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Question 1 The right answer was The removal of drug is independent of drug concentration.

Question 2 The right answer was Excretion rate. Question 3 The answer is Extraction ratio Question 4 The right answer was All are correct. Question 5 The right answer was 2.4 mg. Question 6 The right answer was 1.25 mg. Question 7 The right answer was 30 L/hr/70 Kg. Question 8 The right answer was a & b. Question 9 The right answer id CYP51 Question 10 The right answer was CYP51. Question 11 The right answer was All of the above. Question 12 The right answer was Both carry out oxidative deaminations. Question 13 The right answer was Glucuronide conjugation. Question 14 The right answer was Hydroxylation. Question 15 The right answer was Decrease.

In a zero order elimination process, which of the following is true?


The removal of drug is independent of drug concentration Cl = Elimination rate/Cp t1/2 = .7VD/Cl All are true

For highly polar drugs (e.g. mannitol) what primarily determines elimination rate?
Excretion rate Metabolism rate Absorption rate Distribution rate All of the above

Bioavailability is related to which of the following parameters, according to the equation F = 1 - E


Excretion Elimination Extraction Ratio Enterohepatic Recycling

For the majority of drugs, which of the following equations correctly defines clearance?
Cl = Elimination rate/Cp Cl = QxE Cl = .7VD/t1/2 All are correct

How much of a 10 mg dose of morphine reaches the systemic circulation given F = .24?

24mg 0.24 mg 2.4 mg 4.1 mg

Given that the VD = 230 L/70Kg and Cl = 60 L/hr/70 Kg for morphine, approximately how much of a 10 mg IV dose remains after 8 hr, given to a normal 70 Kg patient?
5 mg 2.5 mg 1.25 mg 625 mg

Given F = .24, what is the overall hepatic clearance of morphine if the above patient has portal hypertension such that their hepatic blood flow is reduced by ? Assume the clearance value given in the previous question is entirely hepatic clearance.
30 L/hr/70 Kg 60 L/hr/70 Kg 120 L/hr/70 Kg 250 L/hr/70 Kg

Which of the following enzymes could directly act on codeine?


Glucuronyl transferase Sulfotransferase Glutathione transferase a&b All of the above

Which Cytochrome P450 isozyme does not participate appreciably in drug metabolism?

CYP1A2 CYP2C9 CYP3A4 CYP51 All are drug metabolizing isoforms

Which of the following Cytochrome P450 isozymes is responsible for the bulk of phase I metabolism?
CYP1A2 CYP2C9 CYP2D6 CYP3A4 CYP51

Which of the following enzymes could metabolize ethanol?


Cytochrome P450 Alcohol Dehydrogenase Glucuronyl Transferase Sulfotransferase All of the above

Which of the following are similarities between Cytochrome P450 and MAO?
Both add oxygen from O2 to substrates and also form water Both carry out direct heteroatom oxidations Both carry out oxidative deaminations Both carry out N-dealkylations All of the above

What would be the preferred route of metabolism of succinyl choline?

Ester hydrolysis N-oxidation Glucuronide conjugation a&b All of the above

Which of the following causes the smallest change in solubility?


Hydroxylation Glucuronidation Sulfation Glutathione conjugation

Cigarette smoke causes an increase in levels of CYP1A isozymes. Theophylline is primarily metabolized by the CYP1A system. What would happen to theophylline clearance for an asthmatic patient in hospital who could not smoke?
No change Increase Decrease

Pharmacology 2
Question 1 Flumazenil Question 2 The right answer was Question 3 liver Question 4 The right answer was

CaEDTA.

Thalamus hypertrophy.

Question 5 Quinidine Question 6 The right answer was Question 7 Ethosuximide Question 8 The right answer was Question 9 The right answer was Question 10 Antifungal Question 11 H2 agonist Question 12 Protease inhibitor Question 13 The right answer was Question 14 The right answer was Question 15 The right answer was Question 16 The right answer was Question 17 The right answer was Question 18 Distal convoluted tubule

Isoniazid.

Fluoroquinolones. ACE inhibitor.

Tetracycline. Hypotension. Tachycardia. Aminodarone. Propafenone.

Question 19 The right answer was Question 20 The right answer was

Projectile vomiting. Muscle wasting.

Which of the following is the antidote for the toxin Benzodiazepines? Flumazenil Methylene blue Deferoxamine Alkalinize urine

Which of the following is the antidote for the toxin Lead? Naloxone Nitrite CaEDTA Dialysis

Which of the following is the primary site of activity for the drug Warfarin? Kidney Liver Blood Heart

Lansoprazole is not used in which of the following cases? Gastritis Peptic Ulcers Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Thalamus hypertrophy

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of Cinchonism? Valproic acid

Quinidine Isoniazid Ethosuximide

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of hepatitis? Valproic acid Quinidine Isoniazid Ethosuximide

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of Stevens-Johnson syndrome? Valproic acid Quinidine Isoniazid Ethosuximide

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of Tendon dyfunction? Digitalis Niacin Tetracycline Fluoroquinolones

A drug ending in the suffix (pril) is considered a ______. H2 agonist ACE inhibitor Antifungal Beta agonist

A drug ending in the suffix (azole) is considered a ______. H2 agonist ACE inhibitor

Antifungal Beta agonist

A drug ending in the suffix (tidine) is considered a ______. Antidepressant Protease inhibitor Beta antagonist H2 antagonist

A drug ending in the suffix (navir) is considered a ______. Antidepressant Protease inhibitor Beta antagonist H2 antagonist

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of extreme photosensitivity? Digitalis Niacin Tetracycline Fluoroquinolones

Which of the following is not related to a drug toxicity of Prednisone? Cataracts Hypotension Psychosis Acne

Which of the following is not related to a drug toxicity of Atenolol? CHF Tachycardia AV block

Sedative appearance

Which of the following is considered a class IA Sodium Channel blocker? Mexiletine Aminodarone Quinidine Procainamide

Which of the following is considered a class IA Sodium Channel blocker? Propafenone Disopyramide Aminodarone Quinidine

Potassium sparing diuretics have the primary effect upon the _____ found in the kidney. Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule

Which of the following is not directly related to a drug toxicity of Nitroglycerin? Headaches Tachycardia Dizziness Projectile vomiting

Which of the following is not directly related to a drug toxicity of Ibuprofen? Nausea Renal dysfunction Anemia Muscle wasting

Website: Pharmainfo.net Active learning center Test prepreview

Pharmacology Indication of doxycycline is: A. B. C. D. E. Bacteroides (other than Bacteroides fragilis) Asthma Meniere's disease Water intoxication Broad spectrum antibacterial agent *

Contraindication of indacrinone is: A. B. C. D. E. Pregnancy Hyperlipidemia Diabetes Diabetes mellitus * Hearing impairment

Mechanism of action of indinavir is: A. B. C. D. E. beta-2 agonist Inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Inhibits reverse transcriptase Inhibits viral protease * Stimulates lipoprotein lipase

Class of famciclovir is: A. B. C. D. E. NSAID Antidepressants Autonomic nervous system drugs Antivirals * Oral hypoglycemics

Indication of ticarcillin is: A. Streptococcus pneumoniae * B. Varicella zoster virus

C. Myocardial infarction D. Generalized motor seizures E. Bone marrow failure states (aplastic anemia, myelodysplasias) (investigational) Mechanism of action of cefoxitin is: A. B. C. D. E. monoamine reuptake inhibitor Inhibits cholesterol synthesis Inhibits activation of GPIIb/IIIa Inhibits transpeptidase * Inhibits Na-K-2Cl transporter

Which of the following statements refers to phenelzine: A. B. C. D. E. Mechanism of action probably involves NO. Rapid IV infusion predisposes to neuromuscular paralysis. May work when other antidepressants fail. Long half-life. MOA is inhibited irreversibly. Response occurs when >80% platelet MOA is inhibited. *

Effect of diltiazem is: A. B. C. D. E. May increase heart rate Decreases triglycerides by 10-20% May decrease heart rate Inhibits basal gastric acid secretion Decreases AV conduction *

Which of the following statements refers to etidronate: A. Binds to DNA, preferentially to GC pairs. Inhibits RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. B. Human, pig, salmon, and eel calcitonins are available. C. Is used for both therapy and prophylaxis of influenza A. D. Bioavailability increases with administered dose. * E. Only approved by FDA for hypertension treatment. Class of nystatin is: A. B. C. D. E. Thiazides Antiprotozoan agents Autonomic nervous system drugs Polyenes * Oral hypoglycemics

Mechanism of action of isoetharine is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits phosphodiesterase Reduces calcium influx into neurons Potentiates glucose-mediated insulin secretion Inhibits phospholipase A2 beta-2 agonist *

Mechanism of action of vancomycin is: A. B. C. D. E. Potentiates glucose-mediated insulin secretion Inhibits phospholipase C Mitotic spindle poison Inhibits transpeptidase Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis *

Class of buspirone is: A. B. C. D. E. Anticonvulsants Lipid lowering drugs Beta blockers Benzodiazepines Sedatives *

Contraindication of sulfamethoxazole is: A. B. C. D. E. Gout Diabetes mellitus Hyperlipidemia Liver disease Late pregnancy *

Site of metabolism of zolpidem is: A. B. C. D. E. Liver * None Reticuloendothelial system Leukocytes Unknown

Mechanism of resistance of dicloxacillin is: A. B. C. D. Decreased drug uptake by bacteria Mutations in M (matrix) protein Beta-lactamase Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) *

E. Antibodies resulting from streptococcal infection Half-life of streptomycin is: A. B. C. D. E. 10-50 hours 8 hours 1 hour 16 hours 3-4 hours *

Interactions with other drugs of clonazepam is: A. B. C. D. E. Lactose: increases absorption meperidine Tricyclic antidepressants: potentiate sedation cis-platinum - augments nephrotoxicity Oral contraceptives: inhibit metabolism *

Class of nelfinavir is: A. B. C. D. E. Glucocorticosteroids Anti-asthmatic agents Polyenes Antivirals * Autonomic nervous system drugs

Side effect of fluvastatin is: A. B. C. D. E. Seizures Skin rash Nausea Urinary tract complications Myalgia *

Indication of salmeterol is: A. B. C. D. E. Thyrotoxicosis - preparation for surgery Chronic renal disease Scleroderma renal crisis Asthma * Allergic rhinitis

Mechanism of action of chlorthalidone is: A. Mitotic spindle poison B. Binds to ergosterol in cell membrane resulting in formation of pores.

C. Unknown D. Induces "freezing" of initiation complex E. Inhibits Na-Cl transporter * Mechanism of action of neomycin is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase Blocks K channels Blocks Na channels Binds to 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome * Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis

Mechanism of action of amyl nitrite is: A. B. C. D. E. dopamine antagonist Unknown Holds water in stool Potassium channel agonist Stimulates guanylate cyclase *

Class of cilastin is: A. B. C. D. E. Azoles ACE inhibitors Retinoids Dehydropeptidase I inhibitors * K sparing diuretics

Mechanism of action of flunisolide is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits DNA gyrase Inhibits phosphodiesterase Inhibits phospholipase A2 * beta-2 agonist Competitively inhibits H2 receptors

Mechanism of action of enalapril is: A. B. C. D. E. serotonin reuptake inhibitor Inhibits bone resorption beta-2 agonist Inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme * Induces "freezing" of initiation complex

Which of the following statements refers to HPMPC

A. B. C. D.

Tricyclic. Cytosine monophosphate analog * Works by accumulating in and changing pH of lysosomes. Mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity - does not decrease heart rate and contractility as much during exercise. E. Metabolized in liver by P450. Route of administration of interferon alpha is: A. B. C. D. E. Intramuscular * Inhalation Topical Oral Intra-auricular

Side effect of clindamycin is: A. B. C. D. E. Colitis (by Chlostridium difficili) * Malabsorption Constipation Hypoglycemia Hepatotoxicity

Indication of clindamycin is: A. B. C. D. E. Benzodiazepine intoxication Hypercalcemia Kaposi's sarcoma Streptococcus pneumoniae * Angina

Indication of phenoxybenzamine is: A. B. C. D. E. Pain Movement disorders Thyrotoxicosis - preparation for radioactive iodine therapy Anaphylactic shock Acute hypertension *

Which of the following statements refers to buspirone: A. Fatal overdosage rare unless taken with alcohol or other CNS depressants. B. Choice between quinidine and disopyramide should be made based on side effects. In patients with AV conduction problems or quinidine-induced GI toxicity, disopyramide ought to be chosen. In patients with MI or anticholinergic side effects, quinidine is the agent of choice.

C. Less effective than tricyclics or ECT in unipolar depression. D. Is metabolized to several substances with long (>24 hours) half lives. These do not contribute to anticonvulsant effect but do contribute to sedative effect. E. No difference in effects between elderly and average population * Mechanism of action of FK506 is: A. B. C. D. E. Reduces calcium influx into neurons Inhibits calcineurin * Inhibits phospholipase C Inhibits phospholipid synthesis Induces DNA damage under anaerobic conditions

Mechanism of resistance of Invirase is: A. Mutation of viral DNA polymerase B. Mutations of viral protease * C. Mutation of thymidilate synthase decreasing its affinity for the drug's active metabolite D. Tolerance E. Mutation of viral reverse transcriptase Effect of cascara is: A. B. C. D. E. Decreases water absorption * Stimulates segmentation Decreases meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion May increase triglycerides Afterload increase

Class of nitrogen mustard is: A. B. C. D. E. Aquaretics Alkylating agents * Lipid lowering drugs Drugs affecting calcium homeostasis Antivirals

Indication of PTU is: A. B. C. D. E. Glaucoma Migraine prophylaxis Thyrotoxicosis - preparation for radioactive iodine therapy * Severe recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias Broad spectrum antibacterial agent

Half-life of adenosine is: A. B. C. D. E. 70 days 7-20 hours 4 hours 2 hours 1-2 minutes *

Route of excretion of cinoxacin is: A. B. C. D. Unknown Kidneys * Intestines Liver

Indication of metoprolol is: A. B. C. D. E. Bacteroides (other than Bacteroides fragilis) Duodenal ulcer Stage fright Ventricular tachyarrythmias provoked by exercise * Cardiac arrest

Mechanism of action of ampicillin is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits cholesterol synthesis Inhibits transpeptidase * Inhibits viral DNA polymerase Potentiates glucose-mediated insulin secretion Inhibits renal epithelial Na channels

Subclass of NTG is: A. B. C. D. E. Inorganic nitrates Potassium channel agonists Surface active agents Organic nitrates * Phenylpiperidine

Indication of Norvir is: A. B. C. D. E. Streptococcus pneumoniae Cytomegalovirus retinitis Diarrhea Influenza A HIV *

Route of administration of ofloxacin is: A. B. C. D. E. Intra-auricular Sublingual Oral * IV Intramuscular

Interactions with other drugs of tramadol is: A. B. C. D. E. beta-lactam antibiotics - synergism Rifampin: stimulates metabolism Phenytoin: stimulates metabolism MAO inhibitors: increase hyperpyrexia, excitation, delirium, seizures. Antihistamines: enhance analgesia *

Class of demeclocycline is: A. B. C. D. E. Analgesics Inotropic agents Penicillins Antithyroid agents Aquaretics *

Mechanism of action of doxorubicin is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits topoisomerase II * alpha antagonist Inhibits peptidyl transferase beta antagonist Allosterically enhances GABAergic inhibition

Side effect of dipyridamole is: A. B. C. D. E. Diarrhea Headache * Bleeding Hypercalcemia Pseudothrombocytopenia (clumping of platelets)

Which of the following statements refers to bretylium: A. May induce mild hypotension and worsen congestive heart failure in some patients. However, most CHF patients can tolerate it. B. Duration of action is usually several days.

C. Has been show to be more effective than six other agents in preventing arrhythmia recurrence and death in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. D. Is effective against erythrocytic forms. E. Used in emergency setting during attempted resuscitation when lidocaine and cardioversion have failed. * Side effect of actinomycin D is: A. B. C. D. E. Bronchospasm Hypotension GI toxicity Oral and GI ulcers * Dysphonia

Side effect of furosemide is: A. B. C. D. E. Nausea * Mucositis Constipation Hearing impairment Weight gain

Class of pyrimethamine is: A. B. C. D. E. Antifolates * Antivirals Aquaretics Autonomic nervous system drugs H2 antagonists

Mechanism of resistance of sufentanil is: A. B. C. D. E. Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) Decreased drug uptake by bacteria Transport protein mutations Tolerance * Mutation of viral DNA polymerase

Mechanism of action of zalcitabine is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase Inhibits reverse transcriptase * Inhibits DNA gyrase Inhibits viral protease Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase

Class of metformin is: A. B. C. D. E. Lipid lowering drugs Antimycobacterial Thyroid agents Vasodilators Oral hypoglycemics *

Route of administration of methadone is: A. B. C. D. E. Subcutaneous Inhalation Intrathecal Oral * Transdermal

Side effect of nedocromil is: A. B. C. D. E. Growth retardation in children Thiocyanate poisoning Neuromuscular paralysis Nausea * Dysphonia

Indication of epinephrine is: A. B. C. D. E. Post myocardial infarction Asthma * Tremor Trigeminal neuralgia Neurosurgical anesthesia

dication of ciprofloxacin is: A. B. C. D. E. In Tuberculosis Migraine prophylaxis Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning Broad spectrum antibacterial agent * Asthma

Mechanism of action of vincristine is: A. B. C. D. Inhibits organification of iodine by thyroid gland Increases peripheral tissues sensitivity to insulin Reduces peripheral insulin resistance Inhibits Na-K-2Cl transporter

E. Mitotic spindle poison * Indication of aspirin is: A. B. C. D. E. Insomnia Cyanide poisoning Cardiac arrest Inflammation * Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Class of reserpine is: A. B. C. D. E. Anticoagulants Methylxanthines Inotropic agents Antiarrhythmic agents Autonomic nervous system drugs *

Subclass of lomafloxacin is: A. B. C. D. E. Fluoroquinolones * IA Calciferols Beta-lactamase resistant penicillins Aldosterone antagonists

Effect of bisacodyl is: A. B. C. D. E. Decreases total cholesterol by 8-12% Decreases water absorption * Decreases total cholesterol by 20-50% Enhances mucociliary clearance Decreases triglycerides by 10-20%

Mechanism of action of amiloride is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase Modulation of CD3 receptor from the cell surface Inhibits renal epithelial Na channels * Aldosterone antagonist Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Mechanism of action of salbutamol is: A. opiate agonist B. Blocks sustained repetitive neuronal firing

C. beta-2 agonist * D. Inhibits phospholipase A2 E. Inhibits phospholipase C Class of ranitidine is: A. B. C. D. E. Vasodilators Sulfonamides Tetracyclines H2 antagonists * Antimycobacterial

Indication of norepinephrine is: A. B. C. D. E. Life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias Cardiac stimulation Decongestant * Hypertension Asthma

Indication of primaquine is: A. B. C. D. E. Broad spectrum antibacterial agent Amebiasis Malaria * Shock Rheumatoid arthritis

Site of metabolism of omeprazole is: A. B. C. D. E. None Kidneys Liver * Unknown Reticuloendothelial system

Which of the following statements refers to pyrazinamide: A. Accumulates inside mycobacteria B. Effects: vasodilator in CHF patients; vasodilator and inotropic in normal individuals. C. Is active in acidic environment, therefore especially useful for killing intracellular mycobacteria * D. Nephrotoxicity is almost always reversible. E. Lupus occurs more commonly in slow acetylators.

Side effect of triamcinolone is: A. B. C. D. E. Asthma Nausea Cataracts * Anxiety Hyperglycemia

Which of the following statements refers to atenolol A. No intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. * B. Can prevent recurrent infarction and sudden death in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. C. Is more likely to cause edema than verapamil D. Avoid Ca supplements made from dolomite or from bone meal as these may contain lead or other toxic metals. E. Should not be used as a sole agent in sustained forms of hyperthyroidism. Mechanism of action of Prozac is: A. B. C. D. E. Induces translation misreadings dopamine antagonist Damages mitochondrial DNA serotonin reuptake inhibitor * monoamine reuptake inhibitor

Indication of thiabendazole is: A. B. C. D. E. Cestodes Status epilepticus Strongyloides stercoralis * Ancylostoma duodenale Ventricular fibrillation

Side effect of OKT-3 is: A. B. C. D. E. Myalgia Restlessness Cognitive dulling Dyspnea * Cough

Mechanism of action of cocaine is: A. Inhibits Na-Cl transporter B. Muscarinic agonist

C. beta-2 agonist D. beta-1 antagonist E. Blocks catecholamine uptake by axonal terminal * Class of pectin is: A. B. C. D. E. Analgesics Glucocorticosteroids Methylxanthines Antidiarrheal agents * Antiarrhythmic agents

Class of bethanecol is: A. B. C. D. E. NSAID Autonomic nervous system drugs * Antiarrhythmic agents Inotropic agents Beta blockers

Class of urokinase is: A. B. C. D. E. Sedatives Anti-asthmatic agents Antimycobacterial Antidepressants Thrombolytics *

Subclass of norfloxacin is: A. B. C. D. E. III Fluoroquinolones * IC Bulk-forming laxatives II

Class of cocaine is: A. B. C. D. E. Retinoids Anti-asthmatic agents Autonomic nervous system drugs * Loop diuretics Antiarrhythmic agents

Class of phenobarbital is:

A. B. C. D. E.

Barbiturates * Antiprotozoan agents Antimycobacterial Benzodiazepines Sedatives

Subclass of tolbutamide is: A. B. C. D. E. Sulfonylureas * Organic nitrates Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Potassium channel agonists Biguanides

Mechanism of action of ganciclovir is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits viral uncoating Inhibits viral DNA polymerase * Inhibits Na-Cl transporter Inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Blocks K channels

Which of the following statements refers to carbamazepine: A. Effects in hypertension: 1. Blood pressure - decrease 2. Systemic vascular resistance - decrease 3. Heart rate - no change 4. Stroke volume - no change 5. Ejection fraction - no change 6. Venous capacitance - increase 7. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure - no change 8. Renin - increase 9. Plasma aldosterone decrease 10. Plasma norepinephrine - no change B. Cognitive side effects, respiratory depression. C. Generally very effective as a single drug. * D. Few cognitive or behavioral side effects. E. Is found in breast milk. Indication of diazepam is: A. B. C. D. E. Migraine prophylaxis Bipolar disorder Myoclonic seizures * Thyrotoxicosis - preparation for surgery Trigeminal neuralgia

Route of administration of paromomycin is: A. Inhalation B. Subcutaneous

C. IV D. Oral * E. Sublingual Class of doxepin is: A. B. C. D. E. Antidepressants * Aquaretics Autonomic nervous system drugs Laxatives Anti-asthmatic agents

Class of cascara is: A. B. C. D. E. H2 antagonists Macrolides Cathartics * Analgesics Lipid lowering drugs

Interactions with other drugs of Demerol is: A. B. C. D. E. Rifampin: stimulates metabolism Iron: decreases absorption Amiodarone: inhibits activation Phenytoin: stimulates metabolism Desipramine: enhances analgesia *

Mechanism of action of PAS is: A. B. C. D. E. Activates antithrombin III Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase * Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase beta-1 antagonist

Class of tocainide is: A. B. C. D. E. Thiazides Antiarrhythmic agents * Cephalosporins Autonomic nervous system drugs Beta blockers

Route of administration of erythromycin is:

A. B. C. D. E.

Inhalation IV Sublingual Intra-auricular Oral *

Half-life of tolbutamide is: A. B. C. D. E. 12-24 hours 3 hours 6-12 hours * 10 hours 8 hours

Which of the following statements refers to fansidar: A. Effect monitored by PT (prothrombin time) B. Embryopathy is due to production of epoxide metabolites. It is especially common when several anticonvulsants are used together. C. Is a mixture of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole D. Minimal GI absorption. E. Allergic reactions (cutaneous) can be fatal in 1/20,000 users. * Class of timolol is: A. B. C. D. E. Antiarrhythmic agents Antithyroid agents Anticonvulsants Beta blockers * Antidepressants

Which of the following statements refers to foscavir: A. B. C. D. Pyrophosphate analog * Metabolism in liver is by glucuronidization Not shown to reduce sudden death or prolong survival. Inhibition of DNA gyrase results in: 1. Inhibition of bacterial replication 2. Inhibition of DNA repair 3. Inhibition of expression of certain operons E. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Indication of sodium valproate is: A. B. C. D. Prophylaxis of certain infections Partial complex seizures * Bipolar disorder Delirium tremor

E. Primary immunodeficiency Mechanism of action of carbenicillin is: A. B. C. D. E. Inhibits transpeptidase * Blocks Na channels Activates heparin cofactor II which inhibits thrombin (at high concentrations) Blocks sustained repetitive neuronal firing GM-CSF

Which of the following statements refers to flunisolide: A. B. C. D. Penetrates placenta less readily than MMI Causes fetal complications more frequently than PTU. Is not as effective for acute attacks as beta-2 agonists. Used only for maintenance/prophylaxis. Systemic steroids are used in case of acute exacerbations. * E. Cigarette smoking increases metabolism. Liver failure - decreases metabolism.