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Types of Pump

Deep Piston Pump This is the same as for shallow except the pump cylinder is attached to the bottom of the drop pipe. As the piston moves up and down, it pumps water up through the drop. pipe. Deep-well piston pumps can lift water from 600 feet. Double acting piston pumps can pump 65% more water with only 15% more horsepower. Advantages and disadvantages for this type are the same as for shallow piston pumps.

Jet, or Ejector, Pumps The basic components of ejectors are an are a nozzle and venturi tube Ejectors operate as follows. Water is delivered, under pressure by the centrifugal pump through the nozzle of the ejector. The sudden increase in water velocity as the water flows through the narrowing nozzle decreases the pressure of the water. As a result, the water speed near the outside of the mouth of the nozzle is very high, and the pressure is very low. The low pressure zone acts as a partial vacuum and water from the well is sucked from the well around the intake pipe of the nozzle and into a venturi tube. The gradual enlargement of the venturi tube decreases the water velocity and increases the pressure. The centrifugal pump then picks up the flow, sending part of the water through the discharge pipe and the rest back to the injector. If the well is shallow, the pump is on the ground surface and the jet and centrifugal pump are adjacent to each other. Water can be lifted from up to 22 feet deep. For deep wells, the centrifugal pump is still on the surface, but the jet and venturi are submerged inside the well casing. Water can be lifted in this way from up to 85 feet. Advantages The only moving part in the pump is the impeller, so repairs are few. Also, for both deep and shallow wells jets can be offset from the well for easy access.

Disadvantages These pumps are easily damaged by sand, and as the distance the water needs to be lifted increases, the amount of water diverted from the distribution system to be injected into the jet increases. For instance, to lift water 50 feet deep, half of the water pumped is returned to the jet. For 100 feet of lift, 76% is diverted.

Centrifugal Pumps The operating principle of the centrifugal pump can be illustrated by considering the effect of swinging a bucket of water around in a circle of water at the end of a rope. The force pushing the water against the bottom of the bucket is centrifugal force. If a hole were cut in the bottom of the bucket, water would flow through the hole. Further, if an intake pipe where connected to an air tight cover over the top of the bucket, the flow of water out the hole would result in the development of a partial vacuum inside the bucket. This vacuum would bring water into the bucket from a source at the other end of the intake. In this way, continuous flow from the source and out through the bucket would be established. In terms of real centrifugal pumps, bucket and lid correspond the pump casing, the hole and intake pipe correspond to the intake and discharge of the pump, and the rope and arm perform the functions of the impeller. Centrifugal pumps can be used for depths up to about 15 feet. They are considered very efficient for capacities of over 50 gpm and pressures of less than 65 pounds per square inch. They are con- sidered ideal for use as a booster pump to send water from a well pump to storage or to a distribution system. Advantages Produces a smooth and even flow. Some types pump some sand. Centrifugal pumps are also usually reliable with a good service life (1).

Disadvantages Centrifugal pumps lose their prime easily, and their efficiency depends upon on operating under design heads and speed (1) Impellers There are two basic types of impellers. volute and turbine. Turbine impellers are surrounded by diffuser vanes which provide gradually enlarging passages in which the velocity of the water is slowly reduced thus transforming the velocity head into pressure head. Volute impellers are characterized by having no diffusion vanes. Instead, its impeller is housed in a case which is spiral shaped and in which the velocity of the water is reduced upon leaving the impeller, with resultant increase in pressure.

Turbine Multistage Turbine Multistage pumps operate under the same principle as the turbine-impeller centrifugal pump except there are one or more impellers mounted close together on a vertical shaft. The bowls are positioned below the water level, and the discharge pipe and shaft extend to a motor on the surface.

These pump are usually used for high capacity from deep wells - up to 1500 feet deep. The capacity and pressure depends on design, diameter, and number of impellers. Advantages Produces smooth, even flow and is easy to frost proof. The long drive shaft requires a straight and vertical well casing. Disadvantages To repair the pump, it must be pulled from the well.

Submersible Multistage Pumps This type operates like a centrifugal pump except that several impellers are mounted together on a vertical shaft. The impellers and motor are in a housing which is positioned below the water level. Submersible pumps can lift from up to 1000 feet deep. The pump capacity and pressure depends on diameter, speed, and number of impellers. Advantages Submersible pumps produce a smooth and even flow and are easy to frost proof. They also have a short pump shaft to the motor. Disadvantages This pump type is easily damaged by sand in the water, and repair requires pulling the pump out of the well.

Helical Rotor Pumps The helical rotor pump operates like an auger to force water up through the pump. The motor and auger are in a housing under the water level. The capacity of the pump depends on the design of the rotor. Water can be pumped from depths of up to 1000 feet and well casings can be 4 inches or larger in diameter. Advantages Helical rotors produce a smooth and even flow, and they are easy to frost proof. In addition, there is a short pump shaft to the motor. Sand also damages these pumps less than any other type. Disadvantages Repair of the pump requires pulling it from the well.

Reference: http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/seahome/private/src/types.htm