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USER DESCRIPTION 248/1553-HSC 103 12/7 Uen A2

User Description, Adaptive Multi Rate


Copyright Ericsson AB 2001-2005 - All Rights Reserved Disclaimer No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the copyright owner. The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in methodology, design, and manufacturing. Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document. Trademark List Ericsson is a trademark owned by Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. All other product or service names mentioned in this User Description are trademarks of their respective companies.

Contents
1 1.1 1.2 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4.1 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 Glossary Reference List Introduction General Revision Information Capabilities Technical Description General Inband Signalling Codec Mode Adaptation Multirate Configuration DTX Handover Tandem Free Operation Related Statistics Main changes in Ericsson GSM System R12 / BSS R12 Engineering Guidelines Fine Tuning Codec Sets Parameters Main Controlling Parameters Parameters for Special Adjustments Value Ranges and Default Values Concepts

1 Introduction
1.1 General
Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) is a speech and channel codec for both half rate and full rate channels. By adapting the codec rate to the radio conditions the speech quality is enhanced. At low C/I, a large amount of channel coding is applied and less speech coding. When the C/I increases the speech coding is increased and the channel coding is decreased. Both the BTS (uplink ) and the MS (downlink) continuously measures the radio quality (C/I) and based on these measurements the codec rate is changed. AMR requires support in all network nodes, i.e. MSC, BSC, BTS and MS and AMR is only supported in cells where all TRUs are AMR capable.

1.2 Revision Information


This UD is based on the document 98/1553-HSC 103 12/4 Uen Rev D. The changes between the above document and this document are as follows: New AMR specific radio link timeout parameters are introduced by the feature AMR Radio Link Timers: RLINKTAFR RLINKTAHR RLINKUPAFR RLINKUPAHR

A new pre-defined codec set (FR5) is introduced due to the feature Tandem Free Operation.

2 Capabilities
The feature AMR makes it possible to offer an enhanced speech quality for AMR mobiles in a network. The enhanced speech quality also provides better coverage at the edges of the cell, thus making it possible to increase the coverage area. AMR also tolerates more interference than the old speech codecs. This enables higher traffic loads which leads to higher capacity. The speech quality enhancement is divided in two parts and can therefore be of different interest to the operator. The first is the robust FR channel that provides high speech quality at low C/I. This makes it possible to tighten the cell planning in a network with only AMR mobiles. The second is an audible better HR codec than HR speech version one. This will increase the capacity in the networks and reduce transmission costs.

3 Technical Description
3.1 General
AMR makes it possible to change codec rate during a call. There are 8 different codec rates available in the AMR transcoder: 12.2 kbps 10.2 kbps 7.95 kbps 7.40 kbps

6.70 kbps 5.90 kbps 5.15 kbps 4.75 kbps

According to the standard, 12.2 kbps and 10.2 kbps can only be used in FR channels and the other six can be used in both FR and HR channels, on the air interface. Note: Since 7.95 kbps is not specified for 8 kbps sub-multiplexing on the Abis interface this codec mode will not be supported for HR channels. At call setup and handover an Active Codec Set (ACS) and a channel rate is selected. The ACS is a subset of the 8 (5 for AMR HR) codecs above and may contain up to 4 codec modes, all with the same channel rate. There are five codec sets for Full Rate (FR) and four codec sets for Half Rate (HR) in the system. It is possible to decide, by command, which codec set that shall be used for each channel rate. This decision is made per BSC. Three of the FR codec sets and two of the HR codec sets are pre-defined. The remaining two codec sets for each channel rate can be defined by the operator. The use of the RATSCCH protocol to modify the codec configuration is not supported. AMR FR is also referred to as Full Rate Speech version 3 and AMR HR is also referred to as Half Rate Speech version 3.

3.2 Inband Signalling


To be able to perform the codec mode adaptation the receiving side performs quality measurements on the incoming link. This measurement results in a Quality Indicator. The Quality Indicator produced on the MS side is converted to a Mode Request that is sent to the BTS using inband signalling. There, a codec mode control entity selects the codec mode to be used on the downlink, based on the Mode Request sent by the MS. The codec mode control entity also selects the codec mode to be used on the uplink, based on the Quality Indicator produced in the BTS. The selected uplink mode is sent inband to the MS. The presently applied codec mode is also sent in band both uplink and downlink. This mode indication is sent every second speech frame and the Mode Request (uplink)/Mode Command (downlink) is sent in the speech frames in between, see Reference [9].

Figure 1

AMR Functional Diagram


Haut du formulaire

In band messages: UL: Mode Request (2 bits per speech frame, giving a suggestion of a DL codec mode) UL: Mode Indication (2 bits per speech frame, giving the present UL codec mode) DL: Mode Command (2 bits per speech frame, telling the MS which UL codec mode to use) DL: Mode Indication (2 bits per speech frame, giving the present DL codec mode)
Bas du formulaire

3.3 Codec Mode Adaptation


At call setup, a channel rate is selected by the network. The codec set for that channel rate is communicated to the MS and the BTS. The codec set can consist of up to 4 different codec modes, all using the same channel rate. It is not possible to have different channel rates within the same codec set. The selection of codec mode within the codec set is based on measurements of the uplink and downlink radio channel. The codec modes in an Active Codec Set is defined as follows: CODEC_MODE_1 - Represents the codec mode with the lowest bit rate CODEC_MODE_2 - Represents the second lowest mode (if the ACS includes more than one mode) CODEC_MODE_3 - Represents the third lowest mode (if the ACS includes more than two modes) CODEC_MODE_4 - Represents the highest mode (if the ACS includes four modes) For each of the pre-defined codec set (two for HR and three for FR) there is an associated set of decision thresholds that determine which codec mode that should be used for a certain C/I (channel quality). To avoid continuous rapid changes between 2 codec modes a hysteresis is used for the decision thresholds.

A threshold (THR) is given as an absolute value between 0 and 63 which represent normalized C/I values as follows: THR 0 = 0.0 dB THR 1 = 0.5 dB THR 2 = 1.0 dB :: THR 62 = 31.0 dB THR 63 = 31.5 dB 1,2 or 3 thresholds needs to be defined depending on the number of codec modes in ACS. The hysteresis values (HYST) are given as an absolute value between 0 and 15 and are coded as follows: HYST 0 = 0.0 dB HYST 1 = 0.5 dB HYST 2 = 1.0 dB :: HYST 14 = 7.0 dB HYST 15 = 7.5 dB 1,2 or 3 hysteresis values needs to be defined depending on the number of codec modes in ACS.

Figure 2

Definition of Thresholds and Hysteresis

The figure above illustrates the definition of decision thresholds, hysteresis and the operational range of codec modes. The lower decision threshold for switching from a higher codec rate to a lower is given by one of THR_1, THR_2 or THR_3. As an example, when C/I drops below decision threshold THR_3, codec mode 3 (CODEC_MODE_3) will be in operation instead of codec mode 4 (CODEC_MODE_4). The sum of the decision threshold and hysteresis constitutes the upper threshold between two codec modes, e.g when C/I exceeds THR_3 + HYST_3 codec mode 4 (CODEC_MODE_4) will be

in operation instead of codec mode 3 (CODEC_MODE_3). It is possible to change codec mode every second speech frame but only to the closest higher or lower codec rate in the set. Different codec modes (within the ACS) can be used on the uplink and downlink. The change of codec mode within a set is called fast codec mode adaptation.

3.4 Multirate Configuration


3.4.1 General

At setup and handover, the codec set to be used is sent from the BSC to the MS and the BTS together with the decision threshold and hysteresis values. The codec set (including its thresholds and hysteresis values) is the same for the uplink and downlink. There are three pre-defined full rate codec sets (FR1, FR2 and FR5) and two pre-defined half rate codec sets (HR1 and HR2) in the BSC. These codec sets with their associated threshold and hysteresis values (described below) are hardcoded and can not be changed. The Initial Codec Mode (ICM) is also sent from the BSC to the BTS and MS at setup and handover. The ICM is determined by the following rule: If the ACS contains 1 codec mode, then this codec shall be the ICM. If the ACS contains 2 or 3 codec modes, then the ICM shall be the most robust codec mode in the set. If the ACS contains 4 codec modes, then the ICM shall be the second most robust mode.

This means that 5.9 kbps will be the ICM for all three full rate codec sets and for half rate codec set 1. 4.75 kbps will be the ICM for half rate codec set 2. 3.4.2
Table 1

FR Codec Set 1
Full Rate Codec Set 1

CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4

4.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 6.7 kbps 10.2 kbps

This codec set has been selected because extensive evaluations have shown that it provides a good overall speech quality during all radio conditions (both for clean speech and with different background noise), i.e. it provides a very small deviation from optimum AMR performance (when all 8 codec modes are used). At the same time it also allows the operator to take full advantage of the possibility to use AMR as a capacity booster in the network. This codec set, together with the Half Rate Codec set 1, see below, satisfies the AMR FR and AMR HR interoperation for TFO connections. With these two codec sets it will be possible to run TFO on the three lower modes (6.7 - 5.9 - 4.75) since they are common.
Table 2 Decision Thresholds and Hysteresis Values for Full Rate Codec Set 1

Threshold

Value

Hysteresis

Value

THR_1 THR_2 THR_3

12 (6 dB) 21 (10.5 dB) 21 (10.5 dB)

HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3

2 (1 dB) 3 (1.5 dB) 3 (1.5 dB)

Note: This setting of the thresholds bypass the 6.7 mode.

3.4.3
Table 3

FR Codec Set 2
Full Rate Codec Set 2

CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4

4.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 7.95 kbps 12.2 kbps

This codec set provides basically the same overall speech quality as full rate codec set 1 but offers a slightly better speech quality under clean speech conditions. This codec does not support TFO.
Table 4 Decision Thresholds and Hysteresis Values for Full Rate Codec Set 2

Threshold THR_1 THR_2 THR_3

Value 12 (6 dB) 17 (8.5 dB) 25 (12.5 dB)

Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3

Value 2 (1 dB)

3 (1.5 dB

3 (1.5 dB

3.4.4
Table 5

FR Codec Set 5
Full Rate Codec Set 5

CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4

4.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 7.4 kbps 12.2 kbps

This codec set, together with the Half Rate Codec set 2, see below, satisfies the AMR FR and AMR HR interoperation in an optimal way for TFO connections. With these two codec sets it will be possible to run TFO on the three lower modes (7.4 - 5.9 - 4.75) since they are common.
Table 6 Decision Thresholds and Hysteresis Values for Full Rate Codec Set 5

Threshold

Value

Hysteresis

Value

THR_1 THR_2 THR_3 3.4.5


Table 7

12 (6 dB) 16 (8 dB) 25 (12.5 dB) HR Codec Set 1


Half Rate Codec Set 1

HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3

2 (1 dB) 2 (1 dB)

3 (1.5 dB

CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_3 CODEC_MODE_4

4.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 6.7 kbps 7.4 kbps

This codec set has been selected since extensive evaluations have shown that it provides a good overall speech quality during all radio conditions (both for clean speech and with different background noise), i.e. it provides a very small deviation from optimum AMR performance (when all 6 codec modes are used). This codec set, together with the Full Rate Codec set 1, see above, satisfies the AMR FR and AMR HR interoperation for TFO connections. With these two codec sets it will be possible to run TFO on the three lower modes (6.7 - 5.9 - 4.75) since they are common.
Table 8

Decision Thresholds and Hysteresis Values for Half Rrate Codec Set 1

Threshold THR_1 THR_2 THR_3

Value 23 (11.5 dB) 28 (14 dB) 32 (16 dB)

Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2 HYST_3

Value

3 (1.5 dB) 4 (2 dB) 4 (2 dB)

3.4.6
Table 9

HR Codec Set 2
Half Rate Codec Set 2

CODEC_MODE_1 CODEC_MODE_2 CODEC_MODE_4

4.75 kbps 5.9 kbps 7.4 kbps

This codec set provides basically the same overall speech quality as half rate codec set 1 but offers a slightly better speech quality under noisy speech conditions. This codec set, together with the Full Rate Codec set 5, see above, satisfies the AMR FR and AMR HR interoperation in an optimal way for TFO connections. With these two codec sets it

will be possible to run TFO on the three common modes (7.4 5.9 - 4.75).
Table 10 Decision Thresholds and Hysteresis Values for Half Rate Codec Set

Threshold THR_1 THR_2

Value 23 (11.5 dB) 31 (15.5 dB)

Hysteresis HYST_1 HYST_2

Value

3 (1.5 dB) 4 (2 dB)

3.5 DTX
The radio network feature Discontinuous Transmission (see Reference [4]) is supported for the AMR codec as well as for the other codec types. The DTX operation has been slightly changed for AMR because of the inband signalling, which needs to be carried out as part of the codec mode adaptation. The Codec Mode Indication or Codec Mode Command/Request are transmitted in the SID_FIRST frames and both Codec Mode Indication and Codec Mode Command/Request are sent in every SID_UPDATE frame.

3.6 Handover
AMR is handled in the same way as all other speech versions at handover except for the parameter AMRSPEECHVERUSE (see Reference [2]).

3.7 Tandem Free Operation


For more information about TFO than given in this UD, see Reference [8].

3.8 Related Statistics


3.8.1 Impact on Legacy Counters

Statistics may change when turning on AMR FR due to changed subscriber behavior. AMR FR will provide increased robustness to the speech. However drops may increase due to this increased robustness of the speech. The reason for this may be because a subscriber will hold on to a call in an area where, prior to AMR FR, the subscriber normally would have discontinued the call due to bad quality. While speech robustness is increased with AMR FR, the SACCH robustness will remain the same with or without AMR FR. SACCH is used for measurement reports and needed for Locating. With frequent loss of SACCHs bursts when holding on to a call, a drop may eventually be triggered. The result is that the subscriber may not experience degraded speech quality prior to the drop. It may therefore be a shift of distribution between drops (system initiated due to lost signalling on SACCH) and subscriber initiated disconnections (due to unsatisfying speech quality).

Figure 3 Subscribers Experience Better Speech Quality with AMR FR and Hold on to the Call until It Drops Due to Bad SACCH Performance Instead of Initiating a Disconnection Themselves. When analysing the above described behavior drop & disconnection parameter (BADQDL/UL, LOWSSDL/UL), drop & disconnection counters (e.g. TFDISQAUL, DISBQA), SACCH parameters (RLINKT, RLINKTAFR, RLINKTAHR, RLINKUP, RLINKUPAFR, RLINKUPAHR) and cellplan (coverage, interference) should be considered. The parameters RLINKTAFR, RLINKTAHR, RLINKUPAFR, RLINKUPAHR might be set to a higher value than RLINKT, RLINKUP to give a robuster SACCH to the expence of longer holding time of the equipment at dropped call. For more information about these parameters, see Reference [3], Reference [5] and Reference [6]. 3.8.2 Statistics for Performance Management SQI counters, belong to object types CELLSQI and CELLSQIDL. Codec mode utilization counters (uplink and downlink), belong to object types CLTCHFV3C and CLTCHHV3C. FER counters, belong to object types CELLFERF, CELLFERH, CELLAFFER and CELLAHFER. Dropped call counters, belong to object types CELTCHF, CELTCHH, CLTCHDRAF and CLTCHDRAH. Traffic level counters, belong to object types CELTCHF and CELTCHH.

There are a number of STS counters related to AMR:

Additional information on counters can be found in Reference [7]. Measurement Result Recording (MRR) is a feature that can be used in troubleshooting, in periodic monitoring of the network

performance and in determining the impact of changes to the network. If AMR is used in the system an extra 'AMR Connection Filter' is available at the Recording Definition in MRR. Using this it is possible to specify: 'No Filter', i.e. all connections will be recorded. 'Record Only Measurement Reports from non AMR full rate Connections'. 'Record Only Measurement Reports from AMR full rate Connections'.

This enables targeted optimization activities when AMR FR mobile stations are introduced in the network.

3.9 Main changes in Ericsson GSM System R12 / BSS R12


The following new functionality affecting Adaptive Multi Rate have been introduced in GSM System R12 / BSS R12: Support for Tandem Free Operation. For this, a new predefined codec set (FR5) is introduced to optimize the performance of TFO. Support for AMR specific radio link timers.

4 Engineering Guidelines
4.1 Fine Tuning Codec Sets
Besides the pre-defined codec sets (1, 2 and 5 for AMR FR and 1 and 2 for AMR HR), both AMR FR and AMR HR codec set 3 and 4 are available. These codec sets can be configured by the operator giving the possibility to fine tune AMR parameters, based on statistics, and optimize the different codec rates within a codec set. However, the pre-defined codec sets will work well in most networks.

5 Parameters
5.1 Main Controlling Parameters
AMR FR and AMR HR are activated by changing BSC exchange properties. Transcoder pools for AMR FR and AMR HR must also be defined in order for AMR to work. Note if AMR HR shall be activated the feature Half Rate Channels must have been purchased by the operator. The following exchange properties is set by the BSC command RAEPC:

AMRFRSUPPORT Indicates if AMR FR is turned ON or OFF and also which full rate codec set that shall be used within the BSC.

AMRHRSUPPORT

Indicates if AMR HR is turned ON or OFF and also which half rate codec set that shall be used within the BSC.

5.2 Parameters for Special Adjustments


Codec sets 3 and 4 for both FR and HR channels can be defined per BSC using the command RLADC. The following parameters are set using this command:

SET Indicates which of the codec sets for a specific channel rate that shall be modified.

MODE Specifies the codec modes that shall be included in the codec set. For Full Rate all 8 codec modes can be used, expressed as a numeral between 1 and 8, and defined in ascending order. 1 = 4.75 kbps 2 = 5.15 kbps . . 8 = 12.2 kbps For Half Rate only the 5 lower codec modes can be used and at least one of the three modes 4.75 kbps, 5.15 kbps or 5.90 kbps must be included in the set. The reason for this is that one of these modes must be used as initial mode to secure a good signalling quality on the Abis interface. 1 = 4.75 kbps . . 5 = 7.4 kbps

THR Specifies the thresholds between the codec modes in the codec set, expressed as a numeral between 0 and 63, in steps of 0.5 dB.

HYST Specifies the hysteresis values for the threshold in the codec set. It is expressed as a numeral between 0 and 15, in steps of 0.5 dB.

5.3 Value Ranges and Default Values


Table 11 Parameters for AMR

Parameter name AMRFRSUPPORT

Default value 0

Recommended value -

Value range 0 to 5

Unit 0=off,

1=Fullrate

1,

2=Full rat 2,

3=Full rat 3,

4=Full rat 4

5=Full rat 5 AMRHRSUPPORT 0 0 to 4 0=off,

1=Half rat set 1,

2=Half rat set 2,

3=Half rat set 3,

4=Half rat set 4 SET MODE THR HYST -

FR3, FR4, Codec Set HR3, HR4 1 to 8 0 to 63 0 to 15

Codec Mod Threshold

Hysteresis

6 Concepts
Active Codec Set Adaptive Multi Rate Channel Rate Codec Mode C/I TFO A set of up to 4 different codec modes (all using the same rate).

Speech and channel codec capable of operating at gross bit 11.4 and 22.8 kbps. The codec can operate at various com of speech and channel coding bit rates.

Full rate (gross bit rate of 22.8 kbps) or half rate (gross bit 11.4 kbps) operation.

A codec rate used within a codec set is called a codec mode

The ratio between signal strength and interference signal s (expressed i dB).

Tandem Free Operation is a feature that removes unnecess speech encoding/decoding in the transcoders for mobile to calls. Speech encoding/decoding is then only done in the m Reference [10].

Glossary
ACS Active Codec Set AMR Adaptive Multi Rate BSC Base Station Controller BTS Base Transceiver Station DL Down Link DTX Discontinuous Transmission FER Frame Erasure Rate FR Full Rate HR Half Rate ICM Initial Codec Mode MRR Measurement Result Recording MS Mobile Station MSC Mobile Services Switching Center RATSCCH Robust AMR Traffic Synchronized Control CHannel STS Statistic and Traffic Measurement Subsystem SQI Speech Quality Index TFO

Tandem Free Operation TRU TRanceiver Unit UL Up Link

Reference List
Ericsson Documents
[1] BSS R12 Network Impact Report, (User Description) [2] User Description, Channel Administration, (User Description) [3] User Description, Circuit Switched Traffic Timers, (User Description) [4] User Description, Discontinuous Transmission, (User Description) [5] User Description, Locating, (User Description) [6] User Description, Radio Network Parameters and Cell Design Data for Ericsson's GSM Systems, (User Description) [7] User Description, Radio Network Statistics, (User Description) [8] User Description, Tandem Free Operation, (User Description)

Standards
[9] 3GPP Technical Specification 45.009, (GSM Specification) [10] 3GPP Technical Specification 28.062, (GSM Specification)