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Moisture Estimation in Transformer Insulation Peter Fong OMICRON electronics Corp. USA
Moisture Estimation in
Transformer Insulation
Peter Fong
OMICRON electronics Corp. USA
Content 1. The Effects of Water in Transformer 2. How Does Water Get In? 3.
Content
1. The Effects of Water in Transformer
2. How Does Water Get In?
3. How to measure moisture?
4. What can be Done about it?
© OMICRON
9 November 2009
Page 2
The Effects of Water in Transformer • Generates Bubbles • Triggers Partial Discharge Premature Failure
The Effects of Water in Transformer
• Generates Bubbles
• Triggers Partial Discharge
Premature Failure
of Good Transformers
• Lowers Breakdown Voltage o Oil
f
• Accelerates the Aging of Insulation
Shorten Life Expectancy
Of Transformer
© OMICRON
9 November 2009
Page 3
Effect 1: Bubbling 200 Effect: Kraft Paper New Oil TU Paper New Oil Bubbling inception
Effect 1: Bubbling
200
Effect:
Kraft Paper New Oil
TU
Paper New Oil
Bubbling inception
180
Aged Kraft Aged Oil
tem erature will
p
160
decrease with higher
moisture content
140
120
Risks:
• Inception of Partial Discharge
100
• Lower Dielectric Strength
• Short-Circuit of Windings
80
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
Moisture in paper [%]
© OMICRON
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Tem perature [°C]
Effect 2: Dielectric Strength Breakdown Voltage [kV] Effect: • PD Inception Voltage decreases with higher
Effect 2: Dielectric Strength
Breakdown Voltage [kV]
Effect:
• PD Inception Voltage
decreases with higher moisture
content
C =3 5%
,
w
• Dielectric strength of Oil
decreases
Temperature
Risks:
• Failure of Transformer
Insulation
© OMICRON
Page 5
Dry 1% 2% 3% 4% Effect 3: Aging 1000 Effect: High temperature and moisture content
Dry 1%
2%
3%
4%
Effect 3: Aging
1000
Effect:
High temperature and
moisture content will
dramatically lower the
mechanical strength of
paper insulation
100
10
1
0,1
Risks:
50
70
90
110
130
Lower the expected life of
Temperature / °C
transformer
Run transformer at lower rating
L. E. Lundgaard, “Aging of oil-impregnated paper in power transformers”,
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Jan. 2004
© OMICRON
Page 6
Life expe ctance / a
Paper Insulation • Paper insulation is made up of chains of ‘glucose rings’ • As
Paper Insulation
• Paper insulation is made up
of chains of ‘glucose rings’
• As the paper ages, these
rings breaks up and forms
water molecules
Network transformers
Generator stepup units
• Water also accelerates the
breaking up of these rings
New: ~ 1200 DP
End of Life: ~ 200 DP
Age / years
[Neumann, Micafil-Symposium,
Stuttgart, 2004]
-H
-H 2 O
O
+H
+H 2 O
O
2
2
Condensation
Condensation
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
© OMICRON
Page 7
The Aging Process • When a transformer is manufactured in the factory, the paper insulated
The Aging Process
• When a transformer is manufactured in the factory,
the paper insulated windings are subjected to
extended drying before they are oil impregnated
• At this stage, the transformer has a moisture content
of < 0.5% by weight in paper and 6ppm in oil
• As the transformer ages, the moisture content will
increase progressively
• In a severely deteriorated system, the moisture
content could reach > 4%
• Insulation aging is directly related to moisture content
© OMICRON
Page 8
Where Does Water Come From? © OMICRON Page 9
Where Does Water Come From?
© OMICRON
Page 9
I. Grundlagen: Feuchtigkeit in Öl-Papier Sources of Water • Normal aging of paper produces water
I. Grundlagen: Feuchtigkeit in Öl-Papier
Sources of Water
Normal aging of paper
produces water
Leaks could expose
insulation to atmospheric
moisture
Exposure to atmospheric
moisture during
maintenance
Failure to dry out the
insulation during
manufacturing
Water content in the paper/Pressboard:
New:
Increase of water
0,1-0,2% per year
Aged:
0.4 to 0.8 %
3 to 5 %
[Cigré WG12.18 Life Management of
Transformers, 1999]
Page: 10
November 09
Where is the Water? Most of the water is contained in the cellulose! ->>> More
Where is the Water?
Most of the water is contained in the cellulose!
->>> More important to measure the water
content in paper than oil
Mass of the oil:
M
ass o
f th
e so
lid i
nsu a on:
l
ti
100000 kg
13000 kg
Water content at 60 °C:
Water content at 60 °C:
40 ppm
4 %
Mass of the water, desolved in the
oil:
Mass of the water contained in the
paper:
4 k g
520 kg
© OMICRON
Page 11
How to Measure Water in Paper Insulation? © OMICRON Page 12
How to Measure Water in Paper
Insulation?
© OMICRON
Page 12
Moisture Estimation • There is no practical direct way of measuring moisture levels in transformer
Moisture Estimation
• There is no practical direct way of measuring
moisture levels in transformer insulation, therefore a
wet condition may go unnoticed for a long time
• This has led to indirect method of moisture estimation
© OMICRON
Page 13
Direct Method • Take paper sample from transformer and test for moisture content using KFT
Direct Method
• Take paper sample from transformer and test
for moisture content using KFT
– Limited use since possible only during repair or
tear-down
© OMICRON
Page 14
Indirect Methods • Measure properties of the insulation which can be related to moisture content
Indirect Methods
• Measure properties of the insulation which
can be related to moisture content
1. Moisture-in-Oil Measurements (Chemical
Method)
2. Moisture Saturation (Relative Humidity)
3. Dielectric Spectroscopy (Electrical Method)
© OMICRON
Page 15
Moisture-In-Oil Method • Karl Fischer Titration on oil sample • Use Equilibrium Curves to correlate
Moisture-In-Oil Method
• Karl Fischer Titration on oil sample
• Use Equilibrium Curves to correlate moisture in oil to
moisture content in paper
• Easy to Perform
• Need to wait for equilibrium (days ~ weeks)
• Uncertainty in Estimates
• Errors introduced during handling (oil samples)
• Not accurate for aged oil
• Tend to over-estimate
© OMICRON
Page 16
Equilibrium Curves © OMICRON Page 17
Equilibrium Curves
© OMICRON
Page 17
Round Robin Test at Oil Samples 340,5 ppm 60 180 Uni Stuttgart 54,8 B 160
Round Robin Test at Oil Samples
340,5 ppm
60
180
Uni Stuttgart
54,8
B
160
C
50
D
140
E
44,3
F
39,8
39,7
G
40
120
35,3
32,8
100
30
80
19 8
,
20
60
16,2
15,2
12,1
12,2
11,2
40
9,5
8,9
10
7,5
6,7
5 8
,
4,7
4,8
20
3,5
0
0
Sample A
Sample B
Sample C
US
B
C
D
E
F
G
Comparison of oil sample done at 7 different laboratories
December 2007
Moisture i n oil [ppm]
D eviation from
average [% ]
Moisture Saturation Method • Uses Sensor to measure moisture saturation level instead of ppm as
Moisture Saturation Method
• Uses Sensor to measure moisture saturation level
instead of ppm as in the lab
• Moisture probes inside the transformer measures
changes in capacitance of water molecules
• Moisture diffused into the probe and changes its
capacitance, from this the moisture saturation is
determined
• More accurate than oil sampling method since no
handling is involved
• Instrusive
• Requires Equilibrium
© OMICRON
Page 19
Equilibrium Diagrams Based on Water Saturation 6 5 4 3 21°C 2 40°C 60°C 1
Equilibrium Diagrams
Based on Water Saturation
6
5
4
3
21°C
2
40°C
60°C
1
80°C
0
0
10
20
30
40
Moisture relative to saturation [%]
Onsite and online application possible
M. Koch, “Advanced Online Moisture Measurements in Power Transformers”
CMD 2006
Moistu re in pape r [%]
Dielectric Spectroscopy • Electrical Method • Method of Choice due to: – Non-Destructive (< 200V)
Dielectric Spectroscopy
• Electrical Method
• Method of Choice due to:
– Non-Destructive (< 200V)
– Non-Instrusive
– High repeatability
– No need to wait for equilibrium
– No inaccuracies due to sampling / handling of oil
– Can be done as part of electrical tests on transformers
during a maintenance outage
• Drawbacks
– Time consuming (3-9 hours)
© OMICRON
Page 21
Dielectric Spectroscopy • Time Domain Method – Polarization Spectrum • Frequency Domain Method – Tangent
Dielectric Spectroscopy
• Time Domain Method
– Polarization Spectrum
• Frequency Domain Method
– Tangent Delta (Power Factor) vs. Frequency
• Both methods looks at the electrical response of the
dielectric and compares to laboratory data and
models
• Accuracy of the estimation depends on the accuracy
of the model (e.g. takes into consideration geometry
of insulation, conductivity of oil, etc.)
© OMICRON
Page 22
Frequency Domain Method • Tangent Delta (Power Factor) measurement over wide frequency range (0.1mHz to
Frequency Domain Method
• Tangent Delta (Power Factor) measurement over
wide frequency range (0.1mHz to 2kHz)
• Accurate models available for transformers
• Widely used, reliable method
• Automatic curve fitting and comparison to laboratory
curves
• Automatic estimation of water content and
assessment based on international standards
© OMICRON
Page 23
FDS Frequency Domain Spectrospy SufficientSufficient datadata areare gatheredgathered HumpHump Page: 24 November 09
FDS Frequency Domain Spectrospy
SufficientSufficient datadata areare gatheredgathered
HumpHump
Page: 24
November 09
Tan Delta vs. Water Content Page: 25 November 09
Tan Delta vs. Water Content
Page: 25
November 09
Curve fitting with model curves for estimating water content Page: 26 November 09
Curve fitting with model
curves for estimating
water content
Page: 26
November 09
Example (On-Site Drying) Before Drying (5.4% w.c.) After Drying (3.1% w.c.) © OMICRON Page 27
Example (On-Site Drying)
Before Drying
(5.4% w.c.)
After Drying
(3.1% w.c.)
© OMICRON
Page 27
FDS Disadvantages • Takes too long for one measurement – 1 to 3 hours for
FDS Disadvantages
• Takes too long for one measurement
– 1 to 3 hours for aged/wet transformers
– 3 to 9 hours for new/dry transformers
Page: 28
November 09
FDS Instrument Page: 29 November 09
FDS Instrument
Page: 29
November 09
Time Domain Method • Polarization-Depolarization Current (PDC) • Step DC voltage is applied to a
Time Domain Method
• Polarization-Depolarization Current (PDC)
• Step DC voltage is applied to a fully discharged
transformer
• Polarizing current (pA) is measured until stable
• Short circuit the voltage and measure the
depolarizing current until stable
• Compare the curve against laboratory models
© OMICRON
Page 30
PDC Test Method Polarization-Depolarization-Current Principle Current Page: 31 November 09
PDC Test Method
Polarization-Depolarization-Current
Principle
Current
Page: 31
November 09
PDC in Cellulose Dependency on the Water Content Page: 32 November 09
PDC in Cellulose Dependency on
the Water Content
Page: 32
November 09
PDC Disadvantages • Very small current is measured (prone to power system interference) • Applied
PDC Disadvantages
• Very small current is measured (prone to
power system interference)
• Applied voltage must be pure DC, free of any
ripple
• Does not contain any information at higher
frequencies
Page: 33
November 09
PDC Instrument Page: 34 November 09
PDC Instrument
Page: 34
November 09
Combined PDC+FDS Method • Measure in Frequency Domain from 2kHz down to a 0.1Hz •
Combined PDC+FDS Method
• Measure in Frequency Domain from 2kHz
down to a 0.1Hz
• Measure in Time Domain from 0.1Hz down to
0.1mHz
• Transform Time Domain Data to Frequency
Domain Curve
• Perform comparison in Frequency Domain
• Advantage: Significantly reduces testing time
© OMICRON
Page 35
PDC up to 0.1Hz and FDS above 0.1Hz Switch-over Frequency FDS PDC Page: 36 November
PDC up to 0.1Hz and FDS above 0.1Hz
Switch-over
Frequency
FDS
PDC
Page: 36
November 09
Combined FDS and PDC FDS ⇒ 9 h measuring time PDC ⇒ measurement only up
Combined FDS and PDC
FDS ⇒ 9 h measuring time
PDC ⇒ measurement only up to 0.1 Hz
0.1 - 2000 Hz
0.1 mHz – 0.1 Hz
FDS+PDC ⇒ 0.1 mHz - 2000 Hz
in less than 3h measuring time
© OMICRON
Page 37
What Can Be Done? • Oven Drying • Hot Oil Spray • On-line Oil Drying
What Can Be Done?
• Oven Drying
• Hot Oil Spray
• On-line Oil Drying (not very useful since
most of water is in paper)
© OMICRON
Page 38
Oven Drying IV. Trocknung Application • Manufacture of new transformers • Refurbishment of aged units
Oven Drying
IV. Trocknung
Application
• Manufacture of new
transformers
• Refurbishment of aged
units
Evaluation
• Very effective
• Expensive disassembly
and transport to
workshop
December 2007
Onsite-Drying IV. Trocknung Low Frequency Heating Vapour Phase / Hot Oil Spray • Drying using
Onsite-Drying
IV. Trocknung
Low Frequency Heating
Vapour Phase / Hot Oil Spray
• Drying using LF heating
• Removal / storage of oil
• Removal / storage of oil
• Sprayer required
• Effective drying
• Transformer has to be switched off
• Insulation may be damaged
Online-Drying IV. Trocknung Application as • Molecular sieves • Oil drying plant • Oil regeneration
Online-Drying
IV. Trocknung
Application as
• Molecular sieves
• Oil drying plant
• Oil regeneration „fuller's earth“
Properties
• Fast recovery of oil insulation
strength
OTP online
• Long drying time for solid
insulation (months – years)
Summary • Moisture in Paper Insulation can reduce the in-service life of a transformer significantly
Summary
• Moisture in Paper Insulation can reduce the
in-service life of a transformer significantly
• Practical and reliable methods are available
for moisture estimation
• Keeping the transformer dry can extend the
life of your most expensive assets
© OMICRON
Page 42
Thank you for your attention! © OMICRON 9 November 2009 Page 43
Thank you for your attention!
© OMICRON
9 November 2009
Page 43