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Poka-yoke From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Poka-yoke [poka yo-ke] is a Japanese term that means "fail-safing" or "mistake-p

roofing". A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that help s an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to elimin ate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human err ors as they occur.[1] The concept was formalised, and the term adopted, by Shige o Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System.[2][3] It was originally descri bed as baka-yoke, but as this means "fool-proofing" (or "idiot-proofing") the na me was changed to the milder poka-yoke. More broadly, the term can refer to any behavior-shaping constraint designed int o a product to prevent incorrect operation by the user.[citation needed] Contents [hide] 1 Implementation in manufacturing 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links [edit]Implementation in manufacturing Poka-yoke can be implemented at any step of a manufacturing process where someth ing can go wrong or an error can be made.[4] For example, a jig that holds piece s for processing might be modified to only allow pieces to be held in the correc t orientation,[5] or a digital counter might track the number of spot welds on e ach piece to ensure that the worker executes the correct number of welds.[6] Shigeo Shingo recognized three types of poka-yoke for detecting and preventing e rrors in a mass production system:[2][4] The contact method identifies product defects by testing the product's shape, si ze, color, or other physical attributes. The fixed-value (or constant number) method alerts the operator if a certain num ber of movements are not made. The motion-step (or sequence) method determines whether the prescribed steps of the process have been followed. Either the operator is alerted when a mistake is about to be made, or the poka-y oke device actually prevents the mistake from being made. In Shingo's lexicon, t he former implementation would be called a warning poka-yoke, while the latter w ould be referred to as a control poka-yoke.[7] Shingo argued that errors are inevitable in any manufacturing process, but that if appropriate poka-yokes are implemented, then mistakes can be caught quickly a nd prevented from resulting in defects. By eliminating defects at the source, th e cost of mistakes within a company is reduced.[8]

What is it? Poka-yoke (poh-kah yoh-keh) was coined in Japan during the 1960s by Shigeo Shing o who was one of the industrial engineers at Toyota. Shigeo Shingo is also credi ted with creating and formalizing Zero Quality Control (poka-yoke techniques to correct possible defects + source inspection to prevent defects equals zero qual ity control).

The initial term was baka-yoke, which means fool-proofing . In 1963, a worker at Ar akawa Body Company refused to use baka-yoke mechanisms in her work area, because of the term s dishonorable and offensive connotation. Hence, the term was changed to poka-yoke, which means mistake-proofing or more literally avoiding (yokeru) in advertent errors (poka). Ideally, poka-yokes ensure that proper conditions exist before actually executing a process step, preventing defects from occurring in the first place. Where this is not possible, poka-yokes perform a detective func tion, eliminating defects in the process as early as possible.

How to use it? Step by step process in applying poka-yoke: 1 Identify the operation or process - based on a pareto. 2 Analyze the 5-whys and understand the ways a process can fail. 3 Decide the right poka-yoke approach, such as using a shut out type (preventing an error being made), or an attention type (highlighting that an error has been made) poka-yoke take a more comprehensive approach instead of merely thinking of poka-yokes as l imit switches, or automatic shutoffs a poka-yoke can be electrical, mechanical, procedural, visual, human or any othe r form that prevents incorrect execution of a process step 4 Determine whether a contact - use of shape, size or other physical attributes for detection, constant number - error triggered if a certain number of actions are not made sequence method - use of a checklist to ensure completing all process steps is appropriate 5 Trial the method and see if it works 6 Train the operator, review performance and measure success.

Why is it important? Poka-yoke helps people and processes work right the first time. Poka-yoke refers to techniques that make it impossible to make mistakes. These techniques can dr ive defects out of products and processes and substantially improve quality and reliability. It can be thought of as an extension of FMEA. It can also be used t o fine tune improvements and process designs from six-sigma Define - Measure - A nalyze - Improve - Control (DMAIC) projects. The use of simple poka-yoke ideas a nd methods in product and process design can eliminate both human and mechanical errors. Poka-yoke does not need to be costly. For instance, Toyota has an avera ge of 12 mistake-proofing devices at each workstation and a goal of implementing each mistake-proofing device for under $150. When to use it? Poka-yoke can be used wherever something can go wrong or an error can be made. I t is a technique, a tool that can be applied to any type of process be it in man ufacturing or the service industry. Errors are many types 1 Processing error Process operation missed or not performed per the standard operating procedure. 2 Setup error

Using the wrong tooling or setting machine adjustments incorrectly. 3 Missing part Not all parts included in the assembly, welding, or other processes. 4 Improper part/item Wrong part used in the process. 5 Operations error Carrying out an operation incorrectly; having the incorrect version of the speci fication. 6 Measurement error Errors in machine adjustment, test measurement or dimensions of a part coming in from a supplier.