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS
Atomic properties of selected elements 36
Oxidation properties of selected elements 37





3
INTRODUCTION

The data and information in this booklet have been collected for use in the Materials Courses in
Part I of the Engineering Tripos (as well as in Part II, and the Manufacturing Engineering
Tripos). Numerical data are presented in tabulated and graphical form, and a summary of useful
formulae is included. A list of sources from which the data have been prepared is given below.
Tabulated material and process data or information are from the Cambridge Engineering Selector
(CES) software (Educational database Level 2), copyright of Granta Design Ltd, and are
reproduced by permission; the same data source was used for the material property and process
attribute charts.

It must be realised that many material properties (such as toughness) vary between wide limits
depending on composition and previous treatment. Any final design should be based on
manufacturers or suppliers data for the material in question, and not on the data given here.



SOURCES

Cambridge Engineering Selector software (CES 4.1), 2003, Granta Design Limited, Rustat
House, 62 Clifton Rd, Cambridge, CB1 7EG

M F Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 1999, Butterworth Heinemann

M F Ashby and D R H Jones, Engineering Materials, Vol. 1, 1996, Butterworth Heinemann

M F Ashby and D R H Jones, Engineering Materials, Vol. 2, 1998, Butterworth Heinemann

M Hansen, Constitution of Binary Alloys, 1958, McGraw Hill

I J Polmear, Light Alloys, 1995, Elsevier

C J Smithells, Metals Reference Book, 6
th
Ed., 1984, Butterworths

Transformation Characteristics of Nickel Steels, 1952, International Nickel



4
I. FORMULAE AND DEFINITIONS
STRESS AND STRAIN

A
F
t
=
o
A
F
n
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
t
l
l
ln
o
o
n
l
l l
=

F = normal component of force
t
= true stress
o
A = initial area
n
= nominal stress
A = current area
t
= true strain
o
l = initial length
n
= nominal strain
l = current length

Poissons ratio,
strain al longitudin
strain lateral
=

Youngs modulus E = initial slope of
t t
curve = initial slope of
n n
curve.

Yield stress
y
is the nominal stress at the limit of elasticity in a tensile test.

Tensile strength
ts
is the nominal stress at maximum load in a tensile test.

Tensile ductility
f
is the nominal plastic strain at failure in a tensile test. The gauge length of
the specimen should also be quoted.

ELASTIC MODULI
) 1 ( 2 +
=
E
G
) 2 1 ( 3
=
E
K
For polycrystalline solids, as a rough guide,
Poissons Ratio
3
1


Shear Modulus E G
8
3


Bulk Modulus E K

These approximations break down for rubber and porous solids.



5
STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES

m f f f II
E ) V ( E V E + = 1

1
1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
m
f
f
f
E
V
E
V
E

m f
1
y f
f
f ts
) V ( V + =

II
E = composite modulus parallel to fibres (upper bound)

E = composite modulus transverse to fibres (lower bound)


f
V = volume fraction of fibres
f
E = Youngs modulus of fibres
m
E = Youngs modulus of matrix
ts
= tensile strength of composite parallel to fibres
f
f
= fracture strength of fibres
m
y
= yield stress of matrix

DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC FLOW

The force per unit length F on a dislocation, of Burgers vector b , due to a remote shear stress
, is b F = . The shear stress
y
required to move a dislocation on a single slip plane is
L b
T c
y
= where T = line tension (about
2
2
1
b G , where G is the shear modulus)
L = inter-obstacle distance
c = constant ( 2 c for strong obstacles, 2 < c for weak obstacles)

The shear yield stress k of a polycrystalline solid is related to the shear stress
y
required to
move a dislocation on a single slip plane:
y
k
2
3
.

The uniaxial yield stress
y
of a polycrystalline solid is approximately k
y
2 = , where k
is the shear yield stress.

Hardness H (in MPa) is given approximately by:
y
H 3 .
Vickers Hardness HV is given in kgf/mm
2
, i.e. g / H HV = , where g is the acceleration due
to gravity.





6
FAST FRACTURE

The stress intensity factor, K : a Y K =

Fast fracture occurs when
IC
K K =

In plane strain, the relationship between stress intensity factor K and strain energy release rate
G is:
G E
EG
K

=
2
1
(as 1 0
2
. )
Plane strain fracture toughness and toughness are thus related by:
IC
2
IC
IC
1
G E
G E
K


Process zone size at crack tip given approximately by:
2
2
IC
f
p
K
r

=
Note that
IC
K (and
IC
G ) are only valid when conditions for linear elastic fracture mechanics
apply (typically the crack length and specimen dimensions must be at least 50 times the process
zone size).
In the above:
= remote tensile stress
a = crack length
Y = dimensionless constant dependent on geometry; typically 1 Y
IC
K = plane strain fracture toughness;
IC
G = critical strain energy release rate, or toughness;
E = Youngs modulus
= Poissons ratio
f
= failure strength

STATISTICS OF FRACTURE
Weibull distribution,

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
m
o
s
V
dV
V
(V) P

exp

For constant stress:

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
m
o
s
V
V
(V) P

exp
s
P

= survival probability of component
V = volume of component
= tensile stress on component
o
V = volume of test sample
o
= reference failure stress for volume
o
V , which gives 37 0
1
. P
e
s
= =
m = Weibull modulus



7
FATIGUE

Basquins Law (high cycle fatigue):
1
C N
f
=



Coffin-Manson Law (low cycle fatigue):

2
C N
f
p
=


l


Goodmans Rule. For the same fatigue life, a stress range operating with a mean stress
m
,
is equivalent to a stress range
o
and zero mean stress, according to the relationship:

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ts
m
o

1

Miners Rule for cumulative damage (for i loading blocks, each of constant stress amplitude and
duration
i
N cycles):

1 =

fi
i
N
N
i


Paris crack growth law:

n
K A
N d
a d
=

In the above:
= stress range;
=
l p
plastic strain range;
K = tensile stress intensity range;
N = cycles;
f
N = cycles to failure;
= n , A , C , C , ,
2 1
constants;
a = crack length;
ts
= tensile strength.

CREEP

Power law creep: ) RT / Q ( A
n
ss
= exp &

ss
& = steady-state strain-rate
Q = activation energy (kJ/kmol)
R = universal gas constant
T = absolute temperature
n , A = constants



8
DIFFUSION

Diffusion coefficient: ) RT / Q ( D D
o
= exp
Ficks diffusion equations:
dx
dC
D J = and
2
2
x
C
D
t
C


C = concentration J = diffusive flux
x = distance D = diffusion coefficient (m
2
/s)
t = time
o
D = pre-exponential factor (m
2
/s)
Q = activation energy (kJ/kmol)

HEAT FLOW
Steady-state 1D heat flow (Fouriers Law):
dx
dT
q =
Transient 1D heat flow:
2
2
x
T
a
t
T


T = temperature (K) = thermal conductivity (W/m.K)
q = heat flux per second, per unit area (W/m
2
.s) a = thermal diffusivity (m
2
/s)

For many 1D problems of diffusion and heat flow, the solution for concentration or temperature
depends on the error function, erf :

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t D
x
f ) t , x ( C
2
erf or

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t a
x
f ) t , x ( T
2
erf

A characteristic diffusion distance in all problems is given by t D x , with the corresponding
characteristic heat flow distance in thermal problems being t a x .
The error function, and its first derivative, are:
( ) dy y
X
) X (
2
0
exp
2
erf =


( )
2
exp
2
erf and X )] X ( [
dX
d
=



The error function integral has no closed form solution values are given in the Table below.

X 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
) ( X erf 0 0.11 0.22 0.33 0.43 0.52 0.60 0.68 0.74

X 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5



) ( X erf 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.97 1.0






9






T
m

(
o
C
)

M
e
t
a
l
s





F
e
r
r
o
u
s

C
a
s
t

I
r
o
n
s

1
1
3
0

-

1
2
5
0


H
i
g
h

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s

1
2
8
9

-

1
4
7
8


M
e
d
i
u
m

C
a
r
b
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S
t
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1
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8
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1
5
1
4


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w

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a
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t
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0

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1
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2
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w

A
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1
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1
5
2
9


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S
t
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1
3
7
5

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1
4
5
0

N
o
n
-
f
e
r
r
o
u
s

A
l
u
m
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i
u
m

A
l
l
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4
7
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6
7
7


C
o
p
p
e
r

A
l
l
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y
s

9
8
2

-

1
0
8
2


L
e
a
d

A
l
l
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y
s

3
2
2

-

3
2
8


M
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s

4
4
7

-

6
4
9


N
i
c
k
e
l

A
l
l
o
y
s

1
4
3
5

-

1
4
6
6


T
i
t
a
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s

1
4
7
7

-

1
6
8
2


Z
i
n
c

A
l
l
o
y
s

3
7
5

-

4
9
2

C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s





G
l
a
s
s
e
s
B
o
r
o
s
i
l
i
c
a
t
e

G
l
a
s
s


(
*
)

4
5
0

-

6
0
2


G
l
a
s
s

C
e
r
a
m
i
c


(
*
)

5
6
3

-

1
6
4
7


S
i
l
i
c
a

G
l
a
s
s


(
*
)

9
5
7

-

1
5
5
7


S
o
d
a
-
L
i
m
e

G
l
a
s
s


(
*
)

4
4
2

-

5
9
2

P
o
r
o
u
s

B
r
i
c
k

9
2
7

-

1
2
2
7


C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
,

t
y
p
i
c
a
l

9
2
7

-

1
2
2
7


S
t
o
n
e

1
2
2
7

-

1
4
2
7

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
l
u
m
i
n
a

2
0
0
4


2
0
9
6


A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

N
i
t
r
i
d
e

2
3
9
7

-

2
5
0
7


B
o
r
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e

2
3
7
2

-

2
5
0
7


S
i
l
i
c
o
n

1
4
0
7

-

1
4
1
2


S
i
l
i
c
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e

2
1
5
2

-

2
5
0
0


S
i
l
i
c
o
n

N
i
t
r
i
d
e

2
3
8
8

-

2
4
9
6


T
u
n
g
s
t
e
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e

2
8
2
7

-

2
9
2
0

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s





M
e
t
a
l

A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
/
S
i
l
i
c
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e

5
2
5

-

6
2
7

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

C
F
R
P

n
/
a


G
F
R
P

n
/
a

N
a
t
u
r
a
l






B
a
m
b
o
o


(
*
)

7
7

-

1
0
2


C
o
r
k


(
*
)

7
7

-

1
0
2


L
e
a
t
h
e
r


(
*
)

1
0
7

-

1
2
7


W
o
o
d
,

t
y
p
i
c
a
l

(
L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
)



(
*
)

7
7

-

1
0
2


W
o
o
d
,

t
y
p
i
c
a
l

(
T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
)



(
*
)

7
7

-

1
0
2




T
m

(
o
C
)

P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s


1





E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r

B
u
t
y
l

R
u
b
b
e
r


(
*
)


7
3

-


6
3


E
V
A


(
*
)


7
3

-


2
3


I
s
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
I
R
)


(
*
)


8
3

-


7
8


N
a
t
u
r
a
l

R
u
b
b
e
r

(
N
R
)


(
*
)


7
8

-


6
3


N
e
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
C
R
)


(
*
)


4
8

-


4
3


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

E
l
a
s
t
o
m
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r
s

(
e
l
P
U
)


(
*
)


7
3

-


2
3


S
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l
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c
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e

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l
a
s
t
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s


(
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)


1
2
3

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7
3

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
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c

A
B
S


(
*
)

8
8

-



1
2
8


C
e
l
l
u
l
o
s
e

P
o
l
y
m
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r
s

(
C
A
)


(
*
)


9

-



1
0
7


I
o
n
o
m
e
r

(
I
)


(
*
)

2
7

-



7
7


N
y
l
o
n
s

(
P
A
)


(
*
)

4
4

-



5
6


P
o
l
y
c
a
r
b
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n
a
t
e

(
P
C
)


(
*
)

1
4
2

-



2
0
5


P
E
E
K


(
*
)

1
4
3

-



1
9
9


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
E
)


(
*
)


2
5

-


1
5


P
E
T


(
*
)

6
8

-



8
0


A
c
r
y
l
i
c

(
P
M
M
A
)


(
*
)

8
5

-



1
6
5


A
c
e
t
a
l

(
P
O
M
)


(
*
)


1
8

-


8


P
o
l
y
p
r
o
p
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
P
)


(
*
)


2
5

-


1
5


P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

(
P
S
)


(
*
)

7
4

-




1
1
0


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
i
c
s

(
t
p
P
U
)


(
*
)

1
2
0

-



1
6
0


P
V
C

7
5

-



1
0
5


T
e
f
l
o
n

(
P
T
F
E
)

1
0
7

-



1
2
3

T
h
e
r
m
o
s
e
t

E
p
o
x
i
e
s

n
/
a


P
h
e
n
o
l
i
c
s

n
/
a


P
o
l
y
e
s
t
e
r

n
/
a

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s






F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
V
L
D
)



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-

7
2
.
4

4
8
.
3

-

7
9
.
6


A
c
e
t
a
l

(
P
O
M
)

4
8
.
6

-

7
2
.
4

6
0

-

8
9
.
6


P
o
l
y
p
r
o
p
y
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e
n
e

(
P
P
)

2
0
.
7

-

3
7
.
2

2
7
.
6

-

4
1
.
4


P
o
l
y
s
t
y
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e
n
e

(
P
S
)

2
8
.
7

-

5
6
.
2

3
5
.
9

-

5
6
.
5


P
o
l
y
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e
t
h
a
n
e

T
h
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r
m
o
p
l
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s
t
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c
s


(
t
p
P
U
)

4
0

-

5
3
.
8

3
1

-

6
2


P
V
C

3
5
.
4

-

5
2
.
1

4
0
.
7

-

6
5
.
1


T
e
f
l
o
n

(
P
T
F
E
)

1
5

-

2
5

2
0

-

3
0

T
h
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m
o
s
e
t

E
p
o
x
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s

3
6

-

7
1
.
7

4
5

-

8
9
.
6


P
h
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n
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l
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c
s

2
7
.
6

-

4
9
.
7

3
4
.
5

-

6
2
.
1


P
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l
y
e
s
t
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r

3
3

-

4
0

4
1
.
4

-

8
9
.
6

P
o
l
y
m
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r

F
o
a
m
s









F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
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F
o
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m

(
V
L
D
)

0
.
0
1

-

0
.
1
2

0
.
2
4

-

0
.
8
5


F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
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r

F
o
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m

(
L
D
)

0
.
0
2

-

0
.
3

0
.
2
4

-

2
.
3
5


F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
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r

F
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m

(
M
D
)

0
.
0
5

-

0
.
7

0
.
4
3

-

2
.
9
5


R
i
g
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P
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F
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m

(
L
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)

0
.
3

-

1
.
7

0
.
4
5

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2
.
2
5


R
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g
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P
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F
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(
M
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)

0
.
4

-

3
.
5

0
.
6
5

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5
.
1


R
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g
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P
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F
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m

(
H
D
)

0
.
8

-

1
2

1
.
2

-

1
2
.
4

1


F
o
r

f
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l
l

n
a
m
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s

a
n
d

a
c
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n
y
m
s

o
f

p
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l
y
m
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s


s
e
e

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

V
.


(
*
)


N
B
:


F
o
r

c
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
,

y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

i
s

r
e
p
l
a
c
e
d

b
y

c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

w
h
i
c
h

i
s

m
o
r
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

i
n

c
e
r
a
m
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n
.


N
o
t
e

t
h
a
t

c
e
r
a
m
i
c
s

a
r
e

o
f

t
h
e

o
r
d
e
r

o
f


1
0

t
i
m
e
s

s
t
r
o
n
g
e
r

i
n

c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
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n


t
h
a
n

i
n

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
.


I
I
.
4




Y
I
E
L
D


S
T
R
E
S
S
,

y
,


A
N
D


T
E
N
S
I
L
E


S
T
R
E
N
G
T
H
,

t
s







1
3





K
I
C


(
M
P
a

m
)

M
e
t
a
l
s





F
e
r
r
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s

C
a
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t

I
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o
n
s

2
2

-

5
4


H
i
g
h

C
a
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b
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n

S
t
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l
s

2
7

-

9
2


M
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d
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m

C
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b
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n

S
t
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s

1
2

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9
2


L
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C
a
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n

S
t
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l
s

4
1

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8
2


L
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A
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S
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1
4

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0
0


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t
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6
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8
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N
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f
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A
l
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2
2

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3
5


C
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l
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3
0

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0


L
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l
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5

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1
5


M
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l
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1
2

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1
8


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A
l
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8
0

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1
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T
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m

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l
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1
4

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2
0


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A
l
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s

1
0

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1
0
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m
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s





G
l
a
s
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s
B
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t
e

G
l
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s
s



0
.
5

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0
.
7


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m
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c



1
.
4

-

1
.
7


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a

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l
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s



0
.
6

-

0
.
8


S
o
d
a
-
L
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m
e

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l
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s



0
.
5
5

-

0
.
7

P
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s

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k

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2


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o
n
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,

t
y
p
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l

0
.
3
5

-

0
.
4
5


S
t
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e

0
.
7

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.
5

T
e
c
h
n
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l

A
l
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a

3
.
3


4
.
8


A
l
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m
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N
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t
r
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e

2
.
5

-

3
.
4


B
o
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n

C
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b
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2
.
5

-

3
.
5


S
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l
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c
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n

0
.
8
3

-

0
.
9
4


S
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c
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n

C
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b
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2
.
5

-

5


S
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l
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c
o
n

N
i
t
r
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d
e

4

-

6


T
u
n
g
s
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n

C
a
r
b
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d
e

2

-

3
.
8

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
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s





M
e
t
a
l

A
l
u
m
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n
i
u
m
/
S
i
l
i
c
o
n

C
a
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b
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e

1
5

-

2
4

P
o
l
y
m
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r

C
F
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P

6
.
1

-

8
8


G
F
R
P

7

-

2
3

N
a
t
u
r
a
l






B
a
m
b
o
o



5

-

7


C
o
r
k



0
.
0
5

-

0
.
1


L
e
a
t
h
e
r



3

-

5


W
o
o
d
,

t
y
p
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c
a
l

(
L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
)




5

-

9


W
o
o
d
,

t
y
p
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c
a
l

(
T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
)




0
.
5

-

0
.
8

(
D
a
t
a

c
o
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t
e
s
y

o
f

G
r
a
n
t
a

D
e
s
i
g
n

L
t
d
)




K
I
C


(
M
P
a

m
)

P
o
l
y
m
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r
s


1





E
l
a
s
t
o
m
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r

B
u
t
y
l

R
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b
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0
.
0
7

-

0
.
1


E
V
A



0
.
5

-

0
.
7


I
s
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
I
R
)



0
.
0
7

-

0
.
1


N
a
t
u
r
a
l

R
u
b
b
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r

(
N
R
)



0
.
1
5

-

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.
2
5


N
e
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p
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n
e

(
C
R
)



0
.
1

-

0
.
3


P
o
l
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t
h
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l
a
s
t
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m
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s

(
e
l
P
U
)



0
.
2

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0
.
4


S
i
l
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c
o
n
e

E
l
a
s
t
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m
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r
s



0
.
0
3

-

0
.
5

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
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c

A
B
S



1
.
1
9

-

4
.
3
0


C
e
l
l
u
l
o
s
e

P
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l
y
m
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r
s

(
C
A
)



1

-

2
.
5


I
o
n
o
m
e
r

(
I
)



1
.
1
4

-

3
.
4
3


N
y
l
o
n
s

(
P
A
)



2
.
2
2

-

5
.
6
2


P
o
l
y
c
a
r
b
o
n
a
t
e

(
P
C
)



2
.
1

-

4
.
6
0


P
E
E
K



2
.
7
3

-

4
.
3
0


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
E
)



1
.
4
4

-

1
.
7
2


P
E
T



4
.
5

-

5
.
5


A
c
r
y
l
i
c

(
P
M
M
A
)



0
.
7

-

1
.
6


A
c
e
t
a
l

(
P
O
M
)



1
.
7
1

-

4
.
2


P
o
l
y
p
r
o
p
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
P
)



3

-

4
.
5


P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

(
P
S
)



0
.
7

-

1
.
1


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
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c
s

(
t
p
P
U
)


1
.
8
4

-

4
.
9
7


P
V
C

1
.
4
6

-

5
.
1
2


T
e
f
l
o
n

(
P
T
F
E
)

1
.
3
2

-

1
.
8

T
h
e
r
m
o
s
e
t

E
p
o
x
i
e
s

0
.
4

-

2
.
2
2


P
h
e
n
o
l
i
c
s

0
.
7
9

-

1
.
2
1


P
o
l
y
e
s
t
e
r

1
.
0
9

-

1
.
7
0

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s






F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
V
L
D
)

0
.
0
0
5

-

0
.
0
2


F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
L
D
)

0
.
0
1
5

-

0
.
0
5


F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
M
D
)

0
.
0
3

-

0
.
0
9


R
i
g
i
d

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
L
D
)



0
.
0
0
2

-

0
.
0
2


R
i
g
i
d

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
M
D
)



0
.
0
0
7

-

0
.
0
4
9


R
i
g
i
d

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m

(
H
D
)



0
.
0
2
4

-

0
.
0
9
1

1


F
o
r

f
u
l
l

n
a
m
e
s

a
n
d

a
c
r
o
n
y
m
s

o
f

p
o
l
y
m
e
r
s


s
e
e

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

V
.

N
o
t
e
:
I
C
K

o
n
l
y

v
a
l
i
d

f
o
r

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

l
i
n
e
a
r

e
l
a
s
t
i
c

f
r
a
c
t
u
r
e

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
s

(
s
e
e


I
.

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
e

&

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
s
)
.


P
l
a
n
e

S
t
r
a
i
n

T
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s
,

I
C
G
,

m
a
y

b
e

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d

f
r
o
m

I
C
2
I
C
2
I
C
1
G
E
)
/
(
G
E
K



(
a
s

1
0
2
.

)
.

I
I
.
5




F
R
A
C
T
U
R
E


T
O
U
G
H
N
E
S
S


(
P
L
A
N
E


S
T
R
A
I
N
)
,


K
I
C







1
4




F l a m m a b i l i t y
F r e s h w a t e r
S a l t w a t e r
S u n l i g h t ( U V )
W e a r r e s i s t a n c e
M
e
t
a
l
s







F
e
r
r
o
u
s

C
a
s
t

I
r
o
n
s

A

B

C

A

A


H
i
g
h

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s

A

B

C

A

A


M
e
d
i
u
m

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s

A

B

C

A

A


L
o
w

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s

A

B

C

A

A


L
o
w

A
l
l
o
y

S
t
e
e
l
s

A

B

C

A

A


S
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
e
e
l
s

A

A

A

A

B

N
o
n
-
f
e
r
r
o
u
s

A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s

B

A

B

A

C


C
o
p
p
e
r

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

A

A

A


L
e
a
d

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

A

A

C


M
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

D

A

C


N
i
c
k
e
l

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

A

A

B


T
i
t
a
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

A

A

C


Z
i
n
c

A
l
l
o
y
s

A

A

C

A

E

C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s







G
l
a
s
s
e
s

B
o
r
o
s
i
l
i
c
a
t
e

G
l
a
s
s


A

B

B

A

A


G
l
a
s
s

C
e
r
a
m
i
c



A

A

A

A

A


S
i
l
i
c
a

G
l
a
s
s



A

A

A

A

B


S
o
d
a
-
L
i
m
e

G
l
a
s
s



A

A

A

A

A

P
o
r
o
u
s

B
r
i
c
k
,

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
,

S
t
o
n
e


A

A

A

A

C

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
l
u
m
i
n
a



A

A

A

A

A


A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

N
i
t
r
i
d
e



A

A

A

A

A


B
o
r
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e



A

A

A

A

A


S
i
l
i
c
o
n



A

A

B

A

B


S
i
l
i
c
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e



A

A

A

A

A


S
i
l
i
c
o
n

N
i
t
r
i
d
e



A

A

A

A

A


T
u
n
g
s
t
e
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e



A

A

A

A

A

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s







M
e
t
a
l

A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
/
S
i
l
i
c
o
n

C
a
r
b
i
d
e

A

A

B

A

B

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

C
F
R
P

B

A

A

B

C


G
F
R
P

B

A

A

B

C

N
a
t
u
r
a
l








B
a
m
b
o
o

D

C

C

B

D


C
o
r
k

D

B

B

A

B


L
e
a
t
h
e
r

D

B

B

B

B


W
o
o
d

D

C

C

B

D




F l a m m a b i l i t y
F r e s h w a t e r
S a l t w a t e r
S u n l i g h t ( U V )
W e a r r e s i s t a n c e
P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s

1







E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r

B
u
t
y
l

R
u
b
b
e
r

E

A

A

B

B


E
V
A

E

A

A

B

B


I
s
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
I
R
)

E

A

A

B

B


N
a
t
u
r
a
l

R
u
b
b
e
r

(
N
R
)

E

A

A

B

B


N
e
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
C
R
)

E

A

A

B

B


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e


E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
s

(
e
l
P
U
)

E

A

A

B

B


S
i
l
i
c
o
n
e

E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
s

B

A

A

B

B

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
i
c

A
B
S

D

A

A

C

D


C
e
l
l
u
l
o
s
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s

(
C
A
)

D

A

A

B

C


I
o
n
o
m
e
r

(
I
)

D

A

A

B

C


N
y
l
o
n
s

(
P
A
)

C

A

A

C

C


P
o
l
y
c
a
r
b
o
n
a
t
e

(
P
C
)

B

A

A

B

C


P
E
E
K

B

A

A

A

C


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
E
)

D

A

A

D

C


P
E
T

D

A

A

B

C


A
c
r
y
l
i
c

(
P
M
M
A
)

D

A

A

A

C


A
c
e
t
a
l

(
P
O
M
)

D

A

A

C

B


P
o
l
y
p
r
o
p
y
l
e
n
e

(
P
P
)

D

A

A

D

C


P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

(
P
S
)

D

A

A

C

D


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
i
c
s

(
t
p
P
U
)

C

A

A

B

C


P
V
C

A

A

A

A

C


T
e
f
l
o
n

(
P
T
F
E
)

A

A

A

B

B

T
h
e
r
m
o
s
e
t

E
p
o
x
i
e
s

B

A

A

B

C


P
h
e
n
o
l
i
c
s

B

A

A

A

C


P
o
l
y
e
s
t
e
r

D

A

A

A

C

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s








F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s

E

A

A

C

D


R
i
g
i
d

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s

C

A

A

B

E

1


F
o
r

f
u
l
l

n
a
m
e
s

a
n
d

a
c
r
o
n
y
m
s

o
f

p
o
l
y
m
e
r
s


s
e
e

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

V
.


R
a
n
k
i
n
g
:



A

=

v
e
r
y

g
o
o
d
;

B

=

g
o
o
d
;

C

=

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
;

D

=

p
o
o
r
;

E

=

v
e
r
y

p
o
o
r
.

(
D
a
t
a

c
o
u
r
t
e
s
y

o
f

G
r
a
n
t
a

D
e
s
i
g
n

L
t
d
)

I
I
.
6




E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L


R
E
S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E




15
II.7 UNIAXIAL TENSILE RESPONSE OF SELECTED
METALS & POLYMERS


Figure 2.1 Tensile response of some common metals
Figure 2.2 Tensile response of some common polymers



16
III. MATERIAL PROPERTY CHARTS
III.1 YOUNGS MODULUS DENSITY




Figure 3.1: Youngs modulus, E , against density, . The design guide-lines assist in
selection of materials for minimum weight, stiffness-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta
Design Ltd)




17
III.2 STRENGTH DENSITY





Figure 3.2: Failure strength,
f
, against density, . Failure strength is defined as the tensile
elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than ceramics, for which it is the
compressive strength. The design guide-lines assist in selection of materials for minimum weight,
strength-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)



18
III.3 YOUNGS MODULUS STRENGTH





Figure 3.3: Youngs modulus, E , against failure strength,
f
. Failure strength is defined as
the tensile elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than ceramics, for which it is
the compressive strength. The design guide-lines assist in the selection of materials for maximum
stored energy, volume-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)




19
III.4 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS STRENGTH






Figure 3.4: Fracture toughness (plane strain),
IC
K , against failure strength,
f
. Failure
strength is defined as the tensile elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than
ceramics, for which it is the compressive strength. The contours show
2 2
f IC
/ K , which is
approximately the diameter of the process zone at a crack tip. Valid application of linear elastic
fracture mechanics using K requires that the specimen and crack dimensions are large compared
to this process zone. The design guide-lines are used in selecting materials for damage tolerant
design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)



20
III.5 MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURE





Figure 3.5: Maximum service temperature. The shaded bars extend to the maximum service
temperature materials may be used safely for all temperatures up to this value, without
significant property degradation. (Note: there is a modest range of maximum service
temperature in a given material class not all variants within a class may be used up to the
temperature shown, so caution should be exercised if a material appears close to its limit).

NB: For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V. (Data courtesy of Granta Design
Ltd)



21
III.6 MATERIAL PRICE (PER KG)






Figure 3.6: Material price (per kg),
m
C (2003 data).
m
C represents raw material price/kg,
and does not include manufacturing or end-of-life costs.
NB: For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V. (Data courtesy of Granta Design
Ltd)








2
2

I
V
.


P
R
O
C
E
S
S


A
T
T
R
I
B
U
T
E


C
H
A
R
T
S

I
V
.
1



M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L


P
R
O
C
E
S
S

C
O
M
P
A
T
I
B
I
L
I
T
Y

M
A
T
R
I
X

(
S
H
A
P
I
N
G
)

F
i
g
u
r
e

4
.
1
a
:



M
e
t
a
l
s



M
e
t
a
l
s


S a n d
C a s t i n g
D i e
C a s t i n g
I n v e s t m e n t
C a s t i n g
R o l l i n g /
F o r g i n g
E x t r u s i o n
S h e e t
F o r m i n g
P o w d e r
M e t h o d s
M a c h i n i n g
F
e
r
r
o
u
s
C
a
s
t

I
r
o
n
s








M
e
d
i
u
m
/
H
i
g
h

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s



L
o
w

C
a
r
b
o
n

S
t
e
e
l
s



L
o
w

A
l
l
o
y
/
S
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

S
t
e
e
l
s


N
o
n
-
f
e
r
r
o
u
s
A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m
,

C
o
p
p
e
r
,

L
e
a
d
,

M
a
g
n
e
s
i
u
m
,

Z
i
n
c

A
l
l
o
y
s



N
i
c
k
e
l

A
l
l
o
y
s



T
i
t
a
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y
s


F
i
g
u
r
e

4
.
1
b
:



P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s

a
n
d

F
o
a
m
s


P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s

M a c h i n i n g
I n j e c t i o n
M o u l d i n g
B l o w
M o u l d i n g
C o m p r e s s i o n
M o u l d i n g
R o t a t i o n a l
M o u l d i n g
P o l y m e r
C a s t i n g
C o m p o s i t e
F o r m i n g
E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
s




T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
i
c
s




T
h
e
r
m
o
s
e
t
s



P
o
l
y
m
e
r

F
o
a
m
s




N
o
t
e
s

o
n

o
t
h
e
r

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s
:

C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s

a
r
e

a
l
l

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
d

b
y

p
o
w
d
e
r

m
e
t
h
o
d
s
,

a
n
d

G
l
a
s
s
e
s

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

m
o
u
l
d
e
d
.


B
o
t
h

a
r
e

d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t

t
o

m
a
c
h
i
n
e
.

P
o
l
y
m
e
r

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s

a
r
e

s
h
a
p
e
d

b
y

d
e
d
i
c
a
t
e
d

f
o
r
m
i
n
g

t
e
c
h
n
i
q
u
e
s
,

a
n
d

a
r
e

d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t

t
o

m
a
c
h
i
n
e
.

N
a
t
u
r
a
l

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

c
a
n

o
n
l
y

b
e

m
a
c
h
i
n
e
d
,

t
h
o
u
g
h

s
o
m
e

w
o
o
d
s

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

h
o
t

f
o
r
m
e
d
.

(
D
a
t
a

c
o
u
r
t
e
s
y

o
f

G
r
a
n
t
a

D
e
s
i
g
n

L
t
d
)




23

IV.2 MASS
Figure 4.2: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: mass range (kg)

IV.3 SECTION THICKNESS

Figure 4.3: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: section thickness (m)
(DATA COURTESY OF GRANTA DESIGN LTD)
Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10
-3
10
-2
0.1 1 10 10
2
10
3
10
4
Mass (kg)
M
e
t
a
l

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
h
a
p
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
0.1 1
Section thickness (m)
M
e
t
a
l

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
h
a
p
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e

s
h
a
p
i
n
g



24
IV.4 SURFACE ROUGHNESS

Figure 4.4: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: surface roughness (m)

IV.5 DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE

Figure 4.5: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: dimensional tolerance (mm)
Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
0.1 1 10 10
2
Roughness (m)
M
e
t
a
l

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
h
a
p
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10
-2
0.1 1 10
Tolerance (mm)
M
e
t
a
l

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
h
a
p
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e

s
h
a
p
i
n
g



25
IV.6 ECONOMIC BATCH SIZE
Figure 4.6: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: economic batch size (Data courtesy
of Granta Design Ltd)




Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
M
e
t
a
l

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s
h
a
p
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
m
e
r

a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e

s
h
a
p
i
n
g
1 10 10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
Economic batch size (units)








2
6

V
.


C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
C
A
T
I
O
N


A
N
D

A
P
P
L
I
C
A
T
I
O
N
S

O
F

E
N
G
I
N
E
E
R
I
N
G

M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L
S

V
.
1



M
E
T
A
L
S
:


F
E
R
R
O
U
S


A
L
L
O
Y
S
,

N
O
N
-
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R
R
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S

A
L
L
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M
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A
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F
e
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s


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C
a
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S
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s

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t
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o
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l
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p
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e
a
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g
s
,

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r
a
n
k
s
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s
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a
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r
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c
k


M
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d
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m

C
a
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n

S
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l
s

G
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g
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r
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(
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n
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r
s
,

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h
a
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e
a
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g
s
)


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w

C
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S
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(

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r
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d
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l

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s
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;

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e
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n
f
o
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m
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t

f
o
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n
c
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e
;

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t
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m
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p
a
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s
,

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a
r

b
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p
a
n
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l
s
;

g
a
l
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s
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;

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s
)


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s

S
p
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g

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s

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t
c
)


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t
a
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T
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l
a
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t
,

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r

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a
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t
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c

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,

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)
,


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N
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A
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g

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)
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d
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p
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(
i
r
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)



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E
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s
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p
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s



H
e
a
t
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t
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e

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s

A
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l
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R
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t
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s

f
o
r

t
r
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n
s
p
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t
,

n
u
c
l
e
a
r

f
u
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l

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
r
s
;


p
r
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n
c
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p
a
l

a
l
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y
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n
g

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d
d
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t
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n

t
o

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l
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m
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n
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m

A
l
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s


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k
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l

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l
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G
a
s

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h
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m
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c
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p
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s
,

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;


a
l
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s

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s


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t
a
n
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m

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l
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A
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f
t

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l
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;

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p
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p
p
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;

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m
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c
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m
p
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s
.



Z
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c

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l
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s

D
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e

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a
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s

(
a
u
t
o
m
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t
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v
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p
p
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a
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s
,

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a
n
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s
)
;

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o
a
t
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g

o
n

g
a
l
v
a
n
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s
e
d

s
t
e
e
l











2
7

V
.
2



P
O
L
Y
M
E
R
S


A
N
D


F
O
A
M
S

P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s


A
b
b
r
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
B
u
t
y
l

R
u
b
b
e
r



T
y
r
e
s
,

s
e
a
l
s
,

a
n
t
i
-
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n

m
o
u
n
t
i
n
g
s
,

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

t
u
b
i
n
g


E
t
h
y
l
e
n
e
-
v
i
n
y
l
-
a
c
e
t
a
t
e

E
V
A

B
a
g
s
,

f
i
l
m
s
,

p
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
,

g
l
o
v
e
s
,

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

r
u
n
n
i
n
g

s
h
o
e
s


I
s
o
p
r
e
n
e


I
R

T
y
r
e
s
,

i
n
n
e
r

t
u
b
e
s
,

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

t
u
b
i
n
g
,

s
h
o
e
s


N
a
t
u
r
a
l

R
u
b
b
e
r


N
R

G
l
o
v
e
s
,

t
y
r
e
s
,

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

t
u
b
i
n
g


P
o
l
y
c
h
l
o
r
o
p
r
e
n
e

(
N
e
o
p
r
e
n
e
)


C
R

W
e
t
s
u
i
t
s
,

O
-
r
i
n
g
s

a
n
d

s
e
a
l
s
,

f
o
o
t
w
a
r
e


P
o
l
y
u
r
e
t
h
a
n
e

E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
s


e
l
-
P
U

P
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
,

h
o
s
e
s
,

a
d
h
e
s
i
v
e
s
,

f
a
b
r
i
c

c
o
a
t
i
n
g


S
i
l
i
c
o
n
e

E
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
s



E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c

e
n
c
a
p
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

m
e
d
i
c
a
l

i
m
p
l
a
n
t
s

T
h
e
r
m
o
p
l
a
s
t
i
c
A
c
r
y
l
o
n
i
t
r
i
l
e

b
u
t
a
d
i
e
n
e

s
t
y
r
e
n
e

A
B
S

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
p
p
l
i
a
n
c
e
s
,

a
u
t
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

i
n
t
e
r
i
o
r
s
,

l
u
g
g
a
g
e
,

t
o
y
s
,

b
o
a
t
s


C
e
l
l
u
l
o
s
e

P
o
l
y
m
e
r
s

C
A

T
o
o
l

a
n
d

c
u
t
l
e
r
y

h
a
n
d
l
e
s
,

d
e
c
o
r
a
t
i
v
e

t
r
i
m
,

p
e
n
s


I
o
n
o
m
e
r


I

P
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
,

g
o
l
f

b
a
l
l
s
,

b
l
i
s
t
e
r

p
a
c
k
s
,

b
o
t
t
l
e
s


P
o
l
y
a
m
i
d
e
s

(
N
y
l
o
n
s
)


P
A

G
e
a
r
s
,

b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
;

p
l
u
m
b
i
n
g
,

p
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
,

b
o
t
t
l
e
s
,

f
a
b
r
i
c
s
,

t
e
x
t
i
l
e
s
,

r
o
p
e
s


P
o
l
y
c
a
r
b
o
n
a
t
e

P
C

S
a
f
e
t
y

g
o
g
g
l
e
s
,

s
h
i
e
l
d
s
,

h
e
l
m
e
t
s
;

l
i
g
h
t

f
i
t
t
i
n
g
s
,

m
e
d
i
c
a
l

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
e
r
e
t
h
e
r
k
e
t
o
n
e



P
E
E
K

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l

c
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
s
,

r
a
c
i
n
g

c
a
r

p
a
r
t
s
,

f
i
b
r
e

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
y
l
e
n
e


P
E

P
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
,

b
a
g
s
,

s
q
u
e
e
z
e

t
u
b
e
s
,

t
o
y
s
,

a
r
t
i
f
i
c
i
a
l

j
o
i
n
t
s


P
o
l
y
e
t
h
y
l
e
n
e

t
e
r
e
p
h
t
h
a
l
a
t
e

P
E
T

B
l
o
w

m
o
u
l
d
e
d

b
o
t
t
l
e
s
,

f
i
l
m
,

a
u
d
i
o
/
v
i
d
e
o

t
a
p
e
,

s
a
i
l
s


P
o
l
y
m
e
t
h
y
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2
8

V
.
3


C
O
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C
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R
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d
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29
VI. EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS


Figure 6.1 Copper Nickel equilibrium diagram






Figure 6.2 Lead Tin equilibrium diagram




30


Figure 6.3 Iron Carbon equilibrium diagram





Figure 6.4 Aluminium Copper equilibrium diagram



31


Figure 6.5 Aluminium Silicon equilibrium diagram





Figure 6.6 Copper Zinc equilibrium diagram




32




Figure 6.7 Copper Tin equilibrium diagram





Figure 6.8 Titanium Aluminium equilibrium diagram



33




Figure 6.9 Silica Alumina equilibrium diagram



34


Figure 7.1 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12)




Figure 7.2 Jominy end quench curves for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12)
VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS



35


Figure 7.3 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1.5% Ni Cr Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24)



Figure 7.4 Jominy end quench curves for 1.5% Ni Cr Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24)



36

VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS

ATOMIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS

Lattice constants
3
(at 20
o
C) Element Symbol Atomic
Number
Relative
Atomic
Weight
1

Melting
Point
(
o
C)
Crystal
structure
2
(at 20
o
C) a, (b) () c ()
Aluminium Al 13 26.982 660 f.c.c. 4.0496
Beryllium Be 4 9.012 1280 h.c.p. 2.2856 3.5843
Boron B 5 10.811 2300 t. 8.73 5.03
Carbon C 6 12.011 3500 hex. 2.4612 6.7079
Chlorine Cl 17 35.453 101
Chromium Cr 24 51.996 1900 b.c.c. 2.8850
Copper Cu 29 63.54 1083 f.c.c. 2.5053
Germanium Ge 32 72.59 958 d. 5.6575
Gold Au 79 196.967 1063 f.c.c. 4.0786
Hydrogen H 1 1.008 259
Iron Fe 26 55.847 1534 b.c.c. 2.8663
Lead Pb 82 207.19 327 f.c.c. 4.9505
Magnesium Mg 12 24.312 650 h.c.p. 3.2094 5.2103
Manganese Mn 25 54.938 1250 cub. 8.912
Molybdenum Mo 42 95.94 2620 b.c.c. 3.1468
Nickel Ni 28 58.71 1453 f.c.c. 3.5241
Niobium Nb 41 92.906 2420 b.c.c. 3.3007
Nitrogen N 7 14.007 210
Oxygen O 8 15.999 219
Phosphorus P 15 30.974 44 cub. 7.17 ( at 35
o
C)
Silicon Si 14 28.086 1414 d. 5.4305
Silver Ag 47 107.870 961 f.c.c. 4.0862
Sulphur S 16 32.064 119 f.c.orth. 10.437, (12.845) 24.369
Tin Sn 50 118.69 232 b.c.t. 5.8313 3.1812
Titanium Ti 22 47.90 1670 h.c.p. 2.9504 4.6833
Tungsten W 74 183.85 3380 b.c.c. 3.1652
Vanadium V 23 50.942 1920 b.c.c. 3.0282
Zinc Zn 30 65.37 419 h.c.p. 2.6649 4.9468
Zirconium Zr 40 91.22 1850 h.c.p. 3.2312 5.1476

1
The values of atomic weight are those in the Report of the International Commission on
Atomic Weights (1961). The unit is 1/12
th
of the mass of an atom of C
12
.
2
f.c.c. = face-centred cubic; h.c.p. = hexagonal close-packed; b.c.c. = body-centred cubic;
t. = tetragonal; hex. = hexagonal; d. = diamond structure; cub. = cubic;
f.c.orth. = face-centred orthorhombic; b.c.t. = body-centred tetragonal.
3
Lattice constants are in ngstrm units (1 = 10
10
m)








3
7


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4
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7
3
K
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5
1
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r
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5
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p
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0
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b
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3
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p
p
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2
5
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F
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2
0
0

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i
l
v
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A
g
2
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5

G
o
l
d

A
u
2
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(
D
a
t
a

c
o
u
r
t
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s
y

o
f

G
r
a
n
t
a

D
e
s
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g
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t
d
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O
X
I
D
A
T
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N


P
R
O
P
E
R
T
I
E
S


O
F


S
E
L
E
C
T
E
D


E
L
E
M
E
N
T
S









3
8





0
CONVERSION OF UNITS
STRESS, PRESSURE AND ELASTIC MODULUS
*


MN/m
2
(or MPa)

lb/in
2
kgf/mm
2
bar
MN/m
2
(or MPa)

1 1.45 x 10
2
0.102 10
lb/in
2
6.89 x 10
3
1 7.03 x 10
4
6.89 x 10
2
kgf/mm
2
9.81 1.42 x 10
3
1 98.1
bar 0.10 14.48 1.02 x 10
2
1




CONVERSION OF UNITS ENERGY
*


J cal eV ft lbf
J 1 0.239 6.24 x 10
18
0.738
cal 4.19 1 2.61 x 10
19
3.09
eV 1.60 x 10
19
3.83 x 10
20
1 1.18 x 10
19
ft lbf 1.36 0.324 8.46 x 10
18
1




CONVERSION OF UNITS POWER
*


kW (kJ/s) hp ft lbf/s
kW (kJ/s) 1 1.34 7.38 x 10
2
hp 0.746

1 5.50 x 10
2
ft lbf/s 1.36 x 10
3
1.82 x 10
3
1


*
To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus
1 MN/m
2
= 10 bar