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reaction–diﬀusion systems and their computer modeling

a,* b

V. Gaﬁychuk , B. Datsko

a

Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, CUNY 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201, United States

b

Institute of Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

Naukova Street 3 B, Lviv 79053, Ukraine

Abstract

that non-linear stationary solutions emerge as a result of Turing instability becoming unstable according to oscillatory per-

turbation and transform to inhomogeneous oscillatory structures. It is also shown that with the certain value of the frac-

tional derivatives index, a new type of instability takes place and the system becomes unstable towards perturbations of

ﬁnite wave number. As a result, oscillatory perturbations with this wave number become unstable and lead to non-linear

oscillations which result in spatial oscillatory structure formation. Computer simulation of a Bonhoeﬀer–van der Pol type

reaction–diﬀusion systems with fractional time derivatives is performed.

Ó 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Reaction–diﬀusion system; Fractional diﬀerential equations; Oscillations; Dissipative structures; Inhomogeneous oscillatory

structures

1. Introduction

Inhomogeneous non-linear oscillatory structures in reaction–diﬀusion (RD) systems have been investigated

analytically, numerically and qualitatively during last decades (see, for example, [1–9]). Although strict math-

ematical theory of such type of phenomena have not been developed yet due to the essential non-linearity of

these systems, from the viewpoint of the applied and experimental mathematics, these phenomena are under-

standable and are investigated in diﬀerent autowave media.

In the recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in fractional reaction–diﬀusion (RD) systems

[10–15] which, on one hand, exhibit self-organization phenomena and, one the other hand, are suﬃciently

complicated in investigation of their solutions.

In this article, we will show that in fractional RD systems we get several new types of instabilities. That is

not possible to ﬁnd in RD systems with integer derivatives. We conﬁrm the linear stability analysis by

*

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: vagaf@yahoo.com (V. Gaﬁychuk).

0096-3003/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.amc.2007.08.065

252 V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260

computer simulation of a Bonhoeﬀer–van der Pol type fractional RD system which is probably the simplest

one used in RD modeling.

Let us consider the fractional RD system

sc uat ¼ Duxx þ W ðu; AÞ; ð1Þ

T

with two components u = (u1, u2) deﬁned on the interval x 2 ½0; Lx subject to (i) Neumann:

ux jx¼0 ¼ ux jx¼Lx ¼ 0 or (ii) Periodic: uðt; 0Þ ¼ uðt; Lx Þ; ux jx¼0 ¼ ux jx¼Lx , boundary conditions and with the cer-

tain initial conditions. Here A is a real parameter, W = (W1, W2)T – smooth reaction kinetics functions, s and

D are positive, diagonal matrices s = diag[si], D ¼ diag½l2i .

Fractional derivatives c uat ; on the left hand side of the Eq. (1), instead of the standard time derivatives, are

the Caputo fractional derivatives in time of the order 0 < a < 2 and are represented as [16,17]

Z t

a oac uðtÞ 1 uðmÞ ðsÞ

u

c t ¼ :¼ ds;

ot a Cðm aÞ 0 ðt sÞaþ1m

where m 1 < a < m; m 2 1; 2.

The stability of the steady-state constant solutions of the system (1) corresponding to homogeneous equi-

librium state

W ðu0 ; A0 Þ ¼ 0 ð2Þ

can be analyzed by linearization of the system nearby this solution u0 ¼ ðu01 ; u02 Þ. In this case, the system (1) can

be transformed to linear fractional RD system at this equilibrium point

sc vat ¼ Dvxx W v ðuh ; A0 Þv ð3Þ

By substituting the solution in the form u(x, t) cos kx, ðk ¼ Lpx j; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .Þ, into Eq. (3) we can get the

system of linear ordinary diﬀerential equations with right hand side matrix

ða11 k 2 l21 Þ=s1 a12 =s1

F ¼ , which can be transformed to diagonal form. Here the coeﬃcients

a21 =s2 ða22 k 2 l22 Þ=s2

aij = {oWi/ovj} represent Jacobian. Simple calculations lead to the next eigenvalues

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 2

k1;2 ¼ 2 ðtrF tr F 4 det F Þ.

In this case, the solution of the diagonal vector equation is given by Mittag–Leﬄer functions [16,17]

X

1 k

ðki ta Þ

Dui ðtÞ ¼ Dui ð0Þ ¼ Ea ðki ta ÞDui ð0Þ; i ¼ 1; 2: ð4Þ

k¼0

Cðka þ 1Þ

Dui are the new variables obtained as a result of change of the basis corresponding to diagonalization of the

matrix F.

Analyzing (4), we can conclude that if for any of the roots

jArgðki Þj < ap=2 ð5Þ

the solution has an increasing function component, then the system is asymptotically unstable [18,19].

For integer a = 1, the roots k1,2 are complex inside the parabola detF = tr2F/4, and the ﬁxed points are the

spiral sources (trF > 0) or spiral sinks (trF < 0). In this case, the domain on the right hand side of the parabola

(trF > 0) is unstable with the existing limit cycle, while the domain on the left hand side (trF < 0) is stable. By

crossing the axis trF = 0, the Hopf bifurcation conditions become true.

For a: 0 < a < 2 for every point inside the parabola detF = tr2F/4, we can introduce a marginal value

a : a ¼ a0 ¼ p2 jArgðki Þj which follows from the equality conditions (5) and is given by the formula [13]

V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260 253

( pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

p

arctan 4 det F =tr2 F 1; trF > 0;

a0 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð6Þ

2 p2 arctan 4 det F =tr2 F 1; trF < 0:

The value of a is a certain bifurcation parameter which switches the stable and unstable states of the system.

At lower a: a < a0 = p2 jArgðki Þj, the system has oscillatory modes, but they are stable. Increasing the value of

a > a0 = p2 jArgðki Þj leads to instability. In fact, having complex number ki with Reki < 0, Imki50, it is always

possible to satisfy the condition jArg(ki)j < ap/2, and the system becomes unstable according to a certain type

of oscillations. The smaller is the value of trF, the easier it is to fulﬁll the instability conditions. With k = 0,

this type of analysis was made in [13,14]. In this article, we would like to direct your attention to the fact that

we can have another type of instability with k 5 0 and which leads to non-linear inhomogeneous oscillations

of the system parameters.

Let us consider stability conditions for diﬀerent possible limits. It is widely known for integer time deriv-

atives that the system (1) becomes unstable according to either Turing or Hopf bifurcations.

Let consider the conditions for Hopf bifurcation which are held at k = 0 if

trF > 0; det F ðk ¼ 0Þ > 0: ð7Þ

2

4a12 a21 s1 s2 > ða11 s2 a22 s1 Þ ; ð8Þ

which holds at a11 > 0, a22 < 0, a12a21 < 0, s1 < s2 and leads to homogeneous oscillations.

In the case of fractional derivative index, Hopf bifurcation is not connected with the condition a11 > 0 and

can hold at certain value of a when the fractional derivative index is suﬃciently large. In this case, the easiest

way to satisfy this condition is by bringing the right hand side of (8) close to zero. As a result, we have

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 a12 a21 s1 2 a12 a21 s2

a0 2 arctan 2 2 arctan 2 :

p a11 s2 p a22 s1

The conditions for the Turing instability are

trF < 0; det F ðk ¼ 0Þ > 0; det F ðk 0 Þ < 0: ð9Þ

When we rewrite the last condition, we have

2

ða11 k 2 l21 Þs2 ða22 k 2 l22 Þs1 > 4a12 a21 s1 s2 ð10Þ

In this case, eigenvalues are real and at a11 > 0; a22 < 0; a12 a21 < 0; l21 l22 the conditions of Turing insta-

bility for k050 lead to spatial pattern formation.

Let us consider a new possible situation when

trF < 0; 4 det F ð0Þ < tr2 F ð0Þ; 4 det F ðk 0 Þ > tr2 F ðk 0 Þ: ð11Þ

The analysis of the expressions (11) shows that at k = 0 we have two real and less than zero eigenvalues, and

the system is certainly stable. If the last inequality takes place for a certain value of k0 5 0, we can get two

complex eigenvalues. As a result, in the case of fractional derivatives, a new type of instability, connected with

the interplay between the determinant and the trace of the linear system, emerges. With such type of eigen-

values, it is possible to determine the value of fractional derivative index when the system becomes unstable.

In fact, the last two conditions can be rewritten as

2

ða11 s1 a22 s2 Þ > 4a12 a21 s1 s2 ; ð12Þ

2

4a12 a21 s1 s2 > ða11 k 2 l21 Þs2 ða22 k 2 l22 Þs1 : ð13Þ

254 V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260

The simplest way to satisfy the last condition, is to estimate the optimal value of k = k0

a s a s

2 11 2 22 1

k0 ¼ : ð14Þ

s1 l22 s2 l21

Having obtained (14), we can estimate the marginal value of a0

2

a0 ¼ 2 arctan T ; ð15Þ

p

where the expression T is

1=2

ð4a12 a21 s1 s2 Þ

T ¼ :

l2 s þl2 s

ða11 s2 a22 s1 Þ l12 s2 l22 s1 a11 s2 a22 s1

1 2 2 1

The last expression determines the value of a0 as a function of all parameters of the system. The greater is

the expression, the smaller is the value a0. Trying to reach the maximum possible value of (15), we can see

that it goes to zero if either s1 or s 2 goes to zero and, as a result, a0 ! 2. In the intermediate situation,

when s1 s2 the expression reaches its maximum. Analyzing the last expression, we can see that at

l22 l21 the denominator is very large and the right hand side tends to zero. For diﬀerent lengths l22 l21 ,

or l22 l21 , s1 s2, the expression looks suﬃciently simple and it determines instability conditions for inho-

mogeneous wave number (14)

( )

2 ð4a12 a21 Þ1=2

a0 ¼ 2 arctan ;

p jða11 a22 Þj a11 a22

In the case of equality in (12), we can estimate the last expression as a0 ¼ 2 p2 arctan 1=2 1:7. This seems to

be the value of a0 which is close to its minimum value.

This section contains a discussion of the general results applied for a speciﬁc model as well as conﬁrmation

of these results by computer simulation of the system (1) at the parameters which lead to the outcome con-

sidered in previous section.

Here in this section we discuss a Bonhoeﬀer–van der Pol type RD system with cubical non-linearity (see, for

example [20,2,3,12]). In this case, the source term for activator variable is non-linear W 1 ¼ u1 u31 u2 and it’s

linear for the inhibitor one W 2 ¼ u2 þ bu1 þ A . The null isoclines of the system are represented in Fig. 1a.

The homogeneous solution of variables u1 and u2 can be determined from the system of equations

W1 = W2 = 0 and to determine u1 we have cubic algebraic equation

ðb 1Þu1 þ u31 =3 þ A ¼ 0: ð16Þ

Simple calculation of the derivatives at homogeneous state (16) makes it possible to write conditions of dif-

ferent types of instability explicitly.

System (1) with corresponding initial and boundary conditions was integrated numerically using the explicit

and implicit schemes with respect to time and centered diﬀerence approximation for spatial derivatives. Frac-

tional derivatives were approximated using two diﬀerent schemes on the basis of Riemann–Liouville deﬁni-

tion: L1-scheme for 0 6 a < 1, L2-scheme for 1 6 a < 2 (see below), as well as the scheme on the basis of

Grunwald–Letnikov deﬁnition for 0 < a < 1 and 1 < a < 2 [17]. In other words, for the system of n fractional

RD equations

V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260 255

C aj

o uj ðx; tÞ o2 uj ðx; tÞ

sj ¼ d j þ fj ðu1 ; . . . ; un Þ; j ¼ 1; n; ð17Þ

otaj ox2

where sj, dj, fj – certain parameters and non-linearities of the RD system correspondingly, we used the next

numerical schemes:

L1-scheme

!

dj ða Þ

X

k1

ðaj Þ

a

ðkDtÞ j 0

dj ukj;i ðukj;i1 2ukj;i þ ukj;iþ1 Þ fj ðuk1;i ; . . . ; ukn;i Þ ¼ dj u0j;i wk j þ ulj;i bklþ1 þ sj u ;

ðDxÞ

2

l¼1

Cð1 aj Þ j;i

aj

sj ðDtÞ ða Þ 1 aj

dj ¼ ; wk j ¼ k 1aj ðk 1Þ1aj ; bðajÞ

¼ s1aj 2ðs 1Þ1aj þ ðs 2Þ1aj ;

Cð2 aj Þ k aj s

s ¼ 2; k;

L2-scheme

d j kþ1

dj ukþ1

j;i 2

ðuj;i1 2ukþ1 kþ1 kþ1 kþ1

j;i þ uj;iþ1 Þ fj ðu1;i ; . . . ; un;i Þ

Dx

" #

X

k1 X

m

ðkDtÞpaj op 0

0 aj 1 aj l ðaj Þ k 2aj

¼ dj uj;i w0;k þ uj;i w1;k þ uj;i bklþ2 þ uj;i ð2 3Þ þ sj u ;

l¼2 p¼0

Cðp aj þ 1Þ otp j;i

aj

sj ðDtÞ a ð1 aj Þð2 aj Þ ð2 aj Þ

dj ¼ ; w0;kj ¼ aj 1 þ k 2aj ðk 1Þ2aj ;

Cð3 aj Þ k aj k

aj ð2 aj Þ

w1;k ¼ aj 1 2k 2aj þ 3ðk 1Þ2aj ðk 2Þ2aj ;

k

2a 2a 2a

bsðaj Þ ¼ s2aj 3ðs 1Þ j þ 3ðs 2Þ j ðs 3Þ j ; s ¼ 3; k

d j ðDtÞaj ðDtÞaj

ukj;i 2

ukj;i1 2ukj;i þ ukj;iþ1 fj ðuk1;i ; . . . ; ukn;i Þ

sj ðDxÞ sj

aj

X

m pa

ðkDtÞ j op 0 X k

ða Þ

¼ ðDtÞ p

u j;i cl j ukl

j;i ;

p¼0

Cðp aj þ 1Þ ot l¼1

ða Þ ða Þ ða Þ 1 þ aj

c0 j ¼ 1; cl j ¼ cl1j 1 ; l ¼ 1; 2; . . .

l

The applied numerical schemes are implicit, and for each time layer they are presented as the system of

algebraic equations solved by Newton–Raphson technique. Such approach makes it possible to get the sys-

tem of equations with band Jacobian for each node and to use the sweep method for the solution of linear

algebraic equations. Calculating the values of the spatial derivatives and corresponding non-linear terms on

the previous layer, we have obtained explicit schemes for integration. Despite the fact that these algorithms

are quite simple, they are very sensitive and require small steps of integration, and they often do not allow to

ﬁnd numerical results. In contrast, the implicit schemes, in certain way, are similar to the implicit Euler’s

method, and they have shown very good behavior at the modeling of fractional RD systems for diﬀerent

step size of integration, as well as for a non-linear function and the power function of fractional index.

Moreover, by modeling according to this algorithm system (1) we have observed that these results fully

match the results obtained prior.

It should be noted that the deﬁnition of the fractional derivative in Grunwald–Letnikow form is equivalent

to the one in Riemann–Liouville method, but for numerical calculations it is much more ﬂexible.

256 V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260

2

4 det F tr2 F ¼ 4ððb 1Þ þ u21 Þ=s1 s2 ð1 u21 Þ=s1 1=s2 > 0: ð18Þ

As a result, at stationary state (u1 , u2 ) is no more stable and limit circle arises in the system. Hopf bifurcation,

in the case of fractional diﬀerential equations can be realized for any value of a. The typical stability domain in

the coordinates (u1 ; s1 =s2 ) is represented in Fig. 1b. Inside this closed ‘‘boomerang’’ curve the system is unsta-

ble with wave numbers k = 0, and outside it is stable. The typical view of the eigenvalues is given in Fig. 2a.

We see that at k = 0 the system can have substantial imaginary part and under condition (18) is unstable. A

detailed analysis of the non-linear dynamics can be found in the paper [14]. It should be noted that for the

system with integer derivatives instability conditions for Hopf bifurcation are very strict (1 < u1 < 1,

s1 << s2).

2

ð1 u21 k 2 l21 Þs2 þ ð1 þ k 2 l22 Þs1 > 4bs1 s2 ð19Þ

The typical behavior of the real and imaginary parts of eigenvalues is given in Fig. 2. The growing modes

exp(ikx) with wave numbers k (kmax > k > kmin > 0) and Reki > 0 will grow exponentially until the non-lin-

earities bind the growth. The wave number k and the wave length L corresponding to unstable perturbation,

are related by L ¼ 2p=k: Analyzing (19) we can conclude that these conditions are practically the same for

fractional derivatives and a standard RD system. But what is very important the transient processes and

the dynamics of these systems are diﬀerent, and for this reason ﬁnal attractors can often be diﬀerent even

though the linear conditions of instability look the same. Namely to this type of dynamics the next subsection

is devoted. Here we would like to direct your attention to speciﬁc phenomena which are imminent to fractional

RD system only.

Fig. 1. Null isoclines for A ¼ 1:0, b = 1.1 (a), two-dimensional diagram of bifurcation domains in coordinates (u1,s1/s2) for diﬀerent

values of a: 1a = 1.0, 2a = 1.2, 3a = 1.4, 4-a = 1.6, 5-a = 1.8 (b).

Fig. 2. Dependencies of real (black) and imaginary (grey) parts of eigenvalues on k (dispersion relations) showing unstable Turing mode

and transition of Turing mode to unstable Hopf mode for (s1/s2 = 3, 5, a = 1.8, l1 = 0.05, l2 = 1) u1 ¼ 0 (a), u1 ¼ 2 (b).

V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260 257

Let us consider the bifurcation diagram presented in Fig. 1b. It was already noted that the region inside the

curve is unstable for wave numbers k = 0 and outside it is stable. Now, let us consider that the system param-

eters are close to the one represented by point A. From the viewpoint of homogeneous oscillations, system is

stable. But if we have l1 << l2 = 1, the system becomes unstable according to Turing instability. The plot of

eigenvalues for such case is represented in Fig. 2a. As a result, we expect the formation of stationary inhomo-

geneous structures. In fact, at the beginning, only inhomogeneous ﬂuctuations grow in amplitude and lead to

inhomogeneous pattern formation. At the same time, at the dynamics of structure formation, the amplitude of

the structures increases, and at maximum and minimum amplitude, the structures fall into the domain

(Fig. 1b), where the homogenous structures are unstable. In this case, parameters are close to Hopf instability

domain and Turing instability conditions (Fig. 2a) changes to Hopf bifurcation (Fig. 2b). The system become

unstable according to Hopf bifurcation. As a result, the paths of non-linear structures being inside unstable

region, start to oscillate and leave this region becoming stable. But in this case homogeneous distribution sat-

isﬁes Turing bifurcations conditions and becomes unstable again. Then stable structures develop and eventu-

ally they reach the domain where Hopf bifurcation becomes signiﬁcant. The cycle of the oscillations repeats

again.

Fig. 3. Pattern scenario with transformation from Turing structures to oscillatory patterns for variables n1 (a), n2 (b) (s1/s2 = 3.5, k = 2),

similar structures for n1 with initial conditions for (k = 1) (c), Destroying of the structures for smaller value of s1/s2 = 2.5 and formation of

homogeneous oscillations in subcritical region (d), scenario of formation of steady state dissipative structures by increasing value

s1/s2 = 7.0 (e), Another example of oscillatory structures at s1/s2 = 4 and l1 = 0.01 (f). Parameters of the computer simulations were

n1 ¼ n2 ¼ 0, a = 1.8, l1 = 0.05 l2 = 1, b = 1.1. Initial conditions are: n01 ¼ n1 0:05 cos ðk 0 xÞ; n02 ¼ n2 0:05 cos ðk 0 xÞ.

258 V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260

This mechanism was conﬁrmed by computer simulation of the system. In Fig. 3 we see the oscillations of

dissipative structures at a certain value of s1/s2. Fig. 3a and b correspond to the ﬁrst and second variables, and

the Fig. 3c corresponds to the same mechanism of structure formations with smaller period of the structures.

Decreasing the value of s1/s2 the inhomogeneous structures totaly disappear, and we obtain homogenous

oscillations similar to the ones obtained in the article [14]. It should be noted that in this case system is stable

according to small perturbation. This means that Hopf bifurcation is subcritical and the oscillations emerge by

ﬁnite initial perturbation.

In the case of increasing parameter s1/s2 amplitude of the inhomogeneous structure oscillations decreases

(Fig. 3d), and we obtain steady state structures similar to those we have in the systems with integer derivative

index (Fig. 3e). The dynamics considered in Fig. 3a–e corresponds to a certain value of l1/l2. If we decrease the

ratio of l1/l2, then similar to standard RDS structures become more contrast, but the same non-linear dynam-

ics is inherent to the system. An example of such dynamical structure is presented in Fig. 3f.

In the sections considered above, the linearized system is unstable either Hopf or Turing bifurcation. Below,

we consider the case when we don’t have Turing or Hopf bifurcation. In fact, as follows from (12), (13)

2 2

ð1 u21 Þs2 þ s1 > 4bs1 s2 > ð1 u21 k 2 l21 Þs2 þ ð1 þ k 2 l22 Þs1 : ð20Þ

we have instability for inhomogeneous wave vectors with eigenvalues with imaginary parts. The real and imag-

inary parts for such case are represented in Fig. 4a. We see that the real part of the roots is always less than

zero, and the imaginary one on some interval of wave number k becomes non-zero. In this case, when the frac-

tional derivative index becomes greater than some critical value a0, the instability condition holds true. So, as

this instability conditions are possible to realize for some interval kmin < k < kmax, this means that only the

perturbations with these wave numbers are unstable, and they are unstable for oscillatory ﬂuctuations. This

situation is qualitatively diﬀerent from the integer RD system whether either Turing (k 5 0) or Hopf bifurca-

tion (k = 0) takes place, and this depends on which condition is easier to realize. In the system under consid-

eration, we can choose the parameter when we don’t have Turing and Hopf bifurcations (for k = 0) at all.

Nevertheless, we obtain that conditions for Hopf bifurcation can be realized for non-homogeneous wave

number.

Taking into account calculations made above we can estimate the value of T

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 bf

T ¼ ;

l2 þl2 f

ðð1 u21 Þf þ 1Þ l12 fl2 2 þ ðu21 1Þf þ 1

2 1

where s2/s1 = f and which determines the marginal value of a0 (15). In Fig. 4b, a two-dimensional plot dis-

plays the parameter ranges for the stability and existence of dynamical structures. In the largest ‘‘boomerang’’

Fig. 4. The plot of real(black) and imaginary(grey) parts of eigenvalues on k for (s1/s2 = 2.2, l1 = 0.1, l2 = 1, b = 2, u1 ¼ 3:6 (a). Two-

dimensional bifurcation diagram domain in coordinates (u1, s1/s2) for a = 1.9, l1 = 0.1, l2 = 1 (b) and zoomed region (c). Shaded region

corresponds to instability with k = 0, white closed domain with points A and B corresponds to Turing instability with k = 1 and domain

with indicated point C – to wave number k = 2.

V. Gaﬁychuk, B. Datsko / Applied Mathematics and Computation 198 (2008) 251–260 259

Fig. 5. Oscillatory inhomogeneous patterns for u1 and u2 for homogeneous state in point C (A ¼ 21, a = 1.95 ) – (a), (b) (see points in

Fig. 4c), distributions of variable u1 for homogeneous state in point A (A ¼ 50, a = 1.94 ) – (c) and in point B (A ¼ 80, a = 1.94 ) –

(d). For all ﬁgures l1 = 0.1, l2 = 1, b = 2.

domain the system is unstable according to wave numbers k = 0 [13,14]. For the case k50, we ﬁnd instability

conditions for diﬀerent wave numbers k = 1, 2, 3 . . . (Solution of the equality jArg(ki)j = ap/2 at certain a (5)).

We can see that these regions overlap and at the same parameters, the instability conditions for diﬀerent re-

gimes are fulﬁlled simultaneously (Fig. 4b). As it is seen from the ﬁgure, there are conditions where only insta-

bility according to non-homogeneous wave numbers holds. As a result, perturbations with k = 0 relax to the

homogenous state, and only the perturbations with a certain value of k become unstable and the system exhib-

its inhomogeneous oscillations.

The results of the numerical study of the initial value problem of the system (1) are represented in Fig. 5a–d.

We have obtained that with the increase in the parameter a, the amplitude of the oscillatory structures

increases. The emergence of inhomogeneous oscillations, which destroy the stationary state, leads to a new

type of pattern formation. The resulting structures are rather similar to standing waves, than to standard

structures already investigated in autowave media.

4. Conclusion

In this article we considered two diﬀerent mechanisms of inhomogeneous oscillatory structure formation in

fractional RD systems. The ﬁrst mechanism is non-linear, and in linear spectrum analysis we can not predict

non-linear behavior because system becomes unstable due to either Turing or Hopf bifurcation. But non-lin-

ear structures become so developed, that a new type of instability emerges, and it changes its previous state for

a new one. Combination of these two types of instabilities leads to non-linear inhomogeneous oscillations.

Second mechanism of instability is in some way a new one as we do not come across it in the standard RD

systems. We shown here that at a suﬃcient value of fractional derivative index a, the system becomes unstable

according to inhomogeneous perturbations (k 5 0) with eigenvalues with imaginary part. As a result of this

instability, pattern formation can be represented as oscillatory structures, similar to inhomogeneous standing

waves in linear systems.

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