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Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 1


Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION
Many chemical reactions supply liquid or gas mixture that has to decompose by
heat. Some mixtures occurring in nature must be broken down to recover specific
constituent, such as aromatics, petroleum distillate serving as fuel, air liquefied to produce
nitrogen, oxygen and rare gases, or water distilled for use in nuclear installations.
Distillation is a method of separating the components of a solution, which depends
on the distribution of the substances between a liquid and gas phase, applied to cases where
all components are present in both phases.
In order to make clear the distinction between distillation and the other operations
let us site a few specific examples. In the separation of solution of common salt and water
evaporation is used. Salt is non-volatile at the prevailing conditions. On the other hand,
distillation, is concerned with the separation of solution where all the components of a
liquid solution are appreciably volatile.
The advantages of distillation as a separation method are clear. In distillation the
new phase differ from the original by their heat content, but heat is readily added or
removed, cost of this is considerable.
Distillation in crude form was practiced before the time of Christ, usually for the
concentration of alcoholic spirit. The first formalized documentation of the process appears
to have been the treatise by Brunswig, published in 1500
(2)
. Despite the emergence in
recent year of many new separation techniques, distillation retains its position of
supremacy among chemical engineering unit operation.
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Chapter-2
TYPES & METHODS FOR DISTILLATION
2.1Batch Distillation the simplest form of batch still consist of a heated vessel (pot or
boiler), a condenser and one or more receiving tanks. no trays or packing are provided. The
feed is charged into the vessel and brought to boiling. Vapors are condensed and collected
in a receiver, no reflux is returned. The rate of vaporization is some times controlled to
prevent bumping the charged and to avoid overloading the condenser.
2.2Single-Stage Operation Flash Vaporization
in this method a liquid mixture is partially vaporized, the vapors allowed to come to
equilibrium with the residual liquid and the resulting vapor and liquid phases are separated
and removed from apparatus. The liquid feed is heated in the conventional tubular heat
exchanger.
2.3 Continuous Distillation
1. For binary system
Binary distillation is probably the most common and important of the unit
operations basic principle in binary distillation is that one component in binery
mixture is more volatile than other, and concentration of this component in the
vapor phase is greater than liquid phase.
2.For multicomoponent system
Multicomponent distillation is more difficult than binary distillation. in that
graphical techniques are not really useful, except in special cases.
For multicomponent calculations we use the following,
1.material balance
2.energy balance
3. vapor liquid equilibrium
4. estimation procedure
5.facilities limitations
6.a well organized approach
Various kinds of devices such as random or structured packings or plates or trays are used
to bring the two phases into intimate contact.The feed material, which is to be separated
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 3
into fraction, is introduced at one ir more points along the column shell, because of the
difference in gravity between vapor and liquid runs down the column, while vapor flows up
the column. Liquid reaching the bottom of the column is partially vaporized in heated
reboiler to provide boil up, which is sent back to the column, the remainder of the column
is withdrawn as bottom,or bottom product.Vapor reaching the top of the column is cooled
and condensed to liquid in the overhead condenser, part of this liquid is returned to the
column as reflux to provide liquid over flow. The remainder of the overhead stream is
withdrawn as distillate. The lighter component tends to concentrate in the top distillate and
heavier in the bottom products. The result is a vapor phase that becomes richer in lighter
component as it passes up the column and a liquid phase that becomes richer in heavy
component as it cascades downward. The overall separation achieved between the
distillate and the bottom depends primarily on the relative volatilities of the components.
Key Components
When it is necessary to separate a mixture of many components, as is frequently the
case in the petroleum industry, the two key components are selected to produce a product
mixture having specified characteristics. It is then likely that the keys do not fall adjacent to
each other, but have an intermediate boiling component between them, referred to as as a
distributed key.
Two components whose concentrations or fractional recoveries in the distillate and
bottom products are good index of the separation achieved. Since the keys must be differ in
volatilities, the more volatile identified as light key and less volatile as heavy key.
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 4
Chapter- 3
MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION METHODS
3.1 Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG) Shortcut Method
3.1.1 Fenske equation the fenske equation estimates the minimum number of theoretical
stages at the total or infinite reflux. This equation assumes the relative volatility remains
constant throughout the column. If the equilibrium data have some interaction between
components, it is desirable to determine a third set of equilibrium data. The third set of data
can be obtained by using the arithmetic mean average of the condition.
3
,
bottom
HK
LK
middle
HK
LK
top
HK
LK
avg LK
K
K
K
K
K
K
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= o
Otherwise, the average relative volatility can be obtained using a two-point geometric
mean.
3
,
bottom
HK
LK
top
HK
LK
avg LK
K
K
K
K
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= o
The Fenske equation yields the minimum number of the equilibrium stages via, the
equation,
( )
avg LK
bottom
LK
HK
dist
HK
LK
m
moles
moles
moles
moles
N
,
ln
ln
o

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3.1.2 Distribution of non-key component
The relationship to be used is the component material balance.
f
i
= b
i
+ d
i
The original form of Fenskey equation written in terms of an arbitrary component i and
reference component.

r
N
avg r
avgi i
i
b
d
b
d
m
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
,
,
o
o
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Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 5
In determining the product composition values using the combination of these
two equations, one takes advantages of whether a component is very volatile or not
volatile.
2
, ,
,
avg HK avg LK
avg mean
o o
o
+
=
Following sets of equations can be used to revise the estimate of the distillate
and bottom products.

If light component ( )
i i
b d , ,
avg mean avg i , ,
o o ,
Reference component is heavy key then,
m
N
avg HK
avg i
HK
i
i
b
d
f
b
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
,
,
1
o
o
i i i
b f d =
For heavy component ( )
avg mean avg i i i
d b
, ,
, o o ( ,
Reference component is the light key
m
N
avg i
avg LK
LK
i
i
d
b
f
d
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
,
,
1
o
o
i i i
d f b =
3.1.3. Calculation of minimum reflux-The Underwood equation
The equation developed by Underwood in based on the assumptions
1.constant molar flow rate
2.knowledge of the component at the pinch zone
Based on the degree of feed vaporization the value of is solved of using
q
Z
av
feed i av i
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

1
,
, ,
u o
o
The value of (1-q) is the fraction of the feed that is vapor
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 6

=
point) (bubble h point) (dew H
condition) (feed h point) (dew H
q) 1 (
f f
f f
In the determination of the thermal conditions, the average pressure should be
2
om bolumnbutt columntop
feedstage
P P
P
+
=
Use of the u so found in the equation ,


-
= +
u o
o
avg i
id avg i
m
x
R
,
,
1
R
m
can be determined
3.1.4 Stage-Reflux co-relation
The two widely accepted co-relations are Gilliland correlations and the Erbor-Madox
corelations, each relates the minimum column operating limits to the reflux and stage
actually required. The values of reflux generally used lies in the range of,
00 . 2 0 . 1 ( (
m
R
R
Fig 4.1 Gilliland stage-reflux co-relation
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 7
The following analytical expressions for the Gilliland stage-reflux co-relations
( ) 44 . 0 ln 105 . 0
1
1
1
+ =
+ =
+

=
+

=
X B
X Y
N
N N
Y
R
R R
X
B
m
m
3.1.5 Feed location (Kirkbride equation)
The Kirkbride equation yields the ratio of the number of theoretical stages in the rectifying
section m to the number of theoretical stages in the stripping section p.
( )
( )
206 . 0
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
- =
distillate HK
bottom LK
feed
LK
HK
x
x
x
x
D
B
p
m
and,
N p m = +
Feed stage can be determined.
3.2. The Winn equation
The Fenske equation has a weakness as the relative volatility difference between column
top and bottom increase, the estimated minimum number of stages get increasingly too
small. The relation relates the equilibrium K of component i and reference heavy key as,
( )
i
r i i
K K
u
| - =
Where u | & are constant at fixed pressure. Determination of A and B. The equation has
the structure of a modified Antoine equation is,
( )
460
ln
+
+ =
T
B
A PK
i
i i
P is average column pressure and T is temperature (
0
F)
( )
460
ln
+
=
T
B
PK A
i
top i i
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 8
( ) ( )

=
460
1
460
1
ln ln
bottom top
bottom i top i
i
T T
PK PK
B
Winn equation u | & can be obtained,
| |
r r
i
r
i
r
i
i
A PK
A
PK
PK
B
B

= =
ln
ln
u
( )( )
1
- =
i
P A A EXP
r i i
u
u |
The Winn equation for two minimum number of stages require the use of mole
fraction and is as follows,
( )
LK
HK
D
B
LK
B
D
m
LK
x
x
x
x
N
|
u
ln
ln

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Using molar flow rates,
LK
LK
m
LK
HK
d
b
b
d
N
|
u
ln
ln

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
The Winn equation molar form can be combined with the column component
material balance to estimate the fractionation of the nonkey components
d ; 1
d
b
D
B
d
b

d
b
f b d
i
1 i
HK
N
i
i i i
m
(
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
= +

Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column


Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 9
component heavy
component light
b d ; 1
d
b
b f d
d
b
1
d
b
f
b
b d ; 1
d
b
i i
i
i i i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
( ,
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
, (
|
.
|

\
|

i i i
i
i
i
d f b
d
b
f
d
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
Three basic energy input/output location within the fractionation column system. The
energy associated with the feed preheats Q
F
. This energy requirement must be consistent
with the degree of feed vaporization and is obtained by enthalpy balance.
| |
F F F
h H F Q - =
H
F
& h
F
are in Btu/lb of feed. The condenser duty Q
c
is obtained by writing an energy
balance around the condenser/reflux drum.
L = R- D
V = D ( ) 1 + - R
Case 1 all-liquid distillate
Q
C
= D ( ) ( )
D V
h H R - + - 1
Case 2 all vapor distillate
( ) ( )
D V D V C
H H D h H R D Q + =
Case -3 : distillate is liquid and vapor

Q
c
= D* R* (H
v
- h
D
) + V
apor
(H
v
- H
D
)
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
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H
v
- enthalpy of vapor entering the condenser
H
D
- enthalpy of vapor leaving the drum accumulator
h
D
- enthalpy of liquid leaving the drum
with the condenser duty calculated the reboiler duty Q
R
can be obtained as
Q
R
=Q
c
+[D
V
H
D
+D
L
h
D
]+B h
B
-F H
F
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
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Chapter -4
Packed Tower
4.1 Packing Hydraulics
At low liquid flow rates the open cross sectional area of the packing is about the same as in
a dry bed. The pressure drop is entirely by frictional losses through a series of opening and
proportional to the square of gas flow rate. In random packing the pressure drop is due to
expansion, contraction, and changes of direction. A portion of the gas kinetic energy is
used to support the liquid the column and the pressure drop becomes proportional to the gas
rate raised to power different. The point where the packing voids fill up with liquid i.e.
when tower operation switches from vapor continuous to liquid continuous is termed phase
inversion. For all liquid flow rates as gas flow rate is raised, a point is reached when the gas
velocity begins to interfere with the free drainage of liquid. The accumulation of liquid
reduces the cross section area available for gas flow and therefore accelerates the pressure
drop rise. Further increase in gas rate, more liquid accumulates until the liquid surface
becomes continuous across the top of packing.
Efficiency flow regimes
When the liquid distribution is poor it will take more liquid to wet the entire bed. Turbulent
liquid film produces good wetting of the packing, and essentially contact efficiency. As
liquid rate increases, more vapor is entrained down the bed. These drops efficiency.
Because structured packing permits far less lateral movement of fluid than random
packings.
Flood point
Appearance of liquid on top of the bed , excessive entrainment , a sharp rise in pressure
drop ,a sharp rise in liquid hold up , and a sharp drop in efficiency. flood point can be
predicted far more reliably than packing pressure drop and maximum operational capacity.
Pressure drop
This is often used to specify packed tower capacity. In small columns (<3 ft in dia )
pressure drop varies with tower diameter. With random packings, smaller the tower
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diameter, the lower the pressures drop, possibly due to enhancement of wall effects. Dry
packed beds have a higher-pressure drop than wet packed beds. Pressure drop
measurement under deep vacuum (<50 mmHg) is affected by the pressure drop and the
pressure gradient along the bed. Pressure drop measurements in a pressure tower include
the static head of the vapor. To obtain the actual packing pressure drop, the static head
must be subtracted from pressure drop measurement. Pressure drop for foaming systems
are higher than for non-foaming systems.
4.2 Flood Point Prediction
4.2.1 Sherwood Eckert generalized pressure drop correlation (GPDC)
The Sherwood Eckert GPDC chart has been the standard of the industry for predicting
flood points and pressure drops.
GPDC chart ordinate describes the balance between the vapor momentum force , that acts
to entrain swarms of liquid droplets , and the gravity force , that resists the upward
entrainment. GPDC chart abscissa is the flow parameter, the ratio of liquid kinetic energy
to vapor kinetic energy.
4.2.2 The Kister and Gill correlation,
Zens discovered that packing pressure drop at the flood point decreases as the packing
capacity increases. A simple flood point correlation

FL
P A =0.115
7 . 0
P
F
this equation expresses pressure drop at the flood point as a function of packing factor
alone. Once this pressure drop is known, the flood velocity can be calculated. The flood
velocity calculated by the Kister and Gill correlation is tolerant to inaquaracies in flood
pressure drop predictions.
4.3 Pressure Drop Prediction By GPDC Interpolation
Interpolation of pressure drop data is more accurate than correlation prediction.
Superimposing experimental data points on the curves of generalized pressure correlation
chart converts the GPDC chart into an interpolation chart . Pressure drops are calculated by
interpolating the plotted pressure drop data. For all charts (random, structured or grid
packings), the abscissa of the correlation is the flow parameter given by
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Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 13
5 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
G
LV
G
L
F
p
p
And the ordinate of correlation as the capacity parameter, given by
G L
G
S S
u C
p p
p

=
F
P
, is the packing factor , which is an empirical factor characteristics of the packing size
and shape.
4.4 Packing factors
Several of the predictive methods above use a packing factor to account for the type and
size of packing. With the evolutions of the general pressure drop correlation, the packing
factor shifted away from the ratio a
p
/
3
to become an imperial constant that must be
experimentally determined for each packing.
Loading point
The point of transition from the preloading regime to the loading regime is termed the
loading point. It is the point where liquid hold up starts increasing with gas velocity , rapid
deterioration in efficiency .loading point where the flow rate at which the vapor phase
bagans to interact with the liquid phase to increase interfacial area in a packed column . the
loading points occurs at 70 percent of the flood point.
Pressure drop
Packed tower are designed so that the pressure drop at any point in the tower does not
exceed a recommended maximum value. Maximum pressure drop criterioa for packed
tower are listed in table ,
Average pressure drop
Specific pressure drop can be calculated at the top of the bed and at the bottom of the bed .
the average pressure drop is
( )
2
5 . 0 5 . 0
5 . 0 5 . 0
bottom top
P P P A + A = A
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Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 14
Type of system Maximum pressure drop ,in of water/ ft
packing
Atmospheric fractionator 0.5-1.00
Low to medium pressure fractioantor 0.7-1.0
High pressure distillation
0.06<
G
/
G
< 0.20
0.20<
G
/
L
0.19
) / (
2
7 . 0
O H G P
F p p
0.099
) / (
2
7 . 0
O H G P
F p p
Vacuum distillation 0.01-0.6
Liquid holdup
Liquid holdup is the liquid present in the void spaces of packing. At flooding,
essentially all the voids are filled with liquids or froth. Reasonable liquid holdup is
necessary for good mass transfer and efficient tower operation, but beyond that, it should
be kept low.
Static holdup is liquid remaining on the packing after it has been fully wetted and
drained for long time. The contributation of static holdup to mass transfer rates is limited.
Operational holdup is liquid on the packing attributed to dynamic operation and is defined
as the difference between total holdup and static holdup.
Minimum Wetting Rate
The minimum wetting rate (MWR) is the lower stability limit of packing. It is liquid
below, which the falling liquid film breaks up, and the liquid storage causes wetting of the
packing surface. Gravity and viscous forces resists dewetting, the surface tension and vapor
shear forces tend to dewett the falling film. The MWR therefore rises with an increase in
surface tension and liquid density, and with decrease in liquid viscosity.
A thumb rule cited by Ludwi.
Q
MW
=3

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Underwetting
Underwetting is a packing surface phenomenon, which brakes up liquid film.
The tendency of liquid film to break is expressed by a contact angle. A contact angle of
zero indicates perfect wetting; an angle of 180
0
indicates no wetting
The contact angle depends both on surface and a liquid and is a strong function of
composition. Changing a material and surface roughness of the packing may significantly
affect the efficiency in system susceptible to underwetting.
4.5 The HETP concept
The concept of HETP (height equivalent to theoretical plates) was introduced to
enable to comparison of efficiency between packed and plate columns. HETP is defined as
HETP = H/n
A similar HETP value can be obtained for plate column if the tray spacing is known
HETP (trayed column) = 100 S/E
The HETP approach is suitable for multicomponent systems, while HTU approach is
difficult to apply for this
HETP prediction
Because there are only few variables that significantly affect HETP of random
packings. For small diameter column the rule of thumb presented by Frank , Ludig , Vital
et al are identical. The more conservative cause predicted from
HETP =1.5 d
p
for Pall rings or similar high efficiency packing
.
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Chapter -5
Distillation Design
Problem statement-
A butane-pentane splitter is to be designed to process 4200 lb/hr of C
3
C
5
feed subjected to
specifications of
1.maximum 3 % of i-C
5
in the distillate
2.maximum 1 % of C
4
in the bottom product.
The feed sink will be air (process design temperature) to be 130
0
F
Components Wt % mol.wt lb/h mol/h
C
3
5 44.1 210 4.762
i-C
4
15 58.1 630 10.843
C
4
25 58,1 1050 18,072
i-C
5
20 72.1 840 11.651
C
5
35 72.1 1470 20.388
4200 65.716
Solution-
Feed composition
Components lb/gal(60F) gal/h Vol% mol%
C
3
4.22 49.76 5.92 7.25
i-C
4
4.69 134.33 13.97 16.5
C
4
4.87 215.01 25.63 27.5
i-C
5
5.20 161.54 19.2 17.73
C
5
5.25 280.00 3.28 31.02
Total 841.24 100 100
Average molecular weight
650716
4200
=
= 63.91
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Average liquid density = 4200/65.716
= 4.993lb/gal
x = mass of c4 in the bottom(i-wt%)
y =mass of i-c5 in the distillate(3 wt%)
5.1 Component Split
Assuming that the C
3
and i-C
5
have negligible concentration in the bottom and C
5
has
negligible concentration in the distillate.
Components F D B
C
3
210 210 0
i-C
4
630 630 0
C
4
1050 (1050-x) x
i-C
5
840 y (840-y)
C
5
1470 0 1470
Total 4200 1890-x+y 2310+x-y
F =B+D
4200 =2310 + x y +1890 x + y
Distillate specification 3 % in of i-c5 in distillate
( ) y x
y
+
=
18900
03 . 0
56.7 0.03 x -0.97 y =0
0.03 x + 0.97 y =56.7
Bottom specification 1 % C
4
in the bottom,
0.03
y x
x
+
=
2310
23.1 -0.01 x + 0.01 y = x
0.99 x + 0.01 y = 23.1
x = 22.75
y = 57,75
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Components D lb/h B lb/h D lbmol/h B lbmol/h
C
3
210 0 4.762 0
i-C
4
630 0 10.843 0
C
4
1027.25 22.75 17.68 0.39
i-C
5
57.25 782.25 0.801 10.85
C
5
0 1470 0 20.388
Total 1925 2275 34.086 31.63
5.2 Dew Point and Bubble Point calculation
1. The distillate and reflux will be a bubble point liquid. The criteria for evaluation of
the bubble point condition are,
1. like an air fin condenser to liquefy the distillate and reflux. The criteria of
drum temperature will be assumed to be 130F ( design temperature for air is
about 120F.
2. the bubble point design equation with temperature specified
0 . 1 = E
i i
x K
Average molecular weight of distillate
Components x
id
Ki
C
3
0.1397 2.1
i-C
4
0.3181 1.0
C
4
0.5187 0.73
i-C
5
0.0235 0.33
C
5
0 0.27
For fixed temperature of 130F bubble point pressure is to be determined.
( ) 46 . 56 . . = - E wt mol x
id
998 . 0 = E
iD i
x K
Pestimated = Pi-c
4
= 120 lb/in
2
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00 . 1
998 . 0 120-
=
calculated
P
= 119.7 lb/in
2
(abs)
The result of distillate bubble point calculation is ,
T = 130
0
F
P = 120 lb/in2
The condition at the top of the column must be evaluated , since the fractionator has a
total concentration and an equilibrium stage. The criteria for evaluation of the dew
point condition are :
Assumption of the pressure drop through the total condenser of 2.5 lb/in
2
.Thus the
pressure at the top of the column is established as ,
P = 120 lb/in
2
+ 2.5 lb/in
2
P = 122.5 lb/in
2
Dew point
0 . 1 =
|
|
.
|

\
|

i
i
k
y
P
lk
=122.5 lb/in
2
,T= 132
0
F
Components y
i
K
i,132
0
F
K
i,145
0
F
C
3
0.1397 2,20 2.40
i-C
4
0.3181 1.00 1.15
C
4
0.5187 0.73 0.85
i-C
5
0.0235 0.35 0.42
C
5
0.0000 0.28 0.33
For T =132
0
F
0 . 1 =
|
|
.
|

\
|

i
i
k
y

K
ic4
= 1.160 and T
cal
=145
0
F
For T =145
0
F
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 20
0 . 1 =
|
|
.
|

\
|

i
i
k
y
The result of column top dew point calculation.
T =145
0
F
P = 122.5 lb/in
2
The column bottom condition, Column P =5 lb/in
2
The column bottom pressure,
P = 122.5 + 5.0 = 127.5 lb/in
2
The bubble point design equation
K
i
X
i
=1.0
Components B(mol)
X
C
3
0 0
i-C
4
0 0
C
4
0.392 0.0124
i-C
5
10.85 0.3430
C
5
20.388 0.6446
31.63 1.00

Average molecular wt. =
63 . 31
22750
=71.93
The characteristic component is i-c
5
an estimated bottom temperature is obtained ,
Components Xi K
i,238
0
F
K
i,215
0
F
C
3
0 3.8 4.5
i-C
4
0 3.55 2.65
C
4
0.0124 1.925 2.05
i-C
5
0.3430 1.0 1.075
C
5
0.6446 0.87 0.94
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 21
For T = 238
0
F
K
i
X
i
=0.927
K
HK
= 1.08, T
cal
=245
0
F
For T =245
0
F
K
i
X
i
=1.00
The result of column bottom bubble point calculation
T =245
0
F
P =127.5 lb/in
2
5.3 Determination of the key component
Using the heavy key as column reference key. The separation is clearly between
butane and isopentane.
Reference component =i-C
5
Key component,
LK =C
4
HK =iC
5
The average relative volatility data for the column will be generated using three-point
geometric average
( )
3
3 2 1
o o o o - - =
avg
Point 1 top of fractionation column
Point 2 at the reboiler
Point 3 arithmetic mean of condition at 1 & 3
T
2
= 0.5 [ T
1
+ T
2
] = 0.5 [ T
1
+ T
2
]
T
2
= 0.5 [ 145 + 245 ] = 195
0
F
P
2
= 0.5 [ P
1
+ P
3
] = 0.5 [ 122.5 +127.5 ]
P
2
= 125 lb/in
2
variable Point 1 Point 2 Point 3
T
o
F 145 195 245
P lb/in
2
122.5 125 127.5
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 22
Components Point 1 Point 2 Point 3
K
i

i
K
i

i
K
i

avg
C
3
2.4 5.71 3.35 4.93 4.5 4.19 4.9
i-C
4
1.15 2.74 1.75 2.57 2.5 2.37 2.56
C
4
0.85 2.02 1.35 1.99 2.05 1.91 1.97
i-C
5
0.24 1.00 0.68 1.00 1.075 1.00 1.00
C
5
0.33 0.79 0.58 0.85 0.94 0.87 0.84
5.4 Shortcut Method
5.4.1 Minimum stages at total reflux-the Fenske equation,
( )
LK avg
B
Lk
HK
D
HK
LK
m
x
x
x
x
N
,
ln
ln
o

)

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
F
i
= b
i
+ d
i
( ) ( )
avg mean avg i i i
r
r
N
avg i
i
d b
b
d
b
d
, , ,
, . for ..
min
o o o , (
|
|
.
|

\
|
- =

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
m
N
avg HK
avg i
HK
i
i
b
d
f
b
,
,
1
o
o
or when
i i
d b , ,
meanavg avg i
o o (
,

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
m
N
avg i
avg LK
LK
i
i
d
b
f
d
,
,
1
o
o
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 23
| | 97 . 1 ln
0124 . 0
343 . 0
0235 . 0
5187 . 0
ln

|
.
|

\
|
-
|
.
|

\
|
=
m
N
461 . 9 =
m
N
( )
2
, , avg LK avg HK
mean
o o
o
+
=

( )
2
00 . 1 97 . 1 +
=
= 1.485
For propane,C
3
mean C
o o ,
3
762 . 4
90 . 4
3
3
=
=
C
C
f
o

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
461 . 9
00 . 1
90 . 4
850 . 10
801 . 0
1
762 . 4
3
C
b

h mol d
h mol
C
/ 762 . 4 0 . 0 762 . 4
/ 10 9 . 1
3
5
= =
- =

For isobutene(i-C
4
)
843 . 10
56 . 2
4
4
4
,
,
=
=
,
iC
C i
mean C i
f
o
o o

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
461 . 9
1
56 . 2
850 . 0
801 . 0
1
843 . 10
4
iC
b
h mol / 02 . 0 =
823 . 10
4
=
iC
d
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 24
For butane (C
4
)
,
072 . 18
97 . 1
4
4
,
=
=
,
C
C
mean avg i
f
o
o o

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
461 . 9
00 . 1
97 . 1
85 . 10
801 . 0
1
072 . 18
4
C
b
h mol d
d
h mol b
C
C
C
/ 688 . 17
392 . 0 072 . 18
/ 392 . 0
4
4
4
=
=
=
For isopentane (i-C
5
)
meanavg iC
iC iC
h mol f
o o
o
(
= =
5
5 5
/ 651 . 11 , 00 . 1
Hence,

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
461 . 9
00 . 1
97 . 1
68 . 17
392 . 0
1
651 . 11
5
iC
d
h mol b
h mol d
iC
iC
/ 85 . 10 801 . 0 651 . 11
/ 801 . 0
5
5
= =
=
For pentane (C
5
),
h mol b
h mol d
d
C
C
C
meanavg C
C
/ 1053 . 20
/ 285 . 0
84 . 0
97 . 1
68 . 17
392 . 0
1
388 . 20
84 . 0
5
5
5
5
5
461 . 9
=
=

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(
=
o o
o
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 25
The calculated data in the table ,
Components F
i
(lbmol/h) D
i
(lbmol/h) B
i
(lbmol/h)
C
3
4.762 4.762 0
i-C
4
10.834 10.823 0.02
C
4
18.072 17.680 0.392
i-C
5
11.652 0.801 10.850
C
5
20.388 0.285 20.103
Total 65.716 34.351 31.365
Checking ,
Maximum 3wt% of iC
5
in the distillate,
% 977 . 2
100
46 . 56
1 . 72
351 . 34
801 . 0
wt =
- |
.
|

\
|
- |
.
|

\
|
=
Maximum of 1 wt% C
4
in the bottom,
% 01 . 1
100
93 . 71
1 . 58
365 . 31
392 . 0
wt =
- |
.
|

\
|
- |
.
|

\
|
=
The set of specification were not met. The parameter reevaluated,
Again performing same calculations
Components F
i
(lb/h) D
i
(lb/h) B
i
(lb/h)
C
3
210 210 0
i-C
4
630 628.84 1.16
C
4
1050 1050-x x
i-C
5
840 y 840-y
C
5
1470 20.55 1449.45
Total 1909.39-x+y 2290.61+x-y
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 26
36 . 58
55 . 22
61 . 2290 100
1
39 . 1909 100
3
=
=
+
=
+
=
y
x
y x
x
y x
y
Components F
i
(lb/h) D
i
(lb/h) B
i
(lb/h)
C
3
210 210 0
i-C
4
630 628.84 1.16
C
4
1050 1027,45 22.55
i-C
5
840 58.36 781.64
C
5
1470 20.55 1449.45
Total 4200 1945.20 2245.80
Components F(lbmol/h) D(lbmol/h) B(lbmol/h)
C3 4.762 4.762 0
i-c4 10.834 10.823 0.02
C4 18.072 17.680 0.392
i-c5 11.652 0.801 10.850
C5 20.388 0.285 20.103
Total 65.716 34.351 31.365
Column operating condition
Distillate bubble point calculation on with temperature specified at 130
0
F
Components D (lbmol/h) K
120
(lb/in
2
)
C
3
4.762 2.10
i-C
4
10.823 1.0
C
4
17.680 0.73
i-C
5
0.801 0.33
C
5
0.285 0.27
Total 34.351
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 27
992 . 0
363 . 34
076 . 34
00 . 1
= =
= =

i i
i i
i i
x K
D
d K
x K
Condition of the distillate/reflux before 130
0
F & 120 lb/in
2
.overhead or column top
conditions are found by dew point calculation at the specified pressure of 122.5lb/in
2
Components D (lbmol/h) K
145
0
F
K
148
0
F
C
3
4.762 2.4 2.425
i-C
4
10.823 1.16 1.175
C
4
17.680 0.84 0.87
i-C
5
0.801 0.42 0.425
C
5
0.285 0.33 0.34


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 0 . 1
D
K
d
K
y
i
i
i
i
For T=145
0
F,

= = 018 . 1
363 . 34
99 . 34
i
i
K
y
; K=1.175, T
cal
=148
0
F.
For T=148
0
F,
997 . 0
363 . 34
243 . 34
= =

i
i
K
y
Conditions of column overhead are revised to 148
0
F and 122.5lb/in
2
.column bottom
conditions are found by way of bubble point calculation.
Components B(lbmol/h) K
245
0
F
C
3
0 4.5
i-C
4
0.02 2.55
C
4
0.392 2.05
i-C
5
10.850 1.075
C
5
20.103 0.94
Total 31.365
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 28
Design equation,


= = 00 . 1
B
b K
x K
i i
i i
For T =245
0
F

= = 00 . 1
393 . 31
398 . 31
i i
x K
At column midpoint condition,
| |
| |
2
0
/ 125 5 . 127 5 . 122 5 . 0
5 . 196 245 148 5 . 0
in lb P
F T
= + - =
= + - =
Summery of operating condition,
Point 1 Point 2 Point 3
Temperature 148 196.5 245
Pressure lb/in
2
(abs) 122.5 125 127.5
Equilibrium K data for column midpoint condition,
Point 1 Point 2 Point 3
Components K
i
o
i
K
i
o
i K
i
o
i
avg i,
o
C
3
2.425 5.71 3.4 4.86 4.5 4.19 4.88
i-C
4
1.175 2.76 1.8 2.57 2.55 2.37 2.56
C
4
0.87 2.05 1.38 1.97 2.05 1.91 1.98
i-C
5
0.425 1.00 0.7 1.0 1.075 1.0 1.0
C
5
0.34 0.8 0.6 0.86 0.94 0.87 0.84
Fenske equation
391 . 9
00 . 1
98 . 1
ln
388 . 0
842 . 10
809 . 0
684 . 17
ln
=

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
m
m
N
N
Separation of non key component,
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 29
( )
49 . 1
2
1.00 1.98

2
, ,
=
+
=
+
=
avg LK avg HK
mean
o o
o
mol/h 092 . 20 b ; mol/h 292 . 0 d
mol/h 388 . 20 f ; 84 . 0
) (C Pentane
mol/h 809 . 0 d ; mol/h 842 . 10 b
mol/h 651 . 11 f ; 00 . 1
) C - (i tan
/ 684 . 17 d ; mol/h 388 . 0 b
mol/h 072 . 18 f ; 98 . 1
) (C Butane
h mol/ 822 . 10 d ; /h mol 021 . 0 b
/h mol 843 . 10 f ; 56 . 2
) C - (i Isobutane
mol/h 762 . 4 00 . 0 762 . 4 d
mol/h 0.00 mol/h 10 188 . 2
00 . 1
88 . 4
842 . 10
809 . 0
1
762 . 4
/ 762 . 4 f ; 88 . 4
) (C ropane
C5 C5
C5 C5
5
C5 - i C5 - i
C5 - i iC5
5
C4 C4
C4 C4
4
iC4 iC4
iC4 iC4
4
3 3 C3
5
391 . 9
3
C3 C3
3
lb lb
lb
lb lb
lb
e Isopen
h lbmol lb
lb lb
lb
lb b f
lb lb b
h mol
P
C C
C
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= = =
~ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
= =

o
o
o
o
o
Components Feed (lbmol/h) Distillate (lbmol/h) Bottom (lbmol/h)
C
3
4.762 4.762 0.000
i-C
4
10.843 10.822 0.021
C
4
18.072 17.684 0.3880
i-C
5
11.651 0.809 10.842
C
5
20.388 0.292 20.096
Total 65.716 34.369 31.347
Maximum value of 3 wt % of i-C
5
in distillate is required
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 30
Calculated value =
% wt 3
100
49 . 56
1 . 72
369 . 34
809 . 0
=

Maximum value of 1 wt % of C
4
in bottom is required
Calculated value
% wt 1
100
91 . 63
1 . 58
347 . 31
388 . 0
=
=
Conditions are satisfied
5.4.2 Component split by Winn equation
The Fenske equation has a weakness, as the relative volatility difference between
column top and bottom increase, the estimated minimum number of stages gets
increasingly too small.
( ) ( )

=
460
1
460
1
ln ln
bottom top
bottom i top i
i
T T
PK PK
B
( )
460
ln
+
+ =
T
B
A PK
i
i i
( )
( )
1
10
-
=
i r HK i
P
A A
i
u u
|
r
i
i
B
B
= u
Components K
Top;148 F
K
bottom;245 F
C
3
2.425 4.50
i-C
4
1.175 2.55
C
4
0.87 2.05
i-C
5
0.425 1.075
C
5
0.34 0.94
For P=125 lb/in
2
For butane (C
4
)
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 31
( ) ( )
55059 . 4
460 148
) 27 . 1263 (
) 425 . 2 5 . 122 log(
27 . 1263
460 245
1
460 148
1
5 . 4 5 . 127 log 425 . 2 5 . 122 log
4
4
=
+

=
=

+

=
C
C
A
B
Heavy component is iso-pentane( i-C
5
)
( ) ( )
95582 . 4
460 148
) 71 . 1857 (
) 425 . 0 5 . 122 log(
68001 . 0
71 . 7 185
27 . 1263
71 . 1857
460 245
1
460 148
1
075 . 1 5 . 127 log 425 . 0 125 log
5
4
5
=
+

=
=

=
=

+

=

C i
C
C i
A
A
B
u

( )
( )
31134 . 4
) 125 ( 10
10
) 1 68001 . 0 ( ) 95582 . 4 55059 . 4 (
1
=
=
=

-
i r HK i
P
A A
i
u u
|
Components B
i
A
i

i
C
3
-1263.27 4.5509 0.68001 4.3113
i-C
4
-1563.77 4.73016 0.84177 2.4069
C
4
-1721.67 4.8593 0.92677 1.91988
i-C
5
-1857.71 4.9558 10.0000 1.0000
C
5
-2028.40 4.9558 1.09189 0.86704
| |
533 . 9
91988 . 1 log
) 369 . 34 / 809 . 0 (
) 347 . 34 / 842 . 10 (
) 347 . 31 / 388 . 0 (
) 369 . 34 / 684 . 17 (
log
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
m
m
N
N
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 32
( )
abvg
1
b d component | |
|
u u
, ,
|
.
|

\
|
- |
.
|

\
|
=

or light if
D
B
d
b
b
d
HK
N
i
i
m

+
=
+
= , (
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
d
b
1
f
d
2
; d b key, heavy
1
avg
HK LK
if
b
d
f
b
| |
| | |
( ) component light propane for
5
0.32 0.68
9.533
10 1.976
0.91207 13.402
4.311
b
d
=
-
=
762 . 4
00 . 0
10 976 . 1 1
762 . 4
5
=
=
=
+
=
b f d
b
For isobutene (i-C
4
)
f =10.843, =0.842, =2.407 (light component)
l/h 10.821lbmo
0.022 10.843 d
/h 0.022lbmol
494.15 1
10.843
b
494.15
0.91207 13.402
2.407
b
d
0.8417 1 0.8417
9.533
=
=
=
+
=
=
-
=

Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 33
For Butane (C
4
)
f =18.072, =1.91988,=0.92677
/h 0.388lbmol
45.577 1
18.072
b
45.577
0.91207 13.402
1.91988
b
d
0.92677 1 0.92677
9.533
=
+
=
=
-
=

d=18.072-0.388
=17.684 lbmol/h
For Isopentane (C
5
)
f =11.651; =1.00 ; =1.00
1 1 1
533 . 9
91207 . 0 402 . 13
0000 . 1

-
=
b
d
=0.07461
<
avg

) 07461 . 0 / 1 ( 1
651 . 11
+
= d
= 0.809 lbmol/h
b = 11.651-0.809
=10.842 lbmol/h
For Pentane (C
5
)
f =20.388 lbmol/h ;= 0.86704 ; =1.09189
09189 . 1 1 09189 . 1
533 . 9
91207 . 0 402 . 13
86704 . 0

-
=
b
d
=0.014959
<
avg
) 014959 . 0 / 1 ( 1
388 . 20
+
= d
= 0.300 lb mol/h
b=20.388-0.3
=20.088
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 34
Components Feed lbmol/h Distillate lbmol/h Bottom lbmol/h
C
3
4.762 4.762 0.00
i-C
4
10.843 10.821 0.022
C
4
18.072 17.684 0.388
i-C
5
11.651 0.809 10.842
C
5
20.388 0.3 20.088
65.716 34.376 31.34
Components Feed lb/h Distillate lb/h Bottom lb/h
C
3
210 210 0.00
i-C
4
630 628.72 1.28
C
4
1050 1027.45 22.57
i-C
5
840 58.36 781.64
C
5
1470 21.63 1448.348
4200 194602 2253.818
5.4.3 Calculation of R
m
From Underwood equation
q
x
i
iF i
=

-
E 1
u o
o
Components F,lbmol/hr x
if
x
id

i
C
3
4.762 0.0725 0.1386 4.88
i-C
4
10.843 0.1650 0.3149 2.56
C
4
18.072 0.2750 0.5145 1.98
i-C
5
11.651 0.1773 0.02335 1.00
C
5
20.388 0.3102 0.0085 0.84
65.716 1.000 1.000
Feed is at boiling conditions, since q =1
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 35
0
84 . 0
3102 . 0 84 . 0
1
1773 . 0 1
98 . 1
2750 . 0 98 . 1
56 . 2
1650 . 0 56 . 2
88 . 4
0725 . 0 88 . 4
=

u u u u u
=1.284
from this value of


-
= +
u o
o
avg i
id avg i
m
x
R
,
,
1
1
1.284 84 . 0
0085 . 0 84 . 0
1.284 1
0235 . 0 1
1.284 98 . 1
5145 . 0 98 . 1
1.284 56 . 2
3149 . 0 56 . 2
1.284 88 . 4
1386 . 0 88 . 4
+ =

m
R
R
m
=1.185
R=1.5 R
m
=1.51.185
=1.7775
X=
1 +

R
R R
m
X=
1 7775 . 1
185 . 1 7775 . 1
+

=0.2133
From GillilandS correlation Y=
1 +

N
N N
m
=0.42
We know the value of N
m
42 . 0
1
533 . 9
=
+

N
N
N=17.8 =18 stages
Feed location can be known by the use of Kirkbride equation

|
|
.
|

\
|
- =
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
) 376 . 34 / 809 . 0 (
) 34 . 31 / 388 . 0 (
) / 072 . 18 (
) / 651 . 11 (
376 . 34
34 . 31
206 . 0 log
F
F
p
m
68789 . 0 =
p
m
8 . 17 = + p m
m = 7.25=8
p =10.54 =11
Feed is introduced on eight stage from top
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 36
Chapter- 6
PACKED COLUMN DESIGN
6.1 Stage Analysis
The data shown in table are typical data generated by commercial simulation
Vapor liquid Stage Temperature
0
F lb/hr CFS
.ft
3
/s
V
p
lb/ft
3
Lb/hr GPM
gal/min
L
p
,
dyne/cm
,
cP
1 134.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 3655 14.23 32.02 6.867 0.114
2 147.4 5501 1.2050 1.2683 3720 14.47 32.04 6.738 0.1132
3 154.8 5566 1.2049 1.2831 3724 14.47 32.08 6.699 0.1128
4 160.9 5571 1.1987 1.2909 3707 14.38 32.14 6.684 0.1130
5 166.8 5553 1.1889 1.2974 3693 14.30 32.20 6.665 0.1135
6 172.6 5539 1.1794 1.3045 3689 14.26 32.24 6.632 0.1142
7 177.9 5535 1.1716 1.3122 3691 14.26 32.26 6.590 0.1149
8 182.4 5537 1.1650 1.3199 8032 31.0471 32.26 6.544 0.1156
9 187.3 5678 1.1794 1.3373 8126 31.42 32.24 6.507 0.1153
10 191.7 5772 1.1871 1.3506 8201 31.71 32.24 6.479 0.1151
11 196.1 5847 1.1915 1.3631 8275 32.01 32.23 6.447 0.1152
12 201.0 5921 1.1946 1.3768 8360 32.35 32.22 6.406 0.1156
13 206.4 6006 1.2152 1.3928 8475 32.74 32.20 6.348 0.1162
14 212.2 6103 1.2013 1.4111 8574 33.21 32.18 6.295 0.1170
15 217.9 6220 1.2070 1.4310 8701 33.74 32.15 6.236 0.1180
16 223.2 6347 1.2148 1.4512 8829 34.28 32.11 6.178 0.1191
17 228.0 6475 1.2234 1.4701 8947 34.77 32.08 6.128 0.1201
18 232.1 6593 1.2317 1.4868 2354 9.1599 32.04 6.087 0.1212
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 37
6.2 Flood Point
1.5 inch pall ring will be used throughout the column for this packing the flood point can
be determined by interpolation.
- A-flood point by GPDC [generalized pressure drop correlation] interpolation.
2
2
. /
6593
. /
5571
ft hr lb
A
G
ft hr lb
A
G
T
Bottom
T
Top
=
=
- Liquid flowrates (
2
. / ft hr lb )
L
Top
=
T
A
3724
L
Bottom
=
T
A
8947
- Vapor density,(
3
/ ft lb )

4868 . 1
3199 . 1
,
,
=
=
Bottom G
Top G
p
p
- Liquid density, (
3
/ ft lb )
24 . 32
26 . 32
,
,
=
=
Bottom L
Top L
p
p
1. Flow parameter,
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
G
LV

G
L
F
Top
0.5
LV
32.28
1.3199
5571
3724
F
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
135211 . 0 F
LV
=
Bottom
LV
F = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
24 . 32
4868 , 1
6593
8947
= 0.29142
2. Capacity parameter , from graphical correlation
Top =1.52
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 38
Bottom =1.19
3. Viscosity of the liquid
L
u (cP)
Top
L
u =0.1128 (cP)
Bottom
L
u =0.1151 (cP)
4. Kinematic viscosity ( ) u
u =
( )
L
L
p
u - 4 . 62
Top v =
( )
26 . 32
1128 . 0 4 . 62 -
Topu = 0,218187
Bottom u =
( )
24 . 32
1151 . 0 4 . 62 -
Bottom u = 0.22277
5. Packing factor (
1
ft )
Top F
P
= 40
Bottom F
P
= 40
6. Vapour capacity factor ,C
SFI
,(ft/s)
Capacity parameter = C
SFI
- F
P
0.5
- u
0.05
Top
( )
05 . 0 5 . 0
SFI
2181 . 0 40
92 . 1
C
-
=
Top
SFI
C =0.2593
Bottom
( )
05 . 0 5 . 0
SFI
2181 . 0 40
19 . 1
C
-
=
Bottom 2028 . 0 C
SFI
=
6.3 Flood point by the Kister & Gill correlation
1.
FT
P A packed bed specific pressure drop at flood point
FT
P A =0.115
7 . 0
P
F -
Top
FT
P A =0.115
7 . 0
40 -
=1.521
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 39
Bottom
FT
P A =1.521 inch of H
2
O per ft
2. Flow parameter
Top F
LV
=0.135211
Bottom F
LV
=0.29142
3. Capacity parameter at flood point ,
Top =1.52
Bottom = 1.19
4. C
SFl
, vapor capacity factor at the flood point,
C
SFl
= capacity parameter
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
-
05 . 0 5 . 0
1
v
P
F
Top C
SFl
=0.2593
Bottom C
SFl
=0.2028
6.4 Diameter calculation
1. Vapor capacity factor C
s
design (nonderated) ft/s,
The column will be designed for 75% flood capacity
SFl S
C C - = 75 . 0
Top C
S
= 0.75- 0.2593
=0.194475
Bottom C
S
= 0.75- 02028
Bottom C
S
= 0.1551
2. C
S
vapor capacity factor (derated ),ft/s
= 0.9- C
S,design
Top C
S
= 0.9- 0.1944
Top C
S
=0.17496
Bottom C
S
=0.9- 0.1521
Bottom C
S
=0.13689
3. Vapor superficial velocity based on the cross section of empty column u ,(ft/s)
( )
G L
G
s
s

(derated) C
u

=
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 40
Top
s
u =
( ) 3199 . 1 26 . 32
3199 . 1
17496 . 0

Top
s
u =0.84737
Bottom
s
u =
( ) 4868 . 1 24 . 32
4868 . 1
13689 . 0

Bottom
s
u = 0.62257
4. Vapor flow rate CFS ,ft
3
/s
Top CFS =1.205 ft
3
/s
Bottom CFS =1.2316 ft
3
/sfrom table
5. Tower area ,ft
2
A
T
=
s
T
u
CFS
A =
Top A
T
=
84737 . 0
205 . 1
Top A
T
=1.422 ft
2
Bottom A
T
=
62257 . 0
2316 . 1
Bottom A
T
=1.9782 ft
2
6. Tower diameter ,ft
1.587ft D

1.9782 4
D
1.3455ft D

1.422 4
D

A 4
Bottom T,
Bottom T,
Top T,
Top T,
T
T
=
|
.
|

\
| -
=
=
|
.
|

\
| -
=
|
.
|

\
| -
= D
6.5 Diameter calculation using the maximum pressure drop criterion.
1.
L
G
p
p
calculation
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 41
Top
L
G
p
p
=
26 . 32
3199 , 1
= 0.0409
Bottom
L
G
p
p
=
24 . 32
4868 . 1
= 0.04611
2.
O H
L
2
p
p
calculation
Top (
O H L
2
/ p p )=
43 . 62
26 . 32
= 0.5167
Bottom (
O H L
2
/ p p ) =
43 . 62
24 . 32
= 0.5164
3. F
P
packing factor
Top F
P
= 40
Bottom F
P
=40
4. Maximum pressure drops recommended for packed column with random packing.
..... ,......... 19 . 0
2
7 . 0
max
|
|
.
|

\
|
- - = A
O H
L
P
F P
p
p
.for 0.06 2 . 0 ( (
L
G
p
p
Top
max
P A = 0.19 5167 . 0 40
7 . 0
- -
Top
max
P A = 1.2984....in H
2
O per ft
Bottom
max
P A = 0.19 5164 . 0 40
7 . 0
- -
Bottom
max
P A =1.2977...in H
2
O per ft
5. Surface tension , ( ) dyne o
Top o =6.544 cm dyne /
Bottom o =6.128 cm dyne /
6. Vapor capacity factor C
s,max
(ft/s)
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 42
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
- = A
o
P
s
F
C P
33
4 . 2
max max
Top ,1.2984 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
-
544 . 6
40 33
4 . 2
max s
C
Top
max s
C =0.2634
Bottom 1.2977 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
-
-
128 . 6
40 33
4 . 2
max s
C
Bottom
max s
C =0.25628
7. Maximum vapor superficial velocity u
smax
max s
C = u
smax
|
|
.
|

\
|

-
G L
G
p p
p
Top u
smax
=
3199 . 1 26 . 32
3199 , 1
2634 . 0

= 1.2752
Bottom u
smax
=
4868 . 1 24 . 32
4868 . 1
2562 . 0

=1.1651 ft/s
8. Tower area A
T
(ft
2
)
A
T
=
smax
u
CFS
Top, A
T
=
2752 . 1
205 . 1
Top, A
T
=0.9449
Bottom, A
T
=
1651 . 1
2316 . 1
= 1.057 ft
2
9. Tower diameter (ft)
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 43
( )
t
T
A 4-
=
T
D
Top
T
D =1.09685 ft
Bottom
T
D =1.16 ft
The flood point and the maximum pressure drop criteria gave comparable tower
diameter. The more conservative criteria gives diameter of 1.34 and 1.58 ft for top and
bottom sections of tower respectively. As the diameter for the top and bottom sections
are not much different.The preliminary column diameter is the larger for the two
column section i.e. 1.58 ft.This diameter is normally rounded to the next nearest half
foot.A diameter of 1.58 is for closer to 1.58 than 2ft.The column is operated at high
pressure shells are expensive.Therefore the preliminary column diameter 2ft.
6.6 Bed height calculation ,
1. Packing diameter d
P
,in
Top d
P
= 1.5 in
Bottom d
P
=1.5 in
2.Tower diameter ,D
T,
ft
Top D
T
= 2 ft
Bottom D
T
=2 ft
3.Ratio of
|
.
|

\
|
12
d
D
T
T
Top
|
.
|

\
|
12
d
D
T
T
=
5 . 1
2 12-
=16
Bottom
|
.
|

\
|
12
d
D
T
T
=
5 . 1
2 12-
=16
4.HETP, ft height equivalent to theoretical plate
HETP =
P
d - 5 . 1 (for pall rings)
Top, HETP = 25 . 2 5 . 1 5 . 1 = - ft
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 44
Bottom HETP = 25 . 2 5 . 1 5 . 1 = - ft
5.Number of stages,
Top N = 8
Bottom N = 10
6.Total packed height ,
HETP N Z - =
Top 18 25 . 2 8 = - = Z ft
Bottom 5 . 22 25 . 2 10 = - = Z ft
6.7 Column sizing, second trial
1.Tower diameter
Top D
T
= 2 ft
Bottom D
T
= 2 ft
2.Packing diameter d
P
,in
Top,d
P
=1.5in
Bottom, dP =1.5in
3.Tower area ,A
T
4
2
T
T
D
A
-
=
t
Top
4
2
2
-
=
t
T
A
=3.1415 ft
2
Bottom,
4
2
2
-
=
t
T
A
=3.1415 ft
2
4.Vapor flowrate, CFS ,ft
3
/s
Top CFS = 1.205 ft
3
/s
Botttom CFS =1.2316 ft
3
/s
5.Vapor superficial velocity u
s,
ft/s
design
T
s
A
CFS
u =
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 45
Top 3835 . 0
1415 . 3
205 . 1
= =
s
u ft/s
Bottom 3920 . 0
1415 . 3
2316 . 1
= =
s
u ft/s
6. Vapor capacity factor C
s
,ft/s
Top
s
C = u
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

-
G L
G
p p
p
Top
s
C =0.3835
|
.
|

\
|

-
3199 . 1 26 . 32
3199 . 1
Top
s
C = 0.079209 ft/s
Botttom
s
C =0.3920
|
.
|

\
|

-
4868 . 1 24 . 32
4868 . 1
Botttom
s
C =0.08619 ft/s
6.8 Average bed pressure drop calculation
Most method for pressure drop calculation assume the column handles a
nonuniform mixture, they do not strictly apply to the high pressure column.
1. P A calculation in H
2
O per ft
P A =
o
4 . 2 5 . 0
33
s P
C F
P
- -
A
Top P A =
544 . 6
0792 . 0 40 33
4 . 2 5 . 0
- -
= 0.07255 .in H
2
O per ft Bottom
P A =0.0949...in H
2
O per ft
2. Stage 8 & 9 calculation ,
Top 3199 . 1 =
G
p lb/ft
3
Bottom 3373 . 1 =
G
p lb/ft
3
Top =
L
p 32.26 lb/ft
3
Bottom 24 . 32 =
L
p lb/ft
3
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 46
3.CFS vapor flowrate ,ft
3
/s
Top CFS = 1.1652 ft
3
/s
Bottom CFS =1.17944 ft
3
/s

4.A
T
tower area ,ft
2
Top A
T
=3.1415 ft
2
Bottom A
T
=3.1415 ft
2
5.Superficial Velocity u
s
ft/s

T
s
A
CFS
u =

ft/s 0.3754
3.1415
1.17944
u Bottom
ft/s 0.3708
3.1415
1.1652
u Top
s
s
= =
= =
6.C
s
Vapor Capacity factor
ft/s 07809 . 0
3373 . 1 24 . 32
3373 . 1
3754 . 0 C Bottom
ft/s 0758 . 0
3199 . 1 26 . 32
3199 . 1
3708 . 0 C
s
s
=

=
=

=
Top
u C
G L
G
s s
p p
p
7.Surface Tension () of liquid dyne/cm
Top = 6.544 dyne/cm
Bottom = 6.507 dyne/cm
8.Packing Factor (F
P
)
Top F
P
= 40
Bottom F
P
= 40
9.P, in of H
2
O per ft
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 47

0705 . 0
507 . 6
07809 . 0 40 33
06529 . 0
544 . 6
0758 . 0 40 33

C F 33
P
4 . 2 5 . 0
4 . 2 5 . 0
2.4
s
0.5
P
=

= A
=

= A

=
P Bottom
P Top
10.Average P , in of water per ft
2 5 . 0 5 . 0
) 5 . 0 5 . 0 (
bottom top
P P P A + A = A
| |
2
5 ;. 0 5 . 0
06529 . 0 5 . 0 07255 . 0 5 . 0 - + - = AP
Top P A = 0.06887 in water per ft.
Bottom P A =| |
2
5 . 0 5 . 0
0705 . 0 5 . 0 0949 . 0 5 . 0 - + -
P A =0.0822 in water per ft
6.9 Maximum pressure drop by interpolation
1.F
lv
= flow parameter
Top F
lv
=0.135211
Bottom F
lv
= 0.29142
2.C
s
vapor capacity factor ft/s
Top C
s
=0.079209
Bottom C
s
= 0.08619
3.v kinematic capacity ,C
s
Top v =0.218187
Bottom v =0.22277
4.F
P
= packing factor ,ft
-1
Top, F
P
= 40
Bottom F
P
=40
5.Capacity parameter at design,
05 . 0 5 . 0
P
F v - - =
S
C
Top = 0.4642
Bottom =0.5056
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 48
6. P A at design in H
2
O per ft,
P A
top
= 0.08 in H
2
O per ft = 0.08
P A
bottom
= 0.09 in H
2
O per ft = 0.09
6.10.Minimum wetting rate
1.GPM at design
Top =31.037 gal/min For 8
th
& 9
th
stages
Bottom = 31.42 gal/min
2.GPM turndown
GPM - = 6 . 0
Top = 18.622 gal/min
Bottom = 18.852 gal/min
As 60% of turndown expected
3.GPM/ft
2
at turndown
Top
1415 . 3
622 . 18
= = 5.92
Bottom = 0077 . 6
1415 . 3
852 . 18
=
Since these rates are well above 3GPM/ft
2
the column operate well above minimum
wetting.
6.11 Total pressure drop
1.P average in H
2
O per ft
Top = 0.06887
Bottom = 0.0822
Top total P = P- top height
= 0.06887- 18
= 1.23966 in H
2
O
Bottom P = 0.0822- 22.5
= 1.849 in H
2
O
2.Total packing pressure drop = 1.849 +1.23966
= 3.089 in H
2
O
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 49
6.12 Design column summery
1.Tower diameter ,(ft)
Top = 2 ft
Bottom = 2 ft
2.Number of packed beds
Top = 1
Bottom =1
3.Total packed height,ft
Top = 1.5 in metallic pall
R
ring(M)
Bottom = 1.5 in 1.5 in metallic pall
R
ring(M)
6.13 Percentage flood ,%
C
SFl,derated
= 0.9- C
SFl,
Top = 0.9- 0.2593
= 0.23337
Bottom = 0.9- 0.2028
= 0.18252
% flood =
derated SFl
s
C
design C
,
100
-
-
Top % flood =
23337 . 0
079209 . 0
100-
= 33.94%
Bottom % flood =
18252 . 0
08619 . 0
100-
= 47.22%
6.14 Performance summery
1.% flood ,
Top = 33.94 %
Bottom = 47.22 %
2.Pressure drop, in of H
2
O per ft
Maximum expected
top = 0.07255
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 50
bottom = 0.0949
Maximum allowable,
Top = 1.2984
Bottom = 1.2977
Bed average
Top = 0.06887
Bottom = 0.0822
3.Total bed pressure drop, in of H
2
O
Top =1.23966
Bottom = 1.849
4.Number of theoretical stages
Top = 8
Bottom = 10
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 51
Chapter-7
DETERMINATION OF CONDENSER AND REBOILER
HEAT LOAD
Enthalpy data for calculations of heat load are
Vapor enthalpy Btu/lb at 125 lb/in
2
Component 100F 200F 300F
C
3
307.5 355.0 407.0
i-C
4
277.5 326.0 379.0
C
4
298.0 346.0 400.0
i-C
5
288.0 328.0 382.0
C
5
280.0 336.0 379.0
Liquid Enthalpy Btu/lb
Component 100F 200F 300F
C
3
170.0 228.0 288.0
i-C
4
154.0 212.5 272.5
C
4
160.0 223.0 285.0
i-C
5
148.0 211.0 277.5
C
5
152.5 215.0 280.0
In order to calculate the energy requirement for preheater , the fed bubble point must be
deteremined. Th feed pressure is 125lb/in
2
. the final iteration is summerised below and the
bubble point is at 175
0
F
Component Feed,lbmol/hr K
C
3
4.762 2.9
i-C
4
10.843 1.475
C
4
18.072 1.125
i-C
5
11.651 0.55
C
5
20.388 0.45
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 52

= 00 . 1
i i
x K
The column feed at 172
0
F,the bubble point found by linear interpolation of feed enthalpy at
100
0
F. this last enthalpy is found using the feed rates.
Temperature,
0
F
h
feed
6
10
Btu/hr
100 0.6492
172 0.8364
200 0.9092
For the reflux ratio of 1.7775 calculate the condenser duty, the enthalpy of the distillate
liquid and overhead vapors must be determined at their respective condition
Condenser duty
( ) 1 ) (
130 , 148 ,
+ = R h H Q
liq vap C
The enthalpy data at 100 and 200
0
F were given from that
0
F h
dist
,10
6
Btu/h H
vap,
,10
6
Btu/h
100 0.3088 0.5681
130 0.3444 -
148 - 0.6128
200 0.4275 0.6021
( ) ( ) 1 7775 . 1 10 3444 . 0 6218 . 0
6
+ =
C
Q
= 0.770410
6
Btu/h
An overall energy balance yields the reboiler duty
h
feed,172
+ Q
rebioler
= h
distillate,130
+ Q
condenser
+h
bottom,245
The bottom enthalpy must be found before the reboiler duty. The bottom flow rates are
calculated. The liquid enthalpy is given earlier.
0
F h
bottom
10
6
Btu/h
200 0.4817
245 0.5482
300 0.6294
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 53
0.836210
6
+ Q
reboiler
=0.344410
6
+0.770410
6
+0.548210
6
Q
reboiler
=0.826810
6
Btu/h
The amount of stripping vapor generated by the reboiler is now calculated. The reboiler is
assumed to be equilibrium stage the bottom temperature is 245
0
using the enthalpy data for
the vapour is given above at 200
0
F and 300
0
F the molar enthalpy is calculated from
( )( )
i
vap i
H wt mol y H . .

=
0
F H
bottom
Btu/lbmol
200 23897
245 25426
300 27294
Since the majority of energy supplied to the reboiler is used to generate the stripping vapor,
the vapor rate can be estimated by calculating the latent heat.
= enthalpy of vapor- enthalpy of liquid
vapor enthalpy = 25426 Btu/lbmol
liquid enthalpy =
347 . 31
10 5482 . 0
6

= 17488 Btu/lbmol
= 25426-17488
= 7938 Btu/lbmol
Stripping rate =

reboiler
Q
7983
10 8268 . 0
6

= estimated V
= 103.55 lbmol/h
= 103.5571.722
= 74266.81 lb/hr
Mass balance around the reboiler
B V L + =
= 103.55 + 31.345
=134.8 lbmol/h
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 54
The bubble point and the enthalpy of streamL are needed for the balance. Pressure is 127.5
lb/in
2
and the initial assumed temperature is 245
0
F.
Component
i
L ,lbmol/hr
K
245
K
242
C
3
0 4.5 4.40
i-C
4
0.194 2.55 2.50
C
4
2.556 2.05 2.00
i-C
5
43.098 1.075 1.05
C
5
72.208 0.94 0.92
At 245
0
F ,
016 . 1 056 . 118 / 94 . 119 = =
i i
x K
At 242
0
F,
993 . 0 086 . 118 / 28 . 117 = =
i i
x K
Enthalpy at 242
0
F,
Temperature,
0
F Enthalpy ,Btu/lbmol
200 15336
242 17310
300 20036
Material balance
B V L + = and B=31.347 lbmol/hr
Energy balance
bottom reboiler
h B V Q L . 25426 17310 + = +
Bh
bottom
= 0.5482 10
6
Btu/hr
347 . 31 = V L
17310 L -25426V =-0.278610
6
Solving two equations
5 . 132 = L lbmol/hr
V =101.18 lbmol/hr
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 55
Chapter-8
CALCULATION OF THE THICKNESS OF SHELL AND COST
ESTIMATION
P =150 lb/in
2
= 1.1376 N/mm
2
D
i
= 2ft s
Total column length 52 ft
mm
C
P J f
D P
t
t
sh
322 . 6
137 . 1 85 . 0 95 2
6 . 609 137 . 1
2
=


=
+


=
Weight of head = 370.387 N
Shell thickness at different height
1. Axial stress f
ap
=
( ) C t
Di P
s
4
.
=
( ) 2 322 . 6 4
6 . 609 137 . 1


= 40.09 N
2. for compressive stress due to the weight of shell up to distance X
shell of tion cross
ofshell wt
f
as
sec
=
| |
| |
2 2
2 2
4
4
i o
i o
D D
X D D


=
t
p
t
=
| |
| |
6 2 2
3 2 2
10 6 . 609 244 . 622
10 7 . 7 6 . 609 244 . 622

X
= 7.710
-3
X N/mm
2
3. F
D
compressive stress due to weight of insulation.
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 56
( ) C t
X length unit per insolution of weight
f
S
D

=
m
D t
| | 10 2 322 . 6
077 . 0


=
t
X
= 5.67095 10
-4
X, N/mm
2
4. Compressive stress due to liquid in the column up to height X.
Compressive stresses due to liquid in the column up to height X.
| |
( ) C t D
X packing liquid weight
f
s m
liq

+
=

t

( )
| | 2 322 . 6 6 . 609
407 . 1 11349 . 0

+
=
t
X
= 1.8369 X N/mm
2
| | C t D
X height unit per attachment of weight
f
s m
d

=

t


| | 2 322 . 6 6 . 609
1400 26700

+
t
X
d
f =3.22 +0.1691.X
Total compressive dead weight stress at a height X from equation
( )
22 . 3 . 0142 . 2
22 . 3 1691 . 0 8369 . 1 10 67 . 5 10 7 . 7
4 3
+ =
+ + + + =

X f
X
dx
bending moment due to the wind load,
2
7 . 0
2
0
X D P
M
w
wZ

=

2
62 . 0 1300 7 . 0
2
X
=
= 282.1.X
2
Stream due to the wind load ,
( ) C t D
P X
f
s o
w
wX


=
t
2
4 . 1
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 57

| | 2 322 . 6 24 . 622
1300 4 . 1
2


=
t
X
= 0.2154 N/mm
2
Tensile stress due to the sesmic load
Momentum due to sesmic load


=
2
2
3
3 H
X H X W C
M
SX
( )

+
=
2
2
84 . 15
84 . 15 3
3
18758 14794 8 . 0 X X
M
SX


=
9 . 250
52 . 47
2 . 8947
2
X
X ,Nm
( ) C t D
M
f
s
SX
SX

=
2
0
4
t

( ) 2 322 . 6 24 . 622
4
10
2
3
|
.
|

\
|

=
t
SX
M
=
28 . 1314
SX
M
,N/mm
2
SX
f = 6.8077 X
2

9 . 250
54 . 47 X
, N/mm
2
To determine value of X, combined stresses on the upward side as ,
dx ap SX t
f f f f + =
max
= 22 . 3 0142 . 2 09 . 40 0271 . 0 29 . 1
2
+ X X X
max t
f = 78 . 36 0143 . 2 29 . 1
2
+ X X
The equation
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 58
( ) ( ) | |
0 . 0
4 D
4 . 1
m 0
2
=




all
s
i
s s
w
f
C t
D P
C t
X wts dead
C t D
X P
t t
85 . 0 360 09 . 40 22 . 3 0142 . 2 2154 . 0
2
X X
X = 45.21 m
X = 147 ft
The thickness will be same for the entire height of the column, the compressive stress as
for,
ap dx SX wX C
f f f or f f + =
max ,
= 1.29 09 . 40 22 . 3 0142 . 2 0271 . 0
2
+ + + X X X
= 1.29 87 . 36 9871 . 1
2
+ X X
The tower height is 15.84 m
87 . 36 84 . 15 9871 . 1 84 . 15 29 . 1
2
+ =
C
f
= 251.2 N/mm
2
This is well within the permissible stream for elastic stability.
Cost estimation
From graph ( Appendix -A)
for 24 in diameter packed bed distillation column cost is 9000 $,
.Cost of Packing is 20 $/ft
3
,so
Total volume of packed region in a column is
4
2
L D
V
P

=
t
4
5 . 40 2
2

=
t
P
V
= 127.17 ft
3
Total cost of packing =127.17*20
=2543 $
Total cost of column = 9000+2543
=11543.4 $
Cost in rupees = 11543*50
= 5,77,170 Rs.
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 59
CONCLUSION
Distillation calculation shows the results are feasible, from the literature data.
Number of stages and reflux ratio is slightly varies with the different methods. There are
eighteen theoretical stages 1.1775 are obtained by shortcut method. Relative volatility of
component changes at different stages. By considering this phenomenon the Winn equation
is used for the calculation of component distribution. In the calculation of packed bed,
limitations of pressure co-relations are systematic rather than random. It has been
demonstrated that a co-relation that gives excellent stastical fit to experimental data can
give poor prediction for many situations commonly encountered in industrial practice.
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 60
APPENDIX -A
Distribution coefficients (K=y/x) in light hydrocarbon system, high temperature
ranges.
Figure.1 Depriesters chart
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 61
Cost Of Packed Bed Distillation
Column
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Column diameter,in
C
o
s
t

$

1
0
0
0
Figure 2. Cost of Packed bed distillation column
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 62
APPENDIX B
program fenske
implicit none
real::c1,c2,c3,c4,c5,k1,k2,k3,k4,k5,dlk,bhk,alphalk,a1,b1,f
real::alpha1,alphahk,alpha2,alpha5,d1f,dlkf,dhkf,d2f,d5f,b1f,blkf
real::bhkf,b2f,b5f,f1,flk,fhk,f2,f5,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,bb1,b2,b3,b4,b5
real::dtotal,btotal,xlkd,xhkd,xlkb,xhkb,nmin,z,y,alphalkavg
print*,"type value of mole fraction of component in feed"
read*,c1,c2,c3,c4,c5
print*,"Type the value of feed flow rate"
read*,f
print*,"type value of distribution coefficient of each component"
read*,k1,k2,k3,k4,k5
print*,"Type the fraction of light key component in distillate"
read*,dlk
print*,"Type the fraction of heavy key component in bottom"
read*,bhk
alphalk=k3/k4
alpha1=k1/k4
alpha2=k2/k4
alphahk=k4/k4
alpha5=k5/k4
print*,"alpha1=",alpha1
print*,"alpha2=",alpha2
print*,"alphalk=",alphalk
print*,"alphahk=",alphahk
print*,"alpha5=",alpha5
z=dlk/(1-dlk)
y=bhk/(1-bhk)
a1=log10((1-bhk)/bhk)
b1=log10(z*y)/log10(alphalk)
print*,"a1=",a1
print*,"b1=",b1
d1f=10**(a1)*alpha1**(b1)/(1+10**(a1)*alpha1**(b1))
d2f=10**(a1)*alpha2**(b1)/(1+10**(a1)*alpha2**(b1))
dlkf=10**(a1)*alphalk**(b1)/(1+10**(a1)*alphalk**(b1))
dhkf=10**(a1)*alphahk**(b1)/(1+10**(a1)*alphahk**(b1))
d5f=10**(a1)*alpha1**(b1)/(1+10**(a1)*alpha1**(b1))
print*,"d/f values= ",d1f,d2f,dlkf,dhkf,d5f
b1f=1/(1+10**(a1)*alpha1**(b1))
b2f=1/(1+10**(a1)*alpha2**(b1))
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 63
blkf=1/(1+10**(a1)*alphalk**(b1))
bhkf=1/(1+10**(a1)*alphahk**(b1))
b5f=1/(1+10**(a1)*alpha5**(b1))
print*,"b/f values= ",b1f,b2f,blkf,bhkf,b5f
f1=c1*f
f2=c2*f
flk=c3*f
fhk=c4*f
f5=c5*f
print*,"f1= f2= f3= f4= f5=",f1,f2,flk,fhk,f5
d1=210
d2=630
d3=1027.25
d4=57.75
d5=0
print*,"d1= d2= d3= d4= d5=",d1,d2,d3,d4,d5
bb1=0
b2=0
b3=22.75
b4=782.25
b5=1470
print*,"b1= b2= b3= b4= b5=",bb1,b2,b3,b4,b5
dtotal=d1+d2+d3+d4+d5
btotal=bb1+b2+b3+b4+b5
print*,"dtotal= ",dtotal
print*,"btotal= ",btotal
xlkd=d3/dtotal
xhkd=d4/dtotal
xlkb=b3/btotal
xhkb=b4/btotal
alphalkavg=2.02
nmin=log((xlkd/xhkd)*(xhkb/xlkb))/log(alphalkavg)
print*,"N(min)= ",nmin
end program fenske
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 64
OUTPUT
type value of mole fraction of component in feed
0.075,0.165,0.275,0.1773,0.3102
Type the value of feed flow rate
65.716
type value of distribution coefficient of each component
2.9,1.475,1.125,0.55,0.45
Type the fraction of light key component in distillate
0.5144
Type the fraction of heavy key component in bottom
0.3459
alpha1= 5.272727
alpha2= 2.681818
alphalk= 2.045455
alphahk= 1.000000
alpha5= 8.181818E-01
a1= 2.766936E-01
b1= -8.097797E-01
d/f values= 3.297785E-01 4.596546E-01 5.144000E-01 6.541000E-01
3.297785E-01
b/f values= 6.702214E-01 5.403454E-01 4.856000E-01 3.459000E-01
3.101090E-01
f1= f2= f3= f4= f5= 4.928700 10.843140 18.071900
11.651450 20.385110
d1= d2= d3= d4= d5= 210.000000 630.000000 1027.250000
57.750000 0.000000E+00
b1= b2= b3= b4= b5= 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 22.750000
782.250000 1470.000000
dtotal= 1925.000000
btotal= 2275.000000
N(min)= 9.125515
Project report Design Of Packed Bed Distillation Column
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere 65
References
1.Billet Reinbord , Distillation Engineering Chemical Publishing Co., New York, 19
2. Hines Anthony L., Robert N. Maddox,Mass Transfer Fundamental and Application,
Prentic Hall , New Jersey , 1985
3.Joshi M.V.,Process Equipment Design,3
rd
edition ,Macmillion India Ltd,2004
4.Kister Henry Z.,Distillation Design , McGraw Hill , New York,1989
5.Matley Jay,Modern Cost Engineering Methods and Data,Vol II ,McGraw Hill
publications,NY,1984
6. Perry Robert H., Green Don W., James O, Malony,Perrys Chemical Engineering
Handbook 7
th
edition , McGraw Hill , New York ,1997
7. Rose L.M., Distillation Design In Practice , Elsevier , Amsterdam ,1985
8. Schweitzer Philip A.,Handbook of separation techniques for chemical engineer ,2
nd

edition, McGraw Hill ,New York,1988.
9. Smith B.D., Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes,McGraw Hill Book Company,
New York, 1963
10. Treybal R.E, Mass Transfer Operation, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York,
1980.