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Blowdown Protocol for Pipeline Systems

April 2011 Final

Table of Contents
1. Protocol Scope and Description ..................................................................1 1.1. Protocol Overview ............................................................................................ 1 1.2. Project Description ........................................................................................... 1 1.3. Protocol Applicability ........................................................................................ 3 1.3.1. Additionality ................................................................................................ 6 1.4. Protocol Flexibility ............................................................................................ 7 1.5. Glossary of Terms ............................................................................................. 9 Quantification Development and Justification .......................................... 11 2.1. Identification of the SSRs in the Project Condition ........................................ 11 2.2. Identification of the Baseline.......................................................................... 17 2.3. Identification of SSRs in the Baseline Condition............................................. 18 2.4. Selection of Relevant Project and Baseline SSRs ............................................ 23 2.5. Quantification of Reductions, Removals, and Reversals of Relevant SSRs .... 27 2.5.1. Quantification Approaches ....................................................................... 27 2.5.2. Quantification Procedures ........................................................................ 28 2.6. Uncertainty ..................................................................................................... 45 2.1. Conservativeness ............................................................................................ 46 2.2. Leakage ........................................................................................................... 46 Data Management ................................................................................... 47 3.1. Record Keeping ............................................................................................... 47 3.2. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) .................................................. 48

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List of Tables
Table 1.1: Eligibility Criteria Under the BC EOR .................................................................. 4 Table 2.1: Project SSRs ...................................................................................................... 13 Table 2.2: Baseline Selection and Justification ................................................................. 17 Table 2.3: Baseline SSRs .................................................................................................... 20 Table 2.4: Comparison of SSRs.......................................................................................... 24 Table 2.5: Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O ............................................. 28 Table 2.6: Data Monitoring/Parameter Determination Primary Procedures................ 34 Table 2.7: Data Monitoring - Contingency Procedures .................................................... 42 Table 2.8: Uncertainty Assessment .................................................................................. 45

List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Process Flow Diagram for Project Condition .................................................. 12 Figure 2.2: Process Flow Diagram for Baseline Condition ................................................ 19

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1. Protocol Scope and Description


1.1. Protocol Overview
This protocol is being developed by Blue Source Canada ULC in conjunction with stakeholders from the natural gas industry. Various good practice guidance documents and methodologies were reviewed, as per ISO 14064-2 requirements. This protocol is based on elements from the following documents: Estimation of Air Emissions from the Canadian Natural Gas Transmission, Storage and Distribution System, Clearstone Engineering Ltd, 2007. Draft Federal Guide for Protocol Developers, Environment Canada, August 2008 ISO 14064-2: Specification with guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring, and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions reductions or removal enhancements The GHG Protocol for Project Accounting, World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Pacific Carbon Trust Guidance Document, Version 1.0, Pacific Carbon Trust Tool for the Demonstration and Assessment of Additionality, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, August 2008

1.2. Project Description


Blowdown is a type of planned or unplanned venting which releases pressurized natural gas, containing mostly methane, from pipelines or facilities by venting it to the atmosphere. Blowdowns occur during normal maintenance procedures or emergency shutdowns. The opportunity for generating carbon offsets with this protocol arises from the direct reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, resulting from the implementation of systems that prevent, recapture, reduce, or redirect vented emissions from the Primary Pressurized Gas System. Several methods, listed below, exist to achieve this aim. Project activities will reduce methane emissions. 1) Flaring: Project proponents may combust gas via flare that would have otherwise been vented to the atmosphere. Combustion converts methane to carbon dioxide, a less intensive GHG. Typically, a mobile flare is transported to site by truck and connected to the Primary Pressurized Gas System, although it is possible that a permanent flare be used. Gas is combusted until the pressure in the system is reduced so much that a flare can no longer be sustained. The remainder of the gas is then vented to the atmosphere. Usually the flare will not require supplemental fuel for a pilot or to support combustion.

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2) Compression: Proponents may utilize a pump down or transfer compressor to evacuate Blowdown from the Primary Pressurized Gas System into a Secondary Pressurized Gas System (e.g. the adjoining transmission line), safety permitting. Depending on the location, the compressor may be powered by electricity generated on-site or imported from the grid, or by a fossil fuel powered engine. The remainder of the gas in the Primary Pressurized Gas System is flared and/or vented. The compressor, generator, and/or engine may be brought to the site by truck, or may already be present on-site. 3) Pressure Reduction: The mass of vented gas can be reduced by lowering the pressure in the Primary Pressurized Gas System without the direct use of compression. This can be accomplished in several ways. For example, the Primary Pressurized Gas System can be isolated such that consumer demand or downstream compressors are allowed to draw down pressure into a Secondary Pressurized Gas System over time. Alternatively, the pressure can be released by running piping to a distribution system (which has lower pressure than a transmission system) or used as a fuel supply for a compressor powered by natural gas. For this application, appropriate piping and fabrication supplies must be transported to the site. 4) Volume Reduction: Stopple valves, or similar valves, can be added to the piping of the Primary Pressurized Gas System so that its volume is reduced. The valves must be welded while the system is pressurized. However, the pressure of the system usually must be reduced for safety purposes. Valves and welding supplies must be transported to the site. 5) Blowdown Avoidance: The following procedures are examples of how Blowdown events may be avoided; this list should not be considered exhaustive. Project proponents may have alternative methods of avoiding Blowdown events. Procedural optimization to avoid Blowdowns can play a major role in minimizing the number of events required when pipelines are shut down for repairs, maintenance or new connections. These projects may include the expanded and effective use of maintenance planning tools to evaluate and combine multiple repair projects into a single Blowdown, when feasible, and the application of Blowdown decision models designed to determine when Blowdowns are necessary and evaluate the lowest emission option. Blowdowns may also be avoided by hot tapping, a technical procedure in which a new connection is made to an on-stream or hot section of pipeline in order to avoid the shutdown and Blowdown event that would be required

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with standard tapping techniques. The pressure in the section of pipeline usually needs to be reduced for safety purposes.

These process changes will herein be referred to as (1) Flaring, (2) Compression, (3) Pressure Reduction, (4) Volume Reduction, and (5) Blowdown Avoidance. Collectively, these will be referred to as Blowdown Reduction. Proponents may choose to implement one or more of these project activities. An important consideration for Blowdown Reduction projects is the effects these activities have on upstream and downstream compression. In order to prepare for a Blowdown event, companies will alter the normal operating procedures of their upstream and downstream compressors to ensure that pressure is maintained for downstream users. During Blowdown, a transmission line or facility with only one pipeline will stop the flow of natural gas for a period of time. Stored gas in the pipeline downstream of the Blowdown can meet demand temporarily; however, the pressure of natural gas will continuously decrease downstream of the Blowdown System. In a transmission line or facility with more than one pipeline, natural gas can be transported during the Blowdown event in the pipelines that are not offline. However, the reduced number of working pipelines results in a higher flow rate of gas through each pipeline. More compression is required to maintain this higher flow rate. After Blowdown, compressors must make up for any imbalances in the transmission system to return the system to normal operating conditions. The volume of fuel consumed for upstream and downstream compression in the project may or may not be equivalent to the baseline, depending on project configurations. In addition, natural gas redirected to a Secondary Pressurized Gas System may impact any upstream and downstream compressors that are independent of the Primary System. The volume of fuel consumed for these secondary upstream and downstream compressors in the project may or may not be equivalent to the baseline, depending on project configurations. Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 offer a process flow diagram for the project and baseline condition, respectively.

1.3.Protocol Applicability
To demonstrate that a project meets the requirements under this Protocol, the project proponent must supply sufficient evidence to demonstrate the following: 1. This protocol is applicable to Blowdown events from pipelines or facilities that are a part of a marketable natural gas transmission and distribution system.

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These lines have stable, predictable compositions of natural gas, allowing GHG emissions reductions to be quantified with a high degree of certainty. 2. Blowdown Reduction activities must not be required by regulation. Project proponents should review the Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Reduction Guideline for British Columbia, which came into force December 31st, 2009, to confirm project eligibility and ensure that there are no requirements to implement the Blowdown Reduction Activity. For pipelines that are regulated by the National Energy Board (NEB), additional NEB regulations should be consulted. Section 6: Pipeline Flaring, Incinerating and Venting of the Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Reduction Guideline for British Columbia has been appended to this Protocol and can be found in Appendix E. However, It is the responsibility of the project proponent to consult the most current version of the document to ensure that project activity is unregulated.1 3. The Secondary Pressurized Gas System does not exist solely to relive gas from the Primary System and must have a functional purpose for the redirected gas. Examples could include the sale of gas or the use of the gas to power a compressor (thus displacing saleable gas). The Secondary Pressurized Gas System must not lead directly to flare or vent. 4. For a project to be eligible to generate offset credits under the British Columbia Emissions Offset Regulation (BC EOR) from the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act, the following four requirements and criteria presented in Table 1.1 must be met. a. The project start date is after November 29th, 2007. b. The emission reductions are reflected in British Columbias Provincial Greenhouse Gas Inventory (i.e. the project is located in British Columbia). c. The Proponent has clear title to the emission reduction, or it is reasonable that clear attributes can be established. d. The emission reductions are not attributed to electricity (energy efficiency or electricity generation in areas integrated into the B.C. Hydro centralized grid).

Table 1.1: Eligibility Criteria Under the BC EOR Eligibility Criteria Description Criteria
1

Provision in the Emission Offsets

Available at http://www.ogc.gov.bc.ca/documents/guidelines/Flaring%20Incinerating%20%20Venting %20Reduction%20Guideline%20for%20BC%20-%20Feb-6-08.pdf

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Within scope

Real

Quantifiable

Additional

Verifiable

Counted once

Clear ownership

Regulation A project reduction (i.e. reduction of GHG Section 3(2)(o) & emissions or enhancement of GHG removals) Definition of CO2e must occur from sources, sinks or reservoirs and must be reflected in BCs Greenhouse Gas inventory. Only a reduction of one or more of the six main types of GHGs are eligible and they must be quantified according to their carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) global warming potential (GWP). The project must result in a quantified and Section 3(2)(e) & Section independently verified emission reduction which 3(2)(h) results from a specific action or decision. The project must be conducted in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Regulation. The Proponent must describe how emissions or Section 3(2)(n) &Section removals are to be estimated or measured and 3(2)(p) the formulae to be used in estimating the annual project reduction. The GHG reduction achieved through a project Section 3(2)(j) & activity must be incremental to that which would Definition of project have occurred in the absence of the project reduction activity. There are financial, technological or other Section 3(2)(k) obstacles to carrying out the project.2 The project start date is no earlier than Section 3(2)(l) November 29, 2007. Project Plans must be validated and Project Sections 3(1), 5(1) and Reports must be verified by separate third party 8(a) assurance providers, pursuant to the qualifications set out under the Regulation A GHG reduction can only be recognized as an Section 8(c) emission offset if it has never been employed as an offset or been used in any other GHG reduction program. The Proponent must provide an assertion that, Section 3(2)(q) and8(b) with respect to the reduction to be achieved by carrying out the project, it has a superior claim of ownership to the reduction. As appropriate, the assertion should be supported with evidence

See Section 5.2 below for further detail.

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1.3.1. Additionality Project proponents are responsible for completing a barrier analysis for each project to meet the additionality requirements under the BC EOR. These obstacles may be financial, technological, or of another nature. The following barriers may apply to projects within the scope of this Protocol, but should not be considered an exhaustive list. Project Proponents should consider these barriers as well as project-specific barriers in their final analysis. Project proponents should refer to PCTs Guidance to Determining Project Additionality.3 Financial barriers: Natural gas prices may not support project economics. The cost of the project (personnel, equipment transportation, etc.) may result in a rate of return that is below typical industry hurdle rates or payback periods. Insufficient resources may be available to allocate funds for Blowdown Reduction, as these projects have to compete for the same resources as projects that offer potentially higher rates of return (i.e. the construction of new gas processing or transmission equipment). The implementation of Blowdown Reduction projects may have a real or perceived increased risk of extended transmission line downtime, resulting in increased disruptions to supply and an unacceptable loss of revenues. Technological barriers: Operations personnel may be unfamiliar with Blowdown Reduction techniques and procedures, such as welding valves into a pressurized line. Project monitoring may require adaptation of common practice. The implementation of Blowdown Reduction projects may require downtime to transmission lines that are longer than usual. Upstream and downstream compressors must be adjusted so that the pressure of the system is ultimately undisrupted for end users. This may involve cooperation among transmission and distribution organizations. Other barriers: Cooperation among companies to manage pressure variance may be difficult to arrange. Limited access to pipelines may make equipment transportation challenging.

http://www.pacificcarbontrust.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=L5MmZq%2bzaZ8%3d&tabid=149&mid=69 9

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Organizational inertia or lack of interest may deter modification of the current proven and/or operator-friendly system. Field personnel may be unwilling to take responsibility for the new system.

These barriers, and any other project-specific barriers, should be considered when applying the barrier analysis. The following procedure has been adapted from the Clean Development Mechanism to perform the barrier analysis4: 1. Identify and define barriers that may prevent the implementation of the proposed project activity. These barriers may be: a. Financial, b. Technical, or c. Other (i.e. lack of common practice). 2. Establish at least one barrier which prevents the implementation of the proposed project activity from being carried out, had the project activity not been registered with the Pacific Carbon Trust. 3. If barriers also affect the baseline scenario, explain how it is affected less strongly than the proposed project activity.

1.4. Protocol Flexibility


Flexibility in applying the quantification protocol is provided to project developers in the following ways. If applicable, the proponent must indicate and justify why flexibility provisions have been used. 1. This protocol may be used for quantification of Blowdown Reduction in systems that are not a part of a marketable natural gas transmission and distribution system. However, a gas analysis must be used instead of default values for natural gas composition. This is imperative as gas compositions are highly variable at different stages of processing. In addition, Proponents should ensure that the gas deviation factor accurately reflects this composition. 2. Other pressurized systems may be considered under this protocol providing they are sufficiently similar to utilize the quantification method in Section 2.5.2 and the monitoring procedures in Table 2.6 or Table 2.7.

Guidelines for the barrier analysis are sourced from: Tool for the Demonstration and Assessment of Additionality, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, August 2008.

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3. In recognition of the diversity of project configurations, project proponents may use an alternate approach to quantify the volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas System, provided that the chosen method is shown to be more accurate than the method laid out in this protocol. 4. Project proponents may exclude irrelevant SSRs from quantification. For example, in a project where gas is pumped down from the Primary Pressurized Gas System and then vented, flaring may be excluded from quantification.

1.5. Assumptions
Several assumptions were made about the project configuration that affect the quantification of emission reductions. If the project deviates from these assumptions, project proponents must fully justify any changes made to the quantification methods laid out in the protocol. 1. There is always a remainder of natural gas in the Primary Pressurized Gas System which must be vented after Flaring, Compression, and/or Pressure Reduction has occurred. 2. Venting of natural gas results in a complete evacuation of the system. 3. Natural gas composition does not greatly vary over the course of a year, and is within the range of compositions presented in Appendix A. 4. Flared gas originates from a stream that is 20 MJ/m3 or greater in order to meet Oil and Gas Commission requirements. 5. Volumes and densities are corrected to at 15C and 101.3 kPa.

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1.6. Glossary of Terms


Affected An SSR whose behaviour or operation is influenced by the project activity through changes in market demand or supply for projects or services associated with the project. British Columbia Emissions Offset Regulation The venting of natural gas from a pressurized system due to maintenance or emergency procedures, such as taking a compressor offline for repair or emergency pressure release. Any process change which prevents, recaptures, reduces, or redirects vented emissions from a pressurized system containing gas. Carbon dioxide equivalent. A unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide.5 An SSR whose behaviour or operation is under the direction and influence of the project proponent through financial, policy, management or other instruments. A controlled SSR generally relates to an emission source at the project site. A method of Blowdown Reduction whereby gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System is evacuated into an adjacent piping or storage system via pump/pull down compression or transfer compression. A method of Blowdown Reduction that combusts gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System that would have otherwise been vented, via flare.

BC EOR Blowdown

Blowdown Reduction

CO2e

Controlled

Compression

Flaring

ISO 14064-2

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GHG Primary Pressurized Gas System

Greenhouse gas The system which contains the total volume of gas to be vented during Blowdown. This includes all associated equipment and piping. A method of Blowdown Reduction which reduces the pressure (and therefore the mass) of the gas to be vented during Blowdown from the Primary Pressurized Gas System. An SSR whose behaviour or operation is not under the reasonable control of the project developer, but is influenced by Controlled SSRs. Related SSRs may be onor off-site. The transmission system or facility that receives natural gas through Pressure Reduction from the Primary Pressurized Gas System. A GHG sink, source, or reservoir. A sink is a physical unit or process which removes GHGs from the atmosphere. A source is a physical unit or process that releases GHGs into the atmosphere. A reservoir is a physical unit or component of the biosphere, geosphere, or hydrosphere with the capability to accumulate or store GHGs removed from the atmosphere by a sink.6 A method of Blowdown Reduction where the volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas System is reduced, reducing the mass of gas to be vented during Blowdown.

Pressure Reduction

Related

Secondary Pressurized Gas System

SSR

Volume Reduction

ISO 14064-2

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2. Quantification Development and Justification


2.1. Identification of the SSRs in the Project Condition
The following procedure was used to identify SSRs that may be quantified, based on guidance from Annex A of ISO 14064-2 and chapter five of The GHG Protocol for Project Accounting. 1. Relevant processes/activities relevant to the project are arranged in a process flow diagram. The diagram shows the stage in the project that processes/activities occur (upstream or downstream of the project, before or after the project). 2. Inputs, outputs, and monitoring requirements of each of the SSRs are described. SSRs are classified as controlled, related or affected. If any SSR cannot be classified as controlled, related, or affected, its affect on the project is not relevant and is therefore excluded from consideration. 3. Process flow diagrams are reviewed to ensure all relevant SSRs are appropriately defined. Based on the process diagrams provided in Figure 2.1, the projects SSRs were described and categorized as controlled, related or affected are provided in Table 2.1.

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Figure 2.1: Process Flow Diagram for Project Condition


P19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment P20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment

Commission

P21 Site Commissioning

P8 Primary Upstream Compression

P1 Primary Pressurized System

P9 Primary Downstream Compression

P13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing

P2 Flaring

P3 Venting P17 Natural Gas End Use

P14 Grid Electricity

P4 Compression

Operation

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P7 Assembly / Disassembly of Equipment and Piping

P5 Volume Reduction

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P16 Transportation of Equipment and Piping to Site

P6 Pressure Reduction

P18 Equipment Transportation Off Site

P11 Secondary Upstream Compression

P10 Secondary Pressurized System

P12 Secondary Downstream Compression

Upstream

On-Site
Natural Gas

Downstream
Supplementary Fuel Equipment Modification

Decommission

P22 Site Decommissioning

P23 Re-use / Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Electricity Supplementary Natural Gas

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Table 2.1: Project SSRs


1. SSR 2. Description 3.Controlled, Related, or Affected

SSRs During Project Commissioning Permanent and temporary equipment, such as flares, valves, piping, and compressors, will need to be P19 Manufacturing of fabricated off-site. This includes all of the components of the compression systems, flaring systems, and Permanent and valves. These may be sourced as pre-made standard equipment or custom built to specification. Greenhouse Temporary Equipment gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment for the extraction of raw materials, processing, fabricating and assembly. P20 Raw Materials for Equipment such as compressors, flares, valves, and piping require raw materials for fabrication. The majority Temporary and of material is expected to be comprised of steel. Greenhouse gas emissions would be primarily attributed to Permanent Equipment the use of fossil fuels to extract, process, and transport raw materials. The site of the facility will need to be developed. This may include civil infrastructure such as water supply, sewer, clearing, grading, building access roads, etc. There will also need to be some building of structures for P21 Site the facility such as storage areas, offices, and structures to enclose, support and house the equipment. Commissioning Greenhouse gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment required to develop the site such as graders, backhoes, trenching machines, etc. Upstream SSRs During Project Operation When the Primary Pressurized Gas System is taken offline for Blowdown, the fuel consumption of the compressors upstream are impacted. To prepare for a Blowdown, compression may be altered. Important P8 Primary Upstream characteristics to be tracked are the time the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline, the compressor Compression loading, and the type of fuel consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all upstream compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. The Secondary Pressurized Gas System may have other upstream compressors independent of the Primary System (secondary compressors). The fuel consumption of secondary compressors may be impacted if P11 Secondary natural gas is diverted to the Secondary Pressurized Gas System. Important characteristics to be tracked are Upstream the time the Secondary Pressurized Gas System is receiving gas, the compressor loading, and the type of fuel Compression consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all upstream secondary compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. Natural gas used throughout the project will need to be sourced and processed. This SSR will allow for the P13 Natural Gas calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions from the various processes involved in the extraction, Extraction and production, refinement, and storage of fuel. The total volumes of fuel consumed for each of the SSRs are Processing aggregated under this SSR. Volumes and types of fuels are the important characteristics to be tracked.

Related

Related

Related

Related

Related

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1. SSR

2. Description

3.Controlled, Related, or Affected Related

Electricity may be required at the project site for compressor operation or welding and power tools used for temporary equipment installation. This power is sourced from the local electricity grid. Quantity and source of power are the important characteristics to be tracked as they directly relate to the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuels used throughout the project will need to sourced and processed. This SSR will allow for the P15 Fuel Extraction, calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions from the various processes involved in the extraction, Processing, and production, refinement, storage, and delivery of fuel. The total volumes of fuel consumed for each of the SSRs Delivery are aggregated under this SSR. Volumes and types of fuels are the important characteristics to be tracked. Equipment needs to be transported to the site by truck. This may include temporary flares and compressors, P16 Transportation of valves, and connective piping, as well as the welding and power tools required to install these devices. The Equipment and Piping total aggregated volumes and types of fuel consumed for transportation of equipment and piping needs to be to Site tracked. Onsite SSRs During Project Operation The volume of the transmission system or facility, including piping, compressors, etc., that contains natural P1 Primary Pressurized gas which is vented/flared in the baseline. Important characteristics to be measured are the absolute Gas System temperature, absolute pressure, and volume of the system. The transmission system or facility, including piping, compressors, etc., that receives natural gas from the P10 Secondary Primary Pressurized Gas System for the purpose of reducing flaring and/or venting from the Primary System. Pressurized Gas The Secondary Pressurized Gas System must have a functional purpose for received gas (i.e. not lead straight System to flare/vent). For example, the Secondary Pressurized Gas System may be a part of a saleable gas line that intends to sell gas. The combustion of natural gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System via temporary or permanent flare. Flares may require a pilot, or supplemental natural gas or other fossil fuel to ensure the complete combustion P2 Flaring of the flared gas stream. Important characteristics to be tracked are the quantities and compositions of natural gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System and supplemental fuel combusted by the flare. Gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System is released to the atmosphere via risers (vents) after Compression, Flaring, Volume Reduction and/or Pressure Reduction. Important characteristics to be P3 Venting measured are the pre-venting absolute temperature, absolute pressure, and volume of the Pressurized Gas System. P14 Grid Electricity Usage

Related

Controlled

Controlled

Related

Controlled

Controlled

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1. SSR

2. Description

3.Controlled, Related, or Affected Controlled

Natural gas may be evacuated from the Primary Pressurized Gas System by pump/pull down compression or transfer compression into the Secondary Pressurized Gas System. The compressor may be temporary or P4 Compression permanent. Fossil fuels or electricity will be used as its driving force. Important characteristics to be tracked are quantity and source of fuel or energy used. The volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas System may be reduced by adding or moving valves or other P5 Volume Reduction process changes. This reduces the mass of gas vented/flared from the Primary System. The change in volume of the system should be tracked. The Primary Pressurized Gas Systems pressure may be reduced by allowing demand from the Secondary P6 Pressure Reduction Pressurized Gas System to drain it. This reduces the mass of gas vented/flared from the Primary System. The change in pressure and temperature of the system should be tracked. Temporary flares and compressors will need to be assembled and disassembled on-site. Valves for volume P7 Assembly/ reduction will be permanently welded into the Primary Pressurized Gas System. Associated piping to connect Disassembly of temporary compressors and flares and/or for pressure reduction may be required. This piping may or may Equipment and Piping not be permanent. GHG emissions are attributed to the operation of power and welding tools necessary to install piping. Important characteristics to be tracked are quantity and source of fuel or energy used. Downstream SSRs During Project Operation When the Primary Pressurized Gas System is taken offline for Blowdown, the fuel consumption of P9 Primary compressors downstream are impacted. To prepare for Blowdown, downstream compression is altered. Downstream Important characteristics to be tracked are the time the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline, the Compression compressor loading, and the type of fuel consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all downstream compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. The Secondary Pressurized Gas System may have other downstream compressors independent of the Primary System (secondary compressors). The fuel consumption of secondary compressors may be impacted if P12 Secondary natural gas is diverted to the Secondary Pressurized Gas System. Important characteristics to be tracked are Downstream the time the Secondary Pressurized Gas System is receiving gas, the compressor loading, and the type of fuel Compression consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all downstream secondary compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. P17 Natural Gas End Natural gas is consumed by an end user. This includes combustion in a residential or industrial setting. Use Pressurized gas may also be used in oil and gas operations to power compressors, pneumatic controllers, or engines.

Controlled

Controlled

Controlled

Related

Related

Related

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1. SSR P18 Transportation of Equipment and Piping Off Site

2. Description

3.Controlled, Related, or Affected Controlled

Equipment needs to be transported off the site by truck. This may include temporary, flares, compressors, and connective piping, as well as the welding and power tools required to install these devices. The total aggregated volumes and types of fuel consumed for transportation of equipment and piping need to be tracked. Downstream SSRs During Project Decommissioning The site at which the Blowdown event occurs will eventually need to be decommissioned. This may involve the disassembly of the permanent equipment, demolition of on-site structures, disposal of some materials, P22 Site environmental restoration, planting or seeding, re-grading and transportation of materials and equipment offDecommissioning site. Greenhouse gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment required to decommission the site. After project completion, temporary equipment will likely be re-used until it reaches the end of its useful life P23 Re-use/Disposal of and then decommissioned. GHG emissions are attributed to the fossil fuel inputs required for the Temporary Equipment disassembly and disposal of equipment.

Related

Related

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2.2. Identification of the Baseline


To identify the baseline, possible baseline scenarios for the project were established according to the draft Federal Guide for Protocol Developers (Environment Canada, August 2008). Scenarios were described, including key assumptions and/or required information. The main criteria used to evaluate each scenario included data availability, environmental integrity, accuracy, consistency with the BC EOR requirements and ease of application. Justification for the selection of the baseline is given below.
Table 2.2: Baseline Selection and Justification Baseline Description Options
Assessment of the baseline scenario based on site specific, historical data, from previous Blowdown events in the past three years. Assumes that past trends will continue into the future.

Static/ Dynamic

Accept or Reject and Justify


Reject. Historical, site-specific information from upstream and downstream compressors may not be reflective of the natural gas temperature, pressure, supply/ demand dynamics, and system size in the baseline condition. Reject. Blowdown events in oil and gas applications are highly variable, depending on temperature, pressure, and volume of Primary Pressurized Gas System, and maintenance procedures. Due to the lack of standardization between facilities, an accurate performance standard would be difficult to establish. Reject. It is unlikely that suitable control groups can be found that operate under the same conditions and environment. In addition, control groups would have to be established for each project type. Accurate representation the baseline condition is costly and near-impossible. Accept. Provides a high level of accuracy for all project types, as baseline is site-specific and dynamic. As well, no monitoring is required in the baseline condition, allowing the baseline to be established without historical data.

Historic Benchmark

Static/ Dynamic

Performance Standard

Assumes the typical emissions profile for the industry or sector is a reasonable representation of the baseline vented emissions. Assessment of comparable Blowdown events is necessary.

Static/ Dynamic

ComparisonBased

ProjectionBased

Actual measurements of parameters such as temperature, pressure, and Primary Pressurized Gas System volume from a control group to compare with the project. Emissions from the control group are monitored throughout the project and compared to determine incremental emissions reductions. Based on actual monitoring of the project condition, mathematical models are used to project baseline emissions of gas vented from the Primary Pressurized Gas System. Used where continuation of current practices is unlikely, or no historic case exists.

Dynamic

Dynamic

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Baseline Options

Description
Where it is clear that a jurisdiction has taken regulatory or other steps to protect the environment that are significantly in advance of what is happening in most other jurisdictions, a normalized baseline that accounts for these actions beyond common practice may be established. Protocol Developers may have other approaches for developing a baseline. Direct measurement of project input and output could be considered in this category.

Static/ Dynamic

Accept or Reject and Justify

Normalized Baseline

Static

N/A

Other

Static/ Dynamic

N/A

The selected method of quantification for the baseline is a projection based approach. The baseline condition is defined as the GHG emissions from the venting/flaring of the volume of natural gas contained Primary Pressurized Gas System. It is assumed that emissions captured, redirected, reduced, or prevented in the project condition would have been vented/flared in the baseline condition. GHG emissions in the baseline condition are quantified by monitoring the absolute temperature, absolute pressure, and volume of the system before the project is implemented to establish the amount of gas that would have been vented/flared in the baseline condition. This approach has been chosen as methods exist to predict the amount of gas that would have been vented/flared with a high degree of accuracy. In addition, this approach allows flexibility to quantify many different project configurations without significantly altering the quantification approach.

2.3. Identification of SSRs in the Baseline Condition


Baseline SSRs were identified using the procedure previously described in Section 2.1. The baseline condition is defined, including the relevant SSRs and processes, as shown in Figure 2.2. Table 2.3 provides descriptions of each SSR.

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Figure 2.2: Process Flow Diagram for Baseline Condition


B19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment B20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment

Commission

B21 Site Commissioning

B8 Primary Upstream Compression

B1 Primary Pressurized System

B9 Primary Downstream Compression

B13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing

B2 Flaring

B3 Venting B17 Natural Gas End Use

Operation
P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery
P7 Assembly / Disassembly of Equipment and Piping

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P16 Transportation of Equipment and Piping to Site

P18 Equipment Transportation Off Site

B11 Secondary Upstream Compression

B10 Secondary Pressurized System

B12 Secondary Downstream Compression

Upstream

On-Site
Natural Gas

Downstream
Supplementary Fuel Equipment Modification

Decommission

B22 Site Decommissioning

B23 Re-use / Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Electricity Supplementary Natural Gas

Page 19 |

Table 2.3: Baseline SSRs


1. SS 2. Description 3.Controlled, Related, or Affected

Upstream SSRs During Baseline Commissioning Permanent and temporary equipment, such as flares, valves, piping, and compressors, will need to be fabricated B19 Manufacturing off-site. This includes all of the components of the compression systems, flaring systems, and valves. These may of Permanent and be sourced as pre-made standard equipment or custom built to specification. Greenhouse gas emissions would Temporary be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment for the extraction of raw Equipment materials, processing, fabricating and assembly. B20 Raw Materials Equipment such as compressors, flares, valves, and piping require raw materials for fabrication. The majority of for Temporary and material is expected to be comprised of steel. Greenhouse gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the Permanent use of fossil fuels to extract, process, and transport raw materials. Equipment The site of the facility will need to be developed. This may include civil infrastructure such as water supply, sewer, clearing, grading, building access roads, etc. There will also need to be some building of structures for the B21 Site facility such as storage areas, offices, and structures to enclose, support and house the equipment. Greenhouse Commissioning gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment required to develop the site such as graders, backhoes, trenching machines, etc. Upstream SSRs During Baseline Operation When the Primary Pressurized Gas System is taken offline for Blowdown, the fuel consumption of the B8 Primary compressors upstream are impacted. To prepare for a Blowdown, compression may be altered. Important Upstream characteristics to be tracked are the time the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline, the compressor loading, Compression and the type of fuel consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all upstream compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. The Secondary Pressurized Gas System may have other upstream compressors independent of the Primary B11 Secondary System (secondary compressors). The fuel consumption of secondary compressors may be impacted if natural Upstream gas is diverted to the Secondary Pressurized Gas System. Important characteristics to be tracked are the time the Compression Secondary Pressurized Gas System is receiving gas, the compressor loading, and the type of fuel consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all upstream secondary compressors impacted by the Blowdown event.

Related

Related

Related

Related

Related

Page 20 |

Natural gas used throughout the project will need to be sourced and processed. This SSR will allow for the calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions from the various processes involved in the extraction, production, refinement, and storage of fuel. The total volumes of fuel consumed for each of the SSRs are aggregated under this SSR. Volumes and types of fuels are the important characteristics to be tracked. B15 Fuel Fossil fuels used throughout the project will need to sourced and processed. This SSR will allow for the calculation Extraction, of the greenhouse gas emissions from the various processes involved in the extraction, production, refinement, Processing, and storage, and delivery of fuel. The total volumes of fuel consumed for each of the SSRs are aggregated under this Delivery SSR. Volumes and types of fuels are the important characteristics to be tracked. B16 Transportation The flare and associated equipment may need to be transported to the site by truck. This may include valves and of Equipment and connective piping, as well as the welding and power tools required to install these devices. The total aggregated Piping to Site volumes and types of fuel consumed for transportation of equipment and piping need to be tracked. Onsite SSRs During Baseline Operation The volume of the natural gas in the transmission system or facility, including piping, compressors, etc., that is B1 Primary vented to the atmosphere during normal maintenance procedures. No changes for the project have been made Pressurized Gas to the system. Important characteristics to be measured are the pre-project temperature, pressure, and volume System of the system. The transmission system or facility, including piping, compressors, etc., that will receive natural gas from the B10 Secondary Primary Pressurized Gas System in the project condition for the purpose of reducing flaring and/or venting from Pressurized Gas the Primary System. No changes for the project have yet been made to the system. The Secondary Pressurized System Gas System must have a functional purpose for received gas (i.e. not lead straight to flare/vent). For example, the Secondary Pressurized Gas System may be a part of a saleable gas line that intends to sell gas. The combustion of natural gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System via temporary or permanent flare. Flares may require a pilot, or supplemental natural gas or other fossil fuel to ensure the complete combustion of B2 Flaring the flared gas stream. Important characteristics to be tracked are the quantities and compositions of natural gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System and supplemental fuel combusted by the flare. Gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System is released to the atmosphere via risers (vents) during normal B3 Venting maintenance operations. Important characteristics to be measured are the pre-project temperature, pressure, and volume of the system. Temporary flares and compressors will need to be assembled and disassembled on-site. Associated piping to connect temporary compressors and flares may be required. This piping may or may not be permanent. GHG B7 Assembly/ emissions are attributed to the operation of power and welding tools necessary to install piping. Important Disassembly of characteristics to be tracked are quantity and source of fuel or energy used. Equipment and B13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing Piping

Related

Controlled

Related

Controlled

Controlled

Controlled

Page 21 |

Downstream SSRs During Project Operation When the Primary Pressurized Gas System is taken offline for Blowdown, the fuel consumption of compressors downstream are impacted. To prepare for Blowdown, downstream compression is altered. B9 Primary Downstream Important characteristics to be tracked are the time the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline, the Compression compressor loading, and the type of fuel consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all downstream compressors impacted by the Blowdown event. The Secondary Pressurized Gas System may have other downstream compressors independent of the Primary System (secondary compressors). The fuel consumption of secondary compressors is not B12 Secondary impacted by a Blowdown event on the Primary System Important characteristics to be tracked are the Downstream time the Secondary Pressurized Gas System is receiving gas, the compressor loading, and the type of fuel Compression consumed by the compressor. This SSR considers all downstream secondary compressors impacted by the Blowdown event in the project condition. Natural gas is consumed by an end user. This includes combustion in a residential or industrial setting. B17 Natural Gas End Use Pressurized gas may also be used in oil and gas operations to power compressors, pneumatic controllers, or engines. Equipment needs to be transported off the site by truck. This may include temporary, flares, compressors, P18 Equipment and connective piping, as well as the welding and power tools required to install these devices. The total Transportation Off-Site aggregated volumes and types of fuel consumed for transportation of equipment and piping need to be tracked. Downstream SSRs After Project Operation B22 Site The site at which the Blowdown event occurs will eventually need to be decommissioned. This may Decommissioning involve the disassembly of the permanent equipment, demolition of on-site structures, disposal of some materials, environmental restoration, planting or seeding, re-grading and transportation of materials and equipment off-site. Greenhouse gas emissions would be primarily attributed to the use of fossil fuels and electricity used to power equipment required to decommission the site. After project completion, temporary equipment will likely be re-used until it reaches the end of its useful P23 Re-use/Disposal of life and then decommissioned. GHG emissions are attributed to the fossil fuel inputs required for the Temporary Equipment disassembly and disposal of equipment.

Related

Related

Related

Controlled

Related

Related

Page 22 |

2.4. Selection of Relevant Project and Baseline SSRs


Each of the SSRs from the project and baseline condition were compared and evaluated in Table 2.4 as to their relevancy in quantification of GHG emissions and reductions using the Pacific Carbon Trust Guidance Document. The following procedure was used to exclude SSRs from consideration. 1. SSRs which do not change from the baseline to project scenario are excluded. 2. SSRs that have greater emission in the baseline than in the project condition may be conservatively excluded. 3. SSRs upstream and downstream of the project site which can only occur once (i.e. decommissioning of site) are excluded.

Page 23 |

Table 2.4: Comparison of SSRs


1. Identified SSR SSRs During Project Commissioning P19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment B19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment P20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment B20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment P21 Development of Site B21Development of Site 2. Baseline (C, R, A) 3. Project (C, R, A) 4. Include or Exclude from Quantification Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Included Included Included Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded 5. Justification for Exclusion

N/A Related N/A Related N/A Related

Related N/A Related N/A Related N/A Related N/A Related N/A Related N/A Related Related N/A

One-time-only emission source. Emissions from fabrication of equipment are not material given the duration of equipment life and the expected size of the project. One-time-only emission source. Emissions from raw materials produced to fabricate equipment are not material given the duration of equipment life and the expected size of the project. One-time-only emission source. Emissions from site commissioning are not material given the lifespan of the site, duration of the project, and the expected size of the project. N/A N/A N/A N/A Natural gas is conserved by projects which reduce Blowdown. Therefore, more emissions from natural gas processing can be attributed to the baseline condition than the project condition. The exclusion of this SSR is conservative. B.C.s grid is considered carbon neutral by the PCT and therefore no GHG emissions can be attributed to its use. Emissions associated with fuel extraction, processing and delivery are negligible and have therefore been excluded from quantification.

Upstream SSRs During Project Operation P8 Primary Upstream Compression N/A B8 Primary Upstream Compression Related P11 Secondary Upstream N/A Compression B11 Primary Upstream Related Compression P13 Natural Gas Extraction and N/A Processing B13 Natural Gas Extraction and Related Processing P14 Grid Electricity N/A P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery B15 Fuel Extraction, Processing, and Delivery N/A Related

Page 24 |

P16 Transportation of Equipment to Site

N/A

Controlled

Included

B16 Transportation of Equipment to Site Onsite SSRs P1 Primary Pressurized Gas System B1Primary Pressurized Gas System P2 Flaring B2 Flaring P3 Venting B3 Venting P4 Compression P5 Volume Reduction P6 Pressure Reduction P7 Assembly/ Disassembly of Equipment and Piping Downstream SSRs During Operation P9 Primary Downstream Compression B9 Primary Downstream Compression P12 Secondary Downstream Compression
7

Controlled N/A Controlled N/A Controlled N/A Controlled N/A N/A N/A N/A

N/A Controlled N/A Controlled N/A Controlled N/A Controlled Controlled Controlled Controlled

Excluded Excluded Excluded Included Included Included Included Included Excluded Excluded Excluded

Emissions from transportation of equipment are typically not material for the project, even over long distances. (For example, a semi truck travelling 7 3000 km would emit 3.3 t CO2e.) Project proponents may exclude this SSR if it can be shown that emissions are <5% of project GHG emissions. Note that the transportation of a temporary flare may be functionally equivalent in the project and baseline scenario, and thus may be excluded in some project configurations. Transportation of equipment in the baseline condition is expected to be functionally equivalent to the project condition. No emissions can be attributed to the Primary Pressurized Gas System. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Captured under P7 Assembly/Disassembly of Equipment and Piping Captured under P7 Assembly/Disassembly of Equipment and Piping Emissions associated with the assembly and disassembly of equipment and piping are negligible. N/A N/A N/A

N/A Related N/A

Related N/A Related

Included Included Included

Fuel consumption = 39.5L diesel/100km (Fuel Efficiency Benchmarking in Canadas Trucking Industry, Environment Canada, http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/transportation/ business/documents/case-studies/fuel-effic-benchm.cfm?attr=16)
0.395L/km 3000 km = 1185 L 1185 L (2.663 kg CO2/L + 0. 000 133 kg CH4/L 21kg CO2e/kg CH4 + 0.000 4 kg N2O/L 310 CO2e/kg N2O)/1000 = 3.3 t CO2e

Page 25 |

B12 Secondary Downstream Compression P17 Natural Gas End Use B17 Natural Gas End Use P18 Equipment Transportation Off-Site B18 Equipment Transportation Off-Site Downstream SSRs After Operation P22 Site Decommissioning B22 Site Decommissioning P23 Re-use/Disposal of Temporary Equipment B23 Re-use/Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Related N/A Related N/A Related Related N/A Related N/A

N/A Related N/A Related N/A N/A Related N/A Related

Included Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded Excluded

N/A This SSR can be conservatively excluded. Conserved fuel gas will displace fuel gas combusted by end user or used in oil and gas applications. Accounted for under P16 Equipment Transportation On-Site. Accounted for under B16 Equipment Transportation On-Site. One-time-only emission source. Emissions from the decommissioning of the site are functionally equivalent in the baseline and project condition. Emissions from re-use/disposal of temporary equipment are negligible given the lifespan of the site, duration of the project, and the expected size of the project.

Page 26 |

2.5. Quantification of Reductions, Removals, and Reversals of Relevant SSRs


2.5.1. Quantification Approaches Quantification of the reductions, removals and reversals of relevant SSRs for each of the greenhouse gases will be completed using the methodologies outlined below. These calculation methodologies serve to complete the following three equations for calculating the emission reductions from the comparison of the baseline and project conditions. Emission Reduction = Emissions Baseline Emissions Project Emissions Baseline = B2 + B3 + B8 + B9 +B11 + B12 Emissions Project = P2 + P3 + P4 + P8 + P9 +P11 + P12 Where: Emissions Baseline = sum of the emissions under the baseline condition. B2 = Emissions under SSR B2 Flaring B3 = Emissions under SSR B3 Venting B8 = Emissions under SSR B8 Primary Upstream Compression B9 = Emissions under SSR B9 Primary Downstream Compression B11 = Emissions under SSR B11 Secondary Upstream Compression B12 = Emissions under SSR B12 Secondary Upstream Compression

Emissions Project = sum of the emissions under the project condition. P2 = Emissions under SSR P2 Flaring P3 = Emissions under SSR P3 Venting P4 = Emissions under SSR P4 Compression P8 = Emissions under SSR P8 Primary Upstream Compression P9 = Emissions under SSR P9 Primary Downstream Compression P11= Emissions under SSR P11 Secondary Upstream Compression P12 = Emissions under SSR P12 Secondary Downstream Compression

Page 27 |

As previously stated, project proponents are given flexibility to exclude SSRs which are not applicable to project configurations. Appendix F gives describes three example project configurations with illustrative process flow diagrams that show which SSRs have been excluded. These can be used as a guideline for project proponents.

2.5.2. Quantification Procedures The following calculates GHG emission reductions in kilograms of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. To convert to units of kilograms CO 2e, multiply the GHG by its respective global warming potential (GWP) shown in the table below.
Table 2.5: Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O

GHG CO2 CH4 N2O

GWP 1 21 310

P2 Flaring Emissions from flaring are determined by Equation 1 or Equation 2. Supplemental fuel may be required to sustain the flare. Equation 1 is used for supplemental fuel of unknown composition, and Equation 2 is used for supplemental fuel of a known composition. P2 = Vol.Fuels EFCO2 i ; Vol.Fuels EF CH4 i ; Vol.Fuels EF N2O i ; Vol.Gasf EFCO2 i ; Vol.Gasf [CH4] (1-DE) CH4 ; Vol.Gasf EF N2O
Equation 1

P2 = Vol.Fuels EFCO2 i ; Vol.Fuels [CH4] (1-DE) CH4; Vol.Fuels EF N2O i ; Vol.Gasf EFCO2 i ; Vol.Gasf [CH4] (1-DE) CH4; Vol.Gasf EF N2O
Equation 2

Where P2 = Emissions from flaring Vol.Fuels = Volume of supplemental fuel used for flare (m3) Vol.Gasf = Volume of gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System flared at STP. This is the difference between the initial volume of gas contained in the Primary Pressurized Gas System prior flaring and the final volume of gas after flaring. These volumes of gas can be calculated with Equation 4, using measured data for PSyst and Tsyst from just prior to and after flaring. Alternatively, the volume of gas flared may be directly monitored. (m3) EF CO2i = carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel i (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF CH4 i = methane factor for combustion of fuel i (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF N2O i = nitrous oxide emission factor for combustion of fuel i (kg CO2e/m3 fuel)

Page 28 |

[CH4] = concentration of methane in gas expressed as volume ratio (dimensionless) DE = destruction efficiency of flare (%) CH4 = density of methane at STP (kg/m3)

P3 Venting Venting in the project condition is quantified using Equation 3, Equation 4, and Equation 5 below. Project condition data should be used for PSyst, VSyst, Tsyst, and Z. (Measurements taken just before venting should be used for the parameters PSyst and Tsyst.) Note that Volume Reduction and Pressure Reduction are quantified under this SSR. It is assumed that some venting must always take place.

Equation 3

Where P3 = emissions from venting Vol. Gas = volume of gas contained in the system prior to venting (m3) [CO2] = concentration of carbon dioxide in gas expressed as volume ratio (dimensionless) [CH4] = concentration of methane in gas expressed as volume ratio (dimensionless) CO2 = density of carbon dioxide at STP CH4 = density of methane at STP

The volume of gas in the Primary Pressurized Gas System can be determined by the following equation. For a derivation of this equation, see Appendix B.

Equation 4

Where, Vol.Gas = Volume of gas contained in the system referenced at STP (m3) VSyst = Volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas System (m3) PSyst = Absolute pressure (gauge + atmospheric) of the Primary Pressurized Gas System just before venting (kPa) TSyst = Absolute temperature of gas in Primary Pressurized Gas System just before venting (K) Z = Gas deviation factor (unitless). For more details see Appendix A. Page 29 |

The volume of the system is determined by the following equation. Valves, bends, fittings, etc, may be ignored if they comprise <5% of the total volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas System. As previously stated, an alternate method may be used to calculate volume if this approach is shown to be less accurate.

Equation 5

Where, 3.14 di = internal diameter of pipe i li = length of pipe i

P4 Compression Emissions from the operation of a pump/pull down or transfer compressor are determined by Equation 6. Combustion of these fuels may be direct or indirect (i.e. dedicated on-site generation). P4 = Vol.Fuelc EF CO2 i ; Vol.Fuelc EF CH4 i ; Vol.Fuelc EF N2O i
Equation 6

Where P4 = Emissions from compression Vol. Fuelc = Volume of fuel used for compression (m3) EF CO2 = carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF N2O = nitrous oxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF CH4 = methane emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) Equation 7 is used when electricity is consumed by the compressor. If grid electricity is consumed, emissions from this activity are assumed to be 0. If electricity is generated on-site and the amount of fossil fuel used to generate electricity for compression cannot be tracked, a site-specific emission factor can be determined using the method outlined in Appendix C. P4 = kWh EF Elec. CO2e
Equation 7

Where P4 = Emissions from compression kWh = Electricity consumed by compressor (kWh) EFElec. CO2e = Emission factor for electricity consumption (kg CO2e/kWh)

Page 30 |

P8, B8, & P9, B9 Upstream and Downstream Primary Compression; P11, B11 & P12 B12 Upstream and Downstream Secondary Compression The project configuration will influence how many upstream and/or downstream compressor stations are impacted by the Blowdown reduction project and which, if any, compressor stations experience higher than normal fuel consumption during the Blowdown reduction project, as compared to the baseline of a conventional Blowdown event. Therefore, it is the responsibility of project proponents to identify those compressor stations that are impacted by the Blowdown reduction project and to quantify any changes in fuel consumption. Project proponents should compare the compressor fuel consumption prior to, during and immediately following the Blowdown event using a computer-aided simulation. This would involve modeling at least one scenario to estimate fuel consumption during the Blowdown reduction project and another scenario to estimate fuel consumption during a conventional Blowdown event. The simulation should consider the pipeline configuration, length of pipeline taken out of service during the Blowdown reduction project, natural gas supply/demand dynamics, natural gas flow rate, pressure, and temperature, and the duration of the Blowdown event. The model should be conducted over a sufficient period of time such that the system reaches steady state. Proponents should document all assumptions and justify the conservativeness of the model, which may require several simulations to be run. Methods other than a computer simulation may be used to determine compressor fuel usage if they are sufficiently robust and provide verifiable data that is demonstrated to be conservative. Project Proponents may also generalize the results of simulations from previous efforts to model the upstream and downstream compressor fuel consumption during Blowdown reduction projects; however, it must be demonstrated that the project configurations are sufficiently similar and that the estimation methods are overly conservative to mitigate any uncertainties with using the results from a generalized approach. The use of a generalized approach would only be acceptable if the magnitude of the calculated emissions from upstream and downstream compression is less than 10% of the total baseline emissions. Once the project and baseline compressor fuel usage has been determined, the following formula can be used to quantify related GHG emissions. P8, P9, B8, B9, P11, P12, B11, B12 = (Vol.FuelPUD Vol.FuelBUD) EF CO2 i ; (Vol.FuelPUD Vol.FuelBUD) EF CH4 i ; (Vol.FuelPUD Vol.FuelBUD) EF N2O i
Equation 8

Where P8, P9, B8, B9, P11, P12, B11, B12 = Emissions from primary and secondary upstream and downstream compression

Page 31 |

Vol.FuelPUD = Volume of fuel consumed in the project condition by primary and secondary upstream and downstream compression while the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline for the duration of the Blowdown reduction project (as modeled) Vol.FuelBUD = Volume of fuel consumed in the baseline condition by primary and secondary upstream and downstream compression while the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline for the duration of a conventional Blowdown event (as modeled) EF CO2 i = carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF N2O i = nitrous oxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF CH4 i = methane emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel)

P16 Transportation of Equipment to Site P16 = Vol.Fuel EF CO2 i ; Vol.Fuel EF CH4 i ; Vol.Fuel EF N2O i
Equation 9

Where P 16 = Emissions from transportation of equipment to site Vol.FuelT = Volume of fuel consumed for transportation of equipment to site EF CO2 i = carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF N2O i = nitrous oxide emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel) EF CH4 i = methane emission factor for combustion of fuel (kg CO2e/m3 fuel)

B2 Flaring Regulatory requirements for flaring are determined by the economic analysis in Section 2.8 of the Guideline as outlined in Appendix E. The results of this analysis provide the volume of natural gas that would have been flared in the baseline. Equation 1 or Equation 2 should be used to calculate GHG emissions from flared natural gas in the baseline. For this SSR, note that: Vol.Gasf = Volume of gas from the Primary Pressurized Gas System flared at STP (m 3) This is the difference between the initial volume of gas contained in the Primary Pressurized Gas System prior to flaring and the final volume of gas after flaring. These volumes of gas can be calculated with Equation 4. The initial volume of gas is calculated with measured data for PSyst and Tsyst taken prior to any Blowdown reduction event. The final volume is calculated with the same Tsyst as previously used and Psyst at atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa). This forms a conservative estimate, as it is assumed that the most possible gas is flared.

B3 Venting

Page 32 |

Regulatory requirements for flaring should be determined by the economic analysis in Section 2.8 of the Guideline as outlined in Appendix E. The results of this analysis provide the volume of natural gas that would have been vented in the baseline. If flaring is not included in the baseline, the volume of gas vented should be calculated with measured data for PSyst and Tsyst taken prior to any Blowdown reduction event. If flaring is included in the baseline, the volume of gas vented should be calculated using measured data for Tsyst taken prior to any Blowdown reduction event and P syst at atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa).

Page 33 |

Table 2.6 and Table 2.7 below give primary and contingent procedures for data monitoring and estimation, respectively.
Table 2.6: Data Monitoring/Parameter Determination Primary Procedures 1. 2. 5.Measured/ Parameter 3. Description 4. Unit 6. Method SSR Estimated /Variable
P2, P3, B2, B3 Concentration of methane in gas expressed as volume ratio

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Direct measurement of gas composition provides a high degree of accuracy. Composition of natural gas in transmission line must meet standards and is therefore stable. Direct measurement of gas composition provides a high degree of accuracy. Composition of natural gas in transmission line must meet standards and is therefore stable. Piping tables give an accurate estimation in a practical manner. Up-to-date as-built engineering drawings provide an accurate account of length. Aerial maps are also accurate when topography is included.

[CH4]

vol/vol

Measured

Direct measurement

Annually

[CO2]

B2, P3, P2, P3

Concentration of carbon dioxide in gas expressed as volume ratio Inner diameter of pipe i in Primary Pressurized Gas System Length of pipe i in Primary Pressurized Gas System

vol/vol

Measured

Direct measurement

Annually

di

B3, P3

Estimated

From piping tables

Once

li

B3, P3

Estimated

Pre-project (and post-volume reduction, where applicable) estimation based on as-built Once engineering diagrams or aerial maps, taking topography into account.

Page 34 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Manufacturers specifications provide an accurate estimate, which should remain constant for the flare stack lifetime.

DE

P2, B2

Destruction efficiency of flare

Estimated

From specifications

manufacturers

Once per flare stack

The following equation is used to calculate the carbon dioxide emission factor from the gas composition analysis of natural gas. P2, P8, P9, P11, P12, P16, B2, B8, B9, B11, B12 EF CO2 i = [(a + 2b + 3c + 4d + 5e + 6f + 7g + h) x 44.01] / 23.64 The variables a through e are the mole fractions of each hydrocarbon compound contained in the fuel gas. The a would correspond to the mole fraction of methane; b would correspond to the mole fraction of ethane etc. The number in front of each letter corresponds to the number of carbon atoms per molecule (i.e. one carbon atom for methane and two for ethane). The variable h is the mole fraction of CO2 in the gas stream

EF CO2 i

Carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel type i

kg CO2e / m3 fuel

Estimated

Annually

The calculation of the emission factor was sourced from Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) document Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions (April 2003). This emission factor is accurate and projectspecific.

Page 35 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR P2, P8, P9, P11, P12, P16, B2, B8, B9, B11, B12

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency

EF CH4 i

Methane emission factor for combustion of fuel type i

kg CO2e / m3 fuel

Estimated

From Environment reference documents

Canada

Annually

Reference values adjusted annually as part of Environment Canada reporting on Canadas emissions inventory.

EF Elec. CO2e

P4

Electricity consumed by compressor

kg CO2e / kWh

Estimated

Based on the type of fuel consumed and the fuels efficiency; see Appendix C for details.

Once per generator

This approximation can provide a reasonable method of estimating the GHGs emitted by the generator when the volume of fuel consumed by the generator cannot be disaggregated or tracked.

Page 36 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR P2, P4, P8, P9, P16 P11, P12, P16, B2, B8, B9, B11, B12 P4 P2, P3, B2, B3 P2, P3, B2, B3

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency

EF N2O i

Carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel type i

kg CO2e / m3 fuel

Estimated

From Environment reference documents

Canada

Annually

Reference values adjusted annually as part of Environment Canada reporting on Canadas emissions inventory.

kWh

Quantity of electricity used for compressor Density of methane at STP

kWh

Measured

Direct metering 0.679 kg/m3 at 101.3 kPa and 15C

Continuous metering

Provides a high level of accuracy and assurance.

CH4

kg/m3

Constant

CO2

Density of carbon dioxide and STP

kg/m3

Constant

1.86 kg/m3 at 101.3 kPa and 15C

Page 37 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency The measurement taken prior to the Blowdown Reduction event will be used to calculate the volume of gas in the baseline. Measurements taken just after compression, flaring, and/or pressure reduction will be used to calculate the volume of natural gas conserved/combusted/ vented. Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements will ensure accuracy in the quantification of volume of gas. By estimating atmospheric pressure after flaring, it is conservatively assumed that as much gas as possible was flared.

PSyst

P3, B3

Pressure of gas in the Primary Pressurized Gas System

Direct metering condition. kPa, atm Measured

in

project

May be estimated at atmospheric pressure just after flaring in the baseline condition.

Once immediately prior to Blowdown Reduction event, and once after compression, pressure reduction, and/or flaring. (Not required for flaring if volume of gas flared is directly monitored.) Measurements must be taken concurrently with pressure measurement.

Page 38 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency The measurement taken prior to the Blowdown Reduction event will be used to calculate the volume of gas in the baseline. Measurements taken just after compression, flaring, and/or pressure reduction will be used to calculate the volume of natural gas conserved/combusted/ vented. Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements will ensure accuracy in the quantification of volume of gas. Error of up to 10C does not materially affect quantification of emissions (see Appendix D). Direct metering provides a high level of accuracy. Reconciliation after each Blowdown event gives a reasonable estimate of fuel consumed.

TSyst

P3, B3

Temperature of gas in Primary Pressurized Gas System

Measured

Vol.FuelC

P4

Volume of fuel consumed to power compressor

m3

Measured

Once immediately prior to Blowdown Reduction event, and once after compression, flaring, and/or pressure Direct metering of temperature. reduction. Error of up to 10C is (Not required permissible. for flaring if volume of gas flared is directly monitored.) Measurements must be taken concurrently with pressure measurement. Continuous metering; reconciliation Direct metering or reconciliation after each Blowdown event

Page 39 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method The fuel consumption rate in the baseline condition is assumed to be equal to the average project fuel consumption rate. The time of Blowdown in the baseline condition should be determined from historical records of similar Blowdown events (i.e. similar pressure, supply, and demand). Vol.FuelBUD = (fuel consumption rate) (time of Blowdown in baseline condition)

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency

Vol.FuelBUD

P8, P9, P11, P12, B8, B9, B11, B12

Volume of fuel consumed in the baseline condition by upstream and downstream compression while the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline.

Estimated

Once per Blowdown event

The fuel consumption rate in the project condition is an accurate estimation of the fuel consumption rate in the baseline condition. Historical records reasonably predict the estimated time of the baseline Blowdown event.

Vol. FuelPUD

P8, P9, P11, P12, B8, B9, B11, B12

Volume of fuel consumed in the project condition by upstream and downstream compression while the Primary Pressurized Gas System is offline. Volume of supplemental fuel consumed for flare

m3

Measured

Direct metering

Continuous metering or reconciliation after each Blowdown event. Continuous metering; reconciliation after each Blowdown event

Direct metering provides a high level of accuracy. Reconciliation after each Blowdown event gives a reasonable estimate of fuel consumed. Direct metering provides a high level of accuracy. Reconciliation after each Blowdown event gives a reasonable estimate of fuel consumed.

Vol. Fuels

P2, B2

m3

Measured

Direct metering

Page 40 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method Reconcilation of volumes through purchases, or estimated from vehicle fuel consumption rate (m3/km) and distance travelled through mapping or via odometer.

7. Frequency Volumes distance travelled reconciled once. or

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Frequency of reconciliation of once per project ensures that volumes or distances are estimated accurately.

Vol.FuelT

P16

Volume of fuel used to transport equipment Volume of gas at STP contained in Primary Pressurized Gas System Volume of gas at STP flared from the Primary Pressurized Gas System Volume of Primary Pressurized Gas System piping (internal)

Estimated

Vol. Gas

P3, B3

m3

Estimated

Estimated based on Equation 3

Equation 3 provides a conservative estimate of volume of gas released.

Vol.Gasf

P2, B2

m3

Estimated or directly monitored

The difference between the volume of gas contained in the Primary Pressurized Gas System prior to and after flaring, as calculated from Equation 4. Alternatively, the volume of gas flared may be directly monitored in the project condition.

Estimated: N/A Direct monitoring: continuous

Equation 4 provides an accurate estimate of the volume of gas flared. Direct monitoring also provides a high level of accuracy.

VSyst

B3, P3

m3

Estimated

Estimated based on Equation 5

Twice: and project

prepost-

Gives an accurate estimation of volume of Primary Pressurized Gas System.

Page 41 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5.Measured/ Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Accounts for any difference between pre- and postproject changes in temperature or pressure. An accurate estimation can be determined with precalculated values in Appendix A.

B3, P3,

Gas factor

deviation

none

Estimated

See Appendix A for details.

Twice: and project

prepost-

Table 2.7: Data Monitoring - Contingency Procedures 1. 2. Parameter 3. Description 4. Unit SSR /Variable P2, P3, Percent by volume [ CH4] % volume B2, of methane in gas B3 B2, Percent by volume P3, [CO2] of carbon dioxide in % volume P2, gas P3
B3, P3 Inner diameter of pipe in Primary Pressurized Gas System

5. Measured / Estimated

6. Method Estimation averages, standards, Canada. Estimation averages, standards, Canada. from company industry or Environment from company industry or Environment

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Composition of natural gas in transmission line is stable and therefore can be estimated with accuracy. Composition of natural gas in transmission line is stable and therefore can be estimated with accuracy. Measurement should give a reasonable approximation where manufacturers specifications are not available.

Estimated

Annually

Estimated

Annually

di

Measured

With calliper or similar

Once

Page 42 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5. Measured / Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency Based on studies conducted by the University of Alberta,8 US EPA and the Flaring, Incinerating and Venting Guideline for British Columbia. Specifically, the Guideline requires flares to ensure that the flare gas net heating value be at least 20 MJ/m3. Based on this standard, the conservative estimate of 98.5% was made.

DE

P2, B2

Flare destruction efficiency

Estimated

98.5%

EF CO2 i

P2, P8, P9, P11, P12, P16, B2, B8, B9, B11, B12 P4, P3

Carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of fuel type i

kg CO2e / m3 fuel

Estimated

From Environment Canada reference documents

Annually

Reference values adjusted annually as part of Environment Canada reporting on Canadas emissions inventory.

Vol.Gasf, Vol.Fuelc
8

Volume of fuel consumed compressor or flare

m3

Measured

Reconciliation after every blowdown

Each Blowdown Event

Provides a high level of assurance and lowers monitoring burden.

Quantification Protocol for Engine Fuel Management and Vent Gas Capture from the Alberta Offset System.

Page 43 |

1. Parameter /Variable

2. SSR

3. Description

4. Unit

5. Measured / Estimated

6. Method

7. Frequency Hours of operation reconciled after every Blowdown event

8. Justify measurement or estimation and frequency The equipment rating should provide a reasonable estimate of gas consumed. Hours of operation can easily and accurately be tracked.

Vol.Fuelc

P4

Volume of fuel used to power compressor

Estimated

Estimated by equipment rating and tracking hours of operation, including any shutdowns

Page 44 |

2.6. Uncertainty
To achieve a high level of accuracy, uncertainty must be reduced in emissions reductions quantifications as much as possible. The following table provides a qualitative assessment of the overall risk to emission reduction quantification due to uncertainty.
Table 2.8: Uncertainty Assessment
SSR Relative Magnitude of SSR Associated Uncertainty Measurement Low. Temperature, pressure, gas composition, and volume of the Primary Pressurized Gas system are all easily monitored and can be accurately determined. Low. Temperature and pressure Primary Pressurized Gas system or volume of gas flared are easily monitored and can be accurately determined. Gas composition can also be accurately determined. Calculation Low. Determined directly from measurements, without the use of emission factors. The gas deviation factor is defined with a high level of accuracy for a wide range of transmission-line compositions of natural gas. Low to medium. If a sitespecific CO2 emission factors are used to determine emissions, a high level of accuracy can be achieved. The level of uncertainty associated with a generic CO2 emission factor depends upon the project fuel composition as compared to the composition of fuel used to determine the emission factor. Low to medium. If a sitespecific emission factors for CO2 and CH4 are used to determine emissions, a high level of accuracy can be achieved. The level of uncertainty associated with generic CO2 and CH4 emission factors depends upon the project fuel composition as compared to the composition of fuel used to determine the emission factor. Overall Risk to Emission Reduction

B3, P3 Vented Gas

Large

Low

P6 Flaring

Medium

Low

P7 Pump Down Compression

Small

Low. The volume of fuel consumed for compression is directly monitored.

Low

Page 45 |

B8, B9, B11, B12, P8, P9 P11, P12 Primary and Secondary Upstream and Downstream Compression

Small

Overall Uncertainty

Medium. Upstream Low to medium. If a siteand downstream specific emission factors for CO2 compression are not and CH4 are used to determine always under the direct emissions, a high level of control of the project accuracy can be achieved. The proponent. However, level of uncertainty associated Low sophisticated models with generic CO2 and CH4 exist to compare emission factors depends upon compressor fuel the project fuel composition as consumption between compared to the composition of the baseline and fuel used to determine the project. emission factor. Low. The largest SSR is quantified the most accurately. The robustness of this quantification allows for some uncertainty in small SSRs without breaching materiality.

2.1. Conservativeness
Bias has been reduced by monitoring parameters where possible. However, circumstances may arise that make monitoring too costly or difficult to be practical. In these cases, parameters have been conservatively estimated. A higher level of uncertainty in a parameter demands a more conservative estimate. This overarching principle has been used to guarantee the robustness and conservativeness of emissions reductions quantifications. For example, if it is not possible to determine the flare destruction efficiency, it may be assumed to be 98.5%. Typical flare destruction efficiency is between 98.5% and 99.5%. The lower estimate results in a higher estimate of GHG emissions in the project condition, thus increasing conservativeness.

2.2. Leakage
GHG emissions from Affected SSRs or Related SSRs outside the project boundary are commonly referred to as leakage. Sources of leakage have been conservatively excluded from this project. For example, the conservation of fuel gas reduces GHG emissions from Fuel Processing and Extraction and Fuel Delivery. However, since this negligible source of emissions has been excluded, GHG reductions are conservatively excluded. In addition, projects are expected to conserve small amounts of fuel gas and would therefore have negligible market influence on natural gas, eliminating any rebound effect from a decrease in prices.

Page 46 |

Other sources of leakage, such as Site Decommissioning, can be excluded as they are functionally equivalent in the project and baseline condition, and thus have no associated GHG emission increases or reductions.

3. Data Management
Data capture must be conducted such that quantification may be easily performed with the need for minimal assumptions and use of contingency procedures. Data should be of sufficient quality, meet the standards laid out in Table 2.6, and be substantiated by the proponent records for the purpose of verification. The project proponent shall also establish record keeping and QA/QC procedures.

3.1. Data Capture


The following is a summary of parameters which may require direct monitoring, depending upon project configuration. For detailed monitoring requirements of each parameter, please refer to Table 2.6. a) Pressure and temperature, just prior to Blowdown Reduction event and just after Compression, Flaring, and/or Pressure Reduction. (Not required for Flaring if volume of gas flared is directly monitored.) b) Gas composition analysis c) The volume, type, and composition, if available, of supplemental fuel and the volume of natural gas consumed for flaring. d) The kWh of electricity or volume and type of fuel consumed for compression.

3.2. Documentation
Depending on the project configuration, documentation should include, but is not limited to: a) Written log of Blowdown Reduction event, fully documenting actions taken, emergency venting/flaring, process adjustments/interruptions, and date, time, and duration of activities b) Pressure and temperature readings, including the time and location where readings were taken

Page 47 |

c) Laboratory report on gas composition analysis and/or pipeline gas specifications d) Volume of fuel or kWh of electricity consumed by compressor e) Volume of supplemental fuel and natural gas consumed by flare f) As-built engineering drawings or aerial photographs of the Primary Pressurized Gas System g) Make/model of compressor, flare, and/or valves, along with any available manufacturers specifications h) Make/model of all monitoring equipment i) Economic analysis as described in Applicability Criteria of Protocol j) Records or estimations of the volume of fuel consumed by upstream and downstream compression prior to, following and during the blowdown event k) Names of the persons taking measurements and/or conducting the Blowdown Reduction activities All documentation shall be kept on file for a minimum period of 10 years after crediting period and the project plan and report shall be kept on file 10 years after the date of validation. All records must be made available for review by a verification body, provided within 60 days of request.

3.3. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)


QA/QC procedures should be implemented by the project proponent to add confidence that all measurements and calculations have been made correctly. These should include, but are not limited to: a. The protection of monitoring equipment (proper storage, use, and handling). b. Meter calibration by trained personnel at the frequency suggested by the meter manufacturer. c. Utilization of the most current version of the Guideline on Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Reduction. 9

Available at http://www.ogc.gov.bc.ca/documents/guidelines/Flaring%20Incinerating%20%20Venting %20Reduction%20Guideline%20for%20BC%20-%20Feb-6-08.pdf

Page 48 |

d. Checking data integrity on a regular and periodic basis (transcription errors, comparing redundant metered data, and detection of outstanding data/records). e. Comparing current estimates with previous estimates as a reality check; f. Perform recalculations and/or accuracy checks to make sure no technical errors have been made. g. Establish minimum experience and requirements for operators in charge of project and monitoring. h. Records should be kept as hard copy and in electronic storage. All documentation should be available for 10 years after the crediting period and the project plan and report should be available 10 years after the validation date.

Page 49 |

APPENDIX A: GAS DEVIATION FACTOR QUANTIFICATION

Gas Deviation Factor


The gas deviation factors presented in Table A1, Table A2, and Table A3 are calculated using the Peng and Robinson equation of state (1976). Each table presents the gas deviation factor for different compositions of gas. Proponents should use the table which most closely matches the composition of natural gas in the project. Gas deviation factors should then be selected from the appropriate table based on the temperature and pressure in the Primary Pressurized Gas System. Where an exact match of temperature and pressure in project conditions cannot be found, linear interpolation between data points is an acceptable method of estimation of the gas deviation factor. At gauge pressures below 400 kPa, the gas deviation factor may be set to a value of 1.0.
Table A1: Gas Deviation Factors for Typical Processed Natural Gas Downstream of Straddle Plants at Various Combinations of Temperature and Pressure (95.213% C1, 2.4306% C2, 0.1374% C3, 0.0043% iC4, 0.0043% nC4, 0.0013% iC5, 0.0010% nC5, 0.0012% nC6+, 1.6519% N2 and 0.5552% CO2) 10

Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 12 000
10

Gas Deviation Factor (Dimensionless) 0 C 0.996956 0.993917 0.990883 0.987853 0.984829 0.981810 0.978796 0.975788 0.972785 0.969788 0.940170 0.911317 0.883437 0.856780 0.831632 0.808311 0.787145 0.768446 0.752472 0.739393 0.729270 5 C 0.997124 0.994254 0.991388 0.988529 0.985675 0.982827 0.979984 0.977148 0.974318 0.971495 0.943641 0.916598 0.890556 0.865734 0.842378 0.820753 0.801127 0.783747 0.768818 0.756475 0.746769 10 C 0.997282 0.994569 0.991862 0.989162 0.986467 0.983779 0.981097 0.978422 0.975754 0.973092 0.946879 0.921509 0.897154 0.874007 0.852279 0.832192 0.813965 0.797797 0.783850 0.772233 0.762987 15 C 0.997430 0.994865 0.992307 0.989756 0.987211 0.984672 0.982141 0.979616 0.977098 0.974588 0.949904 0.926084 0.903283 0.881670 0.861427 0.842740 0.825789 0.810737 0.797712 0.786799 0.778032

Methodology Manual. Estimation of Air Emissions from the Canadian Natural Gas Transmission, Storage, and Distribution System. Page 223. Prepared for the Canadian Energy Partnership For Environmental Innovation by Clearstone Engineering Ltd. 2007.

A-I

Table A2: Gas Deviation Factors for Typical Processed Natural Gas Upstream Of Straddle Plants at Various Combinations Of Temperature And Pressure (92.8693% C1, 4.0556% C2, 1.1112% C3, 0.1601% iC4, 0.2180% nC4, 0.0496% iC5, 0.0389% nC5, 0.0225% nC6+,0.8291% N2 and 0.6334% CO2)11

Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 12 000

Gas Deviation Factor (Dimensionless) 0 C 0.996663 0.993330 0.990000 0.986673 0.983350 0.980031 0.976716 0.973405 0.970099 0.966797 0.934054 0.901958 0.870748 0.840724 0.812256 0.785772 0.761737 0.740609 0.722774 0.708480 0.697794 5 C 0.996845 0.993694 0.990547 0.987405 0.984268 0.981135 0.978006 0.974883 0.971765 0.968652 0.937850 0.907769 0.878630 0.850701 0.824299 0.799780 0.77519 0.757878 0.741160 0.727564 0.717156 10 C 0.997015 0.994036 0.991061 0.988091 0.985127 0.982168 0.979215 0.976267 0.973325 0.970389 0.941389 0.913167 0.885924 0.859899 0.835363 0.812613 0.791957 0.773681 0.758027 0.745153 0.735118 15 C 0.997176 0.994357 0.991543 0.988735 0.985933 0.983137 0.980347 0.977564 0.974786 0.972015 0.944693 0.918191 0.892689 0.868401 0.845558 0.824412 0.805213 0.788193 0.773544 0.761392 0.751787

11

Methodology Manual. Estimation of Air Emissions from the Canadian Natural Gas Transmission, Storage, and Distribution System. Page 222. Prepared for the Canadian Energy Partnership For Environmental Innovation by Clearstone Engineering Ltd. 2007.

A-II

Table A3: Gas Deviation Factors for Rich Processed Natural Gas Upstream Of Straddle Plants For Various Combinations Of Temperature And Pressure (88.41% C1, 7.45% C2, 1.91% C3, 0.17% iC4, 0.24% nC4, 0.06% iC5, 0.04% nC5, 0.10% nC6+, 0.72% N2 and 0.90% CO2)12

Absolute Pressure (kPa) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 12 000

Gas Deviation Factor (Dimensionless) 0 C 0.996346 0.992694 0.989044 0.985395 0.981747 0.978102 0.974459 0.970818 0.967179 0.963543 0.927356 0.891629 0.856627 0.822707 0.790337 0.760103 0.732677 0.708752 0.688913 0.673516 0.662606 5 C 0.996543 0.993089 0.989637 0.986188 0.982742 0.979300 0.975860 0.972424 0.968991 0.965562 0.931512 0.898039 0.865389 0.833886 0.803932 0.776010 0.750658 0.728412 0.709729 0.694900 0.683995 10 C 0.996728 0.993459 0.990194 0.986932 0.983675 0.980421 0.977172 0.973927 0.970687 0.967451 0.935386 0.903985 0.873481 0.844160 0.816371 0.790516 0.767027 0.746327 0.728776 0.714608 0.703897 15 C 0.996901 0.993806 0.990716 0.987630 0.984549 0.981473 0.978402 0.975336 0.972275 0.969220 0.939001 0.909514 0.880972 0.853634 0.827798 0.803801 0.781994 0.762717 0.746251 0.732788 0.722395

12

Methodology Manual. Estimation of Air Emissions from the Canadian Natural Gas Transmission, Storage, and Distribution System. Page 221. Prepared for the Canadian Energy Partnership For Environmental Innovation by Clearstone Engineering Ltd. 2007.

A-III

APPENDIX B: DERIVATION OF EQUATION TO DETERMINE VOLUME OF GAS VENTED

Natural gas in a pipeline behaves as a real gas. In other words, the attractive forces between particles cannot be ignored due to the high pressure, low temperature, and polarity of the gas molecules. The following equation quantifies the mass of gas in the pipeline, taking the attractive forces between particles into account.

Equation B1 Where n = number of moles of gas (mol) PSyst = absolute pressure of the Primary Pressurized Gas System (kPa) VSyst = volume (m3) Z = gas deviation factor (unitless) R = gas constant (kPam3K-1mol-1) TSyst = temperature (K) It is assumed that once released, the gas assumes standard temperature and pressure. (This assumption is only significant because densities are calculated at STP. It is not a reflection of the actual environment during the project.) Therefore, the natural gas behaves as an ideal gas, so we can exclude the gas deviation factor.

Equation B2 Where n = number of moles of gas (mol) PSTP = pressure at STP (101.325 kPa) VSTP = volume of gas initially contained in the system referenced at STP (m3) Z = gas deviation factor (unitless) R = gas constant (kPam3K-1kmol-1) TSTP = temperature at STP (288.15 K) The number of moles of gas vented is constant. Therefore:

Equation B3

B-I

APPENDIX C: EMISSION FACTORS

C.1 Site Specific Emission Factor To determine a site-specific emission factor for a generator, the following approach is used. Emission factors for the generator can be taken from Environment Canada documents.

Equation C1

Where EF Off-Grid = emission factor for off-grid electricity generation (kg CO2e/kWh) EFFuelCO2i, EFFuelCH4i, EFFuelN2Oi = CO2, CH4, and N2O emission factors for combustion of fuel i (kg CO2e /m3) GWPCH4, N2O = global warming potential of methane (21) and nitrous oxide (310) HHV i = higher heating value of fuel I, as determined through a fuel gas analysis (preferred) or through standard published values (GJ/m3) Efficiency = Estimated efficiency of engine, from manufacturers specs or efficiency analysis C.2 Generic Emission Factors Table C1 gives emission factors for fossil fuels. Equipment specific emission factors should be used wherever possible.

C-I

Table C1: Fuel Combustion Emission Factors13 Combustion Emission Factor Fuel kg/m3 CO2 CH4 N2O Natural Gas Electric Utilities 1.916 0.000 49 0.000 049 Industrial 1.916 0.000 037 0.000 033 Producer Consumption 2.151 0.006 5 0.000 06 Pipelines 1.916 0.001 9 0.000 05 Propane kg/L Residential 1.510 0.000 027 0.000 108 All Other Uses 1.510 0.000 024 0.000 108 Ethane 0.976 N/A N/A Butane 1.730 0.000 024 0.000 108 Diesel 2.663 0.000 133 0.000 4

13

National Inventory Report: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada: 1990-2008. Environment Canada.

C-II

APPENDIX D: ACCURACY OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

Temperature To determine the acceptable error in monitoring the temperature of the system, it was assumed that the measured temperature of the system would range between -30 C and 30 C. The actual temperature of the system was determined by assigning hypothetical error (from 5 K to 20 K) to the measured temperatures. The following equation was used to determine the error as a percentage.

Where % error = the percentage of error associated with the measured temperature TMeasured = the measured temperature of the Primary Pressurized Gas System (K) TActual = the actual temperature of the Primary Pressurized Gas System (K) = TMeasured + Error Table D1 shows the percentage of error at various temperatures and error in measurement. The table highlights that a 10 C error in temperature does not affect calculations more than 5%. Table D1: Percentage of error with various temperatures
TSyst (C) -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 TSyst (K) 243.15 253.15 263.15 273.15 283.15 293.15 303.15 Error in measurement (C or K) 5 -5 10 2.4% -2.4% 4.8% 2.2% -2.3% 4.5% 2.1% -2.1% 4.1% 1.9% -1.9% 3.9% 1.8% -1.8% 3.6% 1.7% -1.7% 3.4% 1.6% -1.6% 3.1% -10 -4.9% -4.5% -4.2% -3.9% -3.6% -3.4% -3.1% 20 9.6% 8.9% 8.3% 7.7% 7.2% 6.7% 6.3% -20 -9.9% -9.1% -8.4% -7.8% -7.2% -6.7% -6.2%

D-I

APPENDIX E: FLARING, INCINERATING, AND VENTING GUIDELINE FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA

6 Pipeline Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting


This section addresses disposal of gases from gas gathering and transmission lines by flaring, incinerating, and venting. Sources of natural gas flaring, incinerating, or venting include: routine flaring, incinerating, and venting of low-pressure flash-gas and other gas streams at pipeline system compressor and dehydration facilities, and nonroutine flaring, incinerating, and venting for pipeline depressuring for maintenance, process upsets, or emergency depressuring for safety reasons.

6.1

Pipeline Systems Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Decision Tree Licensees should use the decision tree analysis shown in Figure 9 to evaluate all new and existing pipeline systems, including compression station flares, incinerators, and vents. These evaluations should be updated prior to any planned flare/incinerator/vent events. 1) Licensees should document alternatives considered in order to eliminate or reduce flaring, incinerating, and/or venting, how they were evaluated, and the outcome of the evaluation. 2) Operators should assess opportunities to eliminate or reduce flaring, incinerating, and venting of gas due to frequent maintenance or facility outages. a) Operators should investigate and correct repeat events at gas pipelines and related facilities (e.g. compressor stations). b) Operators should address public complaints and concerns related to pipeline facility flaring, incinerating, or venting. c) Operators should investigate and implement feasible measures to conserve gas from depressuring of pipeline systems.

6.2

Additional Requirements for Gas Gathering Systems 1) All monthly flared, incinerated, and vented volumes must be reported separately on a Ministry of Small Business and Revenue BC-S2 form in accordance with Section 10 and the Oil and Gas Royalty Handbook. 2) Approval is required for planned nonroutine flaring where the total volume of flared gas will exceed the small volume exemption in Section 3.3.2 (2). Approval requirements are outlined in Section 3. 3) Notification requirements described in Table 2 apply.

6.3

Natural Gas Transmission Systems This Guideline applies to flaring, incinerating, and venting in conjunction with natural gas transmission systems subject to the following provisions: 1) Licensees of sweet natural gas transmission pipelines should minimize venting, flaring, and incinerating volumes.

a) The economic evaluation in Section 2.8 is not applicable for evaluating conservation of gas from nonroutine pipeline depressuring for maintenance. b) Licensees should evaluate conservation of gas from planned nonroutine pipeline depressuring having regard for the value of gas, costs of conserving the gas, and economic impacts of extended outages on downstream customers and upstream producers 2) Flaring or incinerating of gas from sweet natural gas transmission pipeline depressuring may not be practical when impacts on system customers and producers are considered. In such situations, the OGC Pipeline and Facilities group may allow venting of gas to reduce the duration of system outages and related impacts. 6.4 Notification 1) Licensees must notify residents and the OGC Fort St. John office of nonroutine flaring, incinerating, or venting at licensed gas pipeline facilities as follows: a) If pipeline facility flaring, incinerating or venting exceeds 4 hours in duration and/or 30 103 m3, operators must notify as specified in Section 3.9 and Table 2. b) In areas where more stringent notification requirements than those defined in Table 2 exist, licensees must comply with the more stringent requirements.

Figure E1: Pipeline Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Decision Tree14

14

Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting Guideline for British Columbia. Oil and Gas Commission. British Columbia.

APPENDIX F: EXAMPLE PROJECT CONFIGURATIONS AND CORRESPONDING PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

Three example project configurations are given below with illustrative process flow diagrams showing the SSRs which are excluded from quantification. These examples are meant to be used as a guide for project proponents. Example 1: A section of Natural Gas Pipeline QRS is isolated in before Blowdown. A portable natural gas pumpdown compressor used to compress the natural gas out of the isolated section, into the downstream adjacent section of Pipeline QRS. The remainder of the gas in the system is flared via portable flare that requires no supplementary fuel, and then vented. Equipment is a fossil fuel powered generator for electricity. Example 2: A section of Natural Gas Pipeline 456 is isolated before Blowdown. A stationary natural gas compressor at the facility is used to compress the natural gas out of the isolated section, into the downstream adjacent section of Pipeline 456. The remainder of the gas is vented. Example 3: A section of Natural Gas Pipeline A01 is isolated before Blowdown. Piping transported to the site is run from Pipeline A01 to a compressor. This piping is installed permanently and can be reused at the site. The compressor uses the natural gas from Pipeline A01 as a fuel source. Once the pressure is no longer sufficient for use in the compressor, the remainder of the gas is Pipeline A01 is flared via temporary flare that requires no supplemental fuel, and then vented.

F-1

Figure F1: Project Process Flow Diagram for Example 1


P19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment P20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment

Commission

P21 Site Commissioning

P8 Primary Upstream Compression

P1 Primary Pressurized System

P9 Primary Downstream Compression

P13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing

P2 Flare

P3 Vent Device P17 Natural Gas End Use

P4 Compression

Operation

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P7 Assembly / Disassembly of Equipment and Piping

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P16 Transportation of Equipment and Piping to Site

P18 Equipment Transportation Off Site

Upstream

On-Site
Natural Gas

Downstream
Supplementary Fuel Equiment Modification

Decommission

P22 Site Decommissioning

P23 Re-use / Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Electricity Supplementary Natural Gas

F-2

Figure F2: Project Process Flow Diagram for Example 2


P19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment P20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment

Commission

P21 Site Commissioning

P8 Primary Upstream Compression

P1 Primary Pressurized System

P9 Primary Downstream Compression

P13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing

P3 Vent Device P17 Natural Gas End Use P4 Compression

P14 Grid Electricity

Operation

Upstream

On-Site
Natural Gas

Downstream
Supplementary Fuel Equiment Modification

Decommission

P22 Site Decommissioning

P23 Re-use / Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Electricity Supplementary Natural Gas

F-3

Figure F3: Project Process Flow Diagram for Example 3


P19 Manufacturing of Permanent and Temporary Equipment P20 Raw Materials for Temporary and Permanent Equipment

Commission

P21 Site Commissioning

P8 Primary Upstream Compression

P1 Primary Pressurized System

P9 Primary Downstream Compression

P13 Natural Gas Extraction and Processing

P2 Flare

P3 Vent Device P17 Natural Gas End Use

Operation

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P7 Assembly / Disassembly of Equipment and Piping

P15 Fuel Extraction, Processing and Delivery

P16 Transportation of Equipment and Piping to Site

P6 Pressure Reduction

P18 Equipment Transportation Off Site

P11 Secondary Upstream Compression

P10 Secondary Pressurized System

P12 Secondary Downstream Compression

Upstream

On-Site
Natural Gas

Downstream
Supplementary Fuel Equiment Modification

Decommission

P22 Site Decommissioning

P23 Re-use / Disposal of Temporary Equipment

Electricity Supplementary Natural Gas

F-4