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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Interdependence Among Living Organisms

Ecology : The study of interaction among organisms and the environment.

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

A group of
organisms with
same common
characteristics.

A group of
organisms of
the same
species living
together in a
habitat.

Combination of
different
population of
plants and
animals living
together in a
habitat.

Combination of
different
communities
and interaction
with non-living
things
(environment)
and living
things.

Example :

Habitat : Natural place where the organisms live and reproduce.

Species
Tiger, lion, deer. elephant
Birds, monkeys, squirrels
Tadpoles, eel
Dolphin, shark, fishes
Amoeba, Paramecium, Hydra

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Habitat
jungle
tree
pond
sea
Fresh water pond

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Interaction between Living Organisms

Interaction
between an
animal and
other
animals.

Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Intraspecies

Prey-predator

Interspecies

Competition
Interaction among organisms
in the same environment
competing for food, shelter,
light, water, space, minerals
and mates.

INTERACTION

Symbiosis

Commensalisms
Interaction between two
organisms in which one
benefits and the other is
not affected.
Examples:
Remora fish - shark

Interaction
Commensalisms
Mutualism
Parasitism

Mutualism

Parasitism

Interaction between two


organisms in which both
benefit.

Interaction between two


organisms in which one
benefits and the other is
harmed or killed.

Examples:

Examples:

Sea anemone hermit


crab

Consumer/commensal/parasite

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Tape worm - human


Lice human

Host

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Definition : a method to control the population of pests


in agriculture by using natural predators

Advantages

Disadvantages

Does not cause


Environmental Pollution

Wrong predator used


may kill useful organisms

Saves labour and cost

Difficult to obtain suitable


predators

Cannot build up
resistance

Predator used may upset


the ecosystem

Safe method as no
pesticide are used

Examples
Guppies are reared in
ponds to feed on the
eggs and larvae of
mosquitoes
Ladybird are used to feed
on Aphids
Snakes and owl are
reared in oil palm
plantations to kill rat

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Food webs

Producers

Primary Consumers

Producers

Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Secondary consumers

Green plants which make their own food by photosynthesis

(a) Primary consumers are herbivores


(b) Secondary consumers are carnivores
(c) Tertiary consumers are bigger consumers

Consumers

Organisms that break down dead animal and plant materials


into simpler substances. eg: bacteria and fungi

Decomposers

Pyramids of numbers

Food Chain

Relative number of organisms at each level of a food chain.

Food Web

Pyramid of Numbers
Small
bird

Caterpillar
Paddy

Grasshopper
Rabbit

Plant
Snake

Tertiary consumers

Eagle

Snakes

Frog
Rats

Rat

Hawk

Snake

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Paddy

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Photosynthesis

Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make their own food from carbon
dioxide and water, in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

Carbon
dioxid
e

+ wate Sun light


(chlorophyll
r
)

glucos + oxyge
e
n

Gas oxygen
product
Glucose which
is then turn into
starch
carbon dioxide
water

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Exercise 4.1

Interdependence Among Living Organisms

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

1. Complete the following sentences with suitable words from the box.
Population

species

habitat

balanced

community

ecosystem

(a) A group of plants or animals resembling one another in form and


characteristics, and able to reproduce among themselves is called a
___________________.
(b) A ________________ is the area where an organisms lives.
(c) A group of organisms of the same kind living in a habitat forms a
________________.
(d) A ________________ is made up of many populations living together in a
particular place.
(e) An _________________ refers to a community of organisms living
together in a particular place with the non-living environment.
(f) When different communities interact with one another and their physical
environment, they form a _________________ ecosystem.
2. Predict three organisms you will be able to find in these habitats.
Habitat

Organisms

(a) Jungle

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(b) Pond

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(c) Grassy field

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(d) Sea

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Exercise 4.2

Interaction between Living Organisms

Diagram 1
1. (a) Diagram 1 shows one type of interaction between organisms.
(i) The eagle is known as ______________________________________
(ii) The rabbit is known as ______________________________________
(b) Name the type of symbiosis below.

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

2. Diagram shows an interaction which exist in the root nodules of a leguminous


plant.

(a) Name the interaction involved.


___________________________________________________________
(b) Explain how the above interaction takes place.
___________________________________________________________

3. Diagram 2 shows the symbiotic interaction between a butterfly and a flower.

(a) What is the advantage gained by


(i)
the butterfly from the flower?
_____________________________________________________
(ii)

the flower from the butterfly?


_____________________________________________________

(b) State the type of symbiotic interaction that exists between the butterfly and
the flower.

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

___________________________________________________________
(c) A bird eats the butterfly at the moment the butterfly visiting the plant.
(i)

Build a food chain involving these organisms in the space provided


below.
_____________________________________________________

(ii)

State the primary consumer, secondary consumer and producer in


the food chain in 3 (c)(i).
Primary consumer : _____________________________________
Secondary consumer : ___________________________________
Tertiary consumer : _____________________________________

4. Match each of the following examples of relationships between organisms


with the correct type of interaction.

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Exercise 4.3

Food Webs

1. The diagram shows the food web in a paddy field.

(a) Identify the following organisms in the above diagram by writing their
alphabets in the correct boxes provided.
Producer
Primary consumer

Secondary consumer
Tertiary consumer

(b) Give two food chains to show the producer, primary consumer and
secondary consumer.
(i) ________________________________________________________
(ii) ________________________________________________________
(c) What happen if the population of owls in the food chain decreases?
(i) ________________________________________________________
(ii) ________________________________________________________
(d) Give a suggestion on how to increase the population of paddy fields.
___________________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

2. The diagram shows a food web in a maize farm.

(a) Label the components R, S, t and u in the above diagram using these
information.
Producer
Primary consumer

Secondary consumer
Tertiary consumer

(b) If the populations of chickens and frogs decrease, what happens to the
population of :
(i) Maize
: _______________________________________________
(ii) Fox
: _______________________________________________
(iii) grasshopper
: __________________________________________
(c) Write two food chains from the food web above.
(i) ________________________________________________________
(ii) ________________________________________________________

3. The diagram below shows a complex food web.


Paddy plant

Bird

Snake
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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

(a) Fill in the boxes in the above food web with the following:
Grasshopper

Frog

Rat

(b) Write a food chain in the box below based on the diagram.

(c) Which is the tertiary consumer?


___________________________________________________________

4. Diagram belows shows a food web.


Caterpillar

Bird
Snake

Grass
Grasshopper

Frog

(a) Write out all the food chains in the web.


(i) ________________________________________________________
(ii) ________________________________________________________
(iii) ________________________________________________________
(iv) ________________________________________________________
(b) Name the secondary consumers in the food web.
___________________________________________________________
(c) Table shows the number of organisms in an ecosystem.
Organisms
P
Q
R
S

Number
120
2 000
5
600

Based on the table construct a pyramid number.

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

5. The table below shows the number of four organisms.

Organisms
Grass
Frog
Grasshopper
Snake

Number
2 000
25
500
3

(a) Construct a pyramid of numbers to represent the above data.

(b) Draw a food chain to represent the above data.


___________________________________________________________
(c) The frogs are infected by a disease and all of them die. What will happen
to :
(i) the grasshopper?
________________________________________________________
(ii) the grass?
________________________________________________________
(iii) the snake?
________________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

6. Diagram below shows a food web in an agriculture farm.

(a) Which organism is a producer?


_____________________________________________________
(b) Explain your answer in (a)
_____________________________________________________
(c) Which animals are :
(i) Primary consumers : __________________________________
(ii) Secondary consumers : _______________________________
(d) Write all the food chains related to the food web above.
(i) ___________________________________________________
(ii) ___________________________________________________
(iii) ___________________________________________________
(e) If the grasshopper reproduces very fast, what could happen to:
(i) Plants : ____________________________________________
(ii) Frogs : _____________________________________________
(iii) Snakes : ___________________________________________
(iv) Rats : ______________________________________________
(f) State the interaction between an eagle and a snake in the above
food web.
_____________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

Exercise 4.4

Photosynthesis

1. The diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis.

(g) What is P, Q and R in the diagram?


P

: ___________

: ____________

: _________

(h) What is removed from the air during photosynthesis?


___________________________________________________________
(i) What happens to the excess of product R?
___________________________________________________________
(j) What role does green plant play in a food chain?
___________________________________________________________

2. Photosynthesis is a process that takes place in plants.


(a) Name the factors that are necessary for the process to take place.
(i) ________________________________________________________
(ii) ________________________________________________________
(iii) ________________________________________________________
(iv) ________________________________________________________

(b) Write a word equation to represent the process of photosynthesis.

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

(c) The above experiment is left under sunlight for two hours.
(i) Name the gas X.
________________________________________________________
(ii) How to test the presence of gas X?
________________________________________________________

3. (a) (i) What is photosynthesis?


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
(k)

Write an equation to represent photosynthesis


________________________________________________________

(b) The experiment below is carried out to show that carbon dioxide is
necessary for photosynthesis.

The green plants are kept in a dark place for 24 hours before they are
used in the experiment.
State the variable that is
(a) Constant : _______________________________________________
(b) Manipulated : ____________________________________________
(c) Responds : _______________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

(c) One leaf from each plant is tested for the presence of starch after three
hours. What is the observation on the leaf from plant
(i) A : _____________________________________________________
(ii) B : _____________________________________________________
(d) What is the function of sodium hydroxide solution used?
___________________________________________________________
(e) Write a conclusion for the above experiment.
___________________________________________________________
(f) State another factor, beside carbon dioxide, that is needed in
photosynthesis.
___________________________________________________________

4. Diagram below shows the photosynthesis process of a green leaf.

(a) What is W, X, Y and Z?


W : _____________________
X : ______________________

Y : ________________________
Z : ________________________

(b) Complete the photosynthesis equation below.

(c) What will happen if one of the above factors is absent?


___________________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

5. The following experiment is used to find out whether sunlight is required for
photosynthesis.
A plant is left in a dark place for two days.
A black paper is used to cover some parts of the leaf as shown below.

(a) Why is the plant left in a dark place for two days?
___________________________________________________________
(b) What solution is used to test the presence of starch in the leaf?
___________________________________________________________
(c) Colour the part of the leaf that reacts to solution used?

(d) What happens to the part that reacts with the solution?
___________________________________________________________
(e) Write the word equation for photosynthesis.
___________________________________________________________
(f) In this experiment, give the variable that is :
(i) Manipulated : _____________________________________________
(ii) Responding : _____________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

6. Diagram below shows the process of photosynthesis.

(a) Name the substances of photosynthesis in the spaces provided..


(b) What type of energy are absorbed by green plants?
___________________________________________________________
(c) Name the green pigment in the leaves that can absorb sunlight.
___________________________________________________________
(d) Give the plant cell structure that contains the green pigment.
___________________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

7. Diagram below shows a carbon cycle. What are P, Q, R, Sand T?

P : _______________________
Q : _______________________
R : _______________________

S : ________________________
T : ________________________

8. Diagarm below shows carbon cycle.

(g) Name the natural process X, Y and Z.


X : ____________________
Z : ____________________

Y : ________________________

(h) What gas is released by process X?


___________________________________________________________
(i) What gas is used up during process Z?
___________________________________________________________
(j) Name two agents that help decomposition.
___________________________________________________________

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Science Module Form 2 - Chapter 4

9. Complete the flowchart below


photosynthesis and respiration.

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to

22

show

the

relationship

between

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