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Eastern University

Research paper
Topic: The glaring necessity of teaching aids and motivation for effective teaching.

Prepared by: Md. Abdul Kader ID No:082500004 Eastern University


Prepared for: Dr. Dina Furkan Professor (E.L.T) Eastern University

Date of submition: 11/06/2009

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Acknowledgement
I acknowledge my indebtedness to my teachers specially Ms Ifadara-Nasren Majid and Mr. Hamidur Rahman who have make my concept clear about motivation and teaching aids. I am thankful to those sources from where I have enriched my knowledge about teaching aids and motivations. I want to give a special thanks to Ms. Dina Furkan who has approved my research assignment

related to teaching aids and motivation. I am also very grateful to those who have helped me to conduct my survey and especially to those who have given their kind consent about the questions which I used in the survey. I am also grateful to Mr. Tazul Islam who has typed this paper for me. Last of all I am ever grateful to my friend. Mr. Habibur Rahman,

who has given much encouragement and help to organize the writing of this paper.

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Abstract
This paper is organized to measure the necessity teaching aids and motivation for effective teaching and what the teacher think about teaching aids and motivation. The theory of teaching aids and motivation are stated here. Most of the teachers havent a perfect idea about teaching aids and a good number of teachers consider motivation not very effective for learning. Even those who have ideas about teaching aids dont use it in regular basis. Some of the reasons of not being regular in using the teaching aids have been stated here. The paper also suggests some corrective measures which may help them to refine their teaching technique and also may help them to overcome the hurdles.

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Table of Context
SL .
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 Cover page Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Context Introduction Literary Review Hypothesis Methodology Data analysis and presentation Conclusion Recommendation Reference list Appendix

Headlines

Page no
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 05 06 08 08 09 13 14 16 17

Introduction
Teaching is no doubt a novel profession but I think it is also a very challenging profession as it is really very difficult to teach anything to someone unless learner himself is motivated to learn. In order to motivate the learner to the learning, teacher has to be cautious and also needs to follow some techniques. This paper is made to measure the significance of teaching aids and motivation for effective teaching. It will also give a general view of what our school teachers are thinking about teaching aids and motivation. Here I have discussed in brief about the theory of teaching aids and motivation. Here is also a survey report which had been conducted among the teachers about the importance of teaching aids and motivations. I have also pointed out some reasons for which the teachers are reluctant to motivate the student through teaching aids. And I have also suggested some corrective measures with a view to overcoming those hurdles.

Area to be studied
i. What is teaching aids? Do the teachers really know how teaching aids make a difference between effective and ineffective teaching? ii. Do the teachers really use teaching aids with proper care? iii. What is motivation? Why do the students become less motivated to the English study?

iv. How do the teachers can increase students motivation to the English study?
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Literary Review
I have planed to divide the body of my paper into two sections, each one exploring two of the questions that have been stated aboveWhat is teaching aids? In order to make the lesson easily understood to the learner, the things, whether visual or non-visual, which are used by the teacher can be called teaching aids. Teaching aids usually help to fasten the language or any sort of learning. It makes the obscure matter easy to the learner. It may also be used to make the lesson more interesting and less monotonous. It also helps the inattentive student to be attentive. The following things can be used as the teaching aids1. The teacher himself/herself
2. Real objects that are in the classroom and the object which can be seen

from the classroom.


3. Picture related with lesson

4. Flashcards 5. Charts 6. Model clock 7. Blackboard 8. Tape-recorder In a nutshell every thing that is related to the text and does not divert the students attention from learning can be used as teaching aids. Now the questionsDo the teachers really know how teaching aids make a difference between effective and ineffective teaching?

And Do the teachers really use teaching aids with proper care? I have stated my hypothesis nevertheless I will discuss those issues later. Now the other part that is

What is motivation?
Motivation is the willingness of a person to do something. So the success of a program or a plane largely depends on how much the participants are motivated towards the plane or program. Motivation has different types. I have tried to state briefly those types here.
1. Integrative motivation: - When a person wants to engage in a

language program in order to adjust with the target group to identify him with the target culture.
2. Instrumental motivation: - When a person wants to learn a language

as a means of achieving a certain objective.


3. Intrinsic motivation: - When the urge to learn the language comes

from inside the learner i.e. spontaneous.


4. Extrinsic motivation: - When the urge to learn the language comes

from outside i.e. the objective is not the language itself. 5. Global motivation: - It comes from a general positive attitude towards language learning without any particular goal in mind. 6. Situational motivation: - It arises when a person becomes interested in learning a language due to particular situations.
7. Task

motivation: - Certain language activities might prove so interesting that the learner starts taking interest in the class activities.

Now the questions

Why do the students become less motivated to the English study? I have pointed out some general reasons hereFirstly, out students especially at the high school level rarely have any interest to adjust them with the English culture? So they are not bothered to learn English. Secondly, they are forced to learn English as it has been made compulsory in our educational system. Thirdly, the students primary motive to learn English is to pass the examination. That is why they are not interested to learn the English language properly rather they are busy with memorizing those things which will help them to pass the examination easily. Fourthly, they have very rare opportunity to use this language in their every day life. So they think it is not very essential to be mastered of this language. Fifthly, though our curriculum supports the communicative English language teaching, our teachers for want of proper training and in depth knowledge in English still remain with their traditional concept of English teaching.

Now the other question

How does the teacher can increase students motivations to the English study?

I will make answer of these question at the recommendation/ suggestion section.

Hypothesis

Most of the teachers of our country have not proper idea about the teaching aids. They mainly stick with the traditional concept of teaching and very much reluctant to introduce innovative ideas or materials in classroom teaching. They are also unaware about the significance of the students motivation for effective learning.

Methodology
Before preparing this research paper, I read intensively relevant books and articles on teaching aids and motivation. I have selected my research area and also choose the topic. As I am interested to know the ideas of our teachers about the teaching aids and motivation, I have visited some schools and have observed the teaching of some teachers. Mainly I have taken interviews of some teachers regarding their view about the necessity of teaching aids and motivation of the students. I have also talked with various students and have tried my best to find out the cause of their poor command over English. During my visit I have also conducted a survey among the teacher and collected various data. After that I have deeply thought about my observation and analyzed the data which I got from the survey and then come to final conclusion.

Data analysis and presentation

The questions I have used in the survey reflect a mixed attitude. Previously I thought most of the teachers are not aware of the use of teaching aids and they are also not aware about the significant of motivation for effective learning. But after completing the survey I have found my assumptions little bit exaggerated all together nineteen teachers gave there consent of my survey questions. I have used nine questions in the survey and here I have stated the statistics of each individual question. a) Do you have any idea about teaching aids? Yes No Not entirely sufficient b) Do you use teaching aids in classroom teaching? 11 00 08

Always Not always Not at all

05 14 00

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c) What sort of teaching aids do you use in class room teaching?

Real objects related with lesson Pictures related with lesson Blackboard
Flashcard

09 06 00 19 00 16 00

Chart Own acting All of these

d) Do you face any obstacle while using teaching aids?

Yes Never Sometimes e) When do you use teaching aids?

06 03 10

When I face difficulty make lesson understand to student. When student consider a lesson difficult. When the students become monotonous. Frequently to make the lesson interesting

02 07 05 05

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f) What is your opinion about the effectiveness of teaching aids in classroom teaching? It is ------ Very effective Not very effective Time consuming but effective Sheer waste of time Like a catalyst to make the lesson more interesting and less complicated 04 02 13 00 00

g) How much the motivation is important for learning? Very essential Not essential Essential 08 00 13

h) Why do you think students become less motivated to learn English? English is tough to learn They dont know where to use it Curriculum system is faulty Teacher fails to teach English properly 02 04 07 06

i) What do you do to motivate the student towards learning?

Try to be friendly with them Use teaching aids Give physical and mental punishment Inform the guardian through diary

03 12 10 00
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Now if we consider the data we will see that almost all teachers have idea about teaching aids but only 26.32% teachers have regularly practice it and 73.68% teachers dont do it always. Among this 73.68%: -26.32% teachers use it when the students consider a lesson difficult. 36.84% teachers use it when the teachers themselves face difficulty to make a lesson understand to the student. 10.52% teachers use it when the students become monotonous. Even about the effectiveness of teaching aids 21% teachers consider it very effective. Other teachers consider it as either not very effective or time consuming but effective. According to the survey for which most of the teachers dont use teaching aids frequently are as follows: 1. Short duration of class. 2. Lack of real object related with lesson. 3. Lack of picture related with lesson. 4. Chaotic situation in the class. 5. Non-co-operative attitude of the authority. 6. Very big syllabus. 7. Large number of students.
8. Time limitation of teachers owns self.

Now about the effectiveness of motivation only 31.578% teachers consider motivation very essential for learning while 68.421% teachers consider motivation essential. Then the way the teachers try to motivate the students are also disheartening. 52.63% teachers give physical and mental punishment to motivate the learner though 40% of this 52.63% teachers use teaching aids as well.

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My own view: The data which I have analyzed before proved that my
hypothesis was partially wrong. Most of the teachers have ideas about the teaching aids although they are not enriched with theoretical knowledge of teaching aids. But one thing is clear that isThe teachers do not use the teaching aids always in the classroom with proper care. Or I may say that they are reluctant to use teaching aids unless they are bound. Even the way they try to motivate the student is not appropriate. They have to give up their mentality of giving punishment either physically or mentally. The data which I have stated above contains the picture of some urban school but I think schools those are in the village are much more worsen in condition.

Conclusion: -

In modern teaching, the significance of teaching aids

and the necessity of learners motivation to learn have been admitted unanimously. Learning is always difficult unless it is learnable and understandable or unless it fails to make the learner understand why it

should be learnt. It is the duty of the teacher to make the lesson understandable and learnable to the student and make it clear to them- why they should learn it. So every teacher should think about how effectively he/she taught and how much successful he/she was after each and every teaching.

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Recommendations/suggestions
1. The teachers should be trained properly. 2. The teachers should give up their business mentality regarding the teaching.
3. The teachers should engage themselves to find out new method of

teaching and should modify their teaching manner according to the demands of the student.
4. The teachers should understand the psychological behavior of the

student. 5. They should make the students conscious about the fact that

You(s) should not learn English only for passing the examination rather you should learn it for your own betterment to find a place in the modern as well as competitive world.
6. They should use various kinds of teaching aids for increasing students

motivation.
7. The teacher can use various kinds of games or can use humor or

arrange role play activities in the class either at the beginning or at the middle of the class which may act as the mental refreshment of the student. 8. They should encourage the student to use English in their every day life activities and discourage any kind of memorization.

15 9. The teacher should bear in mind -whatever they teach, the meaning is

clear to the students. They should specially care about the students ability to construct right sentence form in English.
10. The institution should make the necessary training about how to use

different types of teaching aids; what the positive outcome of students

motivation is; how the negative attitude or comments of teacher hinder the total learning process.

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Reference list:
Eills, R (1985) Understanding second language acquisition, New York: Oxford University press. Ur, P (1969) A course in language teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University press. Allan, M (1988) Teaching English with video, London: Longman Bowen, B. M. (1982) Look Here!: Visual Aids in Language Teaching, London: Macmillan.

Appendix
1. The approved proposal copy of the research. 2. An unused survey questionnaire. 3. Five used survey questionnaire.

A survey questionnaire Topic: - The glaring necessity of teaching aids and motivation for effective teaching. Target group: - Teacher
Please give your kind consent about the following questions. (Put tick mark. You may choose more than one if you need. You may also clarify if you think different) j) Do you have any idea about teaching aids? Yes No Not entirely sufficient k) Do you use teaching aids in classroom teaching? Always Not always Not at all If not why? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __ l) What sort of teaching aids do you use in class room teaching? Real objects related with lesson Pictures related with lesson Blackboard Flashcard Chart Own acting All of these Some of these

If anything else________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __ m) Do you face any obstacle while using teaching aids? Yes Never Sometimes If face- what types? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __

n) When do you use teaching aids? I use it ----------- When I face difficulty make lesson understand to student. When student consider a lesson difficult. When the students become monotonous. Frequently to make the lesson interesting If else ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __ o) What is your opinion about the effectiveness of teaching aids in classroom teaching? It is -------

Very effective Not very effective Time consuming but effective Sheer waste of time Like a catalyst to make the lesson more interesting and less complicated p) How much the motivation is important for learning? Very essential Not essential Essential q) Why do you think students become less motivated to learn English? English is tough to learn They dont know where to use it Curriculum system is faulty Teacher fails to teach English properly r) What do you do to motivate the student towards learning? Try to be friendly with them Use teaching aids Give physical and mental punishment Inform the guardian through diary If else----______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________