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AGR 222



The 3rd National Agricultural Policy (1998-2010) focuses on agricultural programmes which aim at high productivity while ensuring conservation and utilization of natural resources on a sustainable basic. Introduction of intergrated agriculture with main emphasis on agroforestry, mixed farming , rehabilitation of marginal land , recycling of organic waste , mulching cover cropping , organic farming and soil and water conservation are some of the measures taken to support sustainable agriculture in Malaysia.looking back at the precarious and even risky situation in the farming activities worldwide , we see the poor farmers working hard to feed themselves and even trying to make a living from their land with some livestock and crops. The livestock manure fertilizes the crops and the crop residues feed the livestock. In order to produce more and improve the quality, they need costly inputs such as chemical fertilizers and artificial feeds which make their fermingactivities unecomonic.

If they also have to remove the pollution they create , they will not be able to afford it. Those who added fish to the livestock-crop system have made a very big step forward , not only increasing the fertilizer from the fish wastes, but also enhanced their income from the bigger and quicker yield of fish and their relatively high market prices. The deeper pond resulted in high fish productivity, with increased wastes and fertilizer value, but the pond can still be subject to pollution if it receives too many wastes that deplete the limited dissolved oxygen. By treating the livestock wastes anaerobically in digesters with additional production of biogas energy and aerobically in shallow basins, their amount can be increased ten-fold in the system.

The Integrated Farming System (IFS) has revolutionized Conventional Farming of livestock, Aquaculture, Horticulture, Agroindustry and Allied activities in some countries, especiallyin tropical and subtropical regions that are not arid. Farming all over the world is not very performing unless relatively big inputs regions are added to sustain yields and very often compromise the economic viability as well as the ecological sustainability. Evidently , the situation can worsen if high duties are paid on imported materials and energy, and the polluter-prayer policy is also applied , as it should well be.

The IFS can remove all these constraints by only solving most of the existing economic and even ecological problems, but also provide the needed means of production such as fuel, fertilizer and feed besides increasing farming systems , especially in the poorest countries into economically viable and ecologically balanced systems that will not only alleviate poverty, but can be even eradicate this source completely.

The ancient combination of livestock and crop activities had helped farmers in the past , almost all over the world , to use the manure as fertilizer for crops, and the crop residues as feed for livestock . however most of the manure usually lost up to half its nitrogen content before it became nitrate and was readily available as fertilizer to plants the quantity also became inadequate as the population increased , so chemical fertilizers and artificial feeds had to be purchased , eroding the small profits of the farmers.

The more recent integration of Fish with the livestock and Crop has helped to improve the fertilizer and feed supplies, plus the high market value of fish as feed and/or food increasing the incomes substantially. Technically, this important addition of as second cycle of nutrients from fish wastes has benefited the enhanced integration process , and has improve the livelihoods of many small farmers considerably. This has now been documented by M.Prein of ICLARN Malaysia in Integration of Aquaculture into Crop_Animal Systems in Asia.

However, even if this has been a big step forward, it still required some external input to increase farm productivity and produce processing in agro-industry.

Integration cows with Major Crops in Malaysia In Malaysia the common major crops such as palm oil, rubber, coconut and orchard is very popular in our country. Under of these plants usually there are many grass-weeds grows and continues spreading over the soil. As usual farmer using herbicides to control weed from grows. By doing Integration with livestock will save money for weeding and reduce herbicides use while reducing the cost of farm fertilizer. With controlled grazing, one hectare of oil palm plantations can accommodate an adult animal.

Location selection
The suitable farm selection before integrated cattle with oil palm is importance because if the integration is not suitable the livestock may destroy the major crops .The great integration is livestock will not damage the palm trees or fruit but provide enough nutrients to the plant. The area must have enough grass to accommodate the number of animals to be kept. Farm fence must be good to prevent cattle theft and escape into other areas or destroying young crops .That why the system is highly recommended, only requiring a cage that is open to keep livestock at night.

Money planning
Purchasing calf age of 1 year, RM 400.00 each. Sale of a cow, RM 1,600 to RM 2,800 each. The cost of food is not necessary because we can use waste product from farm waste as food supply such as palm oil leaf and grass.

The suitable characteristic for integration

The oil palm area should be 10 acres (minimum) and above. The most suitable age to do integrated crop management with cow is XXX the palm trees age are more than 5 years and not more than 15cyears. The farm also should have good water supply such as pool The area under oil palm has a weed (cattle feed) are sufficient. Make sure the farm is located to the flooded area especially during the monsoon season.  Make sure the farm is not located near to the forest where there are wild animals known as Tiger and other predator. Integrated crop management suitability to remain as above is available in several forms as follows: y The Government's farm Estate owned in full or the appropriate Palm Plantation (palm tree age was 5 years old and above) y Private Farms area is wholly owned by private farms. Private estates are not run SMART project and allow other parties to use, shall give written consent to the entrepreneurs who are interested in a contract agreed upon. Matters such as the annual rental rate, commission sales of livestock and poultry safety to be decided by agreement.


Manage farm using integrated crop can give many advantage to the farmer .This is some of the advantages that farmer can get: a) The optimal use of land b) To improve soil fertility c) Controlling the weed plants d) Can use organic fertilizer from cow dung e) Increase the farm profit Feedlot production systems where cows are kept in intensive Farming systems are one of the common practices in Malaysia. In This System, cattle are feed side of agro-industries such as palm kernel Cake (PKC). Results showed that cattle breeds Draught master given PKC achieve growth rates 1100g/day.


Integrated crop management also can give bad effect to farmer if the farmer does not follow and apply the management correctly .This is the bad effect that farmer could get : 1. Possible hit by a car or injured by the accident. 2. Need to give more attention and taking care cows from theft 3. The cow will destroy other plant if not suitable to crop 4. Need more labour to managed the cow and farm 5. The possibility of theft and eaten by a wild animal remains. However this method is suitable for the farmers / entrepreneurs who have their own grazing area / area of oil palm plantation area & insufficient. This makes it easy to breed cattle as they mingle freely with the bulls.

Integrated Farming is a common sense whole farm management approach that combines the ecological care of a diverse and healthy environment with the economic demands of agriculture to ensure a continuing supply of wholesome, affordable food. It is not prescriptive because it is a dynamic Concept: it must have the flexibility to be relevant on any farm, in any country, and it must always be receptive to change and technological advances Above all, integrated crop management is a practical way forward for Malaysian agriculture that will benefit all society, not just those who practice it. Integrated crop management makes a vital contribution to sustainable development by adding consideration of economic, ecological and social objectives to the essential business of agricultural food production.