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Title: The Latest Development in Computer Networks and Communications Name: Loo Soo Yong IC Number: 940326-07-5417 Group

Members: Loo Soo Yong Lee Yanzong Chew Tsu Sen Lai Jia Hui Assignment: LA3.S07.1

1.0 Introduction
The purpose of computer communications network is to allow moving information from one point to another inside the network. The information could be stored on a device, such as a personal computer in the network; it could be generated live outside the network, such as speech, or could be generated by a process on another piece of information, such as automatic sales transactions at the end of a business day. The device does not necessarily have to be a computer; it could be a hard disk, a camera or even a printer on the network. Due to a large variety of information to be moved, and due to the fact that each type of information has its own conditions for intelligibility, the computer network has evolved into a highly complex system. Specialized knowledge from many areas of science or engineering to be entirely responsible for the design of all the components. Therefore, a study of computer networks branches into many areas as we go up from fundamentals to the advanced levels.

2.0 Mobile Computing 2.1 Definition

Mobile computing can be defined as the usage of a computing device while in transit. Mobile computing implies wireless transmission, but wireless transmission does not necessarily imply mobile computing. Fixed wireless applications use satellites, radio systems or wireless radios to transmit between permanent objects such as buildings and towers. Although mobile computing usually involves wireless applications, however, traditional wired communications devices such as Ethernet, dialup or ISDN networks sometimes categorized as mobile computing, too. The rise of cellular networks has become a trend for mobile computing as cellular networks has become more reliable and faster. For instance, cellular networks allow users to access without the use of cables, as well as eliminating the limitations such as limited range of WiFI networks. This allows users to perform mobile computing, regardless of time and place.

2.2 Specifications, services and frequency of mobile computing.

Device: Mobile Phone Model: Samsung Galaxy S II


GSM 850/900/1800/1900 MHz HSDPA 850/900/1900/2100 MHz

Size Weight Display Type

125.3 x 66.1 x 8.5 mm 116g Super AMOLED plus capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors, multitouch capable

Display resolution Alert Tones Speakerphone

800x480 Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones Yes -3.5mm audio jack

Call records Internal Card Slot GPRS

Practically unlimited 16GB/32GB storage, 1 GB RAM microSD, up to 32GB, 8 GB included Class 12 (4+1/3+2/2+3/1+4 slots), 32 - 48 kbps


Class 12 HSDPA, 21 Mbps; HSUPA, 5.76 Mbps Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n, DLNA, Wi-Fi Direct, Wi-Fi hotspot

Bluetooth USB Primary Camera

Yes, v3.0+HS Yes, v2.0 microUSB (MHL), USB On-the-go 8 MP, 3264x2448 pixels, autofocus, LED

flash Camera Features Geo-tagging, touch focus, face and smile detection, image stabilization Video Secondary Camera OS CPU Yes, 1080p@30fps Yes, 2 MP Android OS, v2.3 (Gingerbread) Dual-core 1.2GHz ARM Cortex-A9 proccessor, Mali-400MP GPU, Exynos chipset Messaging SMS(threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Mail, IM, RSS Browser Radio Additonal features HTML Stereo FM radio with RDS - Active noise cancellation with dedicated mic - NFC support (optional) - TV-out (via MHL A/V link) - SNS integration - Digital compass - MP4/DivX/XviD/WMV/H.264/H.263 player - MP3/WAV/eAAC+/AC3/FLAC player - Organizer - Image/video editor - Document editor (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF) - Google Search, Maps, Gmail, YouTube, Calendar, Google Talk, Picasa integration - Adobe Flash 10.1 support - Voice memo/dial/commands - Predictive text input (Swype) Battery Standby Time Talk time Standard battery, Li-Ion 1650 mAh Up to 710 h (2G) / Up to 610 h (3G) Up to 18 h 20 min (2G) / Up to 8 h 40 min 3G

3.0 Internet Technology and Services 3.1 VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP, Voice over IP) is a general term for a family of methodologies, communication protocols , and transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks , such as the Internet. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone. Internet telephony refers to communications services-voice, facsimile, and/or voice messaging applications-that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end. VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. Codec use in varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity audio codecs.

A residential network with VoIP

3.2 Blog
A blog (a blend of the term web log) is a type of website or part of a website. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Most blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (art blog), photographs (photoblog), videos (video blogging), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring very short posts. As of 16 February 2011 (2011 -02-16), there were over 156 million public blogs in existence.

4.0 Types of Network 4.1 PAN

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an individual's body. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with wireless network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, Wireless USB, Z-Wave and ZigBee.

4.2 VPN
A virtual private network (VPN) is a secure way of connecting to a private Local Area Network at a remote location, using the Internet or any unsecure public network to transport the network data packets privately, using encryption. The VPN uses authentication to deny access to unauthorized users, and encryption to prevent unauthorized users from reading the private network packets. The VPN can be used to send any kind of network traffic securely, including voice, video or data. VPNs are frequently used by remote workers or companies with remote offices to share private data and network resources. VPNs may also allow users to bypass regional internet restrictions such as firewalls, and web filtering, by "tunneling" the network connection to a different region. Technically, the VPN protocol encapsulates network data transfers using a secure cryptographic method between two or more networked devices which are not on the same private network, to keep the data private as it passes through the connecting nodes of a local or wide area network. The advantages of a well-designed VPN are:y y

Extend geographic connectivity Improves security

y y y y y y y y

Reduce operational costs versus traditional WAN Reduce transit time and transportation costs for remote users Improve productivity Simplify network topology Provide global network opportunities Provide telecommuter support Provide broadband networking compatibility Provide faster ROI (return on investment) than traditional WAN.

4.3 WLAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Most modern WLANs are based on the 802.11 (WiFi) standards. A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here's what happens: 1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. 2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter. The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s.

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunications protocol that provides fixed and mobile Internet access. The current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 Mbit/s with the IEEE 802.16m update expected to offer up to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". WiMAX has the potential to do to broadband Internet access what cell phones have done to phone access. In the same way that many people have given up their "land lines" in favor of cell phones, WiMAX could replace cable and DSL services, providing universal Internet access just about anywhere a user goes. WiMAX will also be as painless as WiFi -turning a computer on will automatically connects the user to the closest available WiMAX antenna. Compared to WiFI, WiMAX has a range up to 50km radius, compared to a range of 30m of typical WiFI networks. Under optimal conditions, WiMAX can deliver speeds up to 70Mbit/s, even though it is shared among hundreds or even thousands of users. This allows broadband services to be provided, even in rural or remote areas.

5.0 Conclusion
As a conclusion, computer networks have indeed revolutionized the way we communicate, work and play. However, computer networks should not be misused and developed in a continuous matter so that people can maximize their computing experience.

References http://computer.howstuffworks.com/wimax1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile _computing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual _private_network http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WIMAX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_Area_Network http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_LAN http://www.gsmarena.com/samsung_i9100_galaxy_s_ii-3621.php