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Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development and Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development

Joint Technical Meeting Arab Coordination Group Institutions and The OECD Development Assistance Committee
Vienna, Austria, 29-30 April 2010

The Arab Organization for Agricultural Development defines the concept of food security as follows:

To provide the quantity and quality of food required to keep, at all times, all community individuals active and healthy, based, first, on domestic production and the comparative advantage each country has in the production of food commodities; and making it available to people at prices commensurate with their incomes and financial means (Original : Arabic)

1. Population indicators for Arab countries 2. Role of agriculture in the economies of Arab countries. 3. Potential for food security in Arab countries Arable land Water resources Other factors 4. Financing agricultural operations in Arab countries 5. Prospects and Requirements for agricultural development.

Total population of Arab countries estimated at 334.5 million in 2008. An increase of about 8 million over 2007.

Population growth averaged about : 2.55% annually over the period 1985 1995 2.36% annually over the period 1995 2008 Total population with annual growth of 2.3%
550 million in 2030 870 million in 2050

Average GDP per capita estimated at US$ 5,858 in 2008 Total labor force about 128 million, equivalent to about 39.2% of population in 2007 Unemployment rate about 13.7%

Average growth of labor force about 3.3% annually over the period 1995 2007, and exceeds the average growth of population About 25.4% of labor force work in agriculture Share of agricultural worker in value added in agricultural sector amounted to $ 3,600 in 2008.

Value Of Total Agricultural Production In Arab Countries Increased From $56.4 Billion To $103.4 Billion Over The Period 2000 2008 Contribution Of Agriculture Sector To GDP Shrank From 8.3% To 5.4% Over The Period 2000 2008.

Country Sudan Syria Egypt Mauritania Morocco Yemen Tunisia Libya, Jordan, Djibouti, Iraq, Algeria, Lebanon GCC Countries: Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Emirates, Saudi Arabia
Source : Unified Arab Economic Report, 2009

Contribution of Agriculture to GDP (%) 29.3 20.4 12.6 11.1 13.1 10.4 9.7 2.1 7.8 1 2.3

2000 Agricultural Product ($Billion) 56.4

2007 90.5

2008 103.4

Annual Average Growth (%) (2000-2008) 7.9

Annual Average Growth (%) (2007-2008) 14.2

Agriculture Contribution To GDP (%)

8.3

6.0

5.4

Per Capita Agricultural Product ($)


Source : Unified Arab Economic Report, 2009

210

286

319

Remarks About 80% Of Agricultural Product In Arab Countries Is Produced By 6 Countries: Sudan, Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Mauritania, Yemen Agriculture Sector Contribution To GDP Varies Widely From 1% In Qatar To 29.3% In Sudan.

(Million Tons)

Food Commodities Cereals Wheat Vegetable Oils Sugar Fruits Vegetables Meat Dairy Products Fish

2000 37.6 16.8 1.7 2.4 27.3 39.1 6.3 19.3 3.0

2007 50.1 22.9 1.6 3.0 30.2 48.3 7.0 24.6 3.4

2008 55.6 26.4 1.6 3.0 30.8 50.6 7.0 25.8 3.6

Annual Change (%) (2000 2008) 5.0 5.8 -0.7 2.8 1.5 3.3 1.3 4.1 2.3

Source : Unified Arab Economic Report, 2009

(Million Tons) 2000 Commodities Cereals And Flour Wheat Vegetable Oils Sugar Meat Dairy Products Fish Production Consumption 37.6 16.8 1.7 2.4 6.3 19.3 3.0 84.0 35.4 3.8 6.5 7.3 26.7 2.8 2008 Gap (%)* Production Consumption Gap (%)* 55.2 52.6 55.0 63.0 13.7 27.8 45.5 20.5 1.6 3.0 7.5 25.0 3.9 102.0 48.3 4.2 10.0 9.2 36.0 3.7 54.6 58.3 63.2 70.8 18.0 30.0 -

* Net imports as percentage of consumption. Source: Unified Arab Economic Report 2009.

(Million Tons)

The deficit value of main food commodities increased from about $11.8 billion in 1990 to about $14 billion in 2000. A deficit increase of about 1.7% annually. The deficit increased by about $12 billion between 2000 and 2008. An increase of about 8% annually.

Commodities Cereals Vegetable Oils Sugar

1990 (%) 45 68 68

2005 (%) 51 72 62

2008 (%) 56 73 71

Source: Arab Organization For Agricultural Development * Rounded Percentages

Arable Land Water Resources Rural Development And Agricultural Labor Force Agricultural Productivity Agricultural Research And Development Investment In Agriculture

Total Area Of Arable Land : 197 Cultivable Area


Irrigated Area Rain-Fed Area Uncultivated Area

Million Hectares

: 70

Million Hectares

(About 36.5% Of Arable Land)

: 15% : 57% : 28%

Desertificated Land Area (2007): About 886 Million Hectares, Equivalent To About 63% Of Area Of Arab Countries Land Threatened By Desertification: About 360 Million Hectares, Equivalent To About 25% Of Area Of Arab Countries Average Annual Growth Of Arable Land Over Last Two Decades: About 1.5% Arable Land Per Capita Decreased From 0.3 Hectares In Early Seventies To About 0.2 Hectares In 2007

(Million Hectares)

Rain-Fed and Uncultivated 1990 2000 2007 45.0 55.5 60.0

Irrigated

Total

11.0 9.5 11.0

56 65 71

Source: Unified Arab Economic Report, 2008 It Is Noted That The Irrigated Area Remained Unchanged Over 17 Years

Total Renewable Water Resources: About 338 Billion M3 (About 1% Of World Renewable Resources)
Total Surface Water Resources: 296 Billion M3 Total Ground Water Resources: 42 Billion M3, Of Which:
35 Billion M3 Are Available For Use.

Rainfall: About 2,300 Billion M3 Per Year, Equivalent To About 0.5% Of World Rainfall. Desalinated Water : 2.5 Billion M3 Treated Wastewater : 8.1 Billion M3 Renewable Water Resources Per Capita: 2010 : 965 M3 2030 : 610 M3 2050 : 390 M3 World Average Per Capita (2007): Over 8,000 M3

Sector Agriculture Municipal Industry Total Uses

Share of Renewable Resources (%)

: : : :

89% 6% 5% 100%

Indicator Efficiency Of Water Transport Efficiency Of Traditional Field Irrigation Percentage Of Land Under Traditional Irrigation Systems Estimated Annual Water Losses In Irrigation (Billion M3)
Source: Arab Organization For Agricultural Development

2007 60% 50% 85% 90

Total Renewable Water Resources : 338 Billion M3 Surface Water Agriculture Use Agriculture Demand Deficit In Agriculture Traditional Surface Irrigation : 296 Billion M3 : 263 Billion M3 : 354 Billion M3 : 91 Billion M3 : 75% Of Irrigated Area

Modern Irrigation Techniques : 25% Of Irrigated Area 15% Sprinkler Irrigation 10% Localized Irrigation Irrigation Efficiency : 40 - 50%

This low efficiency is due to use of earth and open irrigation canals, as well as traditional irrigation techniques. Loss of irrigation water amounts nearly to half of water amount used in irrigation Improving Irrigation Efficiency to 70% would save as much as 50 Billion M3

Year 2008 2020 2030

Agriculture 330 369 378

Municipal and Industry 24 40 58

Total 354 409 436

Source: Unified Arab Economic Report, 2009

Country

Per Capita (M3)/Year 3510.9 2489.8 1706.7 1619.9 1426.9 1313.8 1206.4 894.7 758.6 441.9 422.9

Country 8209.9 Oman Djibouti Palestinian Territories Yemen Bahrain Jordan Libya Saudi Arabia Qatar U.A.E. Kuwait

Per Capita (M3)/Year 369.2 365.9 202.8 183.7 154.5 147.5 98.6 93 61.8 31.4 7

World Average Mauritania Iraq Sudan Somalia Comoros Syria Lebanon Morocco Egypt Tunisia Algeria

Source: World Resources Institute (earthtrends.wri.org)

About 50% Of Arab Population Live In Rural Areas About 25% Of Arab Population Suffer From Poverty, With About 70% Of Them Living In Rural Areas.

About 25% Of The Labor Force Work In Agriculture Average Per Capita Income Of Workers In Sectors Other Than Agriculture Ranges Between 3 To 6 Times That Of An Agricultural Worker.

Increase In Production Of Cereals In The World Is Attributed Primarily To Modern Irrigation Techniques And Systems. Scientific Knowledge And Technology Play An Essential Role In Raising Efficiency Of Agriculture And Livestock Sector In Producing Main Food Commodities, And Contributing To Reducing The Food Gap.

The Main Engine For What Has Been Termed "Green Revolution" Which Took Off In The Late 1960s Depended On Vertical Expansion In The Production Of Wheat And Rice, Through Irrigation, Agricultural Intensification, And Productivity Increase. It Is Estimated That Less Than 10% Of The Increase In Cereal Production Is Attributed To Horizontal Expansion, While Over 90% Is Attributed To Vertical Expansion.

Irrigated Crops Became A Source Of More Than 60% Of Rice Production, And About 40% Of Wheat Production In Developing Countries. Research In Arab Countries Has Not Been Accorded The Priority It Deserves. The Unified Arab Economic Report (2008) Indicates That Expenditure On Scientific Research And Development Did Not Exceed 0.2% Of GDP In Arab Countries In 2005, Compared To About 3% In The Developed Countries.

Average Participation Of Technical Staff In Research In Arab Countries Is About One Third Of The World Average, And About 7% Only Of That In The Developed Countries.

Average Yield Of Selected Crops In Arab Countries Compared With Other Countries 2000 2007 (Kilograms Per Hectare)
Countries Arab Countries Developing Countries Developed Countries World Average
Source:

Cereals 1,600 2,550 5,100 2,330

Wheat 1,970 2,320 5,700 2,800

Barley 557 1,680 2,970 2,300

Yellow Maize 2,050 2,420 5,600 3,450

Cotton Flowers 2,104 1,357 2,185 1,620

Beet 37,220 28,615 37,120 36,650

Arab Organization For Agricultural Development, Food And Agriculture Organization Of UN, Agricultural Production Data, 2008.

Note: Actual Productivity Of Cultivated Land In Arab Countries Ranges Between 2550% Of Similar Productivity At The Global Level, Indicating Potential For Increasing Productivity By 2 To 4 Times Of Existing Level.

Average Yield Of Selected Crops In Arab Countries Compared With Other Countries 2000 2007 (Kilograms Per Hectare)

Countries Egypt Syria Morocco Sudan Saudi Arabia Chile Philippines Netherlands United States

Agricultural Worker Value Added ($) (2003 2005) 497 1,196 719 371 5,523 2,076 429 23,396 23,066

Cereals Yield (Kg/Hectare) (2003 2005) 7,545 1,786 1,243 481 * 4,559 5,621 2,916 8,308 6,443

Source : World Bank, World Development Report 2008 * World Bank, World Development Indicators 2007

Source: Arab Organization for Agricultural Development

Source: Arab Organization for Agricultural Development

Among Challenges Facing Agricultural Development Is Inadequacy Of Financial Resources Allocated For Investment In Agriculture. One Factor Affecting Low Level Of Investment In Agriculture Is The Rate Of Return On Agricultural Investments Compared To Returns In Other Sectors, Namely, Real Estate And Services.

Intra-Arab Private Investments Amounted To About $ 14 Billion In 2007, With A Share Of 6% For Agriculture, Which Is Much Less Than The Relative Share Of The Agricultural Sector In GDP In Most Arab Countries. Other Shortcomings Include Financing Policies And Low Percentage Of Medium And Long-Term Loans. Short-Term Loans Amounted To About 85% Of Total Funding For Agriculture, Thus Limiting Farmers Ability To Develop Their Farms.

Sector Services Real Estate Industry Agriculture Commerce Total

Percentage 44 35 12 6 3 100

Source : Arab Investment Guaranty Corporation, Investment Climate In Arab Countries, 2008

Total Cumulative Value Of Financing Development Operations By Arab National And Regional Development Institutions Amounted To $ 96 Billion Up To 31/12/2009. Share Of Agriculture And Livestock Sector Amounted To About $ 11.5 Billion, Or 12% Of Total Cumulative Value.

Transport & Communications Total Cumulative Financing (All Recipients; $ Million) 22,314.0

Energy (Electricity, Oil & Gas) 25,341.4

Water & Sanitation 7,598.4

Agriculture & Industry & Livestock Mining 11,516.1

Other Sectors

Total

Share (%) 100

10,555.4 18,593.7

95,919

Sectoral Share (%) Arab Countries ($ Million) Share Of Arab Countries (%)

23.3

26.4

7.9

12.0

11.0

19.4

100.0

12,091.6

16,240.8

5,087.2

6,892.2

6,848.2 11,786.4 58,946.4

61.5

54.2

64.0

67.0

59.8

64.9

63.4

61.5

* Include health, education, and housing services, and balance of payments support Source: Coordination Secretariat of Arab National and Regional Development Institutions

Arab Countries Have A Considerable Potential For Contributing To Their SelfSufficiency In Food. Arable Land Not Yet Cultivated Amounts To About 126 Million Hectares. About 60 Million Hectares Of Arable Land Are Available In Sudan, In Addition To Available Water Resources.

Large Opportunities Exist For Investment In Fisheries, With Coastlines That Extend To About 23,000 Kilometers. Fish Resources Are Estimated At About 8.2 Million Tons, With About 44% Exploited. Livestock In The Arab Countries Is Estimated At About 395 Million Heads.

Arab Countries May Save About 100 Billion M3 Through The Use Of Modern Irrigation Techniques. Wheat Food Gap Which Is Estimated At About 25 Million Tons Require About 50 Billion M3 Of Water For Irrigation With Traditional Techniques, And Only 25 Billion M3 If Modern Irrigation Techniques Are Applied.

Raising Irrigation Efficiency To 70% Would Save About 50 Billion M3 Of Water. Loss Of Fresh Crops In Arab Countries Is Estimated At About 15 40% Of Total Production, While In Developed Countries Similar Ratio Ranges Between 5 20%. Maximization Of Crop Benefits Would Require More Attention And Care To Post Harvest Operations, Including Transport, Storage, Marketing, And Agricultural Processing.

In Their Pursuit To Enhance The Prospects For Attaining Food Security, Arab Countries Need To Focus Their Efforts On The Development Of The Agricultural Sector.

Development of Agriculture Is Essential For Contributing To Food Security. Requirements, Among Other Things, Include:
Better Management And Uses Of Scarce Renewable Water Resources, And Declining Per Capita Share Over Time. Development Of Arable Land And Expansion Of Irrigated Area Introducing Modern Irrigation Practices And Techniques, And Adopting Measures to Avoid Negative Impact On Soil, Water Quality, And Environment

Recognizing The Vital Role Of Water In Human Life And Development, It Is Critically Important To Deal With Water Resources And Their Uses Within A Framework Of Policies Leading To Rationalization Of Water Consumption And Curtailing Loss In Various Uses, And Protecting The Environment, Based On Implementation Of Laws And Legislations.

Augmentation Of Water Resources, Including Through Development Of Water Desalination Technology, And Expansion In The Area Of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse. The Latter Is Significantly Important, Because It Can Attain The Twin Objectives Comprising The Uses Of Treated Water For Agriculture, And Avoiding The Pollution Impact of Wastewater.

Scientific And Practical Research Is One Of The Principal Pillars For Agricultural Development. With The Exception Of Some Cases That Contributed To A Large Extent In Improving Productivity Through The Use Of Improved Seeds, Research Expenditures In The Arab Countries Remains Very Low.

There Is An Immense Need For Concentrating Efforts To Improve Efficiency, To Introduce New Agricultural Inputs, And To Support National, Regional, And International Research Centers In Arab Countries. More Attention Is Needed For Rain-Fed Agriculture, And Vertical Expansion To Increase Productivity Through The Use Of Modern Technology And Irrigation Techniques.

Expansion Of Extension Services For Farmers, Upgrading Their Skills, And Providing Them With Knowledge To Enable Them Use Modern Technology And Irrigation Techniques. Creation Of An Enabling Environment For Private Sector Participation And Investment In Agriculture, Including Provision Of Long-Term Financing, And Adopting Laws And Regulations Conducive To Investment In General.

According Agriculture Higher Priority In Arab Countries Development Strategies And Investment Plans, Making It Possible For Arab National And Regional Development Institutions To Provide More Support For The Agricultural Sector. Establishing A Balance In Allocation And Distribution Of Public And Private Investments Among Sectors, With Due Consideration To The Importance Of The Agricultural Sector.

Undertake Necessary Actions To Increase Benefits Of Agricultural Products, By Increasing Value Added, Decreasing Losses And Wastage Of Crops, Especially During The Post Harvest Period. Provision Of Adequate Infrastructure Such As Roads, Availability Of Suitable Inputs, Adequate Transport And Storage Facilities, In Addition To Use Of Modern Irrigation Techniques.

It Is Of Paramount Importance To Ensure The Proper Design Of Agricultural Projects To Take Account Of All Factors And Components Necessary For The Achievement Of The Desired Objectives. Food Security (Self-Sufficiency) Is Unachievable At The Country Level Due To Limited Arable Land And Scarce Water Resources.

Enhancing Progress Towards Food Security Requires Integration Of Water With Land In Arab Countries Based On Relative Comparative Advantage.

Arab National And Regional Development Institutions Will Continue To Strengthen Their Support To The Agriculture And Water Sectors In Line With The Development Priorities Of Arab Countries. They Welcome Cooperation With Other National, Regional And International Financing Institutions And Country Donors In Assisting Arab Countries In Their Efforts Toward Achieving Food Security.