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A clause is a unit of grammar that expresses a proposition. In other words, it is part of a sentence that contains some form of meaning. Example: Although there was a storm, I walked to work. Here, there are two clauses. Although there was a storm expresses a proposition, and so does I walked to work. The first clause in the example above is called an adverb clause, which means that it is part of a sentence that contains a subordinating conjunction, a subject, and a verb. There are essentially five types of adverb clauses, and they can use a variety of subordinating conjunctions. They are: Place wherever, anywhere, everywhere, where Example: Everywhere she goes, she brings a camera. Time since, while, as soon as, before, after, until, when, anytime Example: While we were waiting for the pizza guy to arrive, we played poker at the kitchen table. Reason because, since, as, for, so that Example: Because it was exceptionally cold, I wore my winter jacket. Condition if, when, unless, even if, even though Example: Even if they lose by five goals, people will still love them. Contrast though, although, despite, in spite of, whereas Example: Despite the poor service provided by the wait staff, we still enjoyed the food and the atmosphere of the restaurant. All of these examples contain two parts: a subordinate clause (the adverb clause), and an independent clause. A subordinate clause needs an independent clause for it to have a complete context and for it to make sense. The subordinate clause and independent clause can be reversed in a sentence. However, if the subordinate clause comes first, there must be a comma between it and the independent clause. Example: Anytime I want to go outside, it always seems to rain. This sentence can also be flipped, so that the independent clause comes first. However, if the independent clause comes first, a comma is not necessary. Example: It always seems to rain anytime I want to go outside. Adverb clauses are an important part of spoken and written English, and must be understood if a student wants to be a fluent speaker, or a better writer.

English Study A phrase is a small group of words that adds meaning to a word. A phrase is not a sentence because it is not a complete idea with a subject and a predicate. In English, there are five different kinds of phrases, one for each of the main parts of speech. 1. Noun phrase 2. Adjective phrase 3. Adverb phrase 4. Prepositional phrase 5. Verb phrase

1. In a noun phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about a noun. - a lovely puppy - all my dear children - the information age Ex: I want to have a lovely puppy. ... 2. In an adjective phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about an adjective. - really interesting - good enough - seriously injured - seven years old Ex: That film is really interesting. 3. In an adverb phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about an adverb. - very quickly - much cheaply - unfortunately for ... - much too quickly to see clearly Ex: - The six weeks went by very quickly. - Unfortunately for me, I started to get ill. 4. In a prepositional phrase, one or more words work together to give information about time, location, or possession, or condition. The preposition always appears at the front of the phrase. - after a very long walk - behind the old building - for all the hungry children - in case it should happen again Ex: After a very long walk, he saw an oasis by chance. 5. In a verb phrase, one or more words work together to give more meaning to a verb. In English, the verb phrase is very complex, so we will learn more about it in another lesson

English Grammar Lessons Phrases & Clauses


Introduction to Phrases
Phrases are considered as the second level of classification as they tend to be larger than individual words, but are smaller than sentences. We refer to the central element in a phrase as the head of the phrase. If the head is a noun then the phrase is called a noun phrase. There are nine generally accepted classifications for phrases. These classifications are generally based on the headword or construction of the phrase. The headword can usually stand alone as a one-word phrase. It is the only part that cannot be omitted from the phrase. 1. NOUN PHRASES Noun phrases may serve as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of prepositions. Most noun phrases are constructed using determiners, adjectives and a head noun. Examples: My coach is happy. (noun phrase as subject) 2. VERB PHRASES Verb phrases are composed of the verbs of the sentence and any modifiers of the verbs, including adverbs, prepositional phrases or objects. Most verb phrases function as predicates of sentences. Example: Henry made my coach very proud. (verb phrase as predicate) 3. ADJECTIVAL PHRASES Adjectival phrases are composed of the adjectives that modify a noun and any adverbs or other elements that modify those adjectives. Adjectival phrases always occur inside noun phrases or as predicate adjectives. Example: Dad bought [(a blue and green) sweater] 4. ADVERBIAL PHRASES Adverbial phrases are composed of the adverbs that modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses. Adverbial phrases may occur with more than one word. The extra adverb is called an intensifier. Example: He scored the goal very quickly. 5. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Prepositional phrases are composed of the preposition and a following noun phrase. Prepositional phrases are used either adjectivally to modify nouns or adverbially to modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses. Examples: The man in the house rented it. (prepositional phrase modifies a noun adjectivally) He went in the arena. (prepositional phrase modifies a verb adverbially)

Dad was happy about the goal. (prepositional phrase modifies an adjective adverbially) On reflection, I believe that she was correct. (prepositional phrase modifies a clause adverbially) 6. GERUNDIVE PHRASES Gerundive phrases may function in any way in which nouns may function: as subjects, objects, objects of a preposition, or even nouns functioning as adjectives Gerundive phrases may contain gerunds, adjectives, objects, adverbs or other main verb elements. Example: Dad talked about winning the game. 7. PARTICIPIAL PHRASES Participles are root verbs with an "ed, en or ing" suffix. In the case of the past participial, the form may be irregular. Participial phrases may contain objects and other elements that might occur with main verbs. Participial phrases always function as adjectives. Example: Racing around the corner, he slipped and fell. 8. ABSOLUTE PHRASES Absolute phrases are composed of a subject noun phrase and a participial phrase. The absolute phrase is formally independent of the main clause. The subject of the absolute phrase does not have to appear in the main clause--because the absolute phrase has its own subject! Example: [(My chores) (completed for the week)], I went on a walk. 9. INFINITIVE PHRASES Infinitive phrases are composed of an infinitive verb (the base form of the verb preceded by to) and any modifing adverbs or prepositional phrases. The infinitive phrase has three functions: noun, adjective, adverb. Examples: My duty as a coach is to teach skills. (infinitive phrase functions as a noun) My sister wanted a cat to love. (infinitive phrase functions as an adjective) Bill is eager to work on his skating. (infinitive phrase functions adverbially, modifying an adjective)

Introduction to Clauses
All clauses have a subject and a verb. 1. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE This clause is a sentence and can act as a sentence. Example: I wanted a new ball. 2. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

A subordinate clause has a subordinator. Examples: Fred knew that I wanted a new ball. 3. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Adverbial clauses modify the entire independent clause or another subordinate clause to which they might be attached. Some adverbial subordinators:" because, while, as, if, when, although, as if, after, since, unless, before, until". Adverbial clauses signal common adverbial meanings such as time of the event, place of the event, manner of the event, cause of the event or condition for the event. Examples: I haven't been skating since we all went up to Banff last winter. He stood there as if he was frozen to the very spot. Fred jogs where there is no traffic because he likes it. 4. RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses modify nouns and sometimes indefinite pronouns. Relative clauses occur with the relative pronouns "that, who, which, whom, whose" Relative clauses may also begin with the following relative adverbs "when, where, why". Examples: I saw the player [who hit you]. I saw the player [that hit you]. I like the park [where I jog]. I would like to know the reason [why you didn't eat the vegtables]. 5. NOMINAL CLAUSES Nominal clauses function as nouns and are subordinated by one of the following subordinating conjunctions 'how that what when where whether which who why". Nominal clauses may be replaced with a pronoun Examples: [How you did it] is not my concern. (That is not my concern) [That I wanted a ball] was irrelevant in the discussion. ( It was irrelevant )

Sentence Constructions
COMPOUND SENTENCES Compound sentences are constructed using two independant clauses. Examples: a. Fred hit the ball well, but he only walked to first base. b. Computer technologies are more sophisticated and today's technicians are better trained. COMPLEX SENTENCES Complex sentences are constructed using an independant sentence and a dependant or subordinated clause. Example: The motion, which the commons narrowly passed, was defeated by the senate.

(Adjective clause introduced by relative pronoun) COMPOUND - COMPLEX SENTENCES Compound - Complex sentences are constucted using two independant sentences or clauses and a dependant clause. Example:When the jets fly by, the windows rattle noisily and the whole house shakes.

Sentence Master Practice Word Cards


You can practice writing millions of English sentences. You can practice by yourself or with your friends. You get: 400 practice word cards which includes: Conjunction Cards, Article Cards, Verb Cards, Noun Cards, Pronoun Cards, Preposition Cards, Adverb Cards, Adjective Cards and some free bonus word cards. Go to the Sentence Master Games site to use the free practice onecard, two-card, three and four word card exercises. You can use the free Sentence Master practice challenges and the more advanced Grid Quiz. You can see the many ways that Sentence Master practice word cards will help learn English vocabulary, grammar and writing skills. Buy your own set of Sentence Master Practice Word Cards. Use the Paypal button to complete your purchase and we will mail your set right away!! A phrase is a group of words without both a subject and predicate. Phrases combine words into a larger unit that can function as a sentence element. For example, a participial phrase can include adjectives, nouns, prepositions and adverbs; as a single unit, however, it functions as one big adjective modifying a noun (or noun phrase). See this overview of phrases for more.

Noun Phrase - The crazy old lady in the park feeds the pigeons every day. A noun phrase consists of a noun and all of its modifiers, which can include other phrases (like the prepositional phrase in the park). More examples. o Appositive Phrase Bob, my best friend, works here or My best friend Bob works here. An appositive (single word, phrase, or clause) renames another noun, not technically modifying it. See this page from the Armchair Grammarian for everything you ever wanted to know about appositives. o Gerund Phrase - I love baking cakes. A gerund phrase is just a noun phrase with a gerund as its head. o Infinitive Phrase I love to bake cakes. An infinitive phrase is a noun phrase with an infinitive as its head. Unlike the other noun phrases, however, an infinitive phrase can also function as an adjective or an adverb. More examples. Verb Phrase The verb phrase can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence (I was watching my favorite show yesterday) or just the verb or verb group (was watching).

Adverbial Phrase The adverbial phrase also has two definitions; some say its a group of adverbs (very quickly), while others say its any phrase (usually a prepositional phrase) that acts as an adverb see this second definition. Adjectival Phrase As with adverbial phrases, adjectival phrases can either refer to a group of adjectives (full of toys) or any phrase (like a participial or prepositional phrase) that acts as an adjective see this second definition. Participial Phrase Crushed to pieces by a sledgehammer, the computer no longer worked or I think the guy sitting over there likes you. A participial phrase has a past or present participle as its head. Participial phrases always function as adjectives. Prepositional Phrase The food on the table looked delicious. A prepositional phrase, which has a preposition as its head, can function as an adjective, adverb, or even as a noun. Absolute Phrase My cake finally baking in the oven, I was free to rest for thirty minutes. Unlike participial phrases, absolute phrases have subjects and modify the entire sentence, not one noun. Almost a clause, the absolute phrase can include every sentence element except a finite verb. For example, My cake finally baking in the oven would be its own sentence if you just added one finite verb: My cake was finally baking in the oven. See Absolute Phrase for more.

The "ugly red wooden box" sounds correct, but the "wooden red ugly box" sounds wrong. There is a "rule" describing the order English adjectives are used in: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Opinion or judgment -- beautiful, ugly, easy, fast, interesting Size -- small, tall, short, big Age -- young, old, new, historic, ancient Shape -- round, square, rectangular Color -- red, black, green, purple Nationality -- French, Asian, American, Canadian, Japanese Material -- wooden, metallic, plastic, glass, paper Purpose or Qualifier -- foldout sofa, fishing boat, racing car

So: the "beautiful long curved old red Italian steel racing car" Take care when applying the rule to categorise the adjectives correctly. For example, "The old rotund man read a short old story about an ugly big bear" seems to follow the rules, yet sounds wrong. In this case, "old" and "short" are qualifiers, not merely size or age designations, because "old man" is a social concept on its own, and "short story" is a genre. And "big ugly" is a "commonplace term". Other languages have similar rules. In English all adjectives go before the noun (except for a few archaisms and for foreign sounding effect): in French, for example, some adjectives go before the noun and some go after it.

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