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19

magntostatique du vide


  


j

dl = vdt

 !#"%$&#'(!"%)*+$,.-0/2143 #"2,.-5"67#/98&$&:&$.#*;1<)=;3 1>*;$.'


=;3 14"6!,./@?7$&'*+$,.A#3 14:&$BC$."D*+$E.!"%$.'.'($*GF $&#'($.HJI+?7$J vK L
t + dt
n MN+O@PQ2R7SUTWV>X>YS%R Z+[@\ X]R7Y^O2_
S
Portion dun circuit
N+`ba+c5hdf ehgjikmlon+p@qsrskmtugjehv5k5gjw5ehxftzym{@k5xf|@ehxftzNGSh}~tuk5rsrsk
t
filiforme
de section S
ka
N+`o n `DyDNGS@<NGS
j = n q v MOZ;S~O@[@Y]N;O@PQ2R7SUT@\![DR `D[O
> n `DyD
j = v MN+N+OmO@Z+PQ2X
R7SUTY^+O@@_ \![DR `D[ON+OmZ+X
Y^+OQo@#R7\ OQ2_ I = j.dS
I=

dq
dt

dl a+{@n+gjtuqsn+x5rs5lo k5xftuehqsgjkm| qsr@|@kmc5n gjehxft]n+gjqs k5xftu5kmw qsv5ehxft]rskmw5k5xfwm|@k%L

dC = n Sqvdl = n qvd = vd = jd

dC = Idl jd

dC = Idl

j = v MOZ;S~O@[@Y]N+O@PQ2R!SUTmQ@[@Y XZ+R `D[ON+OmZ.@[@YX>P2SO2S MN+O@PQ2R7SUTmQ@[@Y XZ;R `D[ON+O


Z+X
Y^+OQo@#R7\ OQ@_

dC = Idl j dS
s

fx km|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x|@kmc5n gjehxft]{@gjn+| qst xfkmlon+|@q qsc5ehtuqsn+x|@k5wm{@gjn+{@gjqs5tu5wm|@kmru k5w5{@ehc5k


h kmru n+xeh{@{@k5rsrskaZ+X]]VX#DPT2S%R `D[OhL
X
Y^+OQ#R OQzQ@[@YZ.OQND[mZ+X]]VT@\ OZ;SYR `D[O
X
Y^+OQo@#R7\ OQzQ@[@Y^Z.OQND[mZ+X]]VX@DPT2SR `D[O

Y4NDY^ON+OmDYX
P@N+O@[@Y^QP2M R7SU9TM4!yD77_  7M5zD]_ Q _s@7  Z+hS~OX]Q@]\ X V [Q@[O@\hM@ @_
_ _M5X\ 2R;N+OmCR 2SO2S2y;X>(X>YS(V
O@YO2S2N+ON;T2S~O@YR7PO@Y]\ OmZ+X]]VX#GPT2S%R `D[OmZ+Y^TOWV>X>Y
[@PONGR Q2SYR7[2S%R @PN+OmZ&@[@YX
P2S2\ X]R7N+ON [@PORP2SUTDYX]S%R @POZ;S@YR O@\!\ O@_5 " #
$
n+qst dC x5rs5lok5xft]|@kmc5n gjehxft]e {@n+qsxftDL+rskmc5dfehlo{ d B (M ) c5gj5km{@ehg dC k5x x
{@n+qsxftk5w5t]|@n+xfxf5km{@ehgWrsebrsn+q] v5k5c5tun+gjqsk5rsrsk5@|@kCR 2S y;X>(X>YS#a
!

www.marocprepas.info

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

20

magntostatique du vide

d B (M ) = dC u
6
u
4 PM

(D)

PM
6
%

= 6 ; d B( M ) PM et dC
PM

o : permabilit du vide = 4 .107 ( S .I )

PM
2

PM

dC

ebc5n+xftugjqsp tuqsn+xe c5dfehlo{otun+tuehru}+w n+p@tuqsk5xft]w5k5rsn+xrskmtu{@km|@km|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+xM


j u

h


ka d C = j d B(M ) = 4 % d
qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+xv5n+r loq
PM
j u

h


ka d C = j dS B(M ) = 4 % dS
qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+xw g ehc5q
PM

dl u

qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x qsrsq n+gjloka d C = Idl


B( M ) =
I 6
4
PM
P

PM
2

(D)

PM
2

(D)

PM
2

(D)

% &

'

!Y^sjj_

d B (M ) = dC u I dl u
6 4 PM
6
4 PM
dl u = dz cos e d B (M ) = I dzcos

dl = dz e
e L
%

4
M
PM

tan = Q2R O@P2S#a d B( M ) =


I cos d e et B( M ) =
I (sin sin )e
o

PM
2

PM

#R\hN+OmZ.@[@Y^X
P2S>R7P#RP2R&>MbY4j @[

2 =

4 r

k5t
2

1 =

d B (M ) = dC u

4 PO
o

PO
2

o dl u
I
4
R2

B (O) = I e

2R

www.marocprepas.info

o d
I
ez
4 R

B (M ) = Ie L
2 r

4 r

PM
2

dC

O
O. ez

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

21

magntostatique du vide
)

d B (M ) = dC u

d B(M )
4 PM
n+gjw h k|@5c5gjqst]rsebw5{@qsgjk} d B (M ) |@5c5gjqst xc5+xfkm|@kmw5n+lolok5tb}

u
B (M ) = B (M ) e = B(M )e
k5t]|@km|@k5loq@ehxfirska 2
P~
dC
dl sin

dl u
B( M ) = d B ( M ).e =
I 6 .e =
I 6
= 6 RI sin
4
4
PM
PM
2 PM
w5n+qsta B (M ) = 2R I sin ( )e = B (O) sin ( )
o

PM
2

_ _5
Y^O@2RY]\ OQmQ>T2SYR OQmO@PmT@\ OZ;SY^Q2SX]S%R `G[Om
*
w5 n+qs tz xfkm|@qsw5tugj qsp tuqsn+xqsxfv5 ehgjqsehxftu km{@ehgWw5lo5tugjqskm{@rsehxfkm{@ehgWgjeh{@{@n+gjt d B
x{@rsehx uL dC = sym / (dC ) = dC L

e
dB
CR 2 S2y;X> (X>YS2 M
I e

I
u
dB = dB +dB =
(dC u + dC u ) =
P
4 r
4 r

dC
SUO@\`D[OM e ( ) _
*

tot

u2
P

dC 2

( )

hOmZ+X]]VX#DPT2S%R `D[OmOQ2S@YS+@PX>\0SU2[2SV
2R7P2S2N [@PWVW\ X>PoR!Y^2RY]!N+O
Q>T2SYR ON [@PONGR Q2SYR![2SR @PN+OmZ.@[@YX>P2S_
]O2X>Y^`D[O M\ OOZ;SUO@[2Y@Z+X]]VX#DPT2S%R `D[OOQ2S@[@PWV
QO@[@N+m]OZ;SUO2[@Y@@[OZ;S~O@[@Y2X#2R X>\ O@_
*

w5n+qstz xfkm|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x|@ kmc5n gjehxft ]a+{@rseh x|] ehxftuqsw5lo5tugjqsk d B d B


{@n gWrseb|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x f4L dC = sym / (dC ) = dC L

u
CR 2 S2y;X> (X>YS2 M
~
u

I
I
P
P
dB = dB +dB =
(dC u + dC u ) =
e
dC
dC
4 r
4 r
SUO@\`D[OM e ( ) _
*

tot

( * )

hOmZ+X]]VX#DPT2S%R `D[OX5VV>X>YS%R O@P2S+X>[WVW\ X>PN X


P2S%R Q>T2SYR O X>P2S%RhR7Y2R7Y~
N [@PONGR Q2SYR7[2S%R @PN+OZ.@[@YX
P2S_
www.marocprepas.info

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

22

magntostatique du vide

q@rseb& |@qsw5tugjqsp * tuqsn+x|@kmc5n gjehxft]{@gj5w5k5xftuk xeh+km|] ehxftuqsw5lo5tugjqskm|@kmgj5v5n+r tuqsn+x


RP2SU O@Y^QOZ;S%R @PN X>[o2R7PQN+O@[WVW\ X>PQN X>P2S%R Q>T2S%R Ohehrsn+gjwmrskmc5dehlo{oloehixf5tuq h k
gj5w rstuehxft]w5k5gjeb{@n+gjtum{@ehgWc5k5t]eh+kL
JPX
\ QON+OmQ>T2SYR OmO2S2N R7P@(X>YR X>PZ.O
R

gWrseb|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqs n+ x|


5
k
5
w
t

x
@
{
s
r
h
e

x
]
|

h
e
f
x
u
t
@
q
5
w


o
l
5

u
t
j
g
s
q
m
k
@
{
n
#n t]{@rsehxc5n+xftuk5xfehxft

c5n gjehxft}+rskm{@w5k |@nDDv5k5c5tuk g B eh{@{@ ehgjtuqsk5xft x{@rsehx|] ehxftuq@w5lo5tugjqskL B }+k5xtun t


{@n+qsxft|@k +}+k5w5t]|@n+xfcm{@n+gjtu m{@ehg +L
| @kmrseb|@ qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x{@ehgWgjn+ tuehtuqsn+xe tun gW|@k L h
n+xebqsxfv5ehgjqsehxfc5km
|@n+xfca B(M ) = B(r, , z) = B( z)e c5n+n+gj|@n+xfxf5k5wmc5rsqsxf|@gjq k5w
GX
\ Z+[@\hN+O B
)

y+@tuqs\rsT@qsw5Pk5@gj!ebN+O |@n+ xfw cmru{@ k5k5+gj{@{@gjn+k5w5w5qstuw5qsqsn+n+xx|@| k c5dfw5eh{@loqsgjk5{owmc5c5gjqs5gjkmc {@rsehehg qsgjk5wxf}+kmc5w5n+{@ehqs+gjqskmehrsw k5 wmgWk5w5t@n+uxn+qsxfeh+tuqskv5L k5w }+n+x z_
ehgWw {@k5gj{@n+w5qstuqsn+x}+rskmc5dfehlo{ B c5gj5kmk5x x{@n+qsxft|@kmru eh+k k5w5t]rsebw5n+lolok
v5k5c5 tun+gjqsk5rsrskm|@k5wmc5dfehlo{@wm{@gjn+| qstuwm{@ehgWc5dfehc xfkm|@k5wmw5{@qsgjk5wm{@ehgjc5n g k5wm{@ehgWrskmlo5lok
c5n gjehxftu_
I

z

R
-L/2

+
O

M
z

z
L/2

dZ

kmc5dfehlo{ B c5gj5km{@ehg xfkmw5{@qsgjkmw5qst 5k rsebc5n+tuk@}+k5xv5e ta I sin ( )e L


kmc5dfehlo{oloehixf5tuq h km5rs5lok5xftuehqsgjkmc5gj5km{@ehg xfkmtugjehxfc5dfkm|] 5{@ehqs2w5w5Rk gN+Jv5e t}+k5x
M
I dN sin ( )e zbzZ.2SUX>P _
dB =
2R
N MP2JY^ON+OmQVR7Y^OQmZ.@P2S~O@P@[OQN;X>PQ\ XSYX>PZ+ON+_5@PWV
QOP N MP2JY^ON+O
L
QVRY^OQWV>X>Y][@P2R!SUTN+O\ 2PD[O@[@Y@ dN = ndZ = nR sind _
o

www.marocprepas.info

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

23

magntostatique du vide

n+xfca B (M ) = 2RI
a B (M ) = nI (
o

nR sin d ez =
L
+z
2

L
( + z )2 + R 2
2

o nI
2

(cos 2 cos 1 ) ez

L
+z
2

L
+ z )2 + R 2
2

) ez

n+xfw5qs|@5gjn+xfw x5rs5lok5xftzN0yobND\!_sN+| w g ehc5km{@5gjqs{@df5gjq h km| 5w n+rs5xfns|@kL

d B( M )

P
u

u
O e
dS
z

M
B( M )
)

MP

~ dC

dC u
N0yzc5gj5k}+k5xb}+rskmc5dGehlo{a d B(M ) = 4 6 = 4 6 u ehv5k5ca
NDbPuND\!_sN+
PM
PM
k5t B (M ) k5w5t]{@n+gjtum{@ehg z+w5n+qst B(M ) = d B (M ).e = 4nI dzdl
6 cos L
PM
d!S .u
Y
a dzdl
d S n.u
PM
% cos = PM
% = PM
6 = d ;

d a+5rs5lok5xft]|] ehxfirskmw5n+rsqs|@kmw5n wmrsk h k5ru} {@ehgjtuqsgW|@kb}+n+x v5n+qst]rsebw g ehc5k


5rs5lok5xftuehqsgjkN 0yL
w5n+qsta B(M ) = 4nI ;

a+ru ehxfirskmw5n+rsqs|@kmw5n wmrsk h k5ru} {@ehgjtuqsgW|@kb}+n+x v5n+qst]rsebw g ehc5kmrsehtu5gjehrsk


{@5gjqs{@df5gjq h k5@| w5n+rs5xfns|@kL

+

PM
2

MP
2

MP
2

(S)

(S1)
4

pour la surface ferme ( S ) ( S1 ) ( S2 )

www.marocprepas.info

( S1 )

(S2)

=
2
(1 cos(

 1 )) + 

2 (1
 + 


 cos
  2 )
(S )

n2

= 2 (cos 2 cos 1 )

( S2 )

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

24

magntostatique du vide

&

(S)

(S1)

(S2)

0

pour la surface ferme ( S ) ( S1 ) ( S 2 )

=
2
(1 cos(

 1 )) 

2 
(1  cos(

 2 ))
 + 



(S )

( S1 )

= 2 (cos 2 cos 1 )

( S2 )

mP @#SR O@P2SU
N+@PZ.
N;X]PQ\ OQN+O@[mZ&XQM B (M ) = nI (cos cos )e
2

]VVWY^2R!X]S%R 2PND[mQ@\ T@P@!N+ORP#RP2R R7\!\R!R!S7TWM

z @[ SUO@P@NoO@Y^QmO2S S~O@P@NoO@Y^Q B(M ) = nI e M5Z+X]]VQ@[@Y]\ X#OND[


Q@\ T@P@!N+O@_
o

! "!$#"%& ')(*,+-%/.0+-%&+1""23#"415&+-6"7!$"%323895&%&%&7;::<(3= "5&>?7%32&=A@!)+-%&(*>B+-415&"C(*,(3"%&"+$2D#<E/FHGI%3JK

Q2R7S2M B (M ) = j ~e _

d C = di dl = di dl e
L
PmO65O@S M d ~C = j .dS = j .dz dl
o s

; avec di = js .e dz = js dz et di = nI dz

js = nI

n+qs- t & xfkmw g ehc5k!y.@|@5rsqsloqstu5km{@Behg xc5n+xftun gWn+gjqsk5xftu!+4}+|@ehxfw xfkmgj5iqsn+xnM


gAN5ixfk xc5dfehO PQloO?O){ P B L k r loehixf5tuq h k}+|@k B } tugjehv5k5gjw!y.}+xfn+tu k5w5t]|@ qsxfq
{@ehgma = B.dS L
P RO@5O@Y9T Rj hSRbb @_,G
Q] OVWYR!OmO@S
,

&

(S )

% &

&

OP

y+2R7S2[@P#R\hY^OZ;S%R7\R DPOWV>X>Y^Z.@[@Y4[WV>X>Y]\ OmZ.@[@YX]P2S@N R7P2SUO@PQ2R!SUT T@(X>\![O@Y]\ O\![X#DPT2S%R `D[O


O@P@TWV>X>Y]\ O#R\0SYX]O@Y^Q[@PmZ.@P2S~@[@Y@Z&X>Y4Y^T@YR O@P2SUT
N+OmZ.2SUTX>_
bND_
OP

IP
B ( M ) = B ( M )ez = o ez
2 x
U VQU?U)V
L I
I
x
o
=
B.dS =
adx = o a ln( A )
(S )
A 2 x
2
xL
XW ZY [
\
][

ehv5k5cab mN CX  O2S bNoX 

y
+ dx
z ^

A
O

M
+

L
a

(C)

I
x
www.marocprepas.info

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

25

magntostatique du vide
-

&

'

n+qstz!y.M xfkmw g ehc5k k5gjlo5kL


U V_U`U V_UaU V
B = B = B O2S@NDy NDy  NDyoM.w5k5c5tuqsn+x|@gjn+qstukL
UbU VQU?U)V
UbU VQU?U)V
\ T@\ T2O@P2Su#\![S~2SX>\+a d = d + d = B .dS + B .dS
1

Fil
illimit

B2
dS2

B1

= B1dS + B1dS = 0

hO\![ND[mZ+X]]VX@DPT2SR `D[O

dS1

(S)

SYX>O@Y^Q[2POmQ@[@Y XZ.O5O@YTO!y.OQ2S@P@[@\!\ O@_


dS
hO\![X#DPT2S%R `D[O S^YX>O@Y^Q[@POmQ@[@Y XZ.OU VQ`DUaU)[V O@\ Z.@P`D[O!y.OQ2S@P2[@\!_

UV

S =

B.dS e = 0.

dSe

dS MOZ;S~O@[@Y@T@\ TDO@P2S2N+OQ@[@Y XZ.O@YR O@P2SUTM#R7P2SUT2YR O@[@Y O2S~T@YR O@[@Y4_


(S )

(S)

=Ac&7de:f>?7(+$7!(hg 5&%&(*+-02D>B+-i532j+-"%k89"@dl#02D>B+-(*>?# 6 "!$532j+-"%

n+qst xfkm|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x f4}+{@gj5w5k5xftuehxft xfkmw5lo5tugjqskm|@kmgj5v5n+r tuqsn+xe tun g +}


f
c5gj5kmk5x x{@n+qsxft|@kmru eh+k a UBV (M ) = B( z)eV L#X5VWYnmQX>PX>\ QON+O\ X Q>T2SYR OmO2S2N+O
\ n+RP@qst(X>DY} R X> PxZ.Om{@n+u_qsxft]v5n+qsw5qsx|@k JbY]z_
B
B

R
e
P

z
e
r
O

e
M
z

(D)

z + dz

x|@5w5qsgjkm|@5tuk5gjloqsxfk5gWrskmc5dfehlo{oloehixf5tuq h kmc5gj5km{@ehg fDk5xa UBV (P) = UBV (r, , z)


o/qsrt3uwvat3qsx3y a B (P) = B (r, z) = B e + B e + B e L
p
5s5
z|{~}3wuwvay a UBV ( )
p
+
}
5
w
+
n
s
q
]
t
s
r
m
k
@
{
s
r
h
e

x


B =0
; d ' o : B( P ) = B e + B e SUO@\`D[OM B ( P) B( z )
T2S~O@YR7PX]S%R @PN+O\ X Z&2]V
QX>P2SUOYX>NGR X>\ O B M
9


w g x ehc5c5dfkmn+|@qskmw5qsp@t ehw5xfk5kmw w S =g a)eh c5MPk k5=gjlo r5k_ c5rsqsxf|@gjkm5rs5lok5xftuehqsgjkm|@kmdfe tuk gN+k5t]|@k
r r

z z

antisymtrie

r r

z z

()

B( P).dS = 0 = ( B ( z + dz ) B( z )) r 2 + 2 rdz Br
B( z )
dz + 2 rdz Br
= r 2
z

www.marocprepas.info

Br =

r dB( z )
2 dz

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

26

magntostatique du vide

f
!

B( z ) =

o IN

R2

( R 2 + z 2 )3

Br = 3

o IN
4R3

r (1 +

z 2 52
)
R2

'1

rsebc5qsgjc rsehtuqsn+x| c5dfeh lo{ B }+{@gj n+| qstukm{@ehg xfkm|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x


|@ km c5n gjehxf t]rskm rsn+xfiJ|] x c5n+xftun gWn+gjqsk5xftu!+@k5w5 t]|@n+xfxf5km{@ehgM
c5n gjehxftL
dl n+gjqsk5xftum{@ehgWrskmw5k5xfwm|
( B) =
B.dl L
B

dl

(C)

(+)

(C )

fil
>R sOM6#R\SYX>O@Y^Q\ X Q@[2Y XZ.ON+T@\R!R!SUTWV>X>Y]!+

I
e
5
k
t
e
dl = dr e + rd e + dz e
( B) =
B.dl ehv5k5ca B( M ) =
dl
2 r


O r
( B) =
B.dl I bhL

+
e
(C)

\ OmQO@PQN+OZ.@Y4Y^OQV>@P@NX
[mQO@PQN+O n N+@P@PTWV>X
Y]\ XnY mD\ OND[S%R7Y^O5@[Z+@P@_
'

(C )

(C )

yG R.@ PmZ+X>P+O\ OmQO@PQND[mZ.@[@YX


P2S2M (B ) I _
( B) OQ2S2R7P@N+TV
O@P@N;X>P2SUON+O\ XzV
Q2R!S%R @PND[#R\!_

'

'

I
( B) =
B.dl = o
(C )
2

d = 0

dl

+
(C)

dl

z
O

w5n+qs tz !+4} x c5 n+xftun gW k5xfrs e3 5ehxf t]rsk5wm c5n gj ehxftuw k5t  k5t] {@ehw L

( B) =
B.dl =
( B + B + B ).dl = ( B ) + ( B ) + ( B )
.

(C )

(C )

= o ( I1 I 2 )

'1

dl

I1

_5QO@[@\ Q\ OQmZ.@[@YX
P2SUQmO@P@\ X#Z.TQWV>X>Y]!+R7P2SO@Y4R O@P@PO@P2S2N;X>PQ\ O(VWY^OQQ2R @PN+O
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I2

(C)

( B)

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

I3

27

magntostatique du vide

'1

XbZ;R7Y^Z+[@\ X]S%R @PND[mZ+X]]VX#DPT2SUQ2SX]S%R `D[O\ O\ @PoN [@PmZ.@P2S~@[@Y2@YR O@P2SUT!+fOQ2ST;X>\ O


\ XbQDON+OQR7P2SUO@PQ2R!SUTQX>\ +T@YR `D[ON+OQmZ.2[@YX
P2SUQmO@P@\ X#Z.TQWV>X>Y]+>J[@\S%R VW\R TOWV>X>Y
V
O@YTX>#R7\R!SUTND[R7N+O(j_

B.dl = o

( B) =

k = 1 si le sens de I k = sens de n

k = -1 si le sens de I k sens de n

k I k enlac par (C ) ; avec :

( C ) orient

PmZ+5M  Z+2R Q22R!R S2[@N+PmOZ.!@+P2 SU@[@Y5O@YT!+>SUO@\`D[OM



B // dl

DO(X>\ O2[@Y]\ O\ @PoN+O!+

B ;X
Y4N+O\ X 
!

a (B ) = B .dl =

(C )

(C )

B dl = B

(C )

B=

dl

k I k enlac par (C )
k

Longueur de (C )

&
!

"

!
"

!
%

$ ATAT"<TTAT

"

&

'

"AA"TAT

N
"A n = "AwQ"Q"Q"AQa$Q"QTA"BB"ATAT"QT/ T"AQ


5 z_

Q"""$TQTQ"A,3$AQ""ATQ "Qa "Ae$TQ$TQ"3$Tb3"AQb$


"T$TwQ$TA;3Q$TTAQ"Te$"AQ3 "

]VVW\R Z&X]S%R @P _ 9y+@\ T@P@!N+O

B( M )

ez

M4

M3I

A4

A3

A1 O A2

L
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M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

28

magntostatique du vide

y+>T2SYR O
#n t]{@rsehx{@k5 gj{@k5xf|@qsc rsehqs gjk ru eh+k k5t]{@ehw5w5ehxft]{@ehgb}+k5w5t x{@rsehx
w5 lo5tugjqskm{@n gWrs eb|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x |@kmc5n gjehxft}+w5n+qst ( ) ehrsn+gjwmrskmc5dfehlo{
B ( M ) ( ) n
B ( M ) = B ( r , , z )e L
uP@(X>YR X>PZ.O
#n tukmtu gjehxfw5rsehtuqsn+x w5k5r n+x n gjn+ tuehtuqsn+x e tun gW|@k +}+rseh qsw5w5kmqsxfv5ehgjqsehxftukmrse
|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x|@kmc5n gjehxft}+|@n+xfca B(M ). n+qsta B(M ) = B(r )e L
2R ND[mZ.@P2SU@[@Y]M x{@gjk5 xf| xc5n+xftun gWgjk5c5tuehxfi rsehqsgjk|] xc5n+tu Y]bm~
xfkm|@qsw5tuehxfc5kYn M B(r )
B (O ) = B c5n+xfx }+k5t]ru e tugjk
|@5tuk5gjloqsxfk5gWuL

lo~{ N5gjka B.dl = I

L

Y]zM !+b  , G
( B) = B z B z = I
= 0 @[ B = B = nI _

Y zM !+b  k G

( B) = B z B z = I
= nz I @[ B = 0 _
z

(C )

o enlace par ( C )

int

o enlaces

ext

o enlaces

int

ext t

Solnoideinfiniment long :

Bint = o nI champ l ' intrieur


Bext = 0 champ l ' extrieur

P Y^O2S^Y^@[@O
N+@PZ.
\ OY^TQ@[@\SUX]SGO@P2S%R @P@PTVWY^TZ.T@N+O2O2P2S ZNoMy+@\ T@P@!N+OR\!\R!R!SUT
bPX5VV
ON+OmZ.@[@YX>P2SZ&\R7P@NDYR `D[ON+ON+O@PQ2R!SUTbP>[@P2R @YOmu_
#

x
z
B( M ) M y

#
#

ez

ex

ey

y
js

n xfw5 qs|@5gjn+xfw  c5n;lolokm{@rsehx|@kmrsebxfeh{@{@k}+k5t j = j e L


+
n+qst x{@n+qsxft|@kmc5n+n+gj|@n+xfxf5k5wmc5ehgjtu5w5qsk5xfxfk5wa+k5t_
y+>T2SYR O
rskm{@rsehxJk5w5t]{@rsehx|@kmw5lo5tu gjqskm{@n gWrseb|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+x|@kmc5n gjeh xft} B 5tuehxft]v5k5c5tuk g
eh+qsehrsk B Myz |@n+xfca B(M ) = B( x, y, z) e
uP@(X>YR X>PZ.O
rseb|@qsw5tugjqsp tuqsn+xk5w5t]qsxfv5ehgjqsehxftukm|@ehxfwmtun tukmtugjehxfw5rsehtuqsn+xw5k5rs n+ x zk5t]w5k5 rsn+x
|@n+xfca B( x, y, z) xfkm|@5{@k5xf|oxfq@|@kzxfq@|@k
B ( M ) = B ( z )e L


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M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

29

magntostatique du vide

x{@r wa+k5x x{@n+qsxft4w5lo5tugjq h km|@hk {@ehgWgjeh{@{@n+gjt]e {@rsehx 2} B 5k w5t


tugjehxfw n+gjlomk5xw5n+xehxftuqsw5lo5tugjq kLo ssjk5t ss^jL

B( M )
H

x
M

GX
\ Z+[@\ ON+O

z>0

z
H

(C) n
z<0

B ( M ')

o enlace par ( C )

(C )

js

B ( M ')

B(-z) = - B(z) ; soit B(z) une fonction impaire

P[2SR7\R QO\ OST@YnmDON]Vsm@Y^O


D@P2S~@[@Y !y.bY^OZ;SX>PG\ 9O [[ z5V>X#QQX>P2S.V>X
Y^ O2S


B( M )
N+ ONGR!O@PQ2R @PQM5@zQO@\ @P zO2S@mQO@\ @P
@_
x

B.dl = I
=
j .d S n L
2z
!y.zQ@[@Y XZ.ON+T@\R!R!SUTOWV>X
Y]\ OmZ.@P2SU@[@Y]!+j_

+ M

(S )

(C )

B.dl = B ( z )h B ( z )h = 2 B ( z )h

j.d S n = ( h) j
2

(S )

; ( 0)

2z
js

B(z)
1
0 js
2
O

= js h ; ( js = jh)
1
B(z)= o js uniforme pour z > 0.
2
d'o :
1
B(z)=- o js uniforme pour z < 0.
2

1
0 js
2

y+@[Q5@YOOZ;SU@YR O@\!\ OM
;

n = e z < 0
MNGR QZ.@P2S%R7P@[2R!SUTND[mZ+X]]VX#GPT2SR `D[O B \ XSYX>O@Y^QTON+OmZ.@[@YX
P2S
Q@[@Y XZ;R `D[O@_

1
B ( M ) = o js next
2

next = + ez z > 0
ext

n+qst x qsr@|@km6 c5n , gjehxft]|@kmw5k5c5tuqsn+xQh}+|@k ehqsp@rskm|@qsehlN5tugjkm|@k5v5ehxft]w5ebrsn+xfi k mg L


a+|@k5xfw5qstumv5n+r loq h km|@kmc5dfehgjik5wmlon+p@qsrsk5wL
ehxfw xfkmtugjehxfc5dfkm|] 5{@ehqsw5w5k gND\~}+rsebc5dfehgjikmlon+p@qsrskmk5w5ta
N+`o ND\!_
m

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M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech

30

magntostatique du vide

df

dl

B
Portion dun circuit
filiforme de section S

M R7SUOQQON O@PQODJ\ ON+OWV>X


YS%R Z+ [@\ OQmZ+X>Y^+TOQ@_
N+`w p@qst]rse n+gjc5k df = s dl v B M60@Y^Z.ON+Omh@Y^O@P2S~bN;X>PQ\ OmZ+X]]V B N @YR GR7PO
O 2S~T@YR O@ [@Y4_
u v5k5c5tuk g xfqstuehqsgjk5
j k5t v c5n+rsqsxf5ehqsgjk
dq = sv uL

s dl v = s dl v u = s v dl = i dl . i =
kmv5k5c5tuk g dl k5w5t x5rs5lok5xft]| c5qsgjc qst qsrsq n+gjlok h q@w dtp@qst]rse n+gjc5km|@kX5VW\ X#Z.O a


df = idl B rsn+gjw h qsr@k5w5t]{@ehgjc5n g {@ehg xc5n gjehxft]{@k5gjloehxfk5xftR
k5t]{@rsehc5m|@ehxfw xc5dfehlo{oloehixf5tuq h k B _

rskm|@ qsw5{@ n+w5qs tuq tudf5n+gjq h km|@km|@ qsxfqstuqsn+x|@kmru xf qstum|@kmru qsxftuk5xfw5 qstumk5w5t xk5xfw5k5lop@rskm|@k
|@k qsrsw qsrsq n+gjlok5w}+{@ehgjehrsrjN5rsk5w}+k5t]{@ehgjc5n g wm{@ehgW|@k5wmc5n gjehxftuwm|@kmlo5lokmw5k5xfwmk5t]|@k
lo5lokmqsxftuk5xfw5qstu}+w5n+qst<_
@{@gjn+| qst]k5x  rskmc5dfehlo{a B (M ) = 2 Ir e
n g x5rs5lok5xft dl = dl e |@k  4}+rse n+gjc5km|@khX5VW\ X#Z.Ozw p@qskmk5w5ta e
e

B( M )
r

I
I
-

'1

df1/ 2 = Idl B ( M ) =

2 r

dl ez e =

2 r

dl er

n gWru fx qstum|@kmrsn+xfi k gW|@kmru x|@k5w qsrswa f = I = f = f L


2 r
(F )
_ MDO2SSUO @Y[@\ OOQ2S\ @YR GR7PON+O\ XN;T#RP2R7S%R @PN+O\]Vsm@Y^O

1/ 2

2 /1

(F2)

$9f3BIwhbn$jwb*n&/QB1*-Bwb/00 &f$jw01Q"&
/13;jQBI*?n$-X|B;nn$*QX|0$1Qh&Q- $-w|"X-1Xhn$3w$I
h$*w&Q3$10f? nb&n$B? 01Q-|n03|B**QbB*b*w?w"&
/13;jQB&Q* *wX*-hT30b**f?"$1QhQ

bhOmZ+2R N+O\ R7P2SUO@PQ2R!SUTmOQ2ST`D[2R7(X>\ O@P2S+X]S%SYR7[O@Y]\ X(X>\ O@[@Y


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4 .10 7

_5

M.Afekir ERA / CPGE _ Marrakech