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Distance Protection

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Distance Protection

Popular, widely used on Sub-Transmission and Transmission Systems Virtually independent of Fault Current Level (ZS/ZL ratios) Fast Discriminative Protection:- Zone 1 or Aided Distance Scheme Time Delayed Remote Back-Up:- Incorporated at little extra cost

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Advantages of Distance Protection

Measures Z, X or R correctly irrespective of System Conditions

Compare this with Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection:-

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Advantages of Distance Protection

ZS = 10

ZL = 4 IF1 115kV 50

ZS = 10

F1

IF1 = 115kV/3(5+4) = 7380A Is > 7380A

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Advantages of Distance Protection

Consider with one source out of service:ZS = 10

F2 IF2

50

IF2 = 115kV/3 x 10 = 6640A Is <6640A >7380A


> Distance Protection - January 2004

- IMPRACTICAL

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZS

ZL

Generation Distance Relay

IR 21 VR

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Impedance Seen By Measuring Element

jX ZL

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection

ZS

Relay PT.

IR

ZL

VS

VR

ZLOAD

Normal Load

Impedance measured

ZR =

VR = Z L + Z LOAD R

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection


ZL ZS IR ZF

VS

VR

ZLOAD

Fault

Impedance Measured ZR = VR/IR = ZF Relay Operates if ZF < Z where Z = setting Increasing VR has a Restraining Effect VR called Restraining Voltage Increasing IR has an Operating Effect
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Plain Impedance Characteristic

jX

ZL

Impedance Seen At Measuring Location For Line Faults

R TRIP STABLE

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Impedance Characteristic Generation

IF VF

zF

jIX IZ V3 V2 V1

IR
Trip Spring

TRIP

STABLE V I Z S2 < S1

Restrain

Operate VF IZ

Voltage to Relay = Current to Relay = Replica Impedance = Trip Condition : where : S1 = IZ Z S2 = V ZF

Ampere Turns :

Trip Conditions : VF < IFZ

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Basic Principle of Distance Protection


I1/I2 IR
21

ZP

VR

V1 V2

VFP

Relays are calibrated in secondary ohms :VFP VFP x V2 /V 1 1/ 2 = x Z R = VR/ R = V1/V 2 FP x 2 / 1 FP ZR = Z P x


> Distance Protection - January 2004

C.T. RATIO V.T. RATIO

Example

ZP = 4; V1/V2 = 115kV/115V; I1/I2 = 600/5A C.T. RATIO ZR = ZP x V.T. RATIO

ZR(5) = 4 x 600/5 x 115/115x103 = 0.48 -5A Relay ZR(1) = 2.4 - 1A Relay

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Input Quantities for - Faults

FAULT A-B B-C C-A

VRESTRAINT VA - VB VB - VC VC - VA

IOPERATE IA - IB IB - IC IC - IA

VRESTRAINT & IOPERATE are selected inside the relay No setting adjustments are required apart from Z1 = Phase Replica Impedance

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Input Quantities for Phase to Earth Faults

FAULT A-E

VRESTRAINT VA ?

IOPERATE IA ?

B-E

C-E

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation

Replica impedance circuit :IRA IZN Z1 Z1 IRN ZN Z1

Z1 = Phase replica impedance ZN = Neutral replica impedance IRA passes through Z1 IRN passes through ZN ZT = Z1 + ZN

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Compensation


For a single phase to ground fault the total earth loop impedance is given by :- (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = ZT ZT = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 = Z1 + ZN ZN = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3 - Z1 = (2Z1 + Z0)/3 - Z1 = - Z1 + 3 = KN Z1 Z0 3

where KN = (Z0 - Z1) 3Z1


> Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Vectorial Replica Compensation


Line CTs A ZPH B ZPH C ZPH ICZPH IBZPH IAZPH

ZN

IN Z N

Set Z Set Z

PH N

= ZF1

= (ZF0 - Z F1 ) 3 Usually Z N = Z PH for OHLs


> Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Compensation

For cables Z0 Z1 VECTORIAL COMPENSATION MUST BE USED KN = Z0 - Z1 = KN N 3Z1

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Characteristics

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Distance Characteristics

jX jX Zn Zn R MHO IMPEDANCE R jX Zn Zs CROSSPOLARISED MHO

jX Zn R Zn R OFFSET MHO

jX Zn Zn R R QUADRILATERAL POLYGON Zn R

LENTICULAR

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Self Polarised Mho Relays

Very popular characteristic Simple Less sensitive to power swings Inherently directional Operates for F1, but not for F2 Mho = 1/OHM

jX
RESTRAIN

Z
OPERATE

F1 R

Settings :F2 Z = reach setting = characteristic angle


> Distance Protection - January 2004

Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation


Vectorial compensation allows for ZN ZPH which is especially important for cable distance protection where ZN < ZPH and ZN is sometimes negative.
jX ZPH ZN ZE

ZE = Earth-loop impedance for - earth fault on a cable R

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Offset Mho Characteristic

jX Z

Normally used as backup protection Operates for zero faults (close up faults)
R -Z

Generally time delayed (as not discriminative)

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mho Relays

Directional circular characteristic obtained by introducing VPOLARISING VF self polarised VSOUND PHASE fully cross-polarised VF + xVS.F. partially cross-polarised VPRE-FAULT memory polarised Purpose for this is to ensure operation for close up faults where measured fault voltage collapses

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Quadrilateral Characteristic

jX ZL Z1 RF RS Load R

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Lenticular Load Avoidance Characteristic

jIX

Lenticular characteristic created from two offset Mho comparators Aspect ratio = a/b
a b

IR

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Lenticular Characteristic
Aspect ratios a/b 0.41 0.67 1.00 Load impedance area R Z3 reverse

X a

Z3

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection
Time Z3A

T3

Z3C

T2

Z2A

Z2C Z1C B C D

Z1A A T2 Z2B Z1B

Z1A = 80% of ZAB Z2A = 120% of ZAB Z3A(FORWARD) = 120% of {ZAB + ZCD}
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zones of Protection
jX

Z3A

C B

Z2A Z1A

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1
FAST OPERATION Trips circuit breaker without delay as soon as fault within Zone 1 reach is detected. REACH SETTING Cannot be set to 100% of protected line or may overreach into next section. Overreach caused by possible errors in :CTs VTs ZLINE information Relay Measurement
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1

Possible Overreach

ZONE 1 = ZL
ZL F

Possible incorrect tripping for fault at F Zone 1 set to 0.8ZL


ZONE 1 = 0.8ZL
ZL

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

Z1A A ZL Z1B B

Z1A

Send

Receive Trip B

Receive

Send

Z1B

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes

Effective Zone 1 reaches at A and B must overlap. Otherwise :- No trip for fault at F

Z1A Z1B B

Effective Z1A and Z1B must be > 0.5ZL Settings for Zone 1 > 0.8ZL are o.k.

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Minimum Zone 1 Reach Setting

Dictated by :Minimum relay voltage for fault at Zone 1 reach point to ensure accurate measurement. Minimum voltage depends on relay design typically 1 3 volts.

> Distance Protection - January 2004

System Impedance Ratio :- SIR


SIR = ZS/Zn where :ZS = Source impedance behind relay Zn = Reach setting

VRPA = Minimum voltage for reach point accuracy Can be expressed in terms of an equivalent value of SIRMAX SIRMAX = ZS MAX Zn MIN Zn MIN ZS MAX SIRMAX
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2
Covers last 20% of line not covered by Zone 1. Provides back-up protection for remote busbars.
Z2G TIME

Z1G G H

Z1H

To allow for errors :Z2G > 1.2 ZGH Zone 2 is time delayed to discriminate with Zone 1 on next section for faults in first 20% of next section.
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2
Zone 2 on adjacent line sections are not normally time graded with each other
Z2G Z1G Z1H Z2H

H F

Overlap only occurs for faults in first 20% of following line. Faults at F should result in operation of Z1H and tripping of circuit breaker H. If H fails to trip possible causes are :Z1H operates but trip relays fail. Z2H may operate but will not trip if followed by the same trip relays. Fault must be cleared at G by Z2G. Z1H and trip relays operate but circuit breaker fails to trip.
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2

No advantage in time grading Z2G with Z2H Unless Z2H + trip relays energise a 2nd circuit breaker trip coil.

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2
Z1H fails to operate. Results in race between breakers G and H if Z2H and Z2G have the same time setting. Can only be overcome by time grading Z2G with Z2H.
Z2G Z2H Z1G G H Z1H

Problem with this :Zone 2 time delays near source on systems with several line sections will be large. End zone faults on lines nearest the infeed source point will be cleared very slowly.
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Maximum Allowable Zone 2 Reach to Allow for Equal Zone 2 Time Settings
Z2A (EFF) MAX Z1B (EFF) MIN A ZL 1 B ZL2

Z2A must not reach beyond Z1B i.e. Z2A(EFF) MAX must not reach further than Z1B(EFF) MIN Z1BSETTING = 0.8ZL2 Z1B(EFF) MIN = 0.8 x 0.8ZL2 = 0.64ZL2 Z2A(EFF) MAX < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2 1.2 Z2ASETTING < ZL1 + 0.64ZL2 Z2ASETTING < 0.83ZL1 + 0.53ZL2
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 2 Time Settings on Long Line Followed by Several Short Lines


Z2G Z3H Z3J Z2H Z2J Z1G G Z1H H Z1J J

Z2G reaches into 3rd line section. To limit remote back-up clearance for a fault at F, the time setting of Z2G must discriminate with Z3H.
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone 3
Provides back-up for next adjacent line. Provides back-up protection for busbars (reverse offset). Actual Zone 3 settings will be scheme specified, i.e. permissive or blocking schemes. Many modern relays have more than 3 Zones to allow the use of three forward and an independent reverse zone.
Z3G REV Z2G Time G Z1G H Z1H K Z3G FWD

Typical settings : Z3FWD > 1.2 x (ZGH + ZHK) Z3REV 0.1 to 0.25 of Z1G
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Zone Time Coordination - Ideal Situation


Zone 1 :- tZ1 = instantaneous (typically 15 - 35mS) Zone 2 :- tZ2 = tZ1(down) + CB(down) + Z2(reset) + Margin e.g. tZ2 = 35 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 275mS Zone 3 :- tZ3 = tZ2(down) + CB(down) + Z3(reset) + Margin e.g. tZ3 = 275 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 515mS Note: Where upper and lower zones overlap, e.g. Zone 2 up sees beyond Zone 1 down, the upper and lower zone time delays will need to be coordinated, e.g. tZ2(up) to exceed tZ2(down).
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Under / Overreach

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Under-Reach

Impedance presented > apparent impedance %age Underreach = ZR - ZF x 100% ZR where ZR = Reach setting ZF = Effective reach

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault


ZA ZB

IA

IA+IB

Relay Location

IB

VR = IAZA + (IA + IB) ZB IR = IA ZR = ZA + ZB + IB . ZB IA


> Distance Protection - January 2004

Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between Relay and Fault


Relay with setting ZA + ZB will underreach with infeed. Relay with setting ZA + ZB + IB . ZB will measure IA correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed the relay will overreach. Maximum allowable setting dictated by load impedance

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Under-Reach
IP

IG+IP

ZK

ZG RELAY

IG

What relay reach setting is required to ensure fault at F is at boundary of operation ? Impedance seen for fault at F = ZG + IG + IP . ZK IG Limit of operation is when Impedance Seen = Reach Setting Reach setting required = ZG + IG + IP . ZK IG
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Over-Reach

Impedance seen < apparent impedance %age Overreach = ZF - ZR x 100% ZR where ZR = Reach setting ZF = Effective reach

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling

Mutual coupling causes distance relays to either underreach or overreach. Positive and negative sequence has no impact. Zero sequence mutual coupling can have a significant influence on the relay. Only affects ground fault distance.

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Under Reach

Z2 Boost G/F Z2 PH

Zmo

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z2 reduced G/F Z2 PH

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach

Z1 G/F (optional) Z1 G/F (normal)

Zmo

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Ancilliary Functions

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Switch on to Fault (SOTF)

X X X

Fast tripping for faults on line energisation, even where line VTs provide no prefault voltage memory

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Voltage Transformer Supervision

A VT fault and subsequent operation of VT fuses or MCBs results in misrepresentation of primary voltages Relay will remain stable as the current phase selector will not pick up Subsequent system fault may cause unwanted / incorrect tripping VTS operating from presence of V0 with no I0 or V2 with no I2 is used to block relay if required

> Distance Protection - January 2004

VT Supervision
Under load conditions Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages Loss of all 3 phase voltages Upon line energisation Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages Loss of all 3 phase voltages Digital input to monitor MCB Set to block voltage dependent functions

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Illustration of Basic Power Swing Blocking System


jX Power Swing Locus
ZP Z3

> Distance Protection - January 2004

Power Swing Blocking


A power swing will result in continuous change of current Continuous output from the relay superimposed current element can be used to block for a power swing Using this method the relay is able to operate for faults occurring during a power swing
v t i, S Load R X

TS ~ 0.2 to 2 s
> Distance Protection - January 2004

Directional Earth Fault Protection (DEF)

High resistance ground faults Instantaneous or time delayed IEC and IEEE curves Single or shared signalling channel

> Distance Protection - January 2004

DEF

RF 21 67N
Independent signalling channel

21 67N

> Distance Protection - January 2004