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PUMPS pumps are the major rotary equipment used at each and every point of the refinery to handle

process liquids. This refinery has a large variety of pumps to serve for different liquids at different temperatures and pressures. There are basically two kind of pumps used in MRPL. 1. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Centrifugal pumps differ from ordinary pumps in that they rely on kinetic energy rather than mechanical means to move the liquid. Liquid enters the pump at the center of a rotating impeller and gains energy as it moves to the outer diameter of impeller liquid is forced out of the pump by energy it obtains from the rotating impeller. Centrifugal pumps can transfer large volumes of liquid but efficiency and flow decrease rigidly as pressure and viscosity increases. 90% of pumps used in this refinery are centrifugal pumps. This is because centrifugal pumps are used to create moderate pressures of large volumes of fluid. They can be used foe continuous pumping of liquid from one place to another. The liquid is impinged upon an impeller, which is rotating at high speed. The drive is provided by motor or steam turbines. The liquid acquires kinetic energy, which in turn is converted to pressure energy as liquid travels through a widening pass called volute. Thus required pressure can be obtained. Centrifugal pumps include a number of parts in their construction. IMPELLER in radial flow and mixed flow pumps may enter the impeller from one side in the single entry pump or from both directions in the double entry pumps. The range of impeller designs include for closed impellers, open impellers and semi-open impellers. Eg: in the closed impeller design the fluid is directed through the impeller through a number of enclosed channels fabricated in the impeller body. CASING the prime purpose of the casing is to convert the energy from the fluid leaving the impeller into useful pressure energy. The design of the casing is of equal importance to that of the impeller. There are two types of casing design. 1. volute 2. guide vane (diffuser) the sketch below related to the centrifugal pump is included to illustrate the difference.

Rotary & Centrifugal Pumps Rotary pumps operate in a circular motion and displace a constant amount of liquid with each revolution of the pump shaft. In general, this is accomplished by pumping elements (e.g., gears, lobes, vanes, screws) moving in such a way as to expand volumes to allow liquid to enter the pump. These volumes are then contained by the pump geometry until the pumping elements move in such a way as to reduce the volumes and force liquid out of the pump. Flow from rotary PD pumps is relatively unaffected by

differential pressure and is smooth and continuous. Rotary PD pumps have very tight internal clearances which minimize the amount of liquid that slips back from discharge to suction side of the pump. Because of this, they are very efficient. These pumps work well with a wide range of viscosity, particularly high viscosity. Centrifugal pumps differ from rotary pumps in that they rely on kinetic energy rather than mechanical means to move liquid. Liquid enters the pump at the center of a rotating impeller and gains energy as it moves to the outer diameter of the impeller. Liquid is forced out of the pump by the energy it obtains from the rotating impeller. Centrifugal pumps can transfer large volumes of liquid but efficiency and flow decrease rapidly as pressure and/or viscosity increases.

Shafts, bearings and seals the shafts, bearings and seals are provided to support and allow controlled rotation of the impeller and to ensure that the fluid is contained within the system. These are important items and are generally the limiting the pump reliability and convenience of maintenance. Centrifugal pumps can be mounted horizontally or vertically. The trend for sealed pumps is to use mechanical seals. 2. RECIPROCATING PUMPS In some places high pressure is requirement and not continuous handling of large volumes of the liquid. In such cases reciprocating motion and then discharges it out at required pressure.

There are 2 general types of reciprocating pumps the piston pump and the diaphragm pump. These types of pump operate by using a reciprocating piston or diaphragm. The liquid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via a outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm. Reciprocating pumps are generally very efficient and are suitable for very high heads at low flows. This type of pump is self priming as it can be draw liquid from a level below the suction flange even if the suction pipe is not evacuated. The pump delivers reliable discharge flows and is often used for metering duties delivering accurate quantities of fluid. The reciprocating pump is not tolerant to solid particles and delivers a highly pulsed flow. If a smooth flow is required then the discharge flow system has to include additional features such as accumulators to provide even flows. Reciprocating pumps designed for delivering high pressured must include methods of releasing excessive fluid pressures. These pumps should include built in relief valves or relief valves should be included in the fluid circuit which cannot be isolated from the pump. This feature is not required for safety for the air operated diaphragm valve.

PISTON PUMPS/PLUNGER PUMPS a piston pump can be based on a single piston or more likely multiple parallel pistons. The pistons are reciprocated using cams or crank shafts. The stroke is generally adjustable. This type of pump can deliver heads of up to 1000 bar. The largest sizes of piston pumps can deliver flows of 40m3/hr. In practice these pumps are more likely to be used for metering low flow rate fluids at more modest pressures in laboratories and chemical process plants. Piston pumps are generally not suitable for transferring toxic or explosive media.

Fig 1: double acting piston pump DIAPHRAGM PUMPS there are 2 types of diaphragm pumps - The hydraulically operated diaphragm metering pumps and the air actuated type. HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED DIAPHRAGM PUMP the hydraulically operated diaphragm metering pump is used for similar duties as the piston pump. It has some significant advantages compared to the piston pump in that the design does not require glands or piston seals. The diaphragm in the hydraulically operated diaphragm pump shown below is actuated using a plunger pump arrangement. This provides full support of the diaphragm allowing high-pressure operation. The pump can include for duplex diaphragms with the interface being monitored for failure of the diaphragm in contact with the fluid. This type of pump can be used for pumping toxic

and explosive fluids. The pump can deliver heads of up to 700bar and transfer flows of up to 20m3/hr. These pumps require continuous monitoring as the diaphragm is under high fatigue loading and the inlet and outlet valves are subject to erosion and blocking. Under a high quality maintenance regime these pumps are very reliable.

Fig : diaphragm pump AIR OPERATED PUMP the air operated pump is generally a low cost work horse pump used for transferring any type of liquid including sludge. The inlet and outlet valves are often low cost easily replaced flap or ball valves. The pump comprises two circular chambers each split by large elastomeric diaphragm. The two diaphragm centers are mechanically coupled together with a shaft. An interlocked valve admits air pressure to one side of one of the chambers and exhaust the air from the opposite side of the other chamber. This causes both diaphragms to move. One diaphragm pushing fluid out through a non return valve while the other diaphragm drawing the fluid in through a NRV. On completion of a full stroke, the valve reverses the air supply and exhaust directions causing the diaphragms to move back. The diaphragm, which was pushing fluid out of the pump now sucks fluid and the diaphragm admitting fluid now pushes fluid out. The system is therefore double acting. The pump capacity is limited by the air pressure available (generally 7 bar) and the design of the diaphragm. An elastomeric diaphragm has a limited life and will only operate for a few million cycles. A flow rate of about 40m3/hr is a reasonable maximum

achievable flow with a larger pump. For any air operated diaphragm pump the higher the flow the lower the discharge head possible.

3. SCREW PUMPS

There are some screw pumps in the refinery installed in particular areas where they suit the pumping requirements. Features of screw pump: a)High suction of lifting up to 8.5m and self priming is especially powerful. b)It can handle liquid containing solids (Max. 50mm), fiber, flock and so on without destroying it. c)As positive-displacement pump, capacity is directly proportional to the speed without being influenced by delivery pressure. d)Pump works without pulsation or turbulence. e)It can be handle high viscosity and density liquid. It is available maximum viscosity of 200,000ps and water containing rate of 50% depend on materiality. f)As bearings are placed externally, fluids are not contaminated. g)Fluid flow direction can be changed, so reversed running is possible. h)Simple construction with a few parts. i)Wide range of materials of components parts enable to handle all kinds of fluid, such as high corrosive media. j)As sealing is set on suction side, there are a few burdens and maintenance is easy. 4. GEAR PUMPS they are the type of rotary pumps, which do not belong to class of turbo machinery. 5. VANE PUMP vane pumps are used successfully in a wide variety of applications. Because of vane

strength and the absence of metal to metal contact, vane pumps are ideally suited for low viscosity, non lubricating liquids up to 2200cSt/10000SSU. Such liquids include LPG, ammonia, solvents, alcohol, fuel oils, gasoline and refrigerants. Vane pumps are available in a number of vane configurations including sliding vane, flexible vane, swinging vane, rolling vane and external vane. Vane pumps are noted for their reliability, dry priming, easy maintenance and good suction characteristics. Moreover, vanes can usually handle fluid temperatures from -32C to 260C and pressures up to30bar/400PSI. Each type of vane pump offers unique advantages. For example, external vane pumps can handle large solids. Flexible vane pumps on the other hand can only handle small solids but create good vacuum. Sliding vane pumps can run dry for short periods of time and handle small amounts of vapour.

Fig: vane pump cross section.

How vane pumps work

Despite the different configurations, most vane pumps operate under the same general principle described below. 1. A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloidal cam. The rotor is located close to the wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped cavity is formed. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two sideplates. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. As the rotor rotates (yellow arrow) and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push the vanes to the walls of the housing. The tight seal among the vanes, rotor, cam, and sideplate is the key to the good suction characteristics common to the vane pumping principle. 2. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam (small red arrow on the bottom of the pump). Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes, rotor, cam, and sideplate. 3. As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the discharge port. Advantages Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures Compensates for wear through vane extension Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG Can run dry for short periods Can have one seal or stuffing box Develops good vacuum Disadvantages Can have two stuffing boxes Complex housing and many parts Not suitable for high pressures

Not suitable for high viscosity Not good with abrasives Applications Aerosol and Propellants Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3 LPG Cylinder Filling Alcohols Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia Solvents Aqueous solutions