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MAY 2011

DECLARATION I myself Abdi Fatah Muhudin Hirabe declare that this work is my original work not appeared another where else

Student signature: --------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Supervisor signature: ------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DEDICATION I wish to dedicate this report to my mothers and father Khadija Sheikh Ahmed and Muhudin Hirabe respectively who brought me up and have facilitated my entire education to this far.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost I wish to give thanks to ALLAH who gave me this golden opportunity to accomplish this fieldwork successfully. Secondly I would like to express my thanks to STVS management for their financial support and my supervisors who dedicated most of their time in the three attached areas of my studies. Hassan Issack the regional officer of Wajaale Dr :Yusuf in Hargeisa Ahmed Buroa in Berbera

Lastly I extend my thanks to all the tutors who have helped in the preparation of this fieldwork report as follows. Dr Abdullahi Sheikh (Dean of the studies ) Dr.Nuh Hajji Abdi Dr Abdullahi Hirsi Dr:Abdi qadir Khalif Mr :Mohamed Aden (M.IT)

Table of contents CHAPTER ONE--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 1.0 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 1.1 Background information of the study areas--------------------------------------------------6 1.1.1 Tog wajaale background information-------------------------------------------------------6 1.1.2 Hargeisa background information-----------------------------------------------------------7 1.1.3 Berbera background information------------------------------------------------------------7 1.2 Objectives-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 1.3 Methodology--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 1.4 Expected output----------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 CHAPTER TWO: ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT DURING THE FIELD STUDY 2.0 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 2.1 Wajaale Livestock Market----------------------------------------------------------------------8 2.2.1 Hargeisa livestock market-------------------------------------------------------------------10 2.2 Hargeisa------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 2.2.2 Milk market-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 2.2.3 Maandeeq Slaughter house------------------------------------------------------------------12 2.3 Berbera-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 2.3.1 Activities carried out in Berbera-----------------------------------------------------------15 CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 3.2 Recommendations------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 3.3 Lessons learnt ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Annex 1: Interview guide for the livestock market---------------------------------------------18 Annex2: Pictorial section--------------------------------------------------------------------------19

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction At the end of each academic year students at STVS are sent to different places in the Somali ecosystem for field studies in order to expose them to the work environment and also an opportunity for them to exercise and practice what they have been learning at school. This section examines the background information to the field study and the different study areas. The objective of the field study, methodology and expected outputs are also highlighted. The field work started on 29th May to 12th June 2011 with the students visiting 3 different areas i.e. Waajale, Hargeiza and Berbera. Students spent six days in each area during which they visited different veterinary institutions in the livestock sector. In each visited institution students observed all the activities carried out, equipments used, the people involved and any products traded. 1.1 Background information of the study areas

Figure one: Map of the study area 1.1.1 Tog wajaale background information Tog walaale is as western district in Somaliland. Its geographical coordinates are 9 37' 0" North, 43 27' 0" East and its original name (with diacritics) is Tog-Wajaale. The town is 80km away from Hargeisa and is under the administration of Gebilay region. Being a busy town Tog wajaale links Ethiopia and Somaliland. All imports and exports between the two countries transected through this strategic place. In addition to that, the source of one third of the Somaliland income taxes comes from this town. Majority of people in this town are engaged in livestock rearing with a few cultivating crops due to fertilized soils found in the area.

1.1.2 Hargeisa background information The city is around 32km2 and its population is estimated to be 477 876 people. Hargeisa is the capital city of Somaliland republic. It was also the colonial capital of British protectorate. The city is in a mountainous area enclosed in the valley of the Galgodon (Ogo) highlands giving it a milder climate. The temperature ranges from 130c to 320c. The town acts as the main financial centre for Somaliland with many companies such as food processing, construction and communication. 1.1.3 Berbera background information Situated on the southern shores of the Gulf of Aden, Berbera is the major port town of Somaliland and has a lot of veterinary infrastructures such as the quarantine station the holding grounds and the port. Its climate is hot and humid with temperatures above 40 0C in the summer and it has a semi-desert landscape. Berbera, is one of the oldest towns along the Somali coast, and is currently the headquarters of Sahil region. 1.2 Objectives Overall Objective The overall objective is to enable students improve on their data collection, processing and presentation while exploring and applying their professional skills. Specific Objectives

To acquire new technical and improve the previous skills from the fieldwork. To practice and exercise the knowledge gained during their classroom learning To learn how to collect, process and present data in livestock sector. Examine the procedures used in livestock inspection and trade in Somaliland. Assess the systems and infrastructure of a slaughter house. Identify and discuss the challenges faced by key livestock stakeholders in the areas of study.

1.3 1.4

Methodology Interview Observation Physical examination Expected output Field work report

CHAPTER TWO: ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT DURING THE FIELD STUDY 2.0 Introduction The sites we visited during the field study were Wajaale specifically the livestock market, milk market and the slaughterhouse. We also performed activities such as; vaccination and treatment of livestock. In Hargeisa the areas we visited include the livestock market, milk market and Maandeeq slaughterhouse. In Berbera we visited the quarantine and its components including; laboratory section, holding grounds, reception zone, and quarantine grounds. 2.1 Wajaale Livestock Market Wajaale livestock market is located on the eastern part of the district covering an area approximately 4km2. It is the biggest livestock market in Somaliland. The market consists of different structures for holding the different species of livestock. Cattle are the most traded animals in the market due to the presence of water and pastures in the region. The market operates from 6am to 12pm. The market has one crush and a cattle loading ramp. The animals traded in the market originate from Kalabaydh, Allaybaday, Gabiley and regions under Ethiopian control such as Jigjiga, Baabula, Daawe Bookhe, meeduda and Qarsa. During the month of Ramadan and Arafa festive season the demand for livestock is high. Most of the livestock exported by Somaliland through Berbera port originated from the market. This year, cattle exported to the Gulf States decreased tremendously due the prolonged violence in countries like Yemen. Wajaale slaughter house (Guuleed slaughter house) The slaughter house which operates from 5am through to 7am has two sections one for the small ruminants and the other for the large ruminants. Through observation we noted that the place was not properly cleaned with a lot of animals wastes disposed close to the slaughterhouse. The environment surrounding the slaughterhouse was also dirty. On daily basis 30 sheep/goats and 4-6 cattle on average are slaughtered. Challenges facing the slaughterhouse; Lack of proper slaughterhouse equipments such as aprons, gum boots and gloves, Increased population of wild birds and dogs causing interruption in the normal

operations in the slaughterhouse


Insufficient water and light

Clinical examination, treatment and vaccination of animals for export During our field study we vaccinated approximately 100 cattle most of which we to be exported to the Gulf states and Arabian Peninsula through Berbera port. Treating of animals Animals were treated in different villages after clinically examining them. The table below shows the number and different species of animals treated in Wajaale and its adjacent villages. Species No of animals Cattle Sheep 4 5 Albendazole Albendazole & ox tetracycline Goat 12 Albendazole and ox tetracycline 14ml/50kg 14ml/50kg and 1ml/10kg 14ml/50kg and 1ml/25kg Oral Oral and intramuscular Oral and intramuscular Drug used Dosage rate Way administered

Table one: Different species of animals treated in Wajaale Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccination Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of clovenhooved animal although not usually fatal; it causes suffering and vastly reduces animals commercial value through weight loss and reduced milk production. Vaccination programs vary according to diseases and species affected. FMD vaccination is also known as Fotivax which is an inactivated vaccine and produced by Kenya veterinary vaccine production center. The government carries out vaccinations when importing countries requests to vaccinate animals against a certain disease or in case of disease outbreak and also it provides regular vaccination against trade limiting diseases such as; FMD, PPR, Blue tongue. Preparation Company and administration of the vaccine This type of FMD inactivated vaccine is manufactured by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and is administered by subcutaneous injection. It is advised to keep the vaccine under refrigeration. If field ice box is used it is not allowed to freeze the vaccine.

Species Cattle Sheep Goat

Dosage rate( ml ) 3 2 2

Way of administration Subcutaneous Subcutaneous Subcutaneous

Table 2: Drug regimen of FMD vaccine and route of administration

Challenges faced during the Vaccination process

Lack of strong and enough crushes. Insufficient syringes Violent animals that were difficult to restrain

2.2 Hargeisa 2.2.1 Hargeisa livestock market Hargeisa livestock market is a national public market located in the western part of the town covering an area approximately 2km2. It was established in 1960 and the animals traded in the market originate from villages like Arabsiyo, Gebiley and Wajaale and some from the neighboring Ethiopia. The market has 8 private pens used for holding the animals. Adjacent to the pens are the ramps for loading and offloading the animals. The animals which are meant for slaughter are held in shades but those for export were in an open air. Livestock market activities begin early in the morning from 6am to 11am although at times the operation would extend further depending on the number of animals in the market. The market activities were controlled by municipal officials and they carry out the following functions; collecting taxes, protect hygiene of the market and the security of the market. Majority of the animals sold in the market were those intended for export to the Gulf countries. Market actors in Hargeisa livestock market


Market actors are people who play an active role in the operation and activities taking place in the market. In Hargeisa livestock market the actors include; Producers: These are owners of the animals and they were mainly pastoralists who come to the market to sell their animals. They transport their animals either through their vehicles or by foot or through interregional traders.

Brokers: They actively facilitate all the operations of the market by; Convincing the buyer that animal they wish to buy is healthy and of good quality Negotiate the price between the seller and the buyer if need be.

Consumers: They are the final recipients of the animal of animal products.

Price of animals in the market Demand and the supply of animals are the main determinants factors for the price of animals in the market. Others factors which could also determine the price include; Health condition of the animal Age Species

For instance, camel cost more expensive than sheep and goats as shown in the table below. Quality Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Sheep/goats 360,000 Slsh 320,000 Slsh 252,000 Slsh Camel 5,500,000 Slsh 4,500,000 Slsh 2,200,000 Slsh Taxes (Camel) 5,000 Slsh 5,000 Slsh 5,000 Slsh

***SLSH = Somaliland shillings; US$1 = 6,000 SLSH Table 3: Price of the camel and sheep/goats in Hargeisa livestock market


Challenges facing Hargeisa livestock market animals 2.2.2 Milk market Hargeisa milk market is located in the northern part of the city and it has two main milk markets known as Gobanimo and Waheen. The market operates from 8am through to 8pm. Cattle milk is traded most compared to the other species since cattle can survive in this region. The market also receives milk from other villages adjacent to the city e.g. Wajaale which is transported to the market by cars since the producers are far away from the market. Plastic containers are commonly used to transport and store milk in the market although some traders have aluminum cans. The price of the milk is determined by demand and supply and as the milk passes through the chain from the producer to the final consumer the cost also increases. Fresh and sour milk is sold in the market with each having a different price as shown in the table below. Type of milk Price/ litter Fresh milk $0.5 Sour milk $0.3 Table 4: The variation of fresh and sour camel milk Constraints of the milk market Poor roads causing delay in delivery of milk to the market Milk spoilage due to poor handling Lack of enough aluminum cans to store and transport the milk as opposed to Lack of support from the government or NGOs to provide proper marketing No price controls. Insufficient shades. High taxes Lack of enough toilets No veterinary health workers in the market to ascertain the health condition of

skills to the market actors.

plastic containers commonly used in the market


Lack of enough shades Poor hygiene in the market

2.2.3 Maandeeq Slaughter house Maandeeq is a modern slaughter house located south east of Hargeisa city covering an area approximately 2km2. The slaughter house operations start at 1am through to 9am. An average of 1000 small ruminants and more than 80 large ruminants are slaughtered per night in the slaughterhouse. It is a privately owned enterprise based on the principle of public private partnership (PPP). The enterprise was founded on March 25th, 2005 by Somaliland citizens and is legally registered under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry chamber of Commerce. Objectives of Maandeeq Company 1. To promote sanitation and hygiene especially in the slaughterhouses 2. Altering the old system of animal slaying techniques, for instance clubbing animals to death. 3. To provide ready fresh and health meat for local communities of Hargeisa city. 4. To export high quality and healthy meat to overseas countries and our neighboring countries as well. 5. Storing and exporting of skin and hides. 6. To make a good service to the local communities.


Figure 2: Organizational chart of Maandeeq slaughterhouse


Operation and workers of Maandeeq slaughterhouse Maandeeq slaughterhouse is currently under the management of highly trained and qualified personnel ranging from the top management to the subordinate staff. The company has managed to train the slayers and equipped them with modern slaying techniques as opposed to the old system of animal slaying such as clubbing the animals to death. Maandeeq enterprise is an income generating company and a source of livelihood to a total of one hundred and twenty staff currently employed as permanent staffs mainly composed of the senior management team and the subordinates composed of the drivers, security guards etc. More than four hundred people are indirectly employed by the company. Transport and meat distribution Maandeeq enterprise uses more than 12 vehicles which fully operate in the slaughterhouse to serve more than 18 local markets with fresh meat depending on their order and demand. Hygiene and sanitation standards of the slaughterhouse Hygiene and Sanitation promotions were the major concerns and progress that Maandeeq improved specially since handover of newly constructed Hargeisa Slaughterhouse. This has been achieved through; Improved transportation means by using a covered van vehicles instead of uncovered donkey carts, wheelbarrows Improved training and awareness creation on proper hygiene and sanitations techniques and the safety of meat Sterilization of slaying equipment Maintaining a conductive environment of bathrooms, dry washing and dressing rooms for the workers Challenges facing Maandeeq slaughterhouse There are few meat inspectors Transportation facilities are inadequate Lack of enough protective facilities for the people working in the Shortage of water

slaughterhouse e.g. plastic bags


2.3 Berbera 2.3.1 Activities carried out in Berbera During our field study in Berbera we visited the quarantine station to observe the daily operations and the infrastructure in place. The quarantine station is made up of 14 sections separated by strong stainless steel material. At the entrance, there are two troughs lined side by side one for grass and forage supply and the other for watering the herd. The quarantine has the following departments. Animal inspection On arrival to the quarantine the animals are held in the reception area after which they are inspected through visual appraisal, history taking and physical examination. Those which show any clinical signs of disease are isolated from the other herd. Berbera livestock laboratory The laboratory was built and equipped by AL-JABIRI Company and it is in the compound of the quarantine station. The laboratory has the following sections; Bacteriology section: This section is used for the identification, classification and characterization of the bacterial species. Virology section: The section is used for detection of the viral diseases. Serology section: The section is used to detect the presence of antibodies against a micro organism. The common diseases diagnosed in the laboratory are FMD, Rinderpest, PPR (Peste des petite ruminants) Rift valley fever and Brucellosis. Different diagnosing methods are performed in the lab such as, Direct Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Direct ELISA) for FMD, competitive ELISA for Rinderpest and PPR, detection of antigens or antibody to the virus in the blood (serology) like Rift Valley Fever and rose Bengal test which is the most widely and simplest test used for brucellosis Constraints facing the quarantine 1. 2. 3. There is no enough trained workers in this place Misdiagnosis in some cases because of overcrowded animals Lack of enough adequate water supply and pasture 4. Lack of enough sheds


3.0 CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Conclusion: The field work was successful because it provided us an opportunity to put in practice most of what we have been learning at school. The experiences acquired include vaccination, drug administration, sample collection, diagnosis of health problems and others including interviewing of different stakeholders in the livestock sector. In addition, there were many challenges that have been observed during the study including financial problem, which was one of the serious problems facing the livestock stakeholders, and there was no remarkable effort done by the government to tackle the problem. We also observed that there was high level of milk contamination due to poor hygiene in the market which needs to be enhanced. The government should help the livestock owners by providing them with free vaccination and treatment as most of them cannot afford to pay. 3.2 Recommendations The ministry of livestock should contribute to infrastructures development such as holding grounds, shades, toilets in Wajale and Hargeisa livestock markets. There should be also adequate water supply. It should provide suitable containers like aluminum cans to milk sellers in order to improve the milk hygiene and minimize adulteration/spoilage of milk. For Mandeq Company to reach its plans for export, it should operate the condemnation area and perform ante and postmortem examinations. It should also improve the hygiene of operators by, for example, giving adequate protective clothes. The Berbera quarantine station needs to be expanded to avoid overcrowding of animals. There is need to increase the number of veterinarians inspecting animals in Wajaale and in Berbera livestock markets in order to speed up the operations. Enough equipment and drugs for treatment and vaccination should be supplied to Waajale There is need to construct more crashes and renovate the existing crashes in areas where vaccination and mass treatments are carried out. It is also necessary to facilitate faster export of animals and reduce delays of animals exportation in order to encourage more traders.

Farmers should be trained on proper animal rearing techniques for quality animal and animal products

3.3 Lessons learnt During my field study in Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera I learned the following

In Wajale I learnt how to vaccinate the animals and estimation of their body weight I Wajaale and Hargeisa I learned how the livestock market actors interact in the process of buying and selling of animals and animal products I also learned how to clinically examine animals, carry out vaccination and treatment.


ANNEXES Annex 1: Interview guide for the livestock market Interview guide for the traders 1. How many agents work in the market? 2. In which aspects do you consider when paying and selling of animals? 3. Do the traders have license from the government? 4. Do you give out commission to the brokers? 5. Where do you transport the animal? And which country? 6. At what season do the animals have the highest demand for the traders? 7. Do you give out any veterinary services to the animal? Interview guide for the producers 1. Under which system do you rear the animals? 2. What is the major purpose you sell your animals? 3. Mostly Which disease you experience in your farming system? 4. What are the kinds of drugs you give the diseased animal? 5. Which season do you supply your products to the market? 6. Which transport do you use for your animals to take to the market? 7. Do you have direct contact with traders? Interview guide for the brokers 1. How many animals do you sell per day? 2. Do you have licenses from the government? 3. How do you communicate with farmers and traders? 4. Whom do you charge your commissions? 5. At what time does the market opens and closes


Annex2: Pictorial section

A crash

Carcass hanging in a traditional slaughterhouse

Milk in a plastic container, Hargeisa milk market