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NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN STANDARD

VERSION 1

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CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution

Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. SCOPE ............................................................................................................... 2 SUBSTATION LOCATION.................................................................................. 3 2.1. Reticulation Costs ........................................................................................ 3 2.2. Personnel Access ........................................................................................ 3 2.3. Equipment Access ....................................................................................... 3 2.4. Ergon Mains Access .................................................................................... 4 2.5. Foundation and Earthing Requirements ...................................................... 4 2.6. Avoidance of other Services and Encroachment ......................................... 4 2.7. Area Drainage.............................................................................................. 4 2.8. Hazardous Locations ................................................................................... 5 2.9. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) ............................................................. 5 2.10. Noise ........................................................................................................ 5 2.11. Ventilation................................................................................................. 5 2.12. Protection from Vehicles........................................................................... 6 2.13. Future Site Development.......................................................................... 6 3. CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................... 7 3.1. Walls and Ceilings ....................................................................................... 7 3.2. Floors ........................................................................................................... 7 3.3. Waterproofing .............................................................................................. 7 3.4. Ventilation .................................................................................................... 8 3.4.1. Natural Ventilation ................................................................................ 8 3.4.2. Forced Ventilation ................................................................................. 8 3.4.3. Special Requirements for Ventilation Ducts.......................................... 9 3.5. Fire............................................................................................................... 9 3.6. Oil Containment ........................................................................................... 9 3.7. Hauling Eyes................................................................................................ 9 3.7.1. For Cables .......................................................................................... 10 3.7.2. For Transformers ................................................................................ 10 3.8. Earths ........................................................................................................ 10 3.9. Trenches .................................................................................................... 10 3.10. Doors...................................................................................................... 11 3.11. Light and Power ..................................................................................... 12 3.12. Conduits ................................................................................................. 12 4. ELECTRICAL DESIGN STANDARD................................................................. 13 4.1. Transformers.............................................................................................. 13 4.2. High Voltage Switchgear............................................................................ 13 4.3. Low Voltage Switchboard .......................................................................... 14 4.4. Customers Connection.............................................................................. 14 4.5. Cables........................................................................................................ 14 4.6. Earthing ..................................................................................................... 14 4.6.1. CMEN ................................................................................................. 14 4.6.2. Separately Earthed System ................................................................ 15 4.6.3. General Requirements........................................................................ 15 4.7. Labels ........................................................................................................ 15 4.8. Fault Levels................................................................................................ 16 4.9. Safety and Clearances............................................................................... 16 5. LAYOUTS TYPICAL ...................................................................................... 17

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Page 1 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN 1. SCOPE


This specification has been prepared by Ergon to assist architects, consulting engineers, property developers, property owners and Ergons electrical design engineers. It sets out Ergons requirements for the design, construction, operation and maintenance requirements where an indoor substation is to be established on a customers property. This indoor substation may be partly or wholly within the customers building or in a separate building on the property. The specification is split into sections covering: a) Substation Location understanding the impact the substation has on its surrounding areas. This can be used by the customers representative and Ergon when negotiating the substation location. b) Construction construction and design requirements ensuring the substation is well built to ensure access, operation and maintenance is not compromised. This shall be referred to by the customer and the customers representatives when constructing and maintaining the substation. c) Electrical Design detailing the electrical equipment and the method of construction inside the substation. This shall be used by Ergons designers. d) Layouts typical layouts of a variety of substations which can be used as a guide when allocating space requirements for the substation. Actual construction drawings will be created by Ergon after the location and dimensions of the substation have been determined. They will be based on construction and site drawings provided by the developer. The developer shall incorporate Ergons construction requirements into their own drawings.

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Page 2 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN 2. SUBSTATION LOCATION


There are a number of key factors to consider when selecting the substation site.

2.1.

Reticulation Costs

Extra costs may apply if the substation is located away from the property boundary due to the extra lengths of cable required to be installed by Ergon. The cost of consumers mains and sub-mains should also be considered. The customers main switchboard should be located adjacent to the substation to keep costs down.

2.2.

Personnel Access

Ergon personnel require unhindered access to the substation and associated mains at all times. Substations must be provided with direct street access or be accessible using permanent all weather routes. Access points must be located where they will not be obstructed by vehicles, equipment, site usage or any other impediments.

2.3.

Equipment Access

The transformer is the largest and heaviest item in the substation. It requires double door access directly at ground level from the street so that it can be placed outside the substation by crane, slid and winched into final position inside the substation. Pulling eyes are required for the winch. A transformer handling area must be allowed for adjacent to the substation. The grade of the handling area should not exceed 1:20. A 6.2m turning circle is required for the mobile crane to navigate around corners. A carriageway easement of 5500mm (h) X 3500mm (w) is required for the installation or removal of the transformer from the street to the substation location. The width should be increased on bends. The easement must have a maximum slope of 1:12. Note the foregoing requirements must be assessed for each installation and changes may be required based on substation location and other issues. The combined weight of the transformer and crane is 31 tonnes.

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Page 3 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

2.4.

Ergon Mains Access

An easement clear of all constructions may be required for the installation and the future maintenance of Ergons mains cables associated with the substation. The width is required to be 2 m for cables and the required width for construction of cable pits.

2.5.

Foundation and Earthing Requirements

The substation must be constructed on a stable foundation which bears on soil or another part of the building. Where the foundation bears on soil, the soil must be clear of any obstruction or rubble which could interfere with the installation of the earthing electrode system through the substation floor. Earthing system electrodes may extend ten metres or more into the ground below the substation. If the substation is constructed on a suspended floor slab, the earthing system is to be installed at the lowest level of building excavation directly below the substation footprint.

2.6.

Avoidance of other Services and Encroachment

Services such as drains, sewers, piping or wiring are not permitted to pass through the substation, the ground below it, access passageways, ventilation ducts or the substation walls, floors or ceilings. The substation enclosure must be free of encroachments into the floor and trench areas. Columns, beams and walls may occupy certain areas provided they do not conflict with locations for any equipment and their associated clearance requirements. Extra space may be required for the substation in order to cater for the encroachment.

2.7.

Area Drainage

The area in which the substation is to be located shall be free of the risk of flooding and storm water damage and any drains provided must be kept in working order by the owner. Level actuated sump pumps may be required to be fitted by the owner if drainage is not adequate.

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Page 4 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


2.8. Hazardous Locations

Ergons substation equipment and access route must not be within an area which is classified as a Hazardous Area as specified in the S.A.A. Wiring Rules.

2.9.

Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF)

The Electricity Supply Association of Australia Limited (ESAA) recommends that its members act prudently in relation to EMFs when they design and operate their systems. In practical terms, prudent avoidance means designing the substation using standard equipment to minimise their capacity to produce EMFs and avoid siting them adjacent to areas which contain people or electronic equipment. Ergons standard substation design focuses the sources of Electromagnetic Fields towards the middle of the substation. Size and shape are critical factors in limiting EMFs. The owner can assist to observe the principles of prudent avoidance by providing a substation enclosure of sufficient size and appropriate shape to allow construction to Ergons standard indoor substation. The owner can also assist by allocating a space within the building that is clear from electronic equipment for a distance of ten metres in any direction from the substation. The owner should also ensure that consumers mains cabling and other associated plant are not sited adjacent to people or electronic equipment. If EMF shielding is required the owner shall obtain a report from an approved EMF consultant to determine the extent of the shielding or if any is required. Installation of the shielding shall be subject to Ergons acceptance.

2.10.

Noise

The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), local councils and other authorities have the power to ensure that noise originating from any premises is not the cause for complaint. Transformers emit a constant low-pitched hum. Special precautions in siting the substation may be necessary, particularly in locating ventilation panels and fans, to limit noise emission if existing or prospective residential development is within the vicinity.

2.11.

Ventilation

Substations require ventilation in order to dissipate heat losses from the electrical equipment. Natural airflow directly to the outside of the building is preferred. This generally incorporates louvered, weather and vermin proof ventilators in the walls and doors. Position of ventilators shall be such as to provide cross ventilation across the transformer. Allow for 1 sq m of Inlet Area and 1 sq m of Outlet Area per 1000 kVA. Some substations may require forced air cooling controlled by a thermostat. The cooling system is such that cool air is drawn through the circulation fan and blown over the transformer. Exhaust air must be ducted independently and directly to outside air. The fans shall be started when the temperature in the room reaches 35 degrees Celsius and may be stopped when the temperature falls below 30 degrees Celsius. This cooling system is the responsibility of the owner. Mechanical ventilation drawings must be submitted to Ergon for approval.

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Page 5 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


2.12. Protection from Vehicles

The doors for the substation must be protected from damage by vehicles. The protection may be in the form of bollards, which can be removable. Alternatively, equivalent protection such as a 230mm high kerb with 1500mm clearance to the substation will also be considered.

2.13.

Future Site Development

Substation locations which restrict future development of the site should be avoided. Relocation of the substation would be extremely costly to the owner. Future development of the site must not encroach onto the agreed access way to the substation.

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Page 6 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN 3. CONSTRUCTION


3.1. Walls and Ceilings
The substation walls are to be concrete or solid masonry construction. The walls must have sufficient structural strength to support the weight of any equipment mounted on it without collapsing. Maximum load is 400 kN. The areas surrounding any pulling eyes which must be attached to the wall are to be suitably reinforced so that the use of the pulling eye does not damage the wall. The ceiling shall be of concrete construction. It must have sufficient structural strength to withstand 200 kN load at any point. All materials are to be new and to meet the appropriate Australian standards. The finish of internal walls and ceiling must be clean and smooth and must be painted with two coats of white acrylic paint. The walls and ceilings must be waterproof and have a 2 hour fire rating. Walls and Floors must be impervious to any oil spillage from main transformers.

3.2.

Floors

The substation floor, including trenches, conduits, etc. is to be formed in accordance with the positions and details shown on Ergons drawings and specifications. The floor is to be designed by a practicing structural engineer and be capable of carrying the loads of the substation equipment. The floor must carry a transformer load of 7300 kg on 4 points anywhere in its area. The floor must have a level steel trowelled finish. If the substation floor is laid on natural or filled ground an appropriate waterproofing membrane is to be placed between the underside of the substation floor and the ground. Provision is to be incorporated in the floor slab for any floor hauling eyes/anchors. A transformer landing area is to be provided in all cases. The transformer loading area is to be constructed of reinforced concrete and must have the same load bearing characteristics as the substation floor. The minimum size of the landing area must be 2400 mm wide by 2450 mm length and will be located immediately in front of the transformer access door/s. The landing area must have a slight slope such that water flows away from the doors and it must be at the same relative level as the substation floor to allow equipment to be rolled into the substation directly from the landing area.

3.3.

Waterproofing

The substation shall be constructed using reliable waterproof materials, waterproof construction methods and site drainage to protect the substation equipment against exposure to dampness and water throughout its life. The site shall be effectively drained to keep the area outside the substation freely drained and dry. Stormwater drainage systems shall be designed and provided to industry best-practice standards. Site drainage shall be kept in working order by the owner. The siting of the substation with its floor level below the level of the building storm water system shall not be permissible.

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Page 7 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


All necessary horizontal and vertical damp courses must be provided and the substation room shall have dry wall, floor and ceiling conditions before acceptance for installation of substation equipment.

3.4.

Ventilation

Substations require special attention to ventilation in order to dissipate heat losses from electrical equipment. Wherever possible, natural air flow to the outside of the building will be used. Forced ventilation should be used where natural ventilation is not practicable. Forced ventilation by means of fan(s) must be designed, supplied and installed by the owner to Ergons requirements. The ventilation must be sufficient to maintain a maximum room temperature of 35 degrees Celsius when all transformers are operating at nameplate rating. Air inlets and outlets must be arranged to achieve an even distribution of air flow over the transformers. Substantial vertical separation is required between inlet and outlet openings. Inlet and outlet openings should preferably be clear of pedestrian areas and must be located to prevent entry of noxious gases such as vehicle exhausts, pollutants such as smoke, soot, dust, ash etc. Air being removed from an internal substation must be directly and independently ducted to outside air.

3.4.1. Natural Ventilation


The position of the vents must be directly to outside air, if this is not achievable then forced ventilation is required. The design calls for the owner to provide vermin proof, weather proof louvered vents of a specified design in the walls and/or doors in order to achieve natural ventilation. Position of ventilators shall be such as to provide cross ventilation across the transformer. Allow for 1 sq m of Inlet Area and 1 sq m of Outlet Area per 1000 kVA. The areas outside the louvers must not be subjected to fire risk. In some cases, where the roof of the substation is external, weatherproof roof ventilators may also be specified. It is important where roof vents are installed that they are fixed securely.

3.4.2. Forced Ventilation


The forced ventilation system comprising fans, ducting and inlet/outlet vents must be designed, supplied and installed by the owner. The air flow through the ventilation will be checked by Ergon before final approval. The control devices and wiring for the starting and stopping of the fan(s) will be supplied and installed by the owner. It is Ergons requirement that the forced ventilation system be designed so that the cool inlet air is drawn through the circulation fan and then blown over the transformers and not the other way around. Note: Heat losses are taken as 25kW per transformer. In all circumstances the fans must be installed inside the substation and all wiring contained within the substation. The outlet ventilation shall be discharged independently and directly to open air. All vents are to be fitted with fire shutters. Fans audible noise level must not exceed 41dB at a distance of 1metre from the source.

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Page 8 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


3.4.3. Special Requirements for Ventilation Ducts
Substation ventilation ducts must not contain other services, give access to other portions of the building or form part of the ventilation system for the building. The strength and fire rating of the walls of ventilation ducts are required to be the same as those specified for substation walls where fire dampers are not installed. Normal air conditioning duct construction is acceptable only where fire dampers are installed on wall penetrations where ventilation ducts enter or leave the substation.

3.5.

Fire

Ergon substations are designed to contain any products of a fire within the enclosure. Self containment has the added advantage of also being self smothering and this ensures that there is no spread of fire to other parts of the building. All construction materials used in the substation room including walls, ceilings and floors, doors and vents must be constructed from noncombustible materials. Any wall, ceiling or floor shared with or adjoining another part of the building must be treated as a fire wall as defined in the Building Code of Australia and must have a minimum fire rating of two hours, effectively segregating the substation from the rest of the building. It is essential that these ratings be maintained for any penetration of the wall for cables or other services. The sealing of the penetration must be done strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Ergon does not have a requirement to fit fire detection or alarm systems within the substation. The owner is advised that where the installation of fire detection or alarm systems is required, consideration must be given to the need for continued access for inspection and maintenance of the system. Depending on the location of the fire detection / alarm system it may be necessary to have a shutdown of the substation for maintenance or inspection. Such needs shall incur an ongoing charge for providing access to the substation and any shutdown required.

3.6.

Oil Containment

Provision must be made within the substation to contain any oil spillage (in the unlikely event of a transformer tank failure) and slope to a common point. Spillage from transformers needs to be contained within the substation and be 110% of oil volume as per the AS1940 and EPA Bunding Guidelines. This is usually achieved by draining any oil spillage into the trench. In order to prevent any flow out through the conduits and into the surrounding stormwater system the lower edge of the conduits shall be a minimum of 100 mm above the trench floor. This is the minimum requirement. In some regions, due to local regulations, precautions such as an oil trap may be required.

3.7.

Hauling Eyes

Where required, anchors and/or pulling eyes (provided by the owner) are to be installed in the floor, walls or ceiling in the position shown on the layout drawings and in a manner to achieve the working load specified. Normally for a single cable- trench, single transformer substation two pulling eyes will be required - one for the cables and one for the transformer. However further pulling eyes may be required for more complex substations with multiple cable trenches or multiple transformers, or where access to install cables or transformers is restricted. All anchors and pulling eyes shall be clearly and permanently stamped to indicate its safe working load. Pulling eyes located in floors

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Page 9 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


shall be removable and, upon removal, the floor surface shall be level to avoid a trip hazard. Threaded recesses shall be provided with reusable removable plugs to exclude ingress of foreign matter. Normal pulling eye requirements are as follows:

3.7.1. For Cables


A single pulling eye cast into the floor of the substation shall be provided at the location shown on the layout drawings. The pulling eye must have a minimum working load of 10 tonne with a 5 tonne load applied in any direction and a minimum eye bolt hole diameter of 40 mm. Pulling eyes may also be specified for intermediate cable pits outside the substation where these are required on the owner's property.

3.7.2. For Transformers


One or more pulling eyes and mounting bracket arrangement cast in or suitably anchored to the substation floor or wall is required in the position shown on the substation layout drawings. The pulling eye and mounting plate arrangement must have a minimum working load of 10 tonne and a minimum eyebolt hole diameter of 40 mm.

3.8.

Earths

A buried earthing electrode system is necessary for the substation. The earthing system shall consist of earth electrodes. The system to be used, location and number of conduits will be detailed on the approved Ergon drawings. Additional electrodes may need to be installed outside the substation area and additional easements may be required if appropriate earth resistance readings cannot be achieved. Ergon will install the earthing grid prior to the floor slab being poured. Appropriate notice shall be given to indicate when this work can be carried out. The developer shall ensure that the earthing leads are brought through the floor into substation. All unbonded exposed metal work within the substation will be electrically bonded to the earthing system. This includes metal doors and reinforcing in the floor. If a part cannot be adequately bonded, it will be constructed from a suitable insulating material instead of metal. The developer shall provide a connection point to the floor reinforcing at a convenient location as advised by Ergons representative.

3.9.

Trenches

Trench walls must be able to support transformer loads applied to the substation floor within 300 mm of the cable trench. Trenches must be watertight and must not be connected to the outside drainage system. Provision is to be incorporated in the trench walls for any hauling eyes/anchors. Grid type covers manufactured of galvanized steel or other approved material must be provided and installed on all trenches. These covers must be suitably constructed to support pedestrian traffic. Trench covers must be divided into sections of maximum 1 metre lengths, each weighing not more than 20 kg. The trench cover when laid across the trench shall be flush with the surrounding floor level. The minimum rebate width required to support the trench cover shall be in accordance with the manufacturers recommendation. The cover shall fit snugly into the rebate so that there is negligible sideways movement.

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Page 10 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


The owner shall construct a 300 X 300 mm deep drain sump in a suitable location in the trench floor. A sump pump shall be installed where required. An oil trap shall be installed if required by local regulations. There may be situations where a trench is not practical such as when the floor is a suspended slab. In this case cable trays shall be installed under the floor, along the trench lines, with conduits through the floor to bring the cables up into the substation. The width of the trays shall be calculated from the number of cables required to be installed. This arrangement will reduce the head height in the chamber below and needs to be considered by the developer.

3.10.

Doors

All doors and frames shall be 2 hour fire rated (except where vents are installed) and waterproof. The owner will attach the appropriate locks and handles to suit the direction of opening as indicated on Ergons drawing. The cylinders will be changed to fit Ergons key when the substation is handed over. The locks shall be such that a key only entry is provided from the outside and a hand only from the inside. With double doors, the door to be opened first will be nominated on the layout drawings. The second leaf shall have pad bolts installed.

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Page 11 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


The owner shall affix a prominent notice on the outside of the doors to read: THIS AREA TO BE KEPT CLEAR. EMERGENCY EXIT FROM SUBSTATION.

2400

2400

3.11.

Light and Power

The owner will supply and install the light and power distribution board and the necessary light fittings and power outlets in the substation including all wiring. Ergon will connect the distribution board to the supply point on the low voltage board. Where required, equipment such as exhaust fans and pumps will be provided and installed by the owner in accordance with the specification and drawings supplied. The wiring to these units will be undertaken by the owner.

3.12.

Conduits

The owner shall install conduits from the substation enclosure to the property boundary. All conduits shall be orange heavy duty rigid PVC conduit conforming to Australian Standard 2053. Quantities and sizes shall be specified on the installation drawing. Any bends on route to the substation shall have a minimum 1830 mm bending radius. Conduits to extend 150 mm beyond the property boundary and be direct buried in accordance with Ergons Underground Construction Standards. The owner may be required to supply and install a 1300 X 1000 mm minimum cable drainage pit along the conduit route directly outside the substations trench wall.

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Page 12 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN 4. ELECTRICAL DESIGN STANDARD
4.1. Transformers
The transformers will come from Ergon Energys stores and will typically follow the present contract and technical specifications. The substation is designed to cater for bushings on opposite sides of the transformer. The bushings on the transformers should be covered, preferably by using cable entry transformers. If not, then suitable earthed metal cable covers shall be installed on the transformer to remove all bare live connections. The transformer ratings are 500 kVA, 750 kVA, 1000 kVA and 1500 kVA. Up to three transformers can be installed in the one substation. The transformers must not be permanently paralleled on the low voltage side.

4.2.

High Voltage Switchgear

Three types of high voltage switchgear are available which will cover all applications. I. Ring Main Unit comprising two feeder cable switches and one fused switch/circuit breaker for one transformer,

Switch

Fuse

Switch

II. Ring Main Unit comprising two feeder cable switches and two fused switches/circuit breakers for two transformers,

Switch

Fuse

Fuse

Switch

III. Interfeeder Tie Unit comprising three feeder cable switches and one fused switch for one transformer.

Switch

Switch

Fuse

Switch

A three transformer substation will contain a combination of type II and I or type II and III. Fuses will protect the 500, 750 and 1000 kVA transformers; circuit breakers will protect 1500 kVA transformers.

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Page 13 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


4.3. Low Voltage Switchboard

The low voltage switchboard will have a load break switch for each transformer. The customers supply is to be protected with either fuses up to 1200 Amp (two striple fuses in parallel) or circuit breakers above 1200 amps. The street circuits should be fused up to 400 amps using Ergons standard striple fuse. In multi-transformer substations there shall be a facility for paralleling the low voltage sides of the transformers inside the substation. Provision of low voltage parallels in the consumers installation could be installed if the customer requests it, but must contain suitable locking facilities only operable by Ergon Energy. Under no circumstances should the transformers be permanently paralleled. They should only be temporarily paralleled during switching procedures. The low voltage board also provides the facility for supplying the substations light and power and ventilation and sump pump equipment if installed and also contains maximum demand indicators.

4.4.

Customers Connection

The customers supply should not come direct from the transformer bushings. The location of the point-of-supply needs to be formalised in a written agreement. The location is typically described as a point on the low voltage board.

4.5.

Cables

The cables installed between the transformer and the high voltage switchgear, the transformer and the low voltage board and the low voltage board to the street should be chosen from the standard range of cables currently used by Ergon Energy. 1. High voltage switchgear to transformer: 35 sq mm 2. Transformer to low voltage board: a) 500 kVA: two 185 sq mm copper per phase and neutral, b) 750 kVA: three 185 sq mm copper per phase and neutral, c) 1000 kVA: four 185 sq mm copper per phase and neutral, d) 1500 kVA: six 185 sq mm copper per phase and neutral. 3. Low voltage board to street: 240 sq mm

4.6.

Earthing

All earthing and bonding shall be designed and installed by Ergon.

4.6.1. CMEN
The preferred earthing arrangement for Indoor substations is the CMEN system which utilises common HV and LV earthing systems. This system requires a value of the combined earth resistance to be one ohm or less. This is generally achieved by connection to an extensive interconnected LV neutral system. Guidelines for the application of a CMEN system are contained in the document Guidelines for adoption of CMEN earthing systems available on the Line Standards intranet site.

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Page 14 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


Earthing requirements for indoor substations will be generally in accordance with Drg 3301 in the Distribution Design manual and Drg 5013 in the Underground Construction manual. Requirements are for a local earth of 10 ohm or less at the substation location and supplementary earthing to achieve the required one ohm or less. This is best achieved via the neutral of a 240 sq mm LV XPLE Al cable to an interconnected neutral system. Alternatively, if the site is not in proximity to an LV network, the installation of a supplementary earthing system to achieve the required one ohm or less would be required.

4.6.2. Separately Earthed System


If the criteria for adoption of a CMEN system cannot be practically achieved without excessive expenditure, a separately earthed system may be adopted. This would generally be in accordance with the requirements for separately earthed Pad mount substations, Drg 5014 of the Underground Construction manual, and would require the installation of separate HV and LV earthing systems of 10 ohm or less separated electrically by a distance of at least 3 m. The provisions of Drg 5014 sheet would be required to be met and this would preclude the installation of auxiliary equipment such as ventilation fans or heaters.

4.6.3. General Requirements


All unbonded exposed metal work within the substation should be electrically bonded to the earthing system. This includes metal doors and reinforcing in the floor. If a part cannot be adequately bonded, it will be constructed from a suitable insulating material instead of metal. All earthing straps will have a minimum area of 35 sq mm copper. The earthing system is to be a stand alone type not connected to the building reinforcing bars with the exception of reinforcing in the floor and walls of the substation enclosure which should be electrically separate from the remainder of the building. It must be well clear of building lightning protection and should not be connected to the earth bar of any switchboard other than the earth bar inside the substation. The earth cable size shall be a minimum of 35 sq mm copper. At locations where the HV fault level exceeds an equivalent I t figure 4.6 kA for one second, this shall be increased to 70 sq mm by use of duplicated 35 sq mm cable. This will generally only be required for locations very close to a zone substation. If separately earthed, the LV earthing system should be insulated and separated electrically from bonded substation earthing system (bonded metal doors, exposed metal, reinforcement, HV cable screen earth etc).

4.7.

Labels

Labels are vital in the substation on the low voltage board, high voltage switchgear and transformers. The description on each label should be determined by the designer or the local operator. They should be ordered/manufactured and applied prior to substation commissioning.

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NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN


4.8.

Fault Levels
Minimum 415 volt switchboard fault rating 11 kV nominal fault level 22 kV nominal fault level = = = 50 kA 13 kA 13 kA

(Check these levels.)

4.9.

Safety and Clearances

Substation equipment shall be located with due regard to safety of personnel working in the substation. A clear passageway at least 1000 mm wide shall be allowed from each item of switchgear to the personnel access doors to the substation. A clearance of at least 1500 mm out from the front of the high voltage and low voltage switchgear shall be allowed for safe operations. Equipment shall be located such that any item of equipment may be removed from the substation with the remaining equipment in service and under load. A passageway of at least 2500 mm wide shall be allowed for transformers and 1500 mm wide for the high voltage and low voltage boards. The transformers shall be sited with a clearance of 500 mm away from walls, other transformers and switchgear in order to allow free air flow.

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NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN 5. LAYOUTS TYPICAL


NOTES The following layouts are typical only and should not be used as construction drawings. Some designs achieve minimum EMF emission by installing the low voltage cables and switchboard in a trench down the middle of the room. This adds substantially to the space requirements. It is possible to reduce this space but only by sacrificing EMF containment. The substations are designed for 11 kV and 1500 kVA transformers. The space requirements for 22 kV padmount transformers need to be checked. A drainage pit outside the substation is shown as optional. It can be installed if drainage is an issue or if needed to ease cable installation. Each substation is unique and the space requirements shown in the sample layouts may not be available. The following rules should be followed when designing odd shaped substations. Size of transformer = 2000 X 2000 Transformer clearance to walls and other transformers = 500 Allow room to replace any transformer whilst other equipment is alive. LV and HV switchgear o o clearance at front = 1500 clearance at sides = 500

The LV and HV switchgear should be near the door. A clear passageway at least 1000 mm wide shall be allowed from each item of switchgear to the access door.

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Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 18 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

Check this is the latest version before use.

Page 19 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 20 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 21 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 22 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 23 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802

NETWORK LINES STANDARDS INDOOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION DESIGN

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Page 24 of 24 CI001001R100 Ver 1 Reference Owner: Ian McLeod Group General Manager Operations Distribution
Ergon Energy Corporation Limited ABN 50 087 646 062 Ergon Energy Queensland Pty Ltd ABN 11 121 177 802