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Trigonometry Part 5 (Trigonometric Function) Prepared by LENG KIEN YUEN 13 July 2011

Trigonometric Functions (Now refer to the Method 2 in Trigonometry Part 2 page 1 and its steps.) Introduction We note that Y n Q1 0 < 90 Q2 90 < 180 A = (x,y) o z = 1 unit n , which is gradient / slope of the line
y X x

As the line rotate clockwise from X axis, the value of these ratios change accordingly. Hints / Trick : Visualize how do value of x & y change when line rotates! Refer to Diagram 1, we note that value of n is represented by value of y. When the line rotate anti clockwise from 0 to 90 (0 to ), the value of y increases rapidly then slowly from 0 to 1. From 90 to 180, value of y decreases from 1 to 0. From 180 to 270, value of y becomes ve and decreases from 0 to -1. From 270 to 360, value of y increase from -1 to 0. Then the cycle repeats and it is consistent with Diagram 2.

Q3 180 < 270

Q2 270 < 360

Diagram 1

n , where Capital Y is function of n


1.5 Y

0.5

0
-1/2 -1/4 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2

y = sin( )

-0.5

-1

Diagram 2

-1.5

Trigonometry Part 5 (Trigonometric Function) Prepared by LENG KIEN YUEN 13 July 2011

, where Capital Y is function of o


1.5 Y

0.5

0
-1/2 -1/4 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2

y = cos ( )

-0.5

Refer to Diagram 1, we note that value of o is represented by value of x. Same story as n , you just need to visualize how the value of x changes when the line rotates anti clockwise in Diagram 1. Hints: In Diagram 1, value of x in the right of y axis is +ve while in the left of y axis is ve. Try to write this story in your mind!

-1

Diagram 3
-1.5

n , where Capital Y is function of


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 Y

n
Asymptotes: The graph cant touch this line!
y = tan( )

-1/2

-1/4

1/4

1/2

3/4

1 1/4

1 1/2

1 3/4

Refer to Diagram 1, we note that value of n is represented by gradient of the line. When the line is horizontal, gradient . When the line is vertical, gradient . Visualize how the gradient of the line changes when the line rotates anti clockwise in Diagram 1. I assume you know when the gradient will be +ve and ve.

Diagram 4

Trigonometry Part 5 (Trigonometric Function) Prepared by LENG KIEN YUEN 13 July 2011

Note: I memorize the shape of trigonometric function by using Diagram 1. It will never be wrong and I just need to remember how the Diagram 1 works. o is represented by x. It may mix up with the n which represented by y. The ound l ke ro h me n X. It is my way to remember it! You may find the animation in Wikipedia (Trigonometric Function) Period The time interval between two consecutive points that are in phase and over which the graph repeats itself. (Physic Definition) The length that will make the function repeats itself. For n , where n n , period = . For o , where o o , period = . Amplitude The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position of the trigonometric graph. (Physic Definition) The maximum absolute distance between the graph and x axis. (My definition) Hence, Amplitude is always +ve. Amplitude for n is always .

Trigonometry Part 5 (Trigonometric Function) Prepared by LENG KIEN YUEN 13 July 2011
Y 2.5

Period of
2

is 2

1.5

Amplitude of

is 2
1

Period of

is 2

0.5
y = cos ( )

0 -1/2 -1/4
-0.5

y = 2cos ( ) 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 X


y = cos ( 2 )

Amplitude of
-1

is 1

Amplitude of

is 1

Period of
-1.5

is

-2

-2.5

Trigonometry Part 5 (Trigonometric Function) Prepared by LENG KIEN YUEN 13 July 2011

a, numerical constant determines the value of Amplitude where a > 0. The larger the a, the larger the Amplitude. If a = 3, then the Amplitude = 3. Only applicable to sine and cosine functions. Not for tangent function.

This determine the shape of the graph. Either n , o , or n ( For SPM)

b, numerical constant determines the period of functions where b > 0. Period = The larger the b, the shorter the period and more complete cycles in Little Extra : If a < 0 , things above are still hold but the graph is reflected about the x axis. If b < 0, things above are still hold but the graph is reflected about the y axis.

Note : c, in degree or radian determines position of graphs horizontally. If c > 0, the graph shifts to the left by distance c. If c < 0, the graph shifts to the right by distance c. d, numerical constant determines position of graphs vertically. If d > 0, the graph shifts to the upward by distance d. If d < 0, the graph shifts to the downward by distance d. I had construct a Excel for plotting 3 trigonometric graphs simultaneously. It is Trigonometric Graph uploaded in Mediafire (Click free download). You can test a, b, c , and d at a time in this Excel while fixing the value of other variables remains constant. Having FUN!