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HISTORY OF WOOD WORKING

Along with stone, mud, and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans.Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood. The development of civilization was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in working these materials. Among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea and lehringen. The spears from Schningen (Germany) provide some of the first examples of wooden hunting gear. Flint tools were used for carving. Since Neolithic times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kckhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany andDenmark and wooden folding-chairs. The site of Fellbach-Schmieden in Germany has provided fine examples of wooden animal statues from the Iron Age. Wooden idols from the La Tne period are known from a sanctuary at the source of the Seine in France. Two ancient civilizations that used woodworking were the Egyptians and the Chinese. Woodworking is depicted in many ancient Egyptian drawings, and a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture (such as stools, chairs, tables, beds, chests) has been preserved in tombs. As well, the inner coffins found in the tombs were also made of wood. The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally copper and eventually, after 2000 BC bronze asironworking was unknown until much later. Commonly used woodworking tools included axes, adzes,chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period. These joints were strengthened using pegs, dowels and leather or cordlashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period. Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees,deforestation in the Nile valley resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but alsoAleppo pine, boxwood and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty. Many people love to work with wood and when they do it is called Woodworking. Woodworking is anything that involves working with wood in any way, whether it is carving, painting, sawing, or anything else. It has been done as long as man has been on the face of the earth. The first man did make weapons out of wood, so this involved carving. Early man also made crude statues from wood that were to help the tribe win the favor of the animals that they were going to hunt; and later to please the gods which they believed in. Around 2000 B.C. the Egyptians used wood to make furniture, such as beds, tables, chests, and many other items. Wood has been used by every civilization in the world, and is still used today to make manufacture paper, furniture, buildings, and a huge variety of everything else. Wood is generally used from a countries own natural resources and it wasn't until trade was developed from city to city and country to country, that different types of wood became available in Woodworking. Humans have decorated wood in such detail that Woodworking had become a prominent state of art. It has always been human nature to ornament every single article that a person owned. In some ancient civilizations, people used staffs carved with the story of their heritage. This is proven during the Middle Ages with all the wooden statues that still stand all around the world. Almost every- European city has some of these historical statues preserved in some type of sanctuary, and the statues are taken very good care of. The middle ages was not the only civilization which showed extreme patients in their Woodworking as a person can see when they look at some Byzantine art, or Gothic art. These figurines and statues show how people literally loved the art of Woodworking. The only downfall with working with wood is that over time wood tends to split and crack. Ancient wooden sculptures have long been lost due to deterioration. No one really knows when man first began painting their Woodwork. It is thought that color was not only used to bring a Woodworking statue to life, but that it was also painted to protect the wood from the elements as well as insects which would eat away at the wood. During the 20th century Woodworking was considered to be not only time consuming but expensive to have done, so Woodworking as a skill literally stopped and left up to individual craftsmen, who sell the Woodworking art at flea markets and yard sales. However, many of these Woodworkers are still around in other countries throughout the world. DIFFERENT TOOLS IN WOOD WORKING

1. Claw Hammer (Finish Head) Everyone has used a hammer at some point in their lives. While there are many types, the most versatile is the claw hammer with a smooth, slightly rounded finish head. Choose one that is not too heavy, but feels good in your hand. I prefer a 20 oz. model. 2. 6" Layout Square A Layout Square is an invaluable woodworking tool. Not only is it probably the quickest and easiest tool for marking a square line for an end cut, but can be used to quickly mark any angle up to 45-degrees or measure up to six inches. I keep one in my back pocket or nail pouch whenever I'm in the shop. 3. 25' Retractable Tape Measure A Retractable Tape Measure is another tool that is an absolute must for any woodworker. A quality tape measure should have both Standard and Metric markings, a locking mechanism and a slightly loose hook on the end of the tape. The hook is loose on it's rivets by design so the user will get accurate results whether the tape is used to take internal or external measurements.

4. Utility Knife A Utility Knife with a locking mechanism that uses disposable razor blades is another requirement for the woodworker. This versatile cutting device can be used for scribing a mark in a piece of stock, cleaning up a hinge mortise or any of a hundred other times when a knife is needed. 5. Chisels The Chisel is another essential woodworking tool. A finely-sharpened chisel is perfect for cleaning out waste from joints and mortises. I like to keep one each of 1/4", 1/2", 3/4" and 1" width bevel-edged chisels within easy reach. 6. Level When you need to know if a piece of stock is perfectly horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb), you need a level. I like to keep two levels available: one relatively long level (I use a 28" or 36") and a short, 6" Torpedo Level. 7. Screwdrivers Like the claw hammer, everybody has used a screwdriver at least once or twice in their lives. I keep a few versions in my shop: #1, 2 and 3 sizes of both Phillips and Flathead varieties, as well as a couple of square head, Torx and star drivers. 8. Sliding Bevel A Sliding Bevel is very similar to a square, except that it can be adjusted to any angle and locked in place using a locking mechanism. This is very handy when an angle needs to be duplicated. 9. Nail Sets A nail set looks somewhat like a small, round chisel, but is used to sink nail heads flush or just beneath the wood's surface. I keep three different sizes in my pouch. 10. Block Plane The last absolute necessity every woodworker should have is a small block plane. This device is used for shaving thin amounts of wood away from the stock, and is invaluable for cleaning up edges during assembly.
Sharpening Stones Sharpening your tools is for some woodworkers more than just a task - it is more like an art. Depending on the woodworker you ask you will get hundreds of different opinions on what stone to use, what lubricant to use and which way to best sharpen your woodworking tools. For my sharpening I use a Tormek water cooled grinder and a set of diamond stones to finish the blades. The diamond stones are made of a plastic base with a metal sheet on top of it. This metal is covered by crystalline diamond particles. I first bought a diamond stone to sharpen my HSS carving tools, but than discovered that they work very well for my other tools like planer blades and chisels. Hand Saws Out of the hundreds of different tools for woodworking- saws are certainly one of the most important. I will not try to list all the different types of hand saws available - but just explain into more detail my favorite one. Some years ago, when the 'japanese tools wave' started I bought a trim saw. Equipped with different teeth on both sides of the blade it is one of these saws I would never ever want to miss. First used for a house improvement job (trimming doors for a new floor in my house), I stick to this saw for nearly every cuttingtask in my workshop. So when you next time at your hardware store nearby, check out Japanese trim saws as the are really wonderful hand tools.