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Copper .


Adhesion. (1) A sticking (to something) or being stuck together. (2) The force that holds together the molecules of unlike substances. Alloy. A homogeneous mixture or solid solution of two or more metals, the atoms of one replacing or occupying interstitial positions between the atoms of the other: Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper. Back to Top

Bag alloy. High silver content brazing filler metal containing copper and other elements Balling up. The formation of globules of molten brazing filler metal or flux due to lack of wetting of the base metal. Base material. The material that is welded, brazed, soldered, or cut. Base metal. The metal or alloy that is welded, brazed, soldered, or cut. Braze. A weld produced by heating an assembly to the brazing temperature using a filler metal having a liquidus above 840F (450C) and below the solidus of the base metals. The filler metal is distributed between the faying surfaces of the joint by capillary action. BCuP alloy. Copper-Phosphorous brazing filler metal. Braze interface. The interface between filler metal and base material in a brazed joint. Braze welding. A welding process variation in which a filler metal, having a liquidus above 840F (450C) and below the solidus of the base metals, is used. Unlike brazing, in braze welding the filler metal is not distributed in the joint by capillary action. Brazeability. The capacity of a material to be brazed under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific, suitably designed structure, and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service. Brazement. An assembly having at least one brazed joint. Brazer. One who performs manual brazing.

Brazing. A group of welding processes that produces coalescence of materials by heating them to the brazing temperature in the presence of a filler metal having a liquidus above (840F) 450C and below the solidus of the base metal. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted faying surfaces of the joint by capillary action. Brazing alloy. A nonstandard term for brazing filler metal. Brazing filler metal. The metal that fills the capillary joint clearance (capillary space) and has a liquidus above 840F (450C) and below the solidus of the base materials. Brazing procedure. The detailed methods and practices involved in the production of a brazement. Brazing procedure qualification record (BPQR). A record of brazing variables used to produce an acceptable test brazement and the results of tests conducted on the brazement to qualify a brazing procedure specification. Brazing rod. A nonstandard term for brazing filler metal rod. Brazing technique. The details of a brazing operation that, within the limitations of the prescribed brazing procedure, are controlled by the brazer. Brazing temperature. The temperature to which the base material is heated to enable the filler metal to wet the base material and form a brazed joint. Brazing temperature range. The temperature range within which brazing can be performed. Butt joint. A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same plane. Back to Top

Capillary action. The force by which liquid, in contact with a solid, is distributed between closely fitted faying surfaces of the joint to be brazed or soldered. Code. A systematic collection of regulations and rules of procedure or conduct: a building code. Cohesion. The molecular attraction or joining of the surfaces of two pieces of the same substance. Cold braze joint. A joint with incomplete coalescence caused by insufficient application of heat to the base material during brazing. Complete joint penetration. Brazing filler metal penetration for the full extent of the intended joint. Complete penetration. A nonstandard term for complete joint penetration. Corrosion. The degradation of a material resulting from an electrochemical reaction between that material and its environment..

Crack. A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length and width to opening displacement. Back to Top

Defect. A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumulated effect (for example, total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. This term designates rejectability. See also discontinuity and flaw. Differential thermal expansion. The difference between the dimensional changes of two (or more) materials having different expansion coefficients, which is caused by temperature changes at constant pressure. Back to Top

Electrolysis. Results from an imposed (external) stray DC current. Erosion. (1) A condition caused by dissolution of the base metal by overheating or mechanical induced, resulting in a reduction of base metal thickness, (2) To eat into; wear away; disintegrate, (3) to form by wearing away gradually. Erosion corrosion. Erosion/corrosion is a mechanically induced failure which may be caused by any or all of the following conditions: lack of reaming of the tube ends, water at high velocity, numerous, abrupt changes in direction in the piping system, protrusions into the flow stream, excessive water temperature. Back to Top

Face feed. The application of filler metal to the joint, usually by hand, during brazing or soldering. Faying surface. That mating surface of a member that is in contact with or in close proximity to another member to which it is to be bonded. Filler metal. The metal or alloy to be added in making a welded, brazed, or soldered joint. Fillet. A radius region of brazing filler metal (located at the face of a joint) where work pieces are joined. Fit. A nonstandard term for joint clearance. Flowability. The ability of molten brazing or soldering filler metal to flow or spread over a surface. Flux. A material used to hinder or prevent the formation of oxides and other undesirable substances in molten metal and on solid metal surfaces, and to dissolve or otherwise facilitate the removal of such substances.

Flux coated rod. Brazing filler metal in rod form that is coated with flux. Fuel gas. A gas usually used with oxygen for heating; examples include acetylene, natural gas, hydrogen, propane (LP), methyl acetylene propadiene stabilized (Mapp), and other synthetic fuels and hydrocarbons. Flux induced corrosion. Pitting corrosion in copper tube induced by improper or excessive application of non-water flushable fluxes. Back to Top

Galvanic corrosion. Self-induced current created by electrical potential of two dissimilar metals in contact with an electrolyte. Gap. A nonstandard term for joint clearance. Gas brazing. A nonstandard term for torch brazing. Back to Top

Hard solder. A nonstandard term for silver base brazing filler metals. Hazardous material. A substance that can harm humans. Heat-affected zone. The portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering, or thermal cutting. Hot crack. A crack that develops during solidification. Back to Top

Incomplete fusion. A condition in which some of the brazing filler metal in a joint did not melt. Incomplete joint penetration. Joint penetration that is unintentionally less than the thickness of the weld joint. Indistinct fillet. A condition in which the brazing filler metal did not result in a fully formed fillet. Inert gas. A gas that normally does not react chemically with materials. Interstices. Spaces, especially small or narrow ones, between things or parts. (e.g. intergranular spaces in copper surface) Back to Top

Joint. The junction of members or the edges of members, which are to be bonded or have been bonded. Joint brazing procedure. The materials, detailed methods, and practices employed in brazing a particular joint. Joint clearance. The distance between the faying surfaces of a joint. In brazing, due to thermal expansion of the work pieces, joint clearance may vary as the work pieces are heated and cooled. Joint design. The joint geometry together with the required dimensions. Back to Top

Lack of fill. A non-standard term for incomplete penetration. Lap joint. A joint between two overlapping members in parallel plates. Liquation. The separation of a low melting constituent of an alloy from the remaining constituents, usually apparent in alloys having a wide melting range. Liquidus. The lowest temperature at which a material is completely liquid. Longitudinal crack. A crack with its major axis approximately parallel to the joint axis. Back to Top

Manual brazing. A brazing operation performed and controlled completely by hand. Back to Top

Neutral flame. An oxy-fuel gas flame, which is neither oxidizing nor reducing. See also oxidizing flame and reducing flame. Non-corrosive flux. Brazing flux which in neither its original form nor its residual form chemically attacks the base metal. Back to Top

Oxide. A chemical compound containing oxygen and one other chemical element.

Oxidizing flame. An oxyfuel gas flame in which there is an excess of oxygen, resulting in an oxygen-rich zone extending around and beyond the core. See also neutral flame and reducing flame. Back to Top

Patina. A thin greenish layer, usually basic copper sulfate, which forms on copper or copper alloys, such as bronze, as a result of corrosion. Peel test. A destructive method of inspection, which mechanically separates a lap joint by peeling. Penetration. A non-standard term for joint penetration. Porosity. Cavity type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification. Post-heating. The application of heat to an assembly after welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying, or thermal cutting. Preform. Brazing filler metal fabricated in a shape or form for a specific application. Preheat. The heat applied to the base metal or substrate to attain and maintain preheat temperature. Preheating. The application of heat to the base material immediately before brazing or soldering. Preheat temperature. The temperature of the base metal or substrate in the welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying, or thermal cutting area immediately before these operations are performed. In a multi-pass operation, it is also the temperature in the area immediately before the second and subsequent passes are started. Procedure. The detailed elements of a process used to produce a specified result. Procedure qualification. The demonstration that a brazed joint or a soldered joint made by a specific procedure can meet prescribed standards. Back to Top

Quench. Accelerated cooling, frequently in liquid (oil, water). Back to Top

Ream. To enlarge tube end opening; de-burr.

Reducing flame. An oxy-fuel gas flame with an excess of fuel gas. See also neutral flame and oxidizing flame. Remelt temperature. The temperature necessary to melt a brazing filler metal in a completed joint. Repair brazing. The process of re-brazing a joint that exhibited repairable defects. Resistance brazing. A brazing process that uses heat from the resistance to electric current flow in a circuit of which the work pieces are a part. Back to Top

Shrinkage void. A cavity type discontinuity normally formed by shrinkage during solidification. Silver alloy brazing. A non-standard term for brazing with silver containing filler metal. Silver soldering. A non-standard term for brazing with a silver-base filler metal. Slag inclusion. Nonmetallic solid material entrapped in filler metal or between filler metal and base material. Soldering. A group of welding processes that produces coalescence of materials by heating them to the soldering temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus not exceeding (840F) 450C and below the solidus of the base metals. The filler metal is distributed between closely fitted faying surfaces of the joint by capillary action. Solidus. The highest temperature at which a material is completely solid. Standard. A specification that is either widely used and accepted or is sanctioned by a standards organization. Stress relief cracking. Inter-granular cracking in the heat-affected zone or filler metal as a result of the combined action of residual stresses and post-braze exposure to an elevated temperature. Back to Top

Thermal expansion. The dimensional change exhibited by solids, liquids, and gases, which is caused by temperature changes at constant pressure. Thermal expansion coefficient. The fractional change in length or volume of a material for a unit change in temperature at constant pressure. Thermal stress. Stress resulting from non-uniform temperature distribution or differential thermal expansion. Torch brazing. A brazing process using heat from a fuel gas flame.

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Undercut. A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the braze and left unfilled by filler metal. Back to Top

Velocity. Rate of change of position in relation to time (speed). Back to Top

Wetting. The spreading and adherence of a liquid filler metal or flux in a thin continuous layer on a surface. Work-piece. A part being brazed, soldering or welding. Back to Top========================copper development association ---------

Admiralty brass Ageing

70/30 brass with 1% tin added for extra corrosion resistance. Copper alloys such as copper-beryllium and copper chromium are hardened by heat treatment of solution treatment followed by quenching, then ageing at low temperatures to develop improved mechanical properties. A copper alloy is a partial or complete solid solution of copper with one or more alloying elements such as zinc, tin, nickel, aluminium or silicon. Brass containing up to 36% of zinc is usually the single alpha phase with good cold working properties. Brass containing over 36% of zinc or with other additions usually has two phases present, alpha and beta. High copper brass with aluminium added for improved corrosion resistance. This is often used for condenser tubes. Copper-aluminium alloy with up to 13% of aluminium, usually also with other additions such as iron, manganese, nickel and/or silicon. Heating copper/copper alloys to 500-550oC in order to produce complete softening. Cast slabs of copper from the fire refining processes used as starters for electrolytic refining.


Alpha brass Alpha-beta brass Aluminium brass Aluminium bronze

Annealing (full) Anode copper

Antlerite Arsenical copper Arsenical brass ASM ASTM Azurite Backwardation

Copper sulphide ore. Copper with arsenic additions used primarily for the manufacture of boiler fireboxes. Now obsolete. Brass with improved corrosion resistance containing arsenic, and frequently aluminium. American Society for Metals. American Society for Testing and Materials, responsible for standards for metals. Copper carbonate ore. LME term used when the price for cash copper commands a premium over the price for copper in three months time. Caused by temporary shortages in spot supplies. The highest strength of any copper alloy, achieved by heat treatment (ageing) and cold working. A brass with very high zinc content may be mostly of beta structure. This is brittle and used only as a brazing filler alloy. The copper produced after sulphur is removed; it is made by blowing air through the mixture; this produces gaseous sulphur dioxide which forms blister-like bubbles on the surface. Copper sulphate. Copper sulphate-lime mixture used as an adherent fungicide, especially for grapevines. Copper sulphide ore. Copper-zinc alloy, also used to describe a memorial plate in a church, coinage or bearing block. Originally the term also covered copper-tin alloys now called bronzes. Also used to describe a tin-zinc spelter made for the manufacture of organ pipes. Miners term for massive iron pyrites (fools gold). Standard hardness test using a specified load on a ball indenter (HB). Copper-tin alloy, term also loosely used for some other copper alloys. Solution of copper sulphate and sodium carbonate developed in 1885 for the prevention of mildew and other diseases on grapevines. Copper bar or section used for carrying heavy currents. Busbars are generally rigid when compared to cables. Copper with an addition of cadmium for good strength and wear

Beryllium copper Beta brass Blister copper

Blue vitriol Bordeaux mixture Bornite Brass

Brass lump Brinell Hardness Bronze Burgundy mixture

Busbars Cadmium copper

resistance without significant loss of conductivity.

Cathode copper Cartridge brass CEN Chalcocite, copper glance Chalcopyrite Chrysocolla Cold working Continuous casting

Pure copper, the product of electrolytic refining supplied for melting for the manufacture of products. 70/30 brass with good cold working properties. European Standards Organisation. EN standards are being adopted by all European countries. Cuprous sulphide ore. Copper sulphide ore. Copper silicate ore. Deforming a metal at a temperature below that of recrystallisation so that the metal hardens. Production method for castings where the molten metal is continuously poured into an open mould while the solidified metal is slowly withdrawn and coiled or cut to length by flying saw. May be a vertical, sidecasting or upcasting process. 63/37 brass, standard cheap brass for cold working. It is now usually a 64/36 alloy to give improved corrosion resistance. LME term applied when the price quoted for copper due for delivery in three months time is higher than that for cash copper on that day. This is the normal market situation, financing the interest charge. To sheath the bottom of ships with copper to prevent attack by the Toredo worm and prevent the attachment of biofouling including molluscs that slow the ship, first applied to British ships in 1761. Now used as a term of assurance of quality. A venomous snake, common in the United States of America Covers copper alloys with less than 50% of nickel. Slang term for inflamed nose, acne rosaaca, a bacterial infection treatable by antibiotics. A polished plate of copper on which a design is engraved for printing. Term used in sugar making to describe a double row of copper pans served by a common fire. Copper sulphide ore. Copper oxide ore. An alternative term for copper-nickel alloy.

Common brass Contango

Copper bottom

Copper head Copper-nickel Copper nose Copper plate Copper wall Covellite Cuprite Cupronickel

Deep drawing

Forming hollow components by using a punch and die to give significant plastic deformation. Copper that has had deoxidiser added to reduce oxygen. Phosphorus is commonly added but other elements such as boron or magnesium may be used. Selective corrosion of the beta phase of duplex brass that leaves a copper residue under a meringue of zinc oxide. German National Standards Organisation Director General Ships standards - obsolete, replaced by NES series, which in turn has been replaced by DSTAN (UK Defence Standardisation). Phosphorus deoxidised copper (previously known as Dona copper). Deoxidised copper, low phosphorus. Directorate of Technical Development, military specifications. The process of pulling a metal through a die to reduce the cross section, usually performed cold. Ease with which material can be formed, for example by drawing, bending or rolling. The property is usually measured as elongation in a tensile test or by a bend or deep-drawability test. See alpha-beta brass. Electrolytic tough pitch copper, standard high conductivity copper. A hot working process in which a heated billet is forced to deform by being pushed through a die to produce a long product of uniform cross-section. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of a billet to that of the extruded product. Copper refined by melting and processing in an open hearth or rotary furnace.

Deoxidised copper

Dezincification DIN DGS

DHP DLP DTD Drawing Ductility

Duplex brass ETP


Extrusion ratio Fire-refined copper

Galvanic compatibility When exposed to seawater or any electrolyte, metals show a voltage dependent on the electrochemical series. Metals with near-similar voltages are compatible. Metals with differing voltages are likely to cause galvanic corrosion. It is always the anode which corrodes. Gangue German silver Gilding metal The unwanted rock in copper ore. Obsolete term for nickel silver. Brass with high copper, usually 90/10 but sometimes 80/20.

Gunmetal Heat treatable alloy

Copper-tin-zinc casting alloy. An alloy capable of being strengthened by heat treatment, usually involving solution treatment followed by ageing (precipitation) treatment. Standard form of copper with a purity giving a conductivity of 100% IACS or more. Brass with additions, typically iron, nickel, manganese and/or aluminium to give better strength and, usually, better corrosion resistance. A proprietary process for treating metals at very high pressures to compact them to produce good properties. Plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature high enough to promote recrystallisation, thus preventing cold working. International annealed copper standard, a value for conductivity agreed in 1913 with copper being given the value of 100%, equivalent to 58MS/m or a mass resistivity of 0.15176 g/m2. Advances in refining mean that high conductivity copper is now frequently of 103% conductivity. International Copper Association. International Copper Research Association, now superseded by ICA. International Standards Organisation. Usually a duplex brass with an addition of lead to give excellent machinability.

High conductivity copper High tensile brass

Hipping Hot working IACS

ICA INCRA ISO Leaded brass

LME Malachite Manganese bronze MIL Monel Muntz metal Native copper

London Metal Exchange. Copper carbonate ore. Obsolete term for high tensile brass. American military specifications. A nickel-copper alloy, usually 70/30, originally produced directly from a copper-nickel ore in Sudbury, Ontario. A 60/40 brass with good castability and hot working properties. Pure copper that occurs in nature without being bound up within an ore. 60/40 brass with 1% tin added for extra corrosion resistance.

Naval brass

Near net shape forming Forming a product near to final shape so that it needs little further finishing.

NES Nickel silver Oxygen-free copper

Naval Engineering Standards. Copper-nickel-zinc alloy. Copper melted and cast under controlled atmosphere to give low residual oxygen content.

Oxygen-free electronic Oxygen free copper containing low residual volatile elements. copper Patina A protective film that develops on copper on exposure to the atmosphere. In most non-polluted environments it is basic copper carbonate but in industrial and urban areas it is mainly basic copper sulphate. Copper-arsenic compound. A copper-tin phosphorous alloy, hard and strong. Part of the old fire refining process that involves reducing the oxidised charge by submerging green wood in the liquid copper. American term for copper-tin-zinc alloy (gunmetal). American term for common brass. Standard American hardness test with several ranges of loads and indenters, HRB, HRC. Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)

Paris Green Phosphor bronze Poling Red Brass Rivet brass Rockwell Hardness SAE

Tough pitch copper

Obsolete term for copper containing oxygen at about 0.030.07% which gave a level set to the top of a wirebar when statically cast horizontally . A strikingly green corrosion product that forms on copper in some circumstances, a complex basic copper acetate. Unlike a patina, it is water-soluble. Standard hardness test using a load on a diamond pyramid indenter (HV, VPN or VHN). Component made by hot or cold deformation of a cast product, removing the original cast structure. American term for 67/33 brass.


Vickers Hardness Wrought product Yellow brass

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