Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

To Make Vancouver the Greenest City in the World

1 0 B I G I D E AS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

10 MINUTE WALKABLE CITY TRANSPORTATION EQUITY NO WASTE LEFT BEHIND LOCAL EMPOWERMENT BLUE GOLD RUSH RAISE THE BAR FOR BUILDINGS KNOWLEDGE IS POWER IF YOU GROW IT, THEY WILL COME LIVE THE LIFE NO CITY IS AN ISLAND

10 MINUTE WALKABLE CITY


If everything you needed was within a 10 minute walk, you would rarely need your car. COMPLETE COMMUNITIES provide a mix of housing types for all income levels, jobs, shopping, schools and amenity space all within a compact area.

Rezone to mixed-use throughout the city. Vancouvers zoning map is a vestige of the
60s and is no longer serving us well. In many areas it is preventing the development of complete communities that would dramatically cut down on car use. With mixed-use zoned throughout the city, height restrictions, FSR and design reviews will shape Vancouver, not occupancy.

Upzone by 2 FSR throughout the city. Vancouver cannot grow any bigger, so growth
must be accommodated through increasing intensity. The current densities allowed in Vancouver are significantly lower than other cities of comparable size in Canada and around the world.

Leverage laneways. Currently laneways are unattractive alleys stacked with garbage. With
the proper urban design treatment these can be transformed into a fine-grained network of secondary streets and pedestrian/cycle byways. The City of Vancouvers laneway housing initiative is a good start.

Create complete communities. Many neighbourhoods around the city are missing some
of the fundamental components of complete communities: the Westside lacks affordable housing and commercial vitality, the Eastside lacks parks, amenities and street tress, and Gastown lacks connection to the water and housing diversity. Complete them!

Rethink parking. Raise the tax rate on parking lots and require all new buildings in the
downtown to have underground parking. Nothing defeats the vitality of the city like parking lots occupying prime land.

2009

2020

2034

2009 ABOVE: A 25 year development plan around Canada Lines King Edward station. Over time, density increases as amenities improve. A mix of housing and jobs with new parks, schools and community centres create a 10 minute walkable city.

2034

TRANSPORTATION EQUITY
Streets are public space that everyone pays for, but only car-users currently get the most out of. Alternatives to the car will never gain traction if the most useful space is reserved for automobiles. Complete communities provide the majority of needs within walking distance, but they also must be connected with a TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM that is quick, easily-accessed and economical.

Provide free downtown transit. Seattle does it with great success so can we. Dedicate lanes to transit. 25% of lanes on all roads that are major transit routes should be set aside for transit. The effectiveness of transit is defeated if it gets stuck in the same traffic jams that cars do. Dedicated lanes should be separated by a raised curb and can replace parking. Expand the passenger ferry network. Sydney, Australia has a world class network of
passenger ferries connecting many points across the harbour and up the Parramatta River. Vancouvers Sea Bus is highly effective but limited. It should be expanded to a more comprehensive route network.

Create car-free zones. Every European city, large or small, has a car-free central square
and at least one pedestrian zone. Even Calgary has a very popular car-free street in its downtown core. Car-free zones need not ruin streets: they can be Gallerias that cut across blocks or traverse laneways. Car-free zones can also be temporary, such as during the summer festivals in Montreal, when the entire downtown becomes a packed pedestrian zone.

Develop an expanded comprehensive network for cyclists. With a year-round bikeable


climate and outdoor lifestyle, Vancouver could easily become the most cycle-friendly city on earth. The biggest obstacle to this is the danger of interacting with traffic. Cyclists are neither motorists nor pedestrians and shouldnt be treated as either. Dedicated bike lanes, like those in Copenhagen, must be separated from both sidewalk and roadway by raised curbs and have their own traffic signals.

Secure bike storage. The other major barrier to cycling is theft; secure, climate-protected bike storage lockers at strategic points, such as transit stations and parks, can help overcome that.

Encourage bikes on transit. Dedicate bike carrying zones on the Skytrain, Sea Bus, and
ferries. Rush hour should not prevent cyclists from commuting.

NO WASTE LEFT BEHIND


The foundation of a CARBON-NEUTRAL SOCIETY is ZERO WASTE. Not only does waste give off greenhouse gases when it decomposes, it also contains significant energy that could form the base supply of local energy systems. Technologies currently available can take us to zero waste immediately.

Turn Vancouver into a no waste city. Declare that no waste leaves city limits. Develop a world class recycling system. Edmonton collects unsorted recyclables at curbside and sorts them at facilities. Given the convenience and ease of use, it has a 90% compliance rate and is targeting 90% waste diversion by 2012. Turn waste into energy. Anaerobic digesters can process sewage and wet organic waste into methane and fertilizer. Gasifiers can turn dry organic waste into syngas, which is largely hydrogen. Plasma-arc gasifiers go even further and can break down nearly anything into constituent gases, including hazardous wastes. Waste grease from restaurants and auto garages can be turned into biodiesel. Anything that isnt recycled should be turned into energy. Obligate producers to recover their packaging and hazardous waste. In Germany this measure was initially met with resistance, but has actually benefitted producers by making them more efficient: they have become much more deliberate about packaging decisions, which has dramatically reduced toxins in equipment. Where Canadian standards are lax, look abroad. To become the greenest city in the
world, we will have to meet the highest standards. For example, we should adopt the European Union standards on toxic constituents in products, which are much stricter than Canadian standards.
RIGHT: By using synergies between the byproducts of one process and the feedstock of another, district infrastructure is able to eliminate waste altogether, transforming waste products into useful outputs, and resulting in a dramatic reduction in our carbon footprint.

INPUTS

Wood

Gasifier

Scrubber

Cogeneration Unit

OUTPUTS Exhaust
for sale for sale for sale

Wood Waste

Heat Electricity

Glycerin Byproduct

Bio-Diesel

Grease Feedstock

To Energy Plant Waste Water Bio-Diesel Bio-gas

Bio-Diesel

for sale

Sewage Waste

To Waste Water Treatment Plant Leachate Sludge

Treated Water for Reuse

Wood

Ash

Kitchen and Garden Waste

To Compost Plant

Compost

for sale

2km E = 1:20,000

LOCAL EMPOWERMENT
Although it lacks consistent solar and wind resources, Vancouver can radically improve its energy infrastructure by focusing on local DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS. 40% of the citys electricity load comes from electric baseboard heaters. Locally-based district heating can completely replace this waste, freeing up grid power for electric cars and buses, or to be sold to the U.S.

Establish district loops. Establish neighbourhood-based district loops across the city
that link heat producers (arenas, grocery stores) with heat consumers (homes, businesses).

Invest in geo-exchange. Augment district loops with geo-exchange and ocean coupling to
provide 100% of the heating and cooling load of the city.

Synergize infrastructure. Integrate district energy infrastructure with water and wastehandling infrastructure to harness synergies between them. For instance, if we are transforming sewage and organic waste into methane, all of the equipment should be housed at the same small plants. Furthermore, the waste heat from the methane-fired generator should be put directly into the district loop.

Encourage connection to district heating. Provide incentives for developers to connect


to district heating and disincentives to incorporate baseboard heaters.

Prioritize renewable energy. Implement a law modeled on Germanys Law for the priority access of electricity from renewable energy sources that obligates utilities to buy green power from any producer at above market rates. This law has been fundamental to the rise of sustainable energy infrastructure in Germany by encouraging developers and individuals to invest in sustainable energy technology.

LEFT: 5 and 10 minute walking radii to community centres (blue) and schools (orange). These two components could serve as platforms for local district energy systems. When integrated with wastewater treatment and waste handling, they could be the basis of a carbon neutral Vancouver.

BLUE GOLD RUSH


Vancouver has unrivalled freshwater resources, but these should not be taken for granted. Water shortages are wreaking havoc in California and climate change could have a devastating impact on the temperate rainforest here. WATER CONSERVATION is an absolute imperative.

Reclaim blackwater. Create local blackwater reclamation plants at the heart of each community. These plants will remove biosolids from sewage and treat the wastewater to the unrestricted usage standard, suitable for most non-potable uses. Biosolids should be further processed with waste-to-energy equipment (described on preceding page). Create a non-potable network. Establish a non-potable water network emanating from
these small, local blackwater reclamation plants, connecting to every building in the community and all city parks. Non-potable water should be used for all purposes for which potable water is not required, such as laundry, car washing, irrigation and toilet flushing.

Meter both grades of water. Implement mandatory water metering for potable and nonpotable water and set a much steeper tariff for potable water, on a progressive scale.

Treat stormwater runoff. Establish a system of bioswales to treat all storm runoff before
it enters the harbour.

Collect rainwater. Collect water from the roofs of all City of Vancouver buildings and treat
it to non-potable quality.

Provide efficiency incentives. Provide fee-bates for water efficient appliances and
landscaping.

RIGHT: Blackwater (above) and greywater (below) systems at Dockside Green in Victoria, BC; the developments on-site wastewater treatment is expected to save more than six million litres of water annually.

BIOSWALE FILTER

BIOSWALE DRAIN TO HARBOUR

HARBOUR

TREATED WATER TO BIOSWALE FILTER

STORAGE

BLACKWATER TREATMENT

GREEN ROOFS IRRIGATED WITH REUSED WATER

SPRING/ WINTER/ FALL RAINFALL

TOILETS FLUSHED WITH REUSED WATER SURFACE RAINWATER FEATURE TO STREAM

BIO FILTER VENT BIOSWALE DRAIN TO HARBOUR

HARBOUR

BIO REACTOR FILTERS STORAGE TANK

EMERGENCY MUNICIPAL MAKE-UP POTABLE WATER

FILTERS LEGEND: ZENON MEMBRANE FILTER ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER UV FILTER

SITE WIDE WATER RE-CIRCULATION LEGEND: WATER FEATURES IRRIGATION SYSTEMS TOILETS

RAISE THE BAR FOR BUILDINGS


Buildings use 50% of our energy, so any efforts towards sustainability must seriously address UPGRADING THE BUILDING STOCK. Both new and existing buildings must be brought up to a significantly higher standard, which has the potential to become an iconic feature of Vancouver.

Enforce performance standards. Establish stringent, mandatory energy performance


standards in bylaws and building codes for all new construction, increasing at a fixed percentage each year.

Label building performance. Conspicuously label all buildings according to comparative


energy and water performance.

Publish performance results in legal documents. Require that energy and water performance be clearly indicated on all title deeds and lease documents.

Provide incentives to upgrade. Provide inducements, including subsidies and fee-bates, for home and business owners to upgrade energy performance and switch to district heating. Reward innovation. Provide rewards for exemplary energy strategies that reflect the mild climate and overcast skies of Vancouver. Insist on building retrofits. Retrofit all City of Vancouver buildings to the highest feasible energy performance.

Provide jobs while improving performance. Use retrofitting as a tool to give unemployable people job skills, modeled on Chicagos retrofitting program for ex-convicts. The program focuses on retrofitting vacant buildings, and buildings undergoing a change in title, to obviate the risk of theft. It is an enormous success both at re-integrating people into society, and at progressing through the massive retrofit of the Chicagos 700,000+ homes.

LEFT ABOVE: White Rock Operations building (a new office building built in 2001 uses only 80 kWh/sm/yr). Compared to an average office building in BC, this has saved 1,108,800 kWh of energy and over 150 tonnes of carbon since it was built.

LEFT BELOW: 1220 Homer (an office building built in 1949 and renovated in 2000 uses only 110 kWh/sm/yr). Compared to an average office building in BC, this has saved 3,614,380 kWh of energy and over 350 tonnes of carbon since it was renovated.

COMBINED PERFORMANCE: The energy savings from these two projects combined would be enough to send an electric car on a 5 million mile road trip; the carbon saved is equivalent to taking 150 gas guzzling cars off the road in 2009.

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER
MEASUREMENT is critical to determining whether targets have been met and to evaluating the success of policies. Many people will make their own BEHAVIOURAL ADJUSTMENTS if they receive prompt and accurate feedback and are EDUCATED about the consequences of their actions.

Measure, measure, measure. Accurately measure everything that is a concern: potable and non-potable water, energy use, carbon generation, waste production, recycling efficiency, etc. Compare what you measure. Implement regular comparative reporting for all factors measured on three scales: the individual home/business, the neighbourhood/community, and the city as a whole. Label all goods. Require country of origin and transport-mile labeling for all products. This
is especially pertinent to food as more and more people seek local choices.

Implement smart meters. Set a fixed time frame for the implementation of smart meters
for all condos and apartments. Waste is inevitable if people are not financially responsible for it.

Integrate and educate. Integrate infrastructure with schools, community centres and
parks. Vancouvers schools have been carefully planned to be within a 10 minute walk of nearly any point in the city, making them an ideal framework for decentralized infrastructure. Infrastructure systems should be part of the curriculum so that students understand where water, electricity and waste handling come from.

RIGHT: Graph showing the current GHG emissions of select cities in tonnes of CO2 per person per year and the rate needed to sustain a world population of 8 billion people.

Denver

25.0

US Average Canadian Average Calgary

24.4

23.0

17.6

Los Angeles

15.0

San Francisco

12.4

Seattle

12.4

Toronto

9.3

New York

7.1

London

5.2

Vancouver

5.0

Barcelona

3.0

Oslo
Rate Needed to Sustain a World Population of 8 Billion

2.5

2.2

IF YOU GROW IT, THEY WILL COME


Vancouver is known around the world for the lushness of its landscape and its proximity to nature. URBAN AGRICULTURE and NATIVE BIODIVERSITY should be encouraged throughout the city to become its pervasive symbol.

Switch to native species. Replace grass and invasive species with native biodiversity in
all parks except those specifically programmed for sports.

Make lawns productive. Create incentives for home owners and businesses to turn lawns into productive agricultural spaces or native biodiversity. Grass is not just a biodiversity issue, it is also a water issue. Reintroduce native species. Set targets for the reintroduction of native species. Focus
on the components of habitat to attract the insects, birds and small mammals that are the mainstays of ecosystems.

Encourage agriculture of all kinds. Provide incentives for vegetated roofs and living
walls that add biodiversity and/or agriculture to the city. Vegetated surfaces also help with storm water retention, urban heat island effect and provide amenity space for inhabitants.

Create the citys own brand. Create a Grown in Vancouver brand and deploy it for
produce grown on lawns, roofs, and walls.

Educate and cultivate. Make urban agriculture and food policy part of school curriculum. Provide incentives for schools to set aside some outdoor areas for vegetable plots and community gardens.

LEFT: An expansive green wall at the south entry of Simon Fraser Universitys Blusson Hall forms a strong public identity; 90 percent of the complex has a green roof or is landscaped, which helps absorb rainfall and release it slowly back into the environment.

LIVE THE LIFE


One of Vancouvers major distinguishing features is the uniqueness of its LIFESTYLE at once urban and cosmopolitan, but with unrivalled access to nature. This very unique and appealing quality should be preserved, celebrated and enhanced to ensure that sustainability is delight, not drudgery.

Restore creeks that were sewerized during the industrial era. One major advantage of small distributed wastewater plants is that water is cleaned within the city. Clean water can be released into natural creeks and streams that would form attractive centerpieces of parks, car-free rights of way, and biodiverse wildlife corridors. Establish more links to the Burrard Inlet in East Vancouver. It is essential that we retain industry along the waterfront, but this should be far more permeable to the average citizen. East Vancouver suffers from a dearth of parks and amenity space, and the industrial areas should be organized into more efficient enclaves to permit public waterfront access. Secure boat storage. Create a network of secure kayak and boat storage lockers at strategic places around False Creek and the Burrard Inlet. Remediate the harbour. Vancouver will never become the greenest city in the world if the
harbour is too polluted for swimming.

Show off our innovation. Put the citys neighbourhood-centric, integrated infrastructure
system on display as a source of civic pride, and establish tours of City of Vancouver buildings that have been retrofitted to showcase the sustainable features.

Have fun while living the life. Establish major events, festivals and races to celebrate
the components of Vancouvers unique outdoor lifestyle cycling, kayaking, swimming in the ocean, etc.

NO CITY IS AN ISLAND
Vancouver may end at Boundary Road, but it is part of an urban system that stretches south to the border and east across the Fraser River. Unabated sprawl at the edges of the metropolis will overpower any of the improvements made in the city proper. The metropolis in turn is part of a much greater URBAN-RURAL SYSTEM that must inform all planning decisions.

Determine the maximum carrying capacity. Once the carrying capacity for the Lower
Mainland is determined, calibrate growth targets for each community accordingly.

Undertake a Strategic Lower Mainland Plan. Create a Plan that will characterize where
and how growth will take place over the next 25 years. The Plan must include land use, transportation, and preserved open space, providing a framework for each of the communities to grow without sprawl.

Strictly enforce the uses on ALR lands. Societies collapse when all of their fertile land
is built over; mandate that NO golf courses and NO big mansions are built on ALR land.

Expand the West Coast Express. Extend the West Coast Express to Hope and greatly
increase departure times. Commuter rail is one of the cornerstones of an effective transportation plan and the West Coast Express is packed every day.

Create a Metro Vancouver Planning Authority. It is essential to coordinate planning


efforts across the Lower Mainland.

Create passenger ferry hubs downtown and at Granville Island. Passenger ferries
(with bike carrying capacity) should link to other points in the metropolis and beyond: to Squamish, Gibsons, Bowen Island, Light House Park, Ambleside, Deep Cove, Belcarra, Port Moody, etc.

Link city districts to the countryside. Cities cannot exist without the hinterlands that provide them with food and amenity. As concern for food miles and local sustainability grows, this relationship can be solidified and personalized through direct linkages, such as farmers markets and school exchanges, to the benefit of everyone.

To learn more visit www.busbyperkinswill.ca or contact: Peter Busby, C.M., FRAIC Managing Director t: 604.684.5446 f: 604.684.5447 e: peter.busby@busbyperkinswill.ca