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Organizational Behvior Review #2 E.R.G.

Theory Describes three basic groups of human needs Existence needs- physical and material wants Relatedness needs- same as belonging and love Growth needs-to be creative and develop All persons have these needs, in varying degree Similar to Maslow The hierarchy can be traversed in many ways Skill Based Pay Plans Sets pay levels based upon the skills employees have or how many jobs they can do Lends flexibility to the work force Downsizing requires more generalists and less specialists Lessens territorialism Facilitates communication Employees can be frustrated when they reach the top level They dont really address efficiency of the individual employee Consistent with several motivational theories- especially equity theories Issues to address before starting a motivational program (Kinicki, 2003) Managers need to consider the wide variety of possible causes of poor performance The method used to evaluate performance must be examined Equity Managers need to recognize that motivation is influenced by corporate culture Brainstorming- Very Time Consuming Moods- feelings not directed at anything; lack contextual basis Machiavellianism Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513 Never show humility They manipulate, are persuaded less often, and tend to win more because it is vital to do so Arrogance is more effective when dealing with people Morality and ethics are for the weak Powerful people feel free to cheat and lie It is much better to be feared than loved Translates to a management style based on expedience and usefulness Definitely not team players Focuses on personal goals

Type B Personalities- Patient, Relaxed, cooperative Rational Decision Making Model- Define problem Identify decision criteria Weight the criteria Generate alternatives Rate each alternative on each criterion Compute the optimal decision Big Five Personality Dimensions Model Extraversion comfort level with relationships Agreeableness cooperative/tolerant vs. rude/unkind Conscientiousness reliable /responsible/hardworking vs. sloppy/inefficient Emotional Stability ability to withstand stress Openness to experience curious/intelligent/imaginative vs. simple/conventional The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality test based on Jungian typology Extroversion/Introversion E = outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive I = quiet , shy, cautious Sensing/Intuition S = prefer quantitative details collected systematically N = intuitive, collect information non-systematically Thinking/Feeling T = rely on rational causes, logic, weigh evidence unemotionally F = use personal values more than rational logic, consider how their choices affect others Judging/Perceiving J = like to control decision making and resolve problems quickly P = more flexible, keep options open, adapt to events spontaneously Self-esteem - positive and negative judgments people have about themselves People with low self-esteem tend to not be successful, & reverse Authoritarian Rigidity Obedience Submission to authority Tendency to stereotype

Emotional Labor -the expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions Emotional intelligence -may play an important role in employee performance The Six Universal Emotions Happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust Direction of Communication-downward, upward, lateral Downward communication -is communication created by directors and managers and passed down the hierarchy of workers in the organization Upward- used when talking to someone at a higher level

Lateral-This is communication that occurs between employees on the same level in the organisation.
Roles- expected behavior patterns that define how you are supposed to act in a

group Norms- acceptable standards of behavior (not rules though) enforced within the group Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Channel Richness- amount of information that can be transferred during communication McClellands Theory of Needs The Need for Achievement- the drive to excel and solve problems, take responsibility for the results of their behavior The Need for Power- focuses on controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person, tries to control The Need for Affiliation- focuses on maintaining and restoring positive relations with others, wants close warm relationships
**Each of us however, has a dominant inclination towards one of the needs**

Goal Setting Theory (Locke, E. , 1990) The process of motivating employees and clarifying what you expect from them by establishing goals or objectives Self-Efficacy- belief in ones own ability to succed; people who expect to do well, often do,;people who often feel like they dont stand a chance, often fail Variable Pay Programs A person is paid not just for seniority or time on the job, but for a measure of performance Myth of Rationality- organizations have historically been designed to control emotions, to keep emotions out of the workplace Branhams 4 needs- trust, hope,, sense of work, feel competent Emotions- Intense feelings experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness Type A- Talks rapidly, Is devoted to work, Is highly competitive, aggressively Locus of Control People differ in whether they feel they control the consequences of their actions or they are controlled by external factors Internal Control Personality Types- they control their own destiny External Control Personality Types- Seemed to be less satisfied with their jobs More alienated in the workplace Less involved in their jobs Blame others for poor work performance Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation Implications for Managers Managers using close control award little opportunity for development of skill variety, task identity, and autonomy Managers that delegate decision making should have the opposite effect

This shows an employee the importance of their role in the company

To Satisfice- seek satisfactory solutions within your resources

Heuristics- judgmental shortcuts Availability Heuristics- based upon information available to you Representative Heuristic- assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a pre-existing category Post-decisional justification- a perceptual distortion, Decision makers tend to inflate the quality of their decision and deflate the alternatives They ignore negative supporting data and emphasize positive supporting information Escalation of Commitment tendency to repeat a bad decision or allocate more resources to sustain it, Why? Three Criteria for Ethical Decision Making Utilitarianism- the greatest good for the greatest number, consistent with goals of efficiency, productivity, and high profits Focus on Rights- make decisions consistent with fundamental rights and privileges Focus on Justice- impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially, Piece rate pay plans- workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production Profit sharing plans- distribute compensation based on the companys performance Gain-sharing- similar to profit sharing, but is based upon production rather than profit Earnings can fluctuate with job performance Written Communication Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback.

Nonverbal Communication Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receivers interpretation of message. Grapevine- informal communication network Grapevine Characteristics Not controlled by management. Perceived by some, even sometimes most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. Distributive Justice- the perceived fairness of outcomes received from the distribution of resources among employees High and Low Context Cultures High Context- rely heavily on nonverbal and situational cues when communicating with others Low Context- rely heavily on words