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- LTL Course Outline_Finals_Review Guide_march2013 (1)
- logica silogistica
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Greetings! You have purchased one of Pathos Learnings Daily Overhead Assignment series entitled Logic Infusion. This Logic Infusion unit is actually meant to perform as a complete unit, not just as a daily warm-up activity. It is designed to teach logic in terms of symbols representing categories. Since all knowledge is about categorizing information, with human thought being the process of accessing and applying such categories, the teaching of logic can be one of the most important tools a teacher can introduce into a classroom. As a teacher of logic, you are not only teaching students a great way to analyze arguments and an excellent means of experiencing language visually as an organization of interrelated ideas. You are also teaching students how to think, to understand the relationships between concepts in a statement. What could be more rewarding for you or your students? This unit includes overhead notes and Daily Overhead Assignment activities for 36 weeks (explained below). It also includes practice activities and tests categorized by each type of syllogistic statement.

DAILY OVERHEAD ASSIGNMENTS Essentially, as explained in the overhead notes, three-part syllogistic arguments are typically diagrammed in two ways. Probably the easier and more limited of the two methods is the Eulerian method first developed by Leonard Euler in the 18th century. The second method was an improvement on Eulers with the advent of the Venn diagram, invented by John Venn in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students typically seem to understand Eulers method quicker than Venns but both are quite accessible by even the below-average student, with some practice. Euler is often used to introduce Venn since many of the basic concepts are the same. See the notes on each for complete descriptions of how they work. Daily Overhead Assignments need not be done only once per day, or necessarily every day. The teacher should gauge these to the needs and abilities of the students in the classroom. Advanced students should be able to learn the techniques in Venn and Euler relatively quickly with plenty of practice and may become bored with too much stretching out of the material. The Daily Overhead Assignment sections also work well as quizzes in themselves. Regardless, to use them you should of course cover up each answer on the right-hand side until the student has had a chance to work the problem out. Call students up to the board; have them volunteer; let them make games out of symbolic logic! The possibilities are endless. TYPES OF STATEMENTS AND THE WORKSHEETS As the notes reflect, there are essentially four types of logical statements that can be diagrammed. We have named them Types A, B, C, and D. Eulerian diagramming is really limited to working with types A, B and C while all four types can be worked with Venn. Also, while Eulerian diagramming gets jumbled when a student attempts to diagram more than two premises, the Venn method easily allows the diagramming of multiple premises beyond two in the same diagram. Ultimately, then, if you plan to teach only one method, Venn may be the better bet. If you students are well below average in language skills, however, you may consider starting with Euler and seeing how far they are capable of moving up towards Venn. This is of course completely up to the teacher. Again, all exercises and tests were written to work with both methods except the Type D exercises and tests. These can only be worked using the Venn method. Thanks again and good luck!

NOTES ON DIAGRAMMING SYLLOGISMS A syllogism is a three-part argument with two premises and a conclusion. A premise gives a statement that should be generally accepted as true. A conclusion is a truth derived from the acceptance of the two premises. Example: All teachers are human beings (and ) Mr. Everett is a teacher (therefore) Mr. Everett is a human being

Premises conclusion

We can diagram the syllogism to see if the conclusion really is acceptable based on the premises. If we accept the TRUTH of the premises and all three statements exist in the same diagram (are VALID in other words) then we must accept the truth of the conclusion. The syllogism and the diagram started with Aristotle in the 2nd century b.c. as a means of creating and validating a deductive argument. Euler simply made a few adjustments.

Here is one way of diagramming a syllogism (created by Leonard Euler in the 18th century):

Since teachers are inside the category of human beings and Mr. Everett is inside the category of teachers, Mr. Everett must also exist inside the category of human beings. Thus, the syllogism is VALID. Here are the two statements combined in one Diagram: human beings teachers Mr. Everett

The circles are actually spheres. Each one exists inside the other. Think of them as balloons inside of balloons. **Remember, you only diagram the premises, not the conclusion. Once youve diagrammed the premises, you simply sit back and look to see if the diagram matches the conclusion. If it does, its valid. Otherwise, its invalid.

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Symbolic Logic Practice (with Positive and Negative Terms) Part I: SYLLOGISMS

Directions: 1) assign the terms, 2) diagram the syllogism, 3) declare whether the conclusion is valid or invalid based on the premises.

1.

All computers compute stuff, and broken calculators do not compute stuff. Thus, broken calculators are not computers. Steve does not like going to the movies. But Steve is Amish. Thus, the Amish do not like going to the movies. Motorcycles are faster than cars. Also, things that are faster than cars are not as fast as jets. Therefore, motorcycles are not as fast as jets. No keys work in this door, and all keys work in the other door. Consequently, this door is not the other door. Wearing Ties is appropriate in this office. However, wearing ties is not casual dress. Thus, casual dress is not appropriate in this office.

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Directions: 1) Write out the following sentence into syllogism form. Pay attention to transitions that signal conclusions and premises. 2) Assign the terms, 3) diagram the syllogism, and 4) declare whether it is valid or invalid.

6. People who like sandwiches like fast food, and people who like fast food do not like stew. Thus, people who like stew do not like sandwiches. 7. Since all As are Bs, no Bs are Cs because no As are Cs. 8. No donuts are fat-free because the Bear Claw is a donut and the Bear Claw is not fat-free. 9. All Ds are Js and no Js are Ks; thus, no Ks are Ds. 10. All teachers were once students because all students become teachers and no one who was once a student is a student.

Symbolic Logic Practice II (with Positive and Negative Terms) Part I: SYLLOGISMS

Directions: 1) assign the terms, 2) diagram the syllogism, 3) declare whether the conclusion is valid or invalid based on the premises.

1.

No students who play an instrument are underachievers, Tom is not an underachiever. Thus, Tom plays an instrument. People who smoke have an increased health risk. Juanita does not smoke. Thus, Juanita does not have an increased health risk. A good neighbor maintains his yard. Jim is a good neighbor. Therefore, Jim maintains his yard. No one who eats lettuce dislikes salads, Janie dislikes salads. Consequently, Janie does not eat lettuce. People who fear flying have a phobia. However, Elizabeth does not fear flying. Thus, Elizabeth does not have a phobia.

3.

4.

Directions: 1) Write out the following sentence into syllogism form, adding the unspoken premise that makes it valid. 2) Diagram it to prove its validity.

6. Bodybuilders are healthy because they do not eat unhealthily. 7. Since I dont eat meat, I am a vegetarian. 8. I dont hug trees, so I am not an environmentalist. 9. Republicans support free enterprise; thus, Sam is not a republican. 10. I dont like leeches because they are slimy.

PART I Directions: 1) assign the terms, 2) diagram the syllogism, 3) declare whether the conclusion is valid or invalid based on the premises. Diagram Here 1. All As are Bs, and no As are Cs. Thus, no Cs are Bs 2. No As are Cs. Also, no Bs are As. Therefore, no Bs are Cs All dogs have fleas Jojo is not a dog. Thus, Jojo does not have fleas. No seniors are freshmen, And all freshmen are adolescents. Thus, no adolescents are seniors. All chairs are made for sitting on. Also, no tables are for sitting on. Thus, no tables are chairs.

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Part II Directions: 1) Write out the following sentence into syllogism form. Pay attention to transitions that signal conclusions and premises. 2) Assign the terms, 3) diagram the syllogism, and 4) declare whether it is valid or invalid. 6. All junk food is unhealthy, but apples are not junk food, so apples are not unhealthy.

7.

No computers are infallable because things that are infallable are perfect and computers arent perfect.

8.

PART III Directions: 1) Decide what implied premise exists that makes each syllogism valid and write it on the line. 2) Diagram the argument to prove its validity. Diagram Here 9. No As are Bs _________________ No Bs are Cs 10. All dogs have fur _________________ No snakes are dogs. No geniuses have low IQ.s _________________ No rocket scientists have low I.Q.s

11.

PART IV Directions: 1) Create three of your own syllogisms with negative terms that are valid. 2) Diagram them to prove their validity.

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Symbolic Logic Practice (with Positive and Negative Terms) 1. valid 2. invalid 3. valid 4. valid 5. invalid 6. valid 7. invalid 8. invalid 9. valid 10. invalid

Symbolic Logic Practice II (with Positive and Negative Terms) 1. invalid 2. invalid 3. valid 4. valid 5. invalid 6. People who eat unhealthily are not healty (and vice versa). 7. (impossible to have a type A conclusion with a Type B premise) 8. Environmentalists hug trees. 9. Sam does not support free enterprise. 10. I dont like slimy things. Symbolic Logic Exam: Positive and Negative Terms 1. valid 2. invalid (4 terms) 3. valid 4. invalid 5. valid 6. valid Symbolic Logic Exam: On Positive and Negative Terms Part I: 1. invalid 2. invalid 3. invalid 4. invalid Part II: Part III: 6. invalid 7. valid 8. valid

5. valid

9. All Cs are As 10. No snakes have fur. 11. All rocket scientists are geniuses. (Answers will vary.)

Part IV:

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