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1.

(b) (c)

(a)

matrix of mitochondrion ;

1 1

oxidative phosphorylation ; oxygen needed to accept, hydrogen / protons / electrons ; (if no oxygen then) oxidative phosphorylation / etc cannot take place / eq ; (so) NAD / electron carriers cannot be regenerated / reduced NAD is not oxidised ;

2
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2. (b)

(a)

Pyruvate / pyruvic acid ;

Pyruvate / pyruvic acid / substance X, reduced / accepts hydrogen / protons / electrons (to lactic acid) ; NADH + H+ / reduced NAD / NADH2 (used in this reduction) is oxidised to NAD ; Ethanol / ethyl alcohol, and carbon dioxide / CO2 ; 1. 2. 3. 4. Transfers electrons / H+ / hydrogen (ions), to electron transfer chain / FAD ; Reference to inner membrane of mitochondrion / cristae ; Oxidative phosphorylation ; Generation of ATP (from ADP) ;

2 1

(c) (d)

3
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3.

Accept points in correct context only 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Pyruvate (from glycolysis) {passes / diffuses} into mitochondria ; Combines with {coenzyme A / coA} to form acetyl coenzyme A ; {NADH (+ H+) / reduced NAD} and carbon dioxide formed ; {Acetate / acetyl / acetyl coenzyme A} combines with {4C compound / oxaloacetate} to form {6C / citrate} ; Reference to Krebs cycle in the matrix ; Reference to Krebs cycle (as series of reactions) regenerating {4C compound / oxaloacetate} ; Reference to enzyme control (at any point) ; (more) {NADH (+ H+) / reduced NAD} and carbon dioxide formed ; ATP is produced (directly) ; {Electrons / hydrogen (ions)} from {NADH / FADH} pass on to {electron carriers / cytochromes / FAD} ; Reference to {cytochromes / electron carriers / ETC / oxidative phosphorylation} in {inner (mitochondrial) membrane / cristae} ; {H+ / protons} pumped out (of matrix) into intermembranal space ; ATP produced as {H+ / protons} flow back (into matrix) ; Through stalked particles ; Water formed as electrons and {H+ / protons} combine with oxygen ;
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4. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

1.

Reference to glycolysis ;

As {breakdown / conversion} of glucose to {pyruvate / pyruvic acid} ; Phosphorylation of glucose / glucose converted to glucose (6) phosphate ; Reference to use of ATP (for phosphorylation) ; Prevents glucose leaving cell / reference to activation energy / increased reactivity of glucose ; Formation of {glycerate-3-phosphate / GP / G3P / phosphoglycerate / phosphoglyceric acid / PGA} ; GP converted to pyruvate ; Results in {NAD+ to NADH / reduction of NAD+} and ATP ; Reference to (net) yield = 2 ATP per glucose molecule ; {Pyruvate reduced / NADH is oxidised} to maintain glycolysis ; Pyruvate converted to ethanol ; Reference to {acetaldehyde / ethanal} as an intermediate ; Reference to NAD being regenerated / NADH is oxidised ; CO2 produced (when pyruvate is converted to ethanol) ; Reference to involvement of {oxidoreductase / decarboxylase / dehydrogenase} enzymes ;
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5. (b)

(a) 1.

2;

1 In anaerobic conditions Electron transport function ; As there is no act as a terminal eq;

In aerobic conditions The electron transport chain can chain cannot function ; As oxygen is available to act as a oxygen available to terminal electron acceptor / eq electron acceptor / Electron carriers (in ETC) accept (in ETC) to + {H / electrons}; Reference to (ETC) regeneration cannot be reoxidised + of (oxidised) NAD ; ATP is generated by oxidative generated by phosphorylation; phosphorylation ; The Krebs cycle can function; cannot take place;

2.

3.

OR

No electron carriers
+

accept {H / electrons}; Reduced NAD (if no ETC); So no ATP can be oxidative The Krebs cycle

4.

5.

6.

7.

In aerobic conditions some ATP (also generated directly) from Krebs cycle; In anaerobic conditions: ATP only generated from glycolysis; Reference to pyruvate being converted into {lactic acid (in muscles) / ethanol (in yeast or plants)}; Reference to {pyruvate / glucose} not being completely oxidised / some energy remaining in {lactic acid / ethanol}; 5
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8. 9. 10.

6.

(a)

{Sequence / series) of reactions; 2

Each reaction {catalysed / controlled) by a (specific) enzyme; Product of one reaction is substrate for the next; (b) Oxidised; Back to NAD( ); Transfers {hydrogen electrons} to the electron transport chain; 2
+

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

It will {reduce / prevent} production of ATP / eq;


+

Reduced activity of aconitase; (Therefore) less NADH+H produced / NAD not reduced; {Reduced NAD / NADH+H } are required for the production of ATP; In the electron transport chain / by oxidative phosphorylation; 4
[8]
+

7. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1.

Reference to compartmentalisation / eq;

(Membranes) keep enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle in {a small area / matrix}; Reference to selective permeability of membranes / eq {Inner (mitochondrial) membrane / cristae} {contain the electron carriers / site of oxidative phosphorylation}; Increased surface area; (Membranes form the) intermembrane space for {accumulation / eq ) of H ; Stalked particles contain {ATPase / ATPsynthase}; Providing a (H ) channel through (stalked particles) to the matrix; ADP converted to ATP (in stalked particles);
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+ +

8.

(a) Sprinting requires rapid {release of energy / production of ATP} / eq; Slow fibres {generate ATP / respire} aerobically OR Fast twitch fibres can (produce ATP) {respire anaerobically / by glycolysis}; Slow twitch fibres have more {mitochondria / myoglobin} / converse; (b) (i) As distance of event increases, SDH (activity) increases / eq / converse; The longer the distance the more {energy / ATP} produced aerobically / eq / converse; Reference to SDH being involved in aerobic respiration; (ii) LDH (activity) is greater over shorter distances / eq; The shorter the distance the more {energy / ATP} produced anaerobically; Reference to LDH being involved in anaerobic respiration; 2

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Correct reference to reduced {coenzymes / NADH2 / FADH2}; Hydrogen splits into electrons and {protons / H }; Electrons passed from one carrier to next; From higher energy levels to lower energy levels; {Redox / oxidation} reactions release energy (for synthesis of ATP); Reference to more ATP being produced / eq; Oxygen as terminal electron acceptor / water is formed; 4
+

(d)

Most of the lactate is converted back into pyruvate; And is (oxidised) to carbon dioxide and water (via the Krebs cycle); Releasing energy to synthesise ATP; Some lactate may also be converted into glycogen (and stored in the muscle or liver); Reference to oxygen debt;

2
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9. (b)

(a)

Inner mitochondrial membrane / cristae; 1. Idea of: Electron carriers passing {electrons / hydrogen ions} along the chain;

2. 3. 4. (c)

Cyanide prevents {electrons / hydrogen ions} reaching oxygen; Oxygen {not reduced / does not form water / cannot act as terminal electron acceptor); Oxidative phosphorylation doesnt occur; 2

Glucose has been used up; No source of electrons to reduce anymore oxygen; Yeast switch to anaerobic respiration; As oxygen levels are too low; Idea of: Oxygen dissolving into solution from atmosphere; Therefore oxygen levels in suspension maintained; Reference to some other limiting factor; Qualification; 2
[5]

10. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (b) (c) (ii) 20;

(a)

1.

H+ {binds to / picked up by} {NAD / FAD};

(Reduced coenzyme) passes H+ to {electron transport chain / carriers}; In the {inner mitochondrial membrane / cristae}; H+ passed into inter membrane space; Pass back through {ATPase /stalked particles}; ADP + Pi ATP; Reference to oxidative phosphorylation; Reference to {chemiosmosis / H gradient}; 1 (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 12; 1 Krebs cycle only occurs under aerobic conditions; Reference to formation of reduced {NAD / FAD} (in Krebs); (This) has to be reoxidised; Oxygen acts as electron acceptor / eq; Idea that {electron transport chain wont work / oxidative phosphorylation cant occur}; If no oxygen {H+ / acetyl coA} would accumulate; 3
[9]
+

11. (ii)

(a) 1. 2. (b) 1. 2. 3.

(i)

Oxidative phosphorylation / electron transport chain / eq ; Oxidoreductase / dehydrogenase / oxidase ;

Transfers {hydrogen / electrons} (from one carrier to another) ; {Reduces / combines with} oxygen ;

Combines with H (and e ) ; To form water ; 2


[5]

12.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b) 1. 2. 3. 4.

1. electrons lose energy + H pumped into intermembrane space ; + H accumulate / reference to concentration gradient ; + Reference to {ATPase / H channel /stalked particle}(inner membrane) ; + H flow (through ATPase) back into matrix ; {Phosphorylation of ADP / ADP + Pi } to ATP ; 1 reduced FAD and 1 reduced NAD produced / eq ; (1 ) reduced NAD gives 3 ATP molecules ; (1 ) reduced FAD gives 2 ATP molecules ; + Because reduced FAD donates {H / electrons} after site 1 / eq ;

(c)

Cytoplasm ; Matrix of mitochondria ; Matrix of mitochondria ; 3


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13. (ii)

(a)

(i)

X CO2;

1 1

A Glycolysis B Krebs cycle / TCA cycle

(b)

An explanation to include four from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Reference to cristae / inner membrane of mitochondria / intermembrane space; Correct reference to [ coenzyrnes / NADH2 / FADH2 } / eq; Hydrogen splits into electrons and {protons / H } Electrons / H (atoms) pass along series of carriers / down ETC; From higher energy levels to lower energy levels / redox /oxidation; (Reactions) release energy (for synthesis of AtP) / correct ref. to chemiosrnotic theory; Oxygen acts as terminal electron acceptor / water is formed; 4 1
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+

(c)

{Broken down / hydrolysed} into ADP + Pi / ATP ADP + Pi (+ energy)

14. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

1.

(anaerobic respiration) occurs in cytoplasm / sarcoplasm;

reference to glycolysis; as {breakdown / conversion} of glucose to {pyruvate / pyruvic acid}; phosphorylation of glucose / glucose converted to glucose (6) phosphate; reference to use of ATP (for phosphorylation); prevents glucose leaving cell / reference to activation energy / increased reactivity of glucose; ref. to {glycerate-3-phosphate / GP / G3P / phosphoglycerate / phosphoglyceric acid / PGA} as an intermediate; ref. to {NAD+ to NADH / reduction of NAD+}; phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP; reference to net yield = 2 ATP (per glucose molecule); pyruvate converted to lactic acid/lactate; reference to NAD being regenerated / NADH is oxidized; idea that this is necessary for glycolysis to continue; reference to involvement of {oxidoreductase / dehydrogenase} enzymes; results in an oxygen debt / can only occur for short period of time / produces less ATP / build up of lactic acid causes cramps;
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15. Stage Part of cell in which it occurs cytoplasm / cytosol; Two Products pyruvate / pyruvic acid, NADH / eq and ATP / H ; ATP, CO2, NADH / eq and FADH2 / eq /H ; cristae / inner membrane of mitochondrion;
[4]
+ +

16.

(a)

(i)

carbon dioxide / CO2;

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.
+

to regenerate the {hydrogen carriers / NAD } / oxidise reduced NAD; NAD does not become limiting / eq; so that glycolysis can continue; to allow ATP to be formed (during glycolysis); 1. rate is {constant / steady / eq} for the first 6 minutes; max 2

(b)

(i) 2. 3. 4.

rate {slows / decreases} from {6 to 14 minutes / for next 8 minutes}; no respiration from 14 20 minutes / eq; manipulation of figures e.g. calculation of rate for first 6 minutes; max 3

(ii)

rate is constant (throughout the 20 minutes) / rate is slower in sucrose than in glucose (in first 6 to 8 minutes) / respiration does not stop; 1. 2. to prevent oxygen entering (solution) / keep conditions anaerobic; to prevent TTC being {oxidised / decolourised} / no TTC would be reduced; maintain constant temperature / eq; respiration produces heat (energy); change of temperature will affect rate of enzyme activity; idea that the experiment can be performed in 20 minutes;

(iii)

(iv)

1. 2. 3. 4.

max 2
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17.

(a) (i) scale / eq; (ii) (b) 2. 3.

to {reset / level the} liquid in capillary tube / to calibrate the 1 1

to {absorb / take up / remove} carbon dioxide; 1. to keep the temperature constant / eq;

idea that temperature affects gas volumes; idea that temperature affects respiration / metabolic rates; max 2

(c)

12 0.19 (or 2.28); 15; = 0.15(2); 3


[7]

18. (ii)

(a) 1. 2. (b)

(i)

pyruvate / pyruvic acid; (stage) 1;

(stage) 3;

(i) a {series / sequence / eq} of (chemical) reactions / each step is controlled by an enzyme / product of one reaction is the substrate for the next / eq; (ii) matrix of a mitochondrion;

1 1 1
[6]

(c)

(stages) B, C, D (and) F;

19.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (ii) (iii)

(i)

1.

reference to oxygen (concentration) decreasing / eq;

greater (decrease) when ADP is added; (oxygen used to) convert ADP to ATP (in respiration); oxygen is needed for respiration / eq; correct reference to oxidative phosphorylation; reference to {ADP concentration / eq} is limiting; max 3 1 1

reduced NAD / NADH / NADH2; cristae / inner membrane / stalked particle;

(iv)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

hydrogen atoms split into protons and electrons / eq; electrons transferred along electron carriers / a series of redox reactions / eq; oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor / water is formed; {protons / eq} moved into intermembrane space / eq; {protons / eq} move (into matrix) down a {concentration / electrochemical} gradient; through stalked particles / ATP synthetase /eq; correct ref. to chemiosmotic theory; (ATP)formed by {phosphorylation of ADP / oxidative phosphorylation } / eq; max 3 1. correct reference to ATP (supplies energy) for active transport / reference to sodium-potassium pump / eq; sodium ions pumped out (of the axon) / restores (membrane to) resting potential; correct reference to ATP (supplies energy) for active transport / reference to sodium-potassium pump / eq; (pumps sodium ions out) of inner segment / maintains (more) negative charge inside the membrane / eq; 2
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(b)

(i) 2.

(ii)

1. 2.

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