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MARKETING RESEARCH ON

Young consumers preferences and behavior in fruit drink consumption and purchase
Prepared for: Ms. Ngo Phuong Dung Ms. Le Thi Ngoc Tu Vfresh, Vinamilk Company Prepared by: Dao Mai Huong ID: 15998702 Nguyen Thi Ngoc Minh ID: 15998808 Ha Vu Thu Trang ID: 15998903 BBUS10 - Latrobe University

Hanoi, October 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section title.............. Page
List of illustrations...... Executive summary..... I. Introduction............................. 1. Background.................................. 1.1. Current market review. 1.2. Internal review. 2. Problem statement. II. Research objectives.. .... III. Research method 1. Research design......... 2. Data types and resources........... 3. Data collection method.......... 4. Questionnaire design......... 5. Sample plan and sample size......... IV. Findings... 1. Factors affecting fruit drink consumption..... 1.1. Reasons for fruit drink consumption... 1.2. Influence of age and gender on fruit drink consumption.... 2. Critical attributes affecting young customers purchasing decision. .... 2.1. Fruit drinks attributes affecting purchasing decision. 2.2. Other factors affecting fruit juice purchasing decision 2.2.1. Factor 1: person who makes purchase... 2.2.2. Factor: Age and gender influencing on fruit drink purchase. 3. Distribution channel preferences... iv vi 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 9 10 12 12 13 13 15 18

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3.1. Preferred distribution channels 3.2. Factors affecting choice of channel. 3.3. Relationship between preferred channels and factors affecting choice of channels.. 4. Fruit drinks brand awareness. 5. Vfresh fruit juices perceived performance... 6. Reasons for not purchasing Vfresh fruit juice ...... 6.1. Reasons for not purchasing Vfresh............. 6.2. Frequencies of consumption influencing on Vfresh non-purchasing decision V. Limitations. VI. Conclusion References... Appendix A..... Appendix B..... Appendix C.....

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List of illustrations
Page Table 1: Average important levels of reasons for fruit drink consumption. Table 2: Independent t-test for reasons of fruit drink consumption. Figure 1: Age group and gender of respondents Table 3: Chi-square test for relationship between age group and fruit drink consumption behavior.... Table 4: Chi-square test for relationship between gender and fruit drink consumption behavior. Table 5: Average important level of different factors affecting fruit drink purchase Table 6: P-value and critical value for the independent t-test of attributes affecting fruit drink purchase. . Figure 2: Person who makes purchase for respondents consumption Table 7: Compare purchasing decision between people who purchase fruit drink themselves and those whose family makes purchase . Table 8: Chi-square test for relationship between age group and fruit drink purchase behaviour. . Table 9: Chi-square test for relationship between gender and fruit drink purchase behaviour.. Table 10: Cross-tab for gender versus nutritional value Figure 3: Preferred distribution channel. Table 11: The average important level of different factors affecting choice of channels. Table 12: Chi-square test for relationship between preferred channel and factors affecting choice of distribution channel..
Figure 4: Fruit drinks brand awareness comparison. Table 13: The average current perceived performance of Vfresh fruit juice Table 14: One sample t-test for perceived performance of Vfresh fruit juice... Table 15: The average opinions of non-purchasers of Vfresh products.. Table 16: One sample t-test for reasons of non-purchasers of Vfresh products.. Table 17: One sample t-test for rarely or sometimes fruit juice consumers. Table 18: One sample t-test for rarely or sometimes fruit juice consumers

9 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 22 23 24 24

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This research is created to explore young consumer (aged from 18 to 30 years old) preferences and behaviour in fruit drink consumption and purchase. The research is first conducted using exploratory research to examine the current situation in the market and

internal conditions of Vfresh, finally, get to know the background of the research. Descriptive research then is conducted using mall survey and online survey in the form of questionnaire. The frame of the survey is Hanoi area, specifically in popular supermarkets and malls of Hanoi. For online survey, the targeted respondents are young people, mostly students over social network and online websites. The survey is conducted using convenience sampling with the sample size of 108 respondents. After the data collection is completed, the data is entered into SPSS and analysed. There are some major findings are found. It is found that young consumers are health-conscious as they mainly consume fruit drink because it is good for their health. Other reasons such as: feeling thirsty, fruit drinks taste, ability of refreshing and social occasions have little influence on the consumers preference for fruit drink consumption. These reasons are indifferent between different age group and gender. With the purchase decision, fruit drink purchasers are not affected by advertisements and promotion tactics and they are indifferent with price, convenience and fruit drink brand when they make decision. Interestingly, young consumers buy fruit juice mostly based on its nutritional values. Moreover, it is found that women pay more attention to fruit drinks nutritional values than men. The third major finding is people are likely to buy fruit drink at retail stores which they are familiar with. Other factors such as price or good services are also important. Fruit drink brands in general and Vfresh in particular are not aware much by young consumers. It provides the fact that marketing activities for this product is not paid attention. However, it creates opportunity for Vfresh to approach customers mind before its competitors, once it saw the need for positioning. For Vfresh users, fruit juice of Vfresh is not perceived as good as it should be. The improvement should be made to enhance the quality of Vfresh fruit juice in customers mind. For Vfresh non-users, main reasons for them not to buy Vfresh fruit juice are that they prefer other types of drinks and they prefer home-made fruit juice. Notably, people who consume fruit drink everyday prefer other types of fruit drinks and other drinks rather than Vfresh.

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I. Introduction:
1. Background:
Vfresh is first introduced in 1999 as fruit juice brand of Vinamilk. Until now, Vfresh product line is included fruit juice, Soya milk, smoothie and RTD (ready to drink) teas. Current target customers of Vfresh fruit juice are women above 25 years old, who are married, health-conscious and always seek for the natural-flavored and convenient products. Because people especially young women are busy with their life and have no time to make drinks at home for their families, Vfresh is therefore successful in satisfying customers need for healthy and delicious fruit drinks. The different-size paper packs are suitable and user-friendly for household consumption. There are also different flavours for customers to choose: orange, mango, peach, tomato and apple. According to TNS Vietnam (2009), Vfresh fruit juice is ranked the 3rd in the top ten fastest growing brands with 12 percent increase in market share in the first half of 2009. 1.1. Current market review: In 2009, soft drinks markets around the world faltered during the uncertain economic times, the Vietnamese soft drinks market still recorded a healthy growth of 16% (Canadean Ltd., 2010). The global trend towards health-consciousness still continues to provide an opportunity for drinks manufacturers to diversify into perceived healthier options (BMI, 2010). This market is becoming very dynamic and competitive with increasing drinks options such as: RTD tea and RTD coffee, wide range of fruit juices, smoothie, etc. It can be seen that Vietnamese consumers, particularly the young and affluent, are proved to be key driver of beverage industry growth. As being estimated, youth population in Vietnam accounts for 25 percent of the total population (BMI, 2010). They are interested in brands, and, accordingly, renowned Western products backed by investment in marketing and promotions tend to have highly successful launches (BMI, 2010). Overall, the youthful consumer age profile and the tropical climate may facilitate many years of future growth for the non-carbonated drinks in general and fruit juice sector in particular (Canadean Ltd., 2010). Moreover, per capita consumption of soft drinks in Vietnam is still low, at around 19 litres per annum compared with 37 litres in the Philippines and 78 litres globally.

Hence, there is potential growth in beverage consumption of Vietnamese consumers and there may be customer segments that were not reached (Canadean Ltd., 2010). 1.2. Internal review: To keep up with the dynamic and substantial development in the beverage industry, Vinamilk has built a new factory for beverage production in June 2010. As stated above, Vfresh fruit juice is experiencing a high growth in the current market with competitive advantage of high quality and acceptable price. However, the opportunity for growing is not ended. Along with current market review, it can be said that new exploration into potential segment of young customers could be very promising. Moreover, current target market of other Vfresh products (Vfresh smoothie and RTD teas) is also young customers aged from 18 to 30 years old. There has been considerable promotion campaign for such products mainly through sponsorship of big programs such as: dancing with the star (vtv3), sing it naturally (yeah!tv), crocodile tells the truth (Ngay ca sau noi that) (xonefm). This helps to create brand awareness and favourable image of Vfresh in young customers mind. Therefore, product modification for this target market is prospective to help Vfresh fruit juice to expand its market share.

2. Problem statement:
- Symptoms: high growth of non-carbonated drink industry in general and fruit drink industry in particular with the major contribution of young customers. Meanwhile, there is potential opportunity for substantial growth since per capita consumption of Vietnam is still very low compared to other countries. Moreover, the company internal resources are supportive for the new product development. - Problem statement: Research aims to identify young consumers preferences and behaviours in fruit drink consumption and purchase to create new fruit juice product for this target segment. - Decision alternatives: after getting to know the consumer insights, product modification will be made on such attributes such as: tastes, packaging, price, promotional efforts and distribution network to create product that suitable for the young customers.

II. Research objectives:


Target respondents: young customers aged from 18 to 30. For the purpose of exploring new segments, target respondents can be divided into users and non-users of Vfresh. Types of information-construct: Frequency of purchasing fruit juice/drink. Reasons for fruit drink consumption. Products features influencing purchasing decision. Preferred distribution channels. Distribution channels features influencing purchasing decision. Level of brand awareness. Level of satisfaction on Vfresh fruit juice. Reason for not purchasing Vfresh.

Unit of measurement: Ratio questions are measured using 5-point scale from 1= poor/very unimportant/strongly disagree to 5 = excellent/very important/strongly agree. For multiple choice questions, frequencies are used as unit of measurement.

Objectives: The important reasons that influence young customers to consume fruit drink. Critical attributes of a fruit juice drink that affect young customers purchasing decision. Whether there are any differences in purchasing decision between people who purchase soft drink themselves with those do not. Find out relationship between demographic characteristics (age, gender) and behavioural characteristic (fruit drink consumption per week) of targeted customers with fruit drink consumption and purchasing decision. Find out which distribution channels can reach young customers the most and what factors affecting the choice of channel.

The research attempt to determine:

Testing the brand awareness of targeted consumers about fruit drink in general and Vfresh in particular. Assessing the current perceived performance of Vfresh fruit juice by targeted customers. Reasons why targeted customers do not purchase fruit drink in general and Vfresh in particular, whether the consumption of fruit drink is influenced by product itself or by other factors.

III. Research method:


1. Research design:
Two different categories of research design are used including exploratory and descriptive design. 1.1 Exploratory design In this design, secondary data is collected through websites and reports of particular institutions such as TNS Vietnam and BMI (Business Monitor International) to get better understanding about the overview of Vietnam current soft drink market and verify the practical opportunities for Vfresh product development. Firstly, by analyzing the Food and Drink report of BMI, we can determine the future growth for the noncarbonated drinks in general and fruit drink sector in particular. Screening other report such as Canadean Ltd report on Vietnam soft drink and inspecting the success of other soft drink companies such as Tan Hiep Phat, Tribeco, Pepsi and Coca Cola, the potentiality of successfully targeting young consumer segment is realized. Then, though TNS report and review of internal marketing campaign with the strong brand value and current product growth, the opportunity to target new segment of young customers is identified. 1.2 Descriptive design Cross-sectional study or the sample survey, more specifically, is deployed to gather information about preferences and behaviours in consumption and purchasing of fruit drink of a sample population (groups of young people aged 18-30).

2. Data types and resources:


To save cost and obtain quickly the information as well as enhance existing primary data, and finally, may achieve objectives, secondary data are preferred. Published data of various entities and websites such as Vietnam Financial View and trade organization and syndicated services data provided by firm that collect data in a standardized format like TNS Vietnam and BMI.

3. Data collection method


The research objectives are testing 18 to 30 years old people about consumer fruit drink consumption and purchasing behaviour. Questionnaire designed to collect data in order to answer the problem in terms of a survey. Apart from the secondary data which were formed from the Internet and journals, the survey is aimed to get the primary data from 100 people aged from 18 to 30 years old in some districts of Hanoi. Basically, research is conducted with the use of two methods: mall survey and online survey. As fruit juice is a daily consumption product, the mall survey is used to easily get accessed to the targeted respondents. In addition, the company can quickly obtain information from respondents and increases the effectiveness of information gotten because it is a great advantage to interview respondents in the same settings in which they purchase the product, the mall and supermarket in this situation, and to have them see and hold the product instead of looking at an image on a computer screen. The mall survey is also beneficial because of face-to-face interaction so that the interviewer can guide the respondents in answering the survey. Moreover, it is an opportunity for researchers to test the effectiveness of mall as a distribution channel. On the other hand, online survey is able to compensate the disadvantages from the mall survey, which is costly and human bias, when the survey is delivered in exactly the same manner in all instances for all respondents. The greatest benefit of online survey is low cost with larger geographic boundary, as well as this type of collection mode brings the ease, flexibility and convenience to the respondent. An important thing is the large majority of young Vietnamese have internet access so that is easier for researchers to get

the access to a large number of respondents. The questionnaire is posted and spread over social network and on the online survey website

4. Questionnaire design:
In general, the questionnaire is for both the users and non-users of Vfresh fruit juice. It begins with the introduction and screening questions to warm-up. The flow will continue with medium-to-difficult questions to test the behaviour and preference in fruit juice in general and one question to classify the Vfresh customers in particular. The personal information request will be left at the end of the survey due to privacy issue. Qs 1 Types close-ended: multiple categories Objectives group Explanation single, students), 2530officers Clarify respondents age Under 20 (teenagers), 21-24 (usually (usually early marriage), 31 and above (not young adult) different attitudes and lifestyle with different beverage preferences, this age group 2 close-ended: dichotomous 3 close-ended: multiple category Specify respondents Frequency of consumption gender is skipped. of In order to identify any differences in preferences and attitudes between male and female. - Identify how much respondents consume marketers per can week adjust so that volume

packaging and forecast sales. Sort respondents into different groups 4 Close-ended: multiple categories Clarify customers purchase). the (who main make for the behaviour specification purpose. To identify who is the actual customers who make purchase This also helps in of to identify if they differences behaviour purchasing

people

purchase 5 Interval scale The important reasons that influence young customers to consume 6 Interval scale fruit drink. Critical attributes of a fruit juice drink that affect young customers 7 close-ended: multiple 8 categories Interval scale

by

themselves

with

those do not. Factors are chosen by analysing the common reasons of consumers for drinking fruit juice. Factors are various aspects of fruit juice products that can affect consumer purchase of fruit juice.

purchasing decision. Find out preferred Testing the effectiveness of retail channel customers. behaviour channel in of targeted channels - those are channels that consumers mostly buy drinks from. toward To identify any factors affecting the order to choice of channel.

Open-ended

modify distribution To test the brand Respondents recall names of 3 fruit awareness respondents. of targeted juice brands from their memories. This helps marketers to see if there are any brands that are already positioned in customers mind. the - The user category is used to test the current performance of Vfresh perceived by young customers. The non-user category is used to identify reasons why people do

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Close-ended: dichotomous

To

divide

respondents into users and non-users of Vfresh.

11a

Ratio scales

Assessing

the

not purchase Vfresh fruit drink. current To identify any weaknesses of current to make product

perceived performance of products

Vfresh fruit juice by modification in respect to various 11b Ratio scales targeted customers. attributes. Reasons why targeted Factors are common reasons why customers do not people do not purchase a drink. purchase fruit drink in 7

general and Vfresh in particular, Note: For question with the answer "others", consumers can list out other reasons for the questions asked. This is for the purpose to identify any factor that is not recognised by the researchers. The questionnaire is attached in Appendix A

5. Sample plan and sample size:


This researchs population is Vietnamese aged 18-30. The population is too large and complex, thus, it is harsh and costly to select all of them and make survey. Because list of fruit drinks consumers cannot be obtained, therefore, non-probability sampling method is employed, in which, the chances (probability) of selecting members from the population into the sample are unknown. In this method, convenience sampling which is drawn at the convenience of the interviewer is used. Sample frame error occurs in the form that the survey skips some members of the population who are infrequent or nonusers of the selected surveys locations. Other error may result from the way that the interviewers select respondents from the sample frame. In this situation, the sample size is unrelated to the accuracy (Burns & Bush, 2010). Hence, using the cost-benefit consideration, we attempt to select around 100 individuals as an appropriate way to take survey because of limited time and budget. The sample can represent the whole population, which helps Vfresh identify Viet Nam young peoples fruit juice preferences and behaviors. Accordingly, university campuses, schools, offices where concentrates a lot of young people aged 18-30, are considered the most convenient areas to the marketers of Vfresh products. Furthermore, purposive sampling is also deployed to narrow the size of sample. The sample is recognized by basing on personal judgments which is stated the respondents must be from the group of aged 18-30 Vietnam young people. Therefore, people are above 30, immediately are ignored in this survey. In conclusion, convenience sampling is used to conduct the survey.

IV, Findings:
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1. Factors affecting fruit drink consumption: 1.1. Reasons for fruit drink consumption: The first concern of the marketing research is about determining what attributes that effects respondents fruit juice consumption most. Frequency testing shows that majority of respondents answer five attributes below important level (modes equal 4). However, means of these reasons are calculated around neutral (coded as 3) and important (coded as 4). Notably, it is appeared that people consume fruit drink mostly because it is good for their health. Consumption affected by N Valid feeling thirsty occasions health 105 103 105 106 106 Mean 3.72 3.72 3.36 3.77 3.95 Mode 4 4 4 4 4 Table 1: Average important levels of reasons for fruit drink consumption refreshment social taste Good for

One-Sample t-test: Testing whether reasons for fruit drink consumption: feeling thirsty, taste, ability of refreshment, for social occasions usage or because it is good for consumers health are perceived to be important. Ho: = 3; HA: > 3 And: Ho: = 4; HA: > 4 Testing with the null hypothesis of = 3 shows that all t-value is greater than critical value (tc), however, the test with null hypothesis of = 4 shows that all t-value is smaller than critical value (tc) except for the goodness for health reason. It indicates that four reasons which are feeling thirsty, fruit drinks taste, ability of refreshing and social occasions have little influence on the consumers preference for fruit drink consumption ( 3 < <4) (See table 2 below). Meanwhile, when comparing of goodness for health tests with 4 (Ho: = 4; HA:

4), it is shown that p-value is greater than alpha (0.581>0.05); therefore, at 5% of


significance, there is enough statistical evidence to conclude that the goodness for health is important reason for young consumers to consume fruit drinks. Consumption affected by t Test Value = 3 tc Sig. (2t Test Value = 4 tc Sig. (2-

tailed) feeling thirsty taste refreshment 8.510 10.157 8.513 1.66146 1.6619 1.66125 .000 .000 .000 -36.277 -3.247 -2.973 1.66146 1.6619 1.66125

tailed) .000 .002 .004 .001 .581

goodness for health 11.185 1.6619 .000 -3.336 1.6619 social occasion 3.393 1.66125 .001 -.554 1.66146 Table 2: Independent t-test for reasons of fruit drink consumption 1.2. Influence of age and gender on fruit drink consumption:

There are 60 females (55.6%) and 48 males (44.4%) are questioned in the survey with most of respondents are 21-24 years old (65.7%), the rest is divided approximately the same amount from 18-20 (19.4%) and 25-30 (14.8%).

age group of respondents


25-30 14.8 18-20 19.4

Gender of respondents

18-20 21-24 25-30


44.44 Male 55.56 Female

21-24 65.7

Figure 1: age group and gender of respondents To indicate whether there is any relationship between age or gender of respondents and their fruit drink consumption, Chi-square test was conduct Ho: Fruit drink consumption is independent with age HA: Fruit drink consumption is dependent with age And: Ho: Fruit drink consumption is independent with gender HA: Fruit drink consumption is dependent with gender Age-group vs Consumption 10

Consumption is determined by age group *feeling thirsty age group * taste age group * refreshment age group * goodness for health age group * social occasions behaviour

Chi-square 11.794 4.348 5.118 6.729 5.593

df 8 6 6 6 8

Sig. (2-sided) .161 .630 .529 .347 .693

Table 3: Chi-square test for relationship between age group and fruit drink consumption

Gender vs Consumption Consumption is determined by Gender * feeling thirsty Gender * its taste Gender * refreshment Gender * goodness for health Chi-square 7.558 .553 2.423 1.309 df 4 3 3 3 Sig. (2-sided) .109 .907 .489 .727

Gender * social occasions 7.710 4 .103 Table 4: Chi-square test for relationship between gender and fruit drink consumption behaviour As it can be seen from two tables that all the p-values above turned out to be more than alpha ( = 0,05), so that at 5% level of significance, there is not sufficient evidence to sum up that there is a relationship between young customers fruit drink consumption and their age or gender. 2. Critical attributes affecting young customers purchasing decision. 2.1. Fruit drinks attributes affecting purchasing decision: In this case, respondents gave a variety of response with means range from 2.99 to 3.91. It could be seen that taste (mean = 3.91), brand (mean = 3.6), price (mean = 3.54) are 11

appeared to be important in purchasing decision. Especially, nutritional values (mean = 3.83) also play an important role in consumers decision for fruit drink purchase. taste nutrition al values visual appeal of price convenien ads brand promotion

ce tactics packaging N 107 107 106 106 107 107 106 106 Mean 3.91 3.83 3.15 3.54 3.48 3.02 3.60 2.99 Mode 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 Table 5: Average important level of different factors affecting fruit drink purchase To get clearer comparison and decision, one sample t-test is conducted with null hypothesis mean is correspondingly equals 3 and 4. Purchase is determined by taste nutritional values price convenience advertisements brand Test Value = 3 tc 1.661 1.661 1.66125 1.661 1.661 1.66125 Test Value = 4 tc 1.661 1.661 1.66125 1.661 1.661 1.66125

t 4.997 4.081 .439 -.343 -5.233 1.296

Sig. .000 .000 .662 .732 .000 .198

Sig. .000 .253 .041 .000 .000 .000

-36.277 -1.149 -2.069 -11.061 -5.374 -7.679

promotional -5.634 1.66125 .000 -10.668 1.66125 .000 tactics Table 6: p-value and critical value for the independent t-test of attributes affecting fruit drink purchase. Testing with the null hypothesis (Ho: = 3 and HA: 3; Ho: = 4 and HA:

4) show that most p-values are less than alpha. Comparing with critical values (Ho: = 3 and HA: > 3; Ho: = 4 and HA: > 4) indicates that price, convenience and brand does not affect much fruit juice
purchase decision (3 < <4). Meanwhile, also testing the critical value, it can be seen that purchasers are not affected by advertisements and promotion tactics ( < 3) and they are indifferent

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with price, convenience and brand of fruit drink ( = 3). Only p-value of nutritional value when comparing with 4 is greater than alpha so that there is enough statistical evidence to say that young consumers buy fruit juice mostly based on its nutritional values. 2.2. Other factors affecting fruit juice purchasing decision: 2.2.1. Factor 1: person who makes purchase. Response show that majority of respondents purchased fruit juice themselves (54.6%), or from family (38.9%). Only few respondents answered that they had fruit juice or fruit drink from other sources. It is suitable for researchers to test differences in purchasing decision between people who purchase fruit drink themselves with those who get it from family. This is because as the new product launched, young consumers will be the main customers who actually make purchase by themselves. Therefore, we need to understand what they perceive as important to decision making.

person w m ho akes purchase for respondents' consum ption

60

50

Percent

40

30
54.6

20

38.9

10
6.5

0 m yself fam ily others

person w m ho akes purchase for respondents' consum ption

Figure 2: Person who makes purchase for respondents' consumption However, when comparing means with independent variable t-tests, p-values are less than alpha ( = 0,05), hence, there is not enough statistical evidence to conclude 13

that there exist differences in purchasing decision between people who purchase fruit drink themselves with those do not, at 5% level of significance.

Independent Sample T-test t Tc Sig. (2-tailed) taste -.263 1.6627 .793 nutritional values -.973 1.6627 .333 visual appeal of packaging .881 1.663 .380 price .600 1.663 .550 convenience .096 1.6627 .924 advertisements -.631 1.6627 .530 brand .990 1.663 .325 promotional tactics -.999 1.663 .320 Table 7: Compare purchasing decision between people who purchase fruit drink purchase is determined by themselves and those whose family makes purchase 2.2.2. Factor: Age and gender influencing on fruit drink purchase Age-group vs. Purchase purchase is determined by age group * taste age group * nutritional values age group * visual appeal of packaging age group * its price age group * convenience age group * advertisements age group * brand Chi-square 11.105 7.118 4.213 10.439 3.880 6.219 11.345 df 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 Sig. (2-sided) .196 .310 .837 .236 .868 .623 .183

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age group * promotional tactics

4.716

.787

Table 8: Chi-square test for relationship between age group and fruit drink purchase behaviour. Gender vs. Purchase purchase is determined by Gender * taste Gender * nutritional values Gender * packaging Gender * price Gender * convenience Gender * advertisements Gender * brand Gender * promotional tactics Chi-square 6.424 9.375 3.337 4.651 1.932 1.161 4.553 2.827 df 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Sig. (2-sided) .170 .025 .503 .325 .748 .885 .336 .587

Table 9: Chi-square test for relationship between gender and fruit drink purchase behaviour Chi-square test: Ho: Fruit drink consumption is independent with age HA: Fruit drink consumption is dependent with age And: Ho: Fruit drink consumption is independent with gender HA: Fruit drink consumption is dependent with gender As it can be seen from two tables that all the p-values above turned out to be more than alpha ( = 0.05) except for gender and nutritional values. Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is not sufficient evidence to sum up that there is a relationship between young customers fruit drink consumption and their age or gender except for gender and nutritional values.

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When considering the relationship between gender and attributes affecting their purchase of fruit drink, p-value of nutritional values is smaller than alpha, so researchers can conclude that there is relationship between gender of customers and fruit drinks nutritional values when customers decide to buy the product, at 5% level of significance.
Gender * degree to which respondents' fruit drink purchase is determined by its nutritional values Crosstabulation how fruit drink purchase is determined by its nutritional values neither important nor Unimportant unimportant Important Very important 2 20 15 10 4.3% 42.6% 31.9% 21.3% 33.3% 4 6.7% 66.7% 6 5.6% 100.0% 66.7% 10 16.7% 33.3% 30 28.0% 100.0% 31.9% 32 53.3% 68.1% 47 43.9% 100.0% 41.7% 14 23.3% 58.3% 24 22.4% 100.0%

Gender

Male

Female

Total

Count % within Gender % within fruit drink purchase is determined by its nutritional values Count % within Gender % within fruit drink purchase is determined by its nutritional values Count % within Gender % within fruit drink purchase is determined by its nutritional values

Total 47 100.0% 43.9% 60 100.0% 56.1% 107 100.0% 100.0%

Table 10: Cross-tab for gender vs nutritional value From the cross-tab we can see that female consider nutritional value a more important factor than male. Therefore, female or women can be a more potential targeted customers than men, as predicted.

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3. Distribution channel preferences: 3.1. Preferred distribution channels:

Figure 3: Preferred distribution channels

As can be seen from the chart, retail stores are preferred most by young customers as they want to purchase fruit juice drinks, which accounts for 45.79% of total respondents answers. And along with retail stores are supermarket, restaurant and other distribution channel with 37.38%, 13.08% and 3.74% of asked customers opinions respectively. Thus, to deliver products to young customers more efficiently and effectively, Vfresh should broaden the distribution channel of retail stores and provide the highest quality products to customers. 3.2. Factors affecting choice of channel: shop display Mean 3.55 3.59 3.80 3.60 3.21 Median 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 Mode 4 4 4 4 3 Table 11: The average important level of different factors affecting choice of channels location/nearness shop loyalty shop service price instore and outdoor

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From the table above, it is found that shop service, price and shop loyalty are the three most important factors affecting the choice of channel. To find out relationship between preferred channel of distribution and factor affect choice of distribution channel, Chi-square test is used. 3.3. Relationship between preferred channels and factors affecting choice of channels To find out relationship between preferred channel of distribution and factor affect choice of distribution channel, Chi-square test is used. factor affect choice of distribution channel preferred channel * location/nearness preferred channel * Shop loyalty preferred channel * Shop service preferred channel * Price preferred channel * outdoor display 12.504 36.528 6.174 8.083 6.651 12 12 12 12 9 .406 .000 .907 .779 .673 Chi-square df Sig. (2-sided)

Table 12: Chi-square test for relationship between preferred channel and factors affecting choice of distribution channel Since p-value of Chi-square tests between preferred channel of distribution and respectively location, shop service, price and outdoor display are greater than alpha (0.05), hence there is no association between the select of channels and those attributes. Meanwhile, p-value of Chi-square test between shop loyalty is much smaller than alpha so that there two variables are very dependent on each other. This might be an indicator that people buy fruit drink at the shop that they are more familiar with rather than other reasons such as location, price, services or display.

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4. Fruit drinks brand awareness:


50 40 31.5% 30 20 10 0 Percent
Does not aware of any brand

44.4%

Aware of Vfresh

24.1%
Aware of other fruit drinks

Figure 4: Fruit drinks brand awareness comparison

In the total of 108 people asked about the first three fruit juice/drinks brands they think of, 44% say that they know or aware about Vfresh fruit juice products and a quarter of them (24.1%) do not know about Vfresh but aware of other fruit drink brands such as: Twister, Splash, Wonder farm or Number1 Juice. One important finding is that the number of people who even can not remember any brand name of fruit juice drinks accounts for 34% of total respondents. Therefore, the opportunity for Vfresh to penetrate and position itself in those young customers minds is very attractive and potential. 5. Vfresh fruit juices perceived performance: 1 = Poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = good; Mean 3.16 2.86 3.00 3.24 4 = very good; Median 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 5 = excellent Mode 3 3 3 4

Attributes Taste Price Package design Convenience

Table 13: the average current perceived performance of Vfresh fruit juice

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From the table 13, it is appeared that on average, all the listed features are rated good. However, to test the actual performance, one sample t-test is used to identify whether on average, targeted people feel good (score: 3) about each of the listed Vfresh fruit juice features.

Attributes Taste Price Package design Convenience

T 1.233 -1.000 .000 1.550

df 36 36 35 36

Sig. (2-tailed) .225 .324 1.000 .130

Table 14: One sample t-test for perceived performance of Vfresh fruit juice With the hypotheses: H0: = 3 and HA: 3, we can see that all p-values are

greater than alpha ( = 0.05), therefore, at 5% level of significance, it cannot conclude that people feel good about Vfresh products attributes. Hypotheses: H0: = 3 and Critical value: T 36,0.05 = 1.69 +, Ttaste = 1.233 < T 36,0.05 = 1.69 +, Tprice = -1.000 < T 36,0.05 = 1.69 +, Tdesign = 0.000 < T 36,0.05 = 1.69 +, Tcovenience = 1.550 < T 36,0.05 = 1.69 In conclusion, H0 is not rejected, therefore, at 5% level of significance, it cannot be concluded that people in the population feel good about the quality of listed features of Vfresh products: taste, price, package design and convenience, especially by its price (lowest t-value). 6. Reasons for not purchasing Vfresh fruit juice: 6.1. Reasons for not purchasing Vfresh: 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 4 = agree 3 = neither disagree nor agree 5 = strongly agree HA: > 3

Reasons 20

Mean

Median

Mode

Do not know about Vfresh Vfresh does not taste good It is not good for health It is expensive Prefer other drinks Prefer home-made fruit juice

2.70 2.63 2.53 3.24 2.86 3.60

2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00

2 3 3 3 4 4

Table 15: The average opinions of non-purchasers of Vfresh products

From the table above, it is noted that people do not purchase Vfresh fruit juice mainly because they like home-made fruit juice (mean = 3.6) and/or the price is expensive (mean =3.24). Using one sample t-test to test the importance of the listed reasons for which people do not purchase or consume Vfresh. Reasons Do not know about Vfresh Vfresh does not taste good It is not good for health It is expensive Prefer other drinks Prefer homeTest Value = 3 tc 1.667 1.671 1.667 1.667 1.667 Test Value = 4 t tc -10.174 -16.952 -18.051 -13.204 -1.894 1.667 1.671 1.667 1.667 1.667

Sig. .022 .000 .000 .118 .000

Sig. .000 .000 .000 .000 .062

-2.339 -4.571 -5.769 -1.585 9.986

4.855 1.667 .000 -3.197 1.667 .002 made fruit juice Table 16: One sample t-test for reasons of non-purchasers of Vfresh products H0: = 3 and HA: < 3 Critical values: T0.05, 64 = 1.671 T0.05, 65 = 1.667

21

For the reasons: they do not know about product, it taste bad or it is not good for their health, H0 is rejected because the t-values are smaller than its critical values (tc). Therefore, at %% level of significance, it can be concluded that people are likely to disagree (score 2) that they do not purchase or consume Vfresh because of the following reasons: they do not know about product, it taste bad or it is not good for their health. +, T expensive = -1.585 >-T0.05, 65 = -1.667 +, Tother drinks = 9.986 > -T0.05, 65 = -1.667 +, T home-made fruit juice = 4.855 > -T0.05, 65 = -1.667 H0 is not rejected, so the people are likely to agree (score 3) that they do not purchase or consume Vfresh products because they prefer other drinks and/or home-made products rather than packaged fruit juice and because the price is expensive. Continue with the test of H0: = 4 and HA: 4, we can see that all the p-values are smaller than alpha (0.05) except for prefer other drinks. It means that people do not purchase or consume Vfresh mostly because they like other kinds of drinks. 6.2. Frequencies of consumption influencing on Vfresh non-purchasing decision: Testing people who consume fruit drink less than 3 times a week versus people who usually consume drink on the reason why they dont consume fruit drink. Notation: 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = neither disagree nor agree 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree Assumption that: we believe people who rarely consume fruit drink because they like home-made fruit drink/other fruit drink. Using one sample t-test to test people who consume fruit drinks less than 3 times a week:

Hypothesis: H0: = 3

and

HA: > 3

22

t Other drinkss preferences Home-made fruit juices preferences 9.104 4.580

df 61 59

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000

Table 17: One sample t-test for rarely or sometimes fruit juice consumers

Critical value: T0.05,61 = 1.671 +, Tother drinks = 9.104 > T0.05, 61 = 1.671 +, Thome-made fruit juice = 4.580 > T0.05, 61 = 1.671 Reject H0, and make conclusion that at 5% level of significance, customers who do not usually consume fruit drinks, they do not want to purchase Vfresh products because they prefer other fruit drinks and home-made fruit drinks. Test people who usually consume fruit drink: Hypothesis: H0: M = 3 and HA: M > 3 t Oher drinkss preferences Home-made fruit juices preferences Critical value: +, T0.05, 6 = 1.943 Tother drinks = 4.382 > T0.05, 6 Reject H0 +, T0.05, 7 = 1.895 Thome-made fruit juice = 1.528 < T0.05, 7 Do not reject H0 At 5% level of significance, it can be concluded that people who usually consume fruit drinks, they do not want to purchase or consume Vfresh products because they prefer other drinks but not for home-made drinks preference. 4.382 1.528 df 6 7 Sig. (2-tailed) .005 .170

Table 18: One sample t-test for rarely or sometimes fruit juice consumers

V, Limitations:

23

The first limitation of this research must be mentioned is its small sample size due to limited budget. In this research, only 108 people are taken into sample survey and test, therefore, it is hard for this sample to correctly represent for whole population which is all Vietnamese young people aged 18 to 30. Moreover, convenience sample is selected to be as sampling method because of its cheap cost, convenience and ease to do but some limitations are existed such as sample frame error. Sample frame error, which occurs in the form that the survey skips some members of the population who are frequent or non-users of the selected surveys locations. Other error may result from the way that the interviewers are biased in selecting respondents from the sample frame. This error occurs mostly with the mall survey. For example, they may choose more women than men to make survey at the mall. Other fieldworkers errors may occur are misunderstanding between interviewers and respondents or interviewers lead the respondents to do the survey. For the online survey, this fieldworker error may be eliminated, however, this method lack of control as respondents are surveyed online. It may lead to non-sampling error of respondent such as: misunderstanding, guessing, attention loss or distractions. Other error created by the convenience sampling is that the tests used are assumed to satisfy all the conditions required such as: the random sampling method and/or normality are assumed. In fact this condition is not satisfied as the research used the nonprobability sampling, more specifically the convenience sample.

VI. Conclusion:
After analyzing the data collected, some important findings can be summarized: Firstly, it is noted that young consumers are health-conscious as they mainly consume fruit drink because it is good for their health. This is consistent with the current trend in beverage consumption. Other reasons such as: feeling thirsty, fruit drinks taste, ability of refreshing and social occasions have little influence on the consumers preference for fruit drink consumption. These reasons are indifferent between different age group and gender. Secondly, it may be surprised that unlike other types of beverage, fruit drink purchasers are not affected by advertisements and promotion tactics and they are 24

indifferent with price, convenience and fruit drink brand when they make decision. Interestingly, young consumers buy fruit juice mostly based on its nutritional values. This becomes more realistic when more than half of respondents usually make purchase themselves. Moreover, it is found that women pay more attention to fruit drinks nutritional values than men. It is suggested that women are the main target market for fruit drink consumption. The third major finding is people are likely to buy fruit drink at retail stores at which they are familiar with. In other words, they likely to buy at trusted retail stores where they usually come to buy things rather than because the stores nearness, price or its good services. Although Vfresh has been in the market for years, it is not known much by young customers. However, it is the same situation for the whole market. It is suggested that fruit drink is not marketed efficiently and effectively. However, it creates opportunity for Vfresh to be superior to competitors in customers mind, once it saw the need for positioning. For Vfresh users, fruit juice of Vfresh is not perceived as good as it should be. The improvement should be made to enhance the quality of Vfresh fruit juice in customers mind. For Vfresh non-users, main reasons for them not to buy Vfresh fruit juice are that they prefer other types of drinks and they prefer home-made fruit juice. Notably, people who consume fruit drink everyday prefer other types of fruit drinks and other drinks rather than Vfresh.

25

REFERENCES
1. Canadean Ltd, 2010, Vietnamese soft drinks industry remains hot as economy cools, Marketwire, [online]. Available at: http://www.marketwire.com/press release/VietnamSoft_Drinks_Industry_Remains_Hot_as_Economy_Cools-1291295.html (accessed 1st September, 2010). 2. TNS Vietnam, 2009, Vietnam consumer report 2009, Hanoi, Vietnam, [online]. Available at: www.anchamvietnam.com (accessed 1st September, 2010).

3. BMI, 2010, Vietnam food and Drink report Q2 2010, [online]. Available at: http://www.vietnameconomics.com/vn/bao-cao/kinh-te/nam-2010/QuyI/Vietnam-Business-Forecast-Report-Q2-2010.qspx (accessed 1st September, 2010).

APPENDIX A
viii

We are Minh, Trang and Huong, students from La Trobe University doing a research for our group assignment on Marketing research subject. We are acting as marketers of Vfresh, a brand of Vinamilk conducting research on consumer preference and behaviour in consumption and purchasing of fruit juice for the purpose of exploring young consumer segment (age: 18 to 30). This survey will take you only a few minutes to complete. All personal information will be kept confidential for the matter of privacy. We hope to receive your support!

QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Please indicate your age:


a. 18-20 b. 21-24 c. 25-30 d. 31 and above

2. Please indicate your gender:


a. Male a. Rarely b. 1-3 times a week b. Female c. 4-6 times a week d. everyday 3. How often do you consume fruit drink?

4. Who usually makes fruit drinks purchase for you?


a. Family b. Yourself one column per row) Reasons Feeling Thirsty It tastes very good It is refreshing It is good for my health For social occasions (party, meeting) Others..................................... ................................... Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither disagree nor agree Agree Strongly Agree c. Your office d. Others................

5. To what extent the following reasons influence your consumption of fruit drinks? (Tick

6. How important are the following factors for purchasing fruit drink? (Tick one column
per row)

ix

Factors

Very Unimportant

Unimportant

Neutral

Important

Very Important

Taste Nutritional Value Visual appeal of packaging Price Convenience Advertisements Brand Promotional Discounts/incenti ves Other 7. Which is your most preferred place for purchasing fruit drink? (Tick one column per row) a. Retail store c. Restaurant (Tick one column per row) Factors Location/Nearness Shop loyalty Services Price Outdoor & instore display Others ............................ ............... Very Unimportant Unimportant Neutral Important Very Important b. Supermarket/hypermarket d. Others (Please specify)__________________

8. To what extent these characteristics important for you to choose where to buy drink?

9. Name any three brands of fruit juice/drink in your mind at this moment:
1.________________ 2.______________ 3.________________

10. Have you purchased or consumed Vfresh juice in the last 30 days?

a. Yes (go to question 11a)

b. No (go to question 11b)

11a. What is your opinion about Vfresh fruit juice? (Tick one column per row) Features Poor Fair Good Very good Excellent Taste Price Package design Convenience 11b. What are the reasons that make you not to buy and/or consume VFresh fruit juice? (Tick one column per row) Reasons I dont know the products It does not taste good It is not good for my health. It is expensive I consume other drinks I like homemade fruit juice/drink Others .. 12. Personal details: Name: Phone: Email address: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Agree Strongly Agree

- Thank you for your support -

APPENDIX B

SURVEY SUMMARY
1 Please indicate your age: a. 18-20 b. 21-24 c. 25-30 Age a b c 18-20 21-24 25-30 Total Frequency 21 71 16 108 Percent 19.4 65.7 14.8 100.0

xi

2. Please indicate your gender: a. Male b. Female

Gender a b Male female Total

Frequency 48 60 108

Percent 44.4 55.6 100.0

3. How often do you consume fruit drink? a. Rarely b. 1-3 times a week c. 4-6 times a week d. everyday

Purchase frequency a b c d Rarely 1-3 times per week 4-6 times per week every day Total No answer Total

Frequency 47 40 12 8 107 1 108

Percent 43.5 37.0 11.1 7.4 99.1 .9 100.0

4. Whom do you get fruit drink mainly from (who makes the purchase)? a. Myself b. Family c. Your office d. Others a b c d myself family your office others Total Frequency 59 42 0 7 108 Percent 54.6 38.9 0 6.5 100.0

5. To what extent the following reasons influence your consumption of fruit drinks?
Frequency Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither disagree agree nor Agree Strongly Agree No answer

Feeling Thirsty It tastes very good It is refreshing It is good for my health

2 0 0 0

11 12 10 7

13 11 26 22

67 72 50 46

12 11 17 31

3 2 5 2

xii

For social occasions 8 (party, meeting)

16

21

50

10

6. How important are the following factors for purchasing a fruit drink? Frequency Very Very No Unimportant Neutral Important Unimportant Important answer 4 1 16 66 20 1 0 6 30 47 24 1 1 1 1 5 1 5 19 7 5 27 9 25 53 50 48 41 32 48 29 30 48 29 53 22 4 18 5 5 11 6 2 2 1 1 2 2

Taste Nutritional Value Visual appeal of packaging Price Convenience Advertisements Brand Promotional Discounts/incentives

7. Which is your most preferred distribution channel for purchasing fruit drink? a. Retail store b. Supermarket/hypermarket c. Restaurant d. Others Frequency a Retail store 49 b Supermarket 40 c Restaurant 14 d Others 4 Total 107 No answer 1 Total 108 Percent 45.4 37.0 13.0 3.7 99.1 .9 100.0

8. To what extent these characteristics important for you to choose where to buy drink? Frequency Very Unimportant Neutral Important Unimportant
Location/Nearness Shop loyalty Services Price Outdoor & in-store display 3 1 1 1 0 13 7 3 6 15 28 40 26 38 55 50 47 63 50 33

Very Important
14 13 14 11 2

No answer
0 0 1 2 3

xiii

9. Name any three brands of fruit juice/drink in your mind at this moment: fruit drink brand awareness 1 2 0 Total 10. Have 30 days? a. Yes (go to question 11a) b. No (go to question 11b) you Frequency 48 26 74 Percent 44.4 24.1 68.5 31.5 100.0

aware of Vfresh aware of other fruit drinks Total No answer (does not remember any particular 34 brand) 108 purchased or a b

consumed Vfresh juice in the last

Frequency Yes 37 No 71 Total 108

Percent 34.3 65.7 100.0

11a. What is your opinion about Vfresh fruit juice? Features Taste Price Package design Convenience Frequency Poor 0 0 0 0 Fair 7 14 12 10 Good 19 15 13 11 Very good 9 7 10 13 Excellent 2 1 1 3 No answer 0 0 1 0

11b. what are the reasons that make you not to buy and/or consume VFresh fruit juice? Frequency Reasons Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither disagree agree nor Agree Strongly Agree No answer

xiv

I dont know the products It does not taste good It is not good for my health. It is expensive

6 3 4 1

30 21 25 28 6 13

10 38 35 36 5 15

20 3 2 11 52 26

1 0 0 0 6 14

4 6 5 5 2 3

I consume other 0 drinks I like homemade 0 fruit juice/drink

APPENDIX C

Contact details of respondents


No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Tran Thi Phuong Dang Thuy Nguyen Phuong Phan Lan Nguyen Ngoc Thao Duong Anh Anh Diep Phone no. 0947100357 0934572333 0936362666 0983124690 01698364017 xv Email address white_lie1907@yahoo.com gnoud_lovess@yahoo.com bu_pooh@yahoo.com anhpl90@yahoo.com huongngoclan_15790@yahoo.com

6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9

Le Minh Nguyen Thu Le Hong Dao Thanh Le Anh

Huyen Huong Nhung Tu Thu

01663682136

minhhuyen216@gmail.com thuhuong_1402@yahoo.com.vn

0942227189

nhungle1989@gmail.com X6_732@gmail.com anhthu.le89@gmail.com

Le Thi Kim

Oanh

0989659510

oanh.acelife@gmail.com

Nguyen Mai

Huong

amynguyen.ltu@gmail.com

Dang Phuong

Trang

bino.pd@gmail.com

Dao Thuy

Linh

linh.green@gmail.com

Vu Phuong

Diep

0989871086

phuongdiep86@gmail.com

Hoang Duy

Bach

hoangduybach@gmail.com

Luong Minh

Hoang

0977039873

mhoang.luong@gmail.com

Nguyen Thanh

Trung

trungnt83@gmail.com

Hoang Trung

Hung

01683808868

hoang_trung_hung1990@gmail.com

xvi

2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 30 3 1 3 2 3 3

Nguyen Thi Kim

Dung

01663682153

Luu Cong

Loi

01679332253

Do Thi

Hang

0986907977

Tran Anh

Son

Albert88us@yahoo.com

Nguyen Viet

Hong

0936522846

danielthompson.daniel@gmail.com

Nguyen Thu

Trang

0906264768

namnho88@gmail.com

Ngo Ngoc

Thang

0976064948

Ngo Thi

Phuong

0988393704

Nguyen Thu

Trang

0986381830

Tran Ngoc

Mai

0906293290

battu1vn@yahoo.com

Nguyen Tien Vu Tien

Tung Thanh

01656064898 0977957544

nguyentientung89@gmail.com tienthanhdhcn@gmail.com

Nguyen Dao

Thai

thaind241188@gmail.com

Phan Nguyen

Cuong

01656064866

cuongpn.89@gmail.com

xvii

3 4 3 5 3 6

Nguyen Thi

Dung

0973878841

dungk53cd@gmail.com

Vu Minh

Tu

0902242586

vuminhtu86@gmail.com

Son Lai Thanh thanhson100109@gmail.com Ngoc Le 1669093711 Quy Phan phanquy150688@gmail.com trang Trinh Thi Trangbkid@yahoo.com Man Nguyen Thi 0983730692 Thuy Vu Thi Thanh 0988262308 Nhung Nguyen Hong 01273846300 Ngoc Nguyen Dieu dieungoc90@yahoo.com Ngoan Trinh Thi 0973474507 Oanh Phm Tu 0435250555 Nham Nguyen Th 0435250555 Van 0984.225.933 xviii hebi0089@yahoo.com pvtuoanh@yahoo.com longtieutieu89@yahoo.com athanhtung@gmail.com mizukinhcan@yahoo.com blackrose_k52@yahoo.com lazycat_nocry@yahoo.com

3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 Nguyen Khanh

4 8 Nguyen Thi Thanh 4 9 Le Duy 5 0 Vu Minh 5 1 Lai Thanh 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 Ho Binh

Nga 0936195877 Bac 0435250555 Thoa 090 4544 171 Son thanhson100109@gmail.com Duong romano_handsome1208@yahoo.com minhthoa1210@yahoo.com nga_ntt@bidv.com.vn

Nguyen Minh

Ke

vietgoldstar@yahoo.com

Tong Nam

Long

0936535627

Le Van

Binh

binh_6687@yahoo.com

Nguyen Viet

Hong

loveu_byallmyheart2404@yahoo.com maimaikodoithay_88@yahoo.com

Tran Minh

Vuong

Nguyen Duc

Tung

0982461136

Nguyen Huy

Binh

binhnh-bba06@mba.edu.vn

Hoang Hai

Thuy

hhtleo@yahoo.com

xix

6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 7

Nguyen Hoang

Nam

0913352202

Do Viet

Dung

0906556888

Bui Duc

Linh

duclinh.ftu@gmail.com

Nguyen Ngoc

Hai

nnh51188@yahoo.com

Duong Quoc

Tuan

qtuanduong@gmail.com

Nguyen Nam

Thang

0903536886

Nguyen Van

Hong

nguyenhong.ig@gmail.com

Duong Thanh

Kien

01668542236

Lai The

Hoa

01236767911

Do Tuan

Nam

Vu Hoang

Lam

llc2001@yahoo.com

Vu Xuan

Huong

binbeo4289@yahoo.com

Nguyen Minh

Hai

hainm139@gmail.com

Pham Ngoc Hien

Huong xx

talavua_90@yahoo.com

7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 8 0 8 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7

Nguyen Thi Thu

Thuy

thuyntt1989@gmail.com

Nguyen Kieu

Van

only_love8891402@yahoo.com

Thai Van

Nhu

maitrinh92@gmail.com

Nguyen Mai

Khanh

virgo_jollygirl@yahoo.com

Tran Thi Thuong

Hien

0912072391

tranthuonghien@mof.gov.vn

Dang Thi

Giang

01234608387

danggiang1989@gmail.com

Dinh Manh

Dat

01689589019

dinhbean@gmail.com

Ha Hoc

Khiem

0934548983

khiem_france_nw@yahoo.com

Le Phuong

Mai

0977124589

phuongmai.918@gmail.com

Ngo Thi Bao

Ngan

0984344887

baonganngo@gmail.com

Nguyen Ba

Vinh

01685749792

uchiha0311@gmail.com

Nguyen Huu

Huy

01656073351

nguyenhuuhuy1288@yahoo.com.vn

Pham Anh

Ngoc

0904 57 17 58

phamanhngoc89@gmail.com

xxi

8 8 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 9 6 9 7

Pham Quang

Dung

0936799399

phamquangdung1011@yahoo.com.vn

Chu Thanh

Son

0973 559 862

danariely1502@gmail.com

Nguyen Hai

Yen

0977 466 896

anihye_89@yahoo.com

Nguyen Lan

Ngoc

0902105589

ngocnl.tbc@gmail.com

Kim Ngoc

Long

01674543289

tenten@yahoo.com

Tran Thu

Trang

snowflake_299@yahoo.com

Tran Thuy

Linh

01282488934

conchutgidenho_linh89@yahoo.com

Tran Thi

Trang

0986 21 8338

orange_dream265@yahoo.com

Pham Thanh

Tung

0904628404

tungpt154@gmail.com

Dang Hong

Van

0978343433

vandh00979@gmail.com

xxii