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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC COLLEGE

SCHOOL OF SOSIAL SCIENCE

TOPIC : ABLUTION AND PRAYER ACCORDING TO MADZHAB MALIKI COURSE TITLE : INTRO TO FIQH COURSE CODE : DIC 1234 PREPARED FOR FHAUZIAH ZAKARIA PREPARED BY SITI AISYAH BT JAFFAR (DIC 101046)

SECTION : 1 SEM : III (10/11)


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TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION. 1 2. THE PREREQUITIES BEFORE PRAYER. 2 3. THE STEPS OF ABLUTIONS.. 3 4. THE COMPULSARY ACT OF PRAYER.... 5 5. BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM MALIK.... 8 6. CONCLUSION... 11 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 12

INTRODUCTION

All praise is due to Allah.We beseech Him for His aid and forgiveness. Whoever He guides, none can misguide. And whomever He misguides, he/she has no one capable of granting guidance.And I testify that there is no deity other than Him.He has no associates.And I testify to the truthfulness of his Noble Messenger, Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

The book that in your hand is the manual of Maliki prayer. I hope it can be a great source for those seeking to know prayer as describe by the jurist of Maliki school of law. It appeared to me to be most important to first mention the prerequisites of prayer,since ones prayer would not valid if these prerequisiteswere not fulfilled.I chose then to discuss the steps of wudoo (ablution), since it is the only of the prerequisites that is absolutely required for the validity of ones prayer.The one who isnt in a state of minor ritual purity(wudoo) cannot pray, just as were they to do so the prayer would be invalid whetheror not they had the ability to perform wudoo, and whether or not they remembered they were in its inviolable state.After dealing with the prerequisites,I explained the steps of the prayer. I also included a portion of history of Maliki founder, its sources and some famous book as well as its main scholar in Malikis.

So we ask Allah,The Most High, to bless this venture,and make it a source of benefit to all Muslims seeking an easy way tobecome acquainted with their prayers.Amin.

THE PREREQUISITIES BEFORE PRAYER

The prerequisites which are essential of obligation (shurut al-wujub), before a prayer is deemed an obligation upon a person by which every person seeking to perform the obligatory act of prayer must observe in order for it to be considered valid. The person must observe six matters: 1. Puberty. 2. Sanity1. 3. One must face to the direction of Mecca. 4. One must remove from ones body all form of filth eg: urine, feces, blood etc. 5. One must properly cover ones nakedness. While placing special emphasis on the private parts. Meaning, that one must be sure that this entails for the man to cover all between his navel and knees. It is preferred that he also covers the area above his navel up to his shoulders. As for the woman, she is required to cover her entire body with the exception of her face and hands. The clothing of neither the man nor the woman should be tight fitting or see-through2. 6. One must perform in preparation for the prayer what is known as wudu.It is a special form of washing of the bodily limbs that we will specialize forits steps a section of its own.

In the view of Imam Abu Hanifa and others, Islam is included among the essential conditions required before it is considered an obligation upon a person to make Salat. This is due to the fact that Abu Hanifa doesnt believe that non-Muslims are addressed to carry out the particulars of Islamic law (Shariah). As for the majority of scholars, they opine that non-Muslims are also addressed to carry out the particulars of our Shariah. For this reason, Qadi Iyad adds to the conditions for the obligation of Salat, The Reach of the Prophets Invitation. [Mukhtasar p.120]. This means that once non-Muslims have received the invitation to Islam, they are obliged to execute all of the demands of the Islamic law, although their deeds will not be valid until they accept Islam. 2 To get a more detailed legal explanation of the limits of ones nakedness, one should enroll in the nearness class on Maaliki law.

THE STEPS OF ABLUTION (wudu)

In order to remove the state of minor ritual impurity before making prayer (Salat), one must perform wudu. Wudu is compulsory based on the verses was revealed in chapter Al-Maaidah verse 6 : 6. O You who believe! when You intend to offer As-Salt (the prayer), wash Your faces and Your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) Your heads, and (wash) Your feet up to ankles . if You are In a state of Janba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe Your whole body). but if You are ill or on a journey or any of You comes from answering the call of nature, or You have been In contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and You find no water, Then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith Your faces and hands. Allh does not want to place You In difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete his Favour on You that You may be thankful. But wudu is only valid when it is performed correctly. And if any of its compulsory acts are omitted, the wudu is invalid. So if one were to pray while omitting any of the compulsory acts of wudu, the Salat is automatically invalid and must be prayed again while fulfilling all of its prerequisites. The compulsory acts of wudu in Madzhab Maliki are 7 in number: 1. Passing the hand over each member of wudu while rinsing (dalk)3. 2. Immediacy between each act (fawr)4. 3. Making ones intention at the beginning (niyyah)5. One doesnt pray with a wudu that one made for an act that didnt require it, like going outside, riding a bike, reading a book of hadith, etc.
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Meaning of dalk is combing between the fingers. Combing between the fingers is considered compulsory in the Maliki School. 4 so as to avoid any intentional delay in rinsing one part of the body after another.
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Based on hadith narrated from The Prophet, upon whom be peace said, "Every action is based upon intention. For everyone is what he intended. Whoever made the migration to Allah and His Prophet, then his migration is to Allah and His Prophet. Whoever's migration was for something of this world or for the purpose of marriage, then his migration was to what he migrated to." (Related by Muslim) Ones intention when making wudu should be that one is: - Removing the state of minor ritual impurity - Preparing for an act that requires wudu - Or renewing ones wudu for something that requires it after it has been nullified.

If a person makes wudu for any of these reasons, and then makes Salat, the Salat is invalid, because the person made intention for an act that didnt require wudu. And such an intention doesnt suffice for Salat, which requires an intention done for an act that requires wudu. 4. Washing the face (ghasl wajh). The boundaries of the face are from the front hairline to the tip of the chin,and from the edge of one ear to the other.If one happens to have a beard,he merely wipes over the top of it if the skin cannot be seen due to its denseness. However,if the beard happens to be thin/short allowing for one to see the color of the skin, one must separate the hairsof the beard to be sure that water reaches the skin. 5. Washing the hands to and including the elbows (ghasl al-yadayn)6. 6. Wiping the head once (mash al-ras). The way to do this is to interlace the fingers of both hands.Position the two thumbs at each respective temporal lobe. Then, commence to wipe the head, starting from the front hairline and ending up at the nape of the neck or end of the cranium,and then return the hands back over the head until they reach the front hairline once again.7 7. Washing the feet to and including the anklebones (ghasl al-rijlayn).

This is the proof from Imam Maliks Muwatta to indicate what have been explained : Yahya related to me from Malik from Amr ibn Yahya al-Mazini that his father once asked Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn Asim, who was the grandfather of Amr ibn Yahya al-Mazini and one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, if he could show him how the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did wudu. Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn Asim agreed to do so and asked for water to do wudu. He poured some out on to his hand and washed each hand twice and then rinsed his mouth and snuffed water up his nose and blew it out three times.Then he washed hisface three times and both of his arms up to the elbows twice. He then wiped his head with both hands, taking his hands from hisforehead to the nape of his neck and then bringing them back to where he had begun. Then he washed his feet.8

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Beginning from the fingertips. This all should be done in two strokes,using of the same water. Translation of Maliks Muwatta, Section : How To Wudu, book 2, number 2.1.1.

THE COMPULSARY ACT OF PRAYER The word for prayer in Arabic (which is the language of the Quran and Islam) is Salaat.It is more than what is known in other religious traditions as supplication, which is called Duaa. Rather, the prayer of Islam is more likened to a complete service in itself, since it is comprised of many units, bowings, prostrations, supplications,and the like. According to Abdullah Bin Hamid Ali9 the compulsory acts of the prayer are 16 in all according to the Maliki School. They are: 1- The opening takbir 2- Standing for the opening takbir 3- Intention for specific prayer10. 4- The recitation of Al-Fatihah 5- Standing for the recitation of Al-Fatihah 6- Bowing 7- Rising after bowing 8- Prostrating 9- Rising after prostrating 10- Giving salam at the end 11- Sitting while giving the salam 12- Performing compulsory acts in proper sequence11. 13- Straightness (in all positions) 14- Calmness (in all movements and positions) 15- Beginning and ending the prayer after the Imam does 16- Having intention to follow the Imam
The author of article Introduction of Purification & Prayer Maliki Fiqh based on The Helpful Guide To What Is Essential To Know Of The Sciences Of The Religion. 10 The intentions need not be spoken, as with other acts of worship, it is a matter of the heart. 11 Proper Sequence (tartib) is obligatory between the different parts of salat. Hence the takbirat al-'ihram (opening takbir) must precede reciting (qira'ah), the qira'ah (recitation of Qur'an) must precede ruku' (bowing), the ruku' must come before the sujud (prostration), and so on.
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If one is praying alone, the number of prerequisites are 14 in all, since prerequisites #15 and #16 are not considered. As for the opening takbir12 prerequisite #1, the extent that is compulsory is for one to say the words Allahu Akbar (God is Greatest). As for raising the hands to the shoulders, this is one of the recommended acts. But one should not intentionally omit the raising of the hands. As for prerequisite #2 standing for the opening takbir, this is compulsory for those who are physically able to stand for the obligatory prayers. The prayer of those who pray sitting while being able to stand is null and void, and it must be prayed over properly. But anyone may sit for the voluntary prayers, although one only gets half of the reward in doing so as reported by the Prophet (pbuh). Prerequisite #3 having an intention for a specific prayer, applies only to the obligatory prayers, Jumuah, and to witr, which is only one unit (rakah). As for voluntary prayers, a specific intention is not required,although there is no harm in making a specific intention for them. In addition, the intention is not made verbally. It is made in the heart. And there is no special formula employed for it. Reciting Al-Fatihah prerequisite #4, is required from the Imam and the one who is praying alone. As for the person who is praying behind the Imam, Al-Fatihah is merely recommended (mustahabbah) for him to say during the inaudible recitations of the Imam. Reciting Surat al-Fatihah is necessary in every rak'ah, without there being any difference in this regard between the earlier and later rak'ahs and between fard and mustahabb salats As for prerequisite #15 beginning and ending after the Imam does, if it happens that one recites the opening takbir (takibah al-ihram) before the Imam does, one is required to repeat it after him. Otherwise, ones prayer will be invalid. As for the other movements besides the opening takbir and the salam, if one does them before the Imam, it is haram. But the prayer is still valid according to the law, although its hard to imagine that Allah would accept such a prayer.

If a person moves at the same time as the Imam, it is merely disliked (makruh), not haram (forbidden). But it is better to carry out all movements after the Imam has commenced them.

Opening Takbir: Imam Ali' (a.s.) related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The key to prayer is purity. What puts one into its invioable state is the takbir, and the tasleem releases one from it."

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And if a person concludes the prayer by saying As-Salamu alaykum before the Imam, there is no way to make up for this. The person will have to repeat the prayer altogether because of violating a compulsory act of the Salat.

BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM MALIK

The Prophet said: "Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge, and they shall find no-one more knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of Madina." Al-Tirmidhi, al-Qadi `Iyad, Dhahabi and others relate from Sufyan ibn `Uyayna, `Abd al-Razzaq, Ibn Mahdi, Ibn Ma`in, Dhuayb ibn `Imama, Ibn al-Madini, and others that they considered that scholar to be Malik ibn Anas. It is also related from Ibn `Uyayna that he later considered it to be `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-`Aziz al-`Umari. Al-Dhahabi said of the latter: "He possessed knowledge and good fiqh, spoke the truth fearlessly, ordered good, and remained aloof from society. He used to press Malik in private to renounce the world and seclude himself."

The founder : Imam Malik Ibn Anas Ibn Amir.(717-801 CE) Born in Madinah in the year 96 AH. His grandfather Amir is among the major Sahabah of Madinah. Background of education : Imam Malik studied Hadith under Az-Zuhri who was greater Hadith scholar of his time, as well as under the great narrator of Hadith, Naafi the freed slave of the Sahabah Abdullah Ibn Umar. Imam Malik only journeys outside Madinah were for Hajj, thus he largely likited himself to the knowledge available in Madinah. Famous Book : Imam Malik continued to teach Hadith in Madinah over a period of forty years and he managed to compiled a book containing Hadith of The Prophet s.a.w and Athars of the Sahabah and their succcesors which he named al-Muwatta( The Beaten Path). His Main Student:  Abu Abdur-Rahman Ibn Al-Qaasim(743-813 CE) . The author of Al-Mudawwanah.  Abu Abdillah Ibn Wahb(742-819 CE) . imam Malik gave him the title of Mufti, which means the official expounder of islamic Law.

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Sources of Law Used by the Maliki Madzhab: Imam Malik deduced Islamic Law from the following sources which are listed in order their importance. 1. The Quran Like other Imams, Malik considered the Quran to be the primary source of Islamic Law and utilized it without laying any pre-conditions for its application. 2. The Sunnah He used Sunnah as a second most important source of Islamic Law,but he put some restriction on its use where if a Hadith were contradicted by the customary practice of the Madinaties, he reject it. 3. Amal (practices) of the Madinites Imam Malik reasoned that since many of the Madinities were direct descendants of the Sahabah and Madinah was where the prophet s.a.w spent the last ten years of his life, practices common to all Madinites must have been allowed, if not encouraged by the prophet s.a.w himself. 4. Ijma of the Sahabah Imam Malik as well as others three scholars considered the ijma as a third most importance source of Islamic Laws. 5. Individual Opinion of the Sahabah Imam Malik gave full weight to the opinions of the Sahabah,whether they were conflicting or in agreement, and include them in his book of Hadith, al-Muwatta. 6. Qiyas Imam Malik used to apply his own deductive reasoning on matters not coveredby the previously mentioned sources. 7. Customs of the Madinites Imam Malik gave some weight to isolated practices found among a few people of Madinah so long as they were not in contradiction to known Hadith. He reasoned that such custom must also have been handed down from earlier generations and sanctioned by the Sahabah even the Prophet s.a.w himself.

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8. Istislah (welfare) This principle also called as Istihsan in Hanafi School except that he and his student called it as Istislah. 9. Urf (custom) Like Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik considered the various customs and social habits of people throughout the muslim world as possible sources of secondary laws as long as they did not against either the letter or the spirit of the Shariah.

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CONCLUSION

All Praise due to Allah. We praise Him, seek His help, and ask His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls, and the adverse consequences of our deeds. Whoever Allah guides, there is none that can misguide him, and whoever He misguides, then none can guide him. After I have completed my assignment, I found that the knowledge about other school(madzhab) is benefit if not important for us to know. It is because in some circumference we can take the other mazdhab practice. For instance, when we perform pilgrimage, we are advised to change our taqlid into Maliki madzhab in term of thing that nullify a wudu. As the Prophet said in his hadith : The conflict among my people is blessing Seeking for the knowledge about madzhab also can improve and wider our mind in order to bring an educated generation in Islamic knowledge. Lastly I hope there is more people who can interest to go deeper in this field and impart to people continuosly. Lastly, all the good deeds have came from Allah and the bad deeds have come from our weakness as a human being.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

`A'isha `Abdarahman at-Tarjumana and Ya`qub Johnson. (2011, June 7). CRCC: Center For Muslim-Jewish Engagement: Resources: Religious Texts. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/muwatta/m mtintro.html Ali, D. A. (2008). Al-Murshidul Mu'in Introduction to Prayer & Purification Fiqh Maliki. Egypt: Adventure Works Press. Ali, D. A. (2011). Prayer and Purification According To The Maliki School of the Islamic Jurisprudence. 13-16. Philips, D. A. (2002). The Evolution Of Fiqh ( Islamic Law & The Madzhab). Kuala Lumpur: A.S Noordeen. Retrived date June 7, 2011 www.lamppostproductions.com

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