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-:BRILLIANT TUTORIAL NOTES:CHAP 1.

REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISM
 REPRODUCTION IS DEFINED AS THE PROCESS IN WHICH DIFFERENT LIVING ORGANISM GIVE RISE TO THERE YOUNG ONES.  THERE DIFFERENT TYPE OF REPRODUCTION THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS: y ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION:-THE TYPE REPRODUCTION IN WHICH ONLY ONE PARENT IS INVOLVED. THERE ARE VARIOUS SUBTYPES OF THIS REPRODUCTION: BINARY FISSION(AMOEBA)  MULTIPLE FIDSSION()  VEGETATIVE PROPRGATION(BRYOPHYTA)  SPOROGENATION OR ZOOSPORES(ALGAE)  REGENERATION(PLANERIA)  CONIDIA(PENICILLIUM)  BUD FORMATION(HYDRA) y SEXUAL REPRODUCTION:-THE TYPE OF REPRODUCTION IN WHICH BOTH MALE AND FEMALE IS INVOLVED IS CALLED AS THE SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.EXAMPLE:-HUMAN BEINGS ANIMALS ETC.  THE PERIOD OF GROWTH IN DIFFERENT ORGANISM IN WHICH THEY DEVELOP THERE SEXUAL CHARACTER IS CALLED AS JUVELLIAN PHASE.  THIS DEVELOPMENT IN PLANTS IS KNOWN AS VEGETATIVE PHASE  THE TIME FROM BIRTH TILL DEATH IS CALLED IS CALLED AS THE LIFE SPAN.  THE PRE FERTILISATION EVENT INCLUDES TWO THING WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWS: GAMETOGENISIS: THIS IS PROCESS OF FORMATION OF GAMETS.  THE SIMILAR GAMETS ARE CALLED AS HOMOGAMETS.

 IN THE CASE OF MALE GMET CALLES AS ANTHROZOIDAND FEMALE GAMET CALLED AS EGG.  IN PLANT IF BOTH SEX ORGANS IS PRESENT IN SAME THEN THIS CALLED AS THE HOMOTHALLIC &MONOECIUS.IF ONLY ONE SYSTEM IS PRESENT THEN THIS CALLED AS HETEROTHALLIC &DIOECIOUS.  THE UNISEXUAL FLOWER IN CASE OF PRESENCE OF STAMEN ARE CALLED AS STAMINATE& IN CASE OF FLOWER HAVING PISTIL CALLED AS PISTILATE.  IN ANIMALS OR MAMMLS IF BOTH THE SEX ORGANS ARE PRESENT THEN IT IS CALLED AS HERMAPHRODITE.  GMETS ARE HAPLOID THROUGH THE PARENT BODY FROM WHICH THEY ARISE MAY BE EITHEWR HAPLOID OR DIPLOID.  MONERA,FUNGI,ALGAE& BRYOPHYTA HAVE HAPLOID BODY.  PTERIDOPHYTA,GYMNOSPERM,ANGIOSPERM,MOST OF ANIMAL & HUMAN BEING HVE DIPLOID PARENT BODY.  THE CELL PRESENT IN DIPLOID CELLS CALLED AS MEIOCYTES WHICH UNDERGOES THE MEIOSIS.  GAMET TRANSFER:IN THIS STAGE OF PRE FERITLISATION THE DEVELOPMENTS OF GAMETS GET COMPLETED AND THEY ARE TRNSFERED FOR FUSION AND FURTHER STEP FOR THE FORMATION OF THE RESULTANT. THE PROCESS OF FUSION OF GAMETS ARE CALEED AS SYNGAMEY. THE SYNGAMEY RESULTS IN FORMATION OF ZYGOTE. IN SOME CASES THERE IS NOT THE FUSIN AND ONLY FEMALE GAMET UNDERGOES THE FERTILISATION IS CALLED AS THE PARTHOGENISIS. THE FERTILISATION OCCURS IN AQUATIC ANIMALS IS CALLED EXTERNAL FERTILISATION IN THIS CASE THE RELEASING OF SEX GAMETS IS THERE WHICH GET FUSED TO OTHER BY THERE COMPATIBILITY. THE POST FERTILISATION INCLUDE TWO THING WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWS: ZYGOTE: EMBRYOGENISIS:-

   

 THIS PROCESS REFER TO THE FUTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO FROM THE ZYGOTE IS CALLED EMBRYOGENISIS.  DURING THIS PROCESS EMBRYOGENISIS ZYGOTE UNDERGOES CELL DIVISION AND CELL DIFFERENTIATION.  THE MOTILE AND MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE IS CALLED AS THE ZOOSPORES.

-:FIGURE BASSED CONCEPT FOR THIS CHAPER:-

BRILLINAT TUTORIAL THE REFRESHER BATCH FOR PMT/AND OTHER MEDICAL EXAM ADDRESS:KAKADEO KANPUR UTTAR PRADESH BY AK.SINGH SIR