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Common characteristic for classifying of organism: -Habitats -Warm blooded or cold blooded -How they move -Body surface

-Type of respiration -Reproduction methods CLAASIFICATION OF ANIMALS -Animals with the same characteristic features are claasified into the same group and enable us to study them systematically -They are divide into two groups: invertebrates and vertebrates -Vertebrates are animals with backbone that protect the spinal cord -Invertebrates are animals without backbone Vertebrates main body support is skeleton (bones) and consist of mainly large animals Invertebrates main body support are body fluid pressure or exoskeleton and consist of small animals with simple body structure Some are big and some are microscopic

Live in different types of habitats; water, land Can be divide into Some have many legs and mammals, birds, some do not have any fish, amphibians Makes up more than 95% and reptiles of all animal in the world

Mammal ~warm-blooded ~breathe with lungs ~bodies covered with hair or fur ~reproduce by giving birth to live young ~have their young fed on milk E.G. platypus ,cow,whale,bat,monkey Bird ~warm-blooded ~breathe with lungs

~bodies covered with feathers ~have beaks and wings ~reproduce by laying eggs with shells ~carry out internal fertilisation E.G. penguin,eagle,pigeon Reptiles ~cold-blooded ~breathe with lungs ~bodies covered with dry and scaly skin ~have two pairs of limbs except snakes ~reproduce by laying eggs with shells,on land ~carry out internal fertilisation ~can live both in water and land E.G crocodile , tortoise , lizard, snake Amphibian ~cold-blooded ~breathe through their gills ~bodies covered with smooth and moist skin ~have two pairs of limbs that enable them to move freely ~reproduce by laying jelly-covered eggs without sheels,in water ~can live both in water and land E.G. frog, toad, salamander, newt FISH ~cold-blooded ~breathe through gills ~skin covered with hard protective scales ~have fins and tails to help them swim ~bodies are streamlined so that they canmove fast in the water ~reproduce by laying eggs ~have bodies that are well adapted for life under water E.G. seahorse, eel, tuna, clown fish CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS Plants are divide into two groups: Flowering and Non- flowering Flowering plants can divide into two more groups: Monocotyledons and

Dicotyledons Non- flowering plants can divide into three more group: Mosses,Fern and Conifers Flowering plants a) Monocotyledons ~Produce seeds with one cotyledon ~Have fibrous root ~The stems are soft and not woody ~The leaves have parallel veins ~Flower parts in threes b)Dicotyledons ~Produce seeds with two cotyledons ~Have a main root and a lot of branching roots (tap root) ~The stems are hard and woody ~The leaves have a network of veins ~Flower parts in fours or fives Non-flowering plants Mosses ~Simple plants with stems and small leaf. ~No roots. ~Live on land and shady places. ~Moss plants are green in colour ~Reproduces : spores grow with in capsules. Conifers ~Have roots, stems. ~Leaves : needle-like ~Do not produce flowers. ~They produce cones ~Reproduce by seeds produced in the cones. Ferns ~Have stems, leaves, roots. ~Line on land in moist and shady places ~Reproduce: spores growing in capsules attach on the back of leaves

The importance of biodiversity A source of food - animals and plants provide different kinds of nutrients A habitats for living things/ organisms A source of materials for construction, handicraft A source of medicine extract from various tree

A source of clean water forest and wetlands act as catchments area Air to breathe the exchange of O2 and CO2 during photosynthesis maintains the balance in the air Aesthetic values beautifies the natural environment A source of economic income ecotourism / recreation Others mangrove for coastal protection and wetlands for flood control

Importance of biodiversity to Man.

1. Raw materials.

Many plants and animals provide various goods of products to humans, many of which play important roles in human economies.
2. Food

Plant and animal diversity provides a variety of food for Man.

3. Medicines and herbs

Many plants are rich sources of traditional and modern medicines. These are used to treat and prevent diseases.
4. Genetic diversity

The wealth of gene pools increases diversity in future generations. Eg: for better crops.
5. Ecology

All species are supported by the interactions among other species, each providing an ecological value to another such as pollination, nutrient cycling and also the regulation of the atmosphere and climate. Plant and trees provide oxygen to the atmosphere; wetlands and forest provide clean water through filtration.