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AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH ON BREAKDOWN TIME IN KNITTING ROOM TO

IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND MINIMIZE WASTAGE & COST

ROOM TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND MINIMIZE WASTAGE & COST Report Submitted to M/S. APEX CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT

Report Submitted to

M/S. APEX CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT SERVICES PVT. LTD TIRUPUR – 641 606

CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT SERVICES PVT. LTD TIRUPUR – 641 606 K.J.SIVAGNANAM, Professor, NIFT TEA KNITWEAR FASHION

K.J.SIVAGNANAM, Professor, NIFT TEA KNITWEAR FASHION INSTITUTE East of TEKIC, Mudalipalayam, TIRUPUR – 641 606

1. Introduction

CONTENT

2. Statement of the problems in knitting room

3. Scope of the investigation

4. Objectives

5. Relevance of knitting room

5.1 Yarn quality

5.2 Fabric quality

5.3 Fabric faults

6. Methodology

7. Limitations

8. Details of investigation

8.1 Production of knitting

8.2 Snap study on machine stoppages

8.2.1 Production loss due to m/c stoppage:

8.3 Fabric wastage: (Areal density / gsm checking)

8.3.1. Wastage of fabric due to uneven roll weight:

8.3.2 Causes for fabric defects

9. Findings of the investigation

10. Summary and Conclusion

11. Acknowledgement

12. References

AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH ON BREAKDOWN TIME IN KNITTING ROOM TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND MINIMIZE WASTAGE & COST

(K.J.Sivagnanam,

1. INTRODUCTION:

Professor, NIFT TEA Knitwear Fashion Institute, Tirupur)

As the demand for the knitted garment is steadily on the increase during the recent years, a large number of knitting factories are involved in the manufacture of fabrics for knitwear industry. The present knitting factories when compared to past decades are established with the new generation of high-speed modern knitting machines. The present knitting industry is faced with proclaim of stiff global competitions demanding of production of quality fabric with international level with reduced cost.

The performance of the knitting room has assumed critical importance especially with regard to the production of quality of knitted fabrics. The profitability and sustainability of the knitting factories are influenced and depends on various factors, such as labour productivity, machine productivity, machine efficiency, Fabric defects and wastages in various stages.

The present study has been undertaken to investigate the knitting room and find the causes for these issues and suggest the ways and means to improve them. Some of the relevant points have been discussed in this report with fruitful suggestion for the implementation in the knitting company. Finally to arrive at suitable system for knitting room to obtain fabrics having an acceptable quality with reduced wastage and cost.

2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS IN KNITTING ROOM:

The various departments of garment industry and that of knitting in particular have many problems to be addressed in order to improve the productivity and quality. These two are factors directly influences the wastage and cost of knitting. The following problems have been identified for this investigation.

Machine efficiency Fabric Wastages

3. SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION:

Machine / Operator Productivity Defects in fabrics

The focus of this investigation is to understand the performance of knitting factory and identify the factors responsible for the above stated problems. The investigation conducted a snap study to analyze the breakage rate of knitting machine with a view to recognize the factors which need attention for increasing the both labour and machine productivity and reduce the defects and wastages.

The investigation also reviews the role of yarn quality, knitting room procedures and functioning documents in achieving better productivity and quality. This study intends to provide suitable suggestions for minimizing the wastages and cost of knitting room.

4.

OBJECTIVES

1. To evaluate the knitting room and to study the extent of role played by yarn properties, machine parameters, knitting room systems on the critical fabric quality, productivity, wastages and cost of knitting.

2. To Investigate all the core parameters and suggest the methods to have better knitting room management for the improvement in productivity / efficiency / defects points

5. RELEVANCE OF KNITTING ROOM

5.1 Yarn Quality:

In Knitting Room, the first and basic raw material is yarn and it mainly decides the knitting performance and the quality of fabric produced. And the new generation of high-speed modern knitting machines place increasingly more stringent demands on the quality and processability of the yarn. As the speed of knitting machines increase, high quality yarn is going to become more important. Companies which are best able to use high quality of yarn and high speed modern knitting machines are going to be successful in an increasingly competitive market.

Therefore, a thorough knowledge on some of the important yarn properties will be helpful to knitting industrialist to produce good quality of knitted fabric and meet the market requirements. The important yarn properties are Yarn Count, Strength & CSP, Twist, Evenness and Hairiness

All these properties are to be evaluated to determine its quality and important in the design of knitted structures and they govern the fabric appearance and behaviors. Therefore, the testing becomes necessary to ensure the quality of raw materials. A good Knitting yarn should have the following qualities.

Better evenness Less count variation Better elasticity and elongation

5.2 Fabric Quality

Soft twist Free from thick, thin, Neps and undrafted places Resistance to friction

The term “fabric quality” in knitting can describe the nature of the fabric density (tightness factor) and the number or types of faults within the fabric; Fabric Density The structure of a knitted fabric has a large influence on the fabrics’ characteristics and can make them better or worse. Stitch density is directly related to the “loop length”, which is the length of yarn contained in one complete knitted loop, and this is adjusted on the knitting machine. Loop length

affects:-

• Stitch density/fabric density

• Fabric weight and fabric cost

• Fabric dimensions and panel size; shaped knitwear

• Dimensional stability; relaxation and shrinkage

• Physical performance; pilling, burst strength

There is a definite correlation between the yarn count and loop length of a fabric and this can be defined as the “cover factor”. The cover factor hence determines the handle, drape and performance of the fabric. Just as the yarn type dictates the optimum loop length, this in turn dictates the gauge or knitting machine required to knit the yarn

5.3 Fabric Faults

Fabric faults can be attributed not only to the knitting, but also the quality of yarns and dyeing and finishing. Typical fabric faults found in knitted fabrics are:-

• Cockling or loop distortion

• Fabric Spirality

• Yarn irregularity and neps create small lumps like knots.

• Barrè

• Contaminated yarns (colored fibre/vegetable matter)

6. METHODOLOGY:

As a first step the factors contributing to the performance of knitting room were studied.

The knitting process is observed and the number of machine stops, yarn breaks, and holes are recorded. The results of experiments are evaluated by charts and statistical analyses.

Thirdly the fabrics after knitting were examined to understand the quality level

After that the employee skill level, investigated.

knitting

room

procedures,

and functioning

documents are

In the next stage suitable procedures and systems were established and given to factory for implementation, after conducting training classes to the employees. The study makes use of both primary and secondary data. Specific information’s relating to defects was obtained.

7. LIMITATIONS:

The company prefers to maintain the secrecy of their details of knitting room performance and hence there is considerable apprehension in taking information to this report on their activity. As the number of factory taken for this investigation is just one in tirupur, care should be taken while implementing the same in other factories.

8. DETAILS OF INVESTIGATION

8.1 PRODUCTION DETAILS OF KNITTING ROOM:

The details about the gauge, dia, count and actual production of single jersey machines are collected on

sample basis. The details are given below.

Fig: 1(a) Showing Production details of factory producing Single Jersey

Sl.

GG

Dia (in)

No. of feeders

Speed (RPM)

Count (Ne)

Avg. Prod.

Kgs.

1.

20

/24

18

54

38

20

70

2.

20

/24

18

54

38

30

45

3.

20

/24

18

54

38

40

36

4.

20

/24

32

96

22

20

135

5.

20

/24

32

96

22

30

84

6.

20

/24

32

96

22

40

65

Fig: 1(b)

Details for 18 Dia.

 

Fig: 1 (c) Details for 32 Dia.

Details for 18 Dia.   Fig: 1 (c) Details for 32 Dia. 8.2 MACHINE EFFICIENCY DETAILS
Details for 18 Dia.   Fig: 1 (c) Details for 32 Dia. 8.2 MACHINE EFFICIENCY DETAILS

8.2 MACHINE EFFICIENCY DETAILS OF KNITTING ROOM

Fig: 2 Showing Machine efficiency details of factory producing Single Jersey

Sl.

GG

Dia (in)

Feeders

Speed

Ct.

Avg. Prod.

Avg. Prod.

Efficiency

(rpm)

(Ne)

(Actual)

(Calculated)

 

1. 18

24

 

54

38

20

70

111

63.1

%

 

2. 32

24

 

96

22

20

135

203

66.5

%

 

3. 18

24

 

54

38

30

45

74

60.8%

 

4. 32

24

 

96

22

30

84

135

62.22%

 

5. 18

24

 

54

38

40

36

55.5

64.8

%

 

6. 32

24

 

96

22

40

65

102

63.7

%

8.2 SNAP STUDY ON MACHINE STOPPAGES

An attempt was made to determine the knittability of a yarn before knitting. Different yarns are knitted

into jersey structures at different loop length values. The knitting process is observed, and the number

of machine stops, yarn breaks, and holes are recorded, using the template given below. The results of

our experiments are evaluated.

   

Total

Total Time to rectify

 

Sl

Reason

Stoppage

%

Average no. of stoppages

=

3- 4 per machine / hour.

Time taken to restart the machine after rectification =

2 mins

Total number of machines

=

19 over all

Actual Work Hours per shift

=

7 hrs

Total hours of production

=

7 x 19 machines = 133 hrs

Machine idle time due to stoppage

=

6 - 8 min per hour per machine.

Total time loss due to stoppage

=

6 - 8 x 7 x 19

=

798 - 1064 mins.

=

13.3 hrs to 17.73 hrs per day.

Percentage of idle time = 10 - 13.33 %

Sl.

Breakages per hour

Percent idle time per 8 Hrs

1.

3

10.00

2.

4

13.33

time per 8 Hrs 1. 3 10.00 2. 4 13.33 Fig.: Higher the stoppages- More Idle

Fig.: Higher the stoppages- More Idle time

8.2.1 Production loss due to M/C stoppage:

Fig.:

Causes for Machine idle time

Total no. of machines (S/J)

=

11

Average production per machine per shift

=

150 kgs. Apx.

Total production

=

1650 kgs per day

Avg . Loss of production @ 12%

=

200 kgs per day.

Money loss@ Rs 10 /Kg.

=

Rs 2000.

Money loss per year of 300 days

=

2000.00 x 300 days.

=

Rs. 6 Lacks. Apx.

8.3 FABRIC WASTAGE: (AREAL DENSITY / GSM CHECKING)

During the investigation, it has been noticed that the company is taking care to ensure that the customer is supplied with the fabric having correct GSM and hence have a practice of checking the GSM on every alternate roll. It is calculated to be more wastage of fabric in subsequent processes, as every point of GSM testing would damage at least 0.5 mtr of fabric, which can not be used for cutting the garment. For example,

Average Production per day

=

160 kgs apx.

Total machines

=

11 machines

Total production per day

=

1760 kgs

Total number of fabric rolls produced

=

88 rolls (considering apx. 20 kgs / roll)

Fabric wastage in GSM checking per roll

=

0.5 mtrs

Fabric GSM

=

160 avg.

Total fabric wastage

=

160 gms X 22 rolls = 3.50 kgs

(Taking into account that minimum of 25 % of the rolls are checked for GSM)

Fabric wastage percentage Cost of wastage material

=

3.50 / 1760 = 0.2 %

= 3.50 kgs X Rs. 200/Kg

Total loss per year of 300 days

=

=

= Rs. 2.1 Lacks

Rs. 700.00 per day Rs. 700.00 x 300

8.3.1 Wastage of fabric due to uneven weight of rolls cut:

For instance, a case is presented here. Number fabric rolls produced per day @ 20 kgs. weight

=

88 rolls

Fabric wastage (unusable fabric) per roll

=

1 mtr.

Due to maximization / standardization / optimization of roll weight, number of rolls can be minimized and thereby fabric wastage can be reduced as follows,

Sl.

Roll weight

No. of rolls

 

% reduced

1

21

84

 

04.5

2

22

80

 

09.0

3

23

77

 

12.5

4

24

74

 

16.0

5

25

71

 

19.5

   

Standardisation of roll weight v/s Wastage %

   
       
       

Roll wt. & Wastages

     
                   
                         
                           

21

22

9

24

16

25

8.3.2 Causes for fabric defects Poor Yarn quality

-

83%

Unskilled Operator

-

8 %

Poor maintenance

-

7 %

Poor M/c condition / setting

-

2 %

- 7 % Poor M/c condition / setting - 2 % 9. FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION:

9. FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION:

9.1 General Findings: The knittability of a yarn determines if knitting it will be easy or not, and many

descriptions of knittability can be found. Probably knittability is the most surprising property which we don't measure directly. Knittability should be divided into three groups.

The first group would include factors affecting the running of the yarn from the package to the feeder, the way in which the yam is guided, the elements guiding the yarn, and the yarn variables. The second group would include factors affecting knitting performance, i.e., yam, knitting machine, and fabric properties. The third group would include yarn faults that do not affect knitting performance.

Ideally, the knitting performance of a yarn should be assessed by knitting it under carefully controlled conditions, and then counting the number of yarn breaks (holes in the fabric) that can be specifically attributed to the physical properties of the yarn. Various machine settings have important effects on the knitting performance. The control of loop length during knitting is of paramount importance.

Control of Yarn tension affects the fabric quality,

Too much tension leads to yarn break or holes in fabric

Less tension leads to snag and snap and drop stitches

Yarn tension depends mainly, Yarn variable and Machine variable. Yarn variable includes, Yarn color Yarn count, Yarn twist, Moisture content, Yarn lubrication and Package hardness. Machine variable includes, Stitch cam setting, Take down tension, Stretcher board and Machine gauge.

9.2 Specific Findings: Through the snap study, the knitting process was observed, and the number of

machine stops, yarn breaks, and holes are recorded, using the standard template developed for the study. The results of our experiments revels that the average percentage of machine idle time is in between 10 - 13.33 % and estimated Production loss due to M/C stoppage (Loss of production @ 12%) was around 200 kgs per day, which in turn comes to a monthly loss of approximately Rs.6 Lacks (at 300 working days, calculated based on average production of the company).

During the investigation, it has been noticed that the company is having a practice of checking the GSM every alternate roll and hence leads to a damage of at least 0.5 mtr. in every testing, leaving a total wastage of approximately equal to Rs. 2.1 lacks per year. It is also noticed to have wastage of fabric due to uneven weight of rolls cut after knitting.

10. SUGGESSTIONS AND CONCLUSION:

The main purpose of this investigation has been to explain and give examples of how the knitting room could be effectively managed for better result. Knitted fabric room is described and discussed.

The profitability and sustainability of knitting room in the future would be defined for decrease in machine idle time, increase in machine & labour productivity, decrease wastages of fabric and lower points in fabric rejection. These parameters plays vital role and will reduce the cost of knitting room to a greater extent. Of course, the yarn quality should meet such demands and it found to be major aspects that influence the machine idle time and fabric wastages. The tools & systems required to assess them could be developed and used effectively.

It is concluded that the knitting room can effectively be managed by properly taking measures on - proper training to operators & floor supervisors, implementation of system for testing and approval of yarn, knitting room management as per GFAR (given in annexure) developed under this project. The Feedback reports are to be continuously for initiating corrective and preventive actions. By all these means, the company will be able to progress towards minimizing all the above losses and it is accepted by the industry that the productivity of the room will increase with lesser wastage and cost of knitting.

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to record his sincere thanks to M/S. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), M/S. Apex Cluster Development Services Pvt. Ltd and NIFT TEA Knitwear Fashion Institute for their large support in completing this industrial project successfully. The author specially thanks Mr.P.P.Gopalakrishnan, Professor, NIFT TEA, without his support this project could not have been finished.

12. REFERENCES:

1. D.B.Ajgoankar, Knitting Technology, Universal Publishing Corporation, Mumbai (1998).

2. David.J Spencer, Knitting Technology, Wood Head Publishing Ltd. – Second Edition,

3. Mowbray J. A Quest for Ultimate Knitwear. Knitting International 2002;109 (1289):22-24.

4. Knitting Ability, Sayed Ibrahim JiříMilitký, Textile Faculty, Technical University of Liberec

Annexure

XYZ Firm GREY FABRIC APPROVAL REGISTER (GFAR) KNITTING DIVISION Customer Name : Ref: Date: Qty.
XYZ Firm
GREY FABRIC APPROVAL REGISTER
(GFAR)
KNITTING DIVISION
Customer Name :
Ref:
Date:
Qty. of order
Yarn Mill
:
Testing Report Approvals
Delivery Date
Grey GSM :
Details
Ac.
No.
Report
Fabric
Loop length:
Count Ne
Machine / GG
Others details:
CSP
Design details
TPI
Ac. – Actual / No. – Nominal
Yarn Approved by
…………………………………
Total Yarn /
Wt. of Fabric
Roll
L.L
CL (Mtrs.)
Feeders
Dia
Total
No. of
Needles
Rev. (Ty)
Produced / Rev.
Wt.(Kg)
(cm)
=
(F)
Note
(“)
(kgs.)
Rolls
(N)
WFPR (g) =
(X)
(L)
L X N/100
= F X CL
(mtrs.)
0.59xTy/Ac.Ne
Revolutions
Required for
roll
= X x 1000 /
WFPR(g)
Fabric Inspection as per 4 POINT SYSTEM
Linear Defect: up to 3” = 1 point;
3 to 6 “ = 2 points;
Roll
Areal Defects: Less than 1” = 2 pts.;
6 to 9” = 3 points ;
More than 1” = 4 pts.
9 & above = 4 points.
Roll
Weight
(X –X)2
Pts/
No.
(Kgs.)
Acc.
Tot.
TSM
100
Pts./
Diff.
Result
Note
X
pts
100SM
sm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Avg. Wt x =
Note: TSM: Total square meter of the fabric inspected & Acceptable Points Level (APL) shall be decided by
company based on its standard .
S.D.(σ) = √(X – X)2 / n
Summary of Points:
=
Due to Yarn Fault
Due to Operator fault
Due to Machine fault
Due to other faults
: (Blue)
:
…… /
(%)
: (Red)
: …… /…
: …… /…
: …… /…
(%)
CV
% of roll wt
=
: (Black)
(%)
/ x ] x 100
: (Green)
(%)
Over all comments :
……………………………………………………………………………………
Lower cv % is better
Checked by
Approved by
Manager
Delivery Remarks:
Fabric c Approval Process
Knitting
Order
Programming
Details
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12